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Arkansas

Arkansas

State of Arkansas

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: French derivation of Akansas or Arkansas, a name given to the Quapaw Indians by other tribes.

NICKNAME: The Natural State.

CAPITAL: Little Rock.

ENTERED UNION: 15 June 1836 (25th).

SONG: "Arkansas."

MOTTO: Regnat populus (The people rule).

COAT OF ARMS: In front of an American eagle is a shield displaying a steamboat, plow, beehive, and sheaf of wheat, symbols of Arkansas's industrial and agricultural wealth. The angel of mercy, the goddess of liberty encircled by 13 stars, and the sword of justice surround the eagle, which holds in its talons an olive branch and three arrows, and in its beak a banner bearing the state motto.

FLAG: On a red field, 25 stars on a blue band border, a white diamond containing the word "Arkansas" and four blue stars.

OFFICIAL SEAL: Coat of arms surrounded by the words "Great Seal of the State of Arkansas."

BIRD: Mockingbird.

FLOWER: Apple blossom.

TREE: Pine.

GEM: Diamond.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Robert E. Lee's birthday, 19 January; Birthdays of Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert E. Lee, 3rd Monday in January; George Washington's Birthday and Daisy Gatson Bates Day, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Veterans' Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Eve, 24 December; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 6 AM CST = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Located in the western south-central United States, Arkansas ranks 27th in size among the 50 states.

The total area of Arkansas is 53,187 sq mi (137,754 sq km), of which land takes up 52,078 sq mi (134,882 sq km), and inland water, 1,109 sq mi (2,872 sq km). Arkansas extends about 275 mi (443 km) e-w and 240 mi (386 km) n-s.

Arkansas is bordered on the n by Missouri; on the e by Missouri, Tennessee, and Mississippi (with part of the line passing through the St. Francis and Mississippi rivers); on the s by Louisiana; on the sw by Texas (with part of the line formed by the Red River), and on the w by Oklahoma. The total boundary length of Arkansas is 1,168 mi (1,880 km). The state's geographic center is in Pulaski County, 12 mi (19 km) nw of Little Rock.

TOPOGRAPHY

The Boston Mountains (an extension of the Ozark Plateau, sometimes called the Ozark Mountains) in the northwest and the Ouachita Mountains in the west-central region not only constitute Arkansas's major uplands but also are the only mountain chains between the Appalachians and the Rockies. Aside from the wide valley of the Arkansas River, which separates the two chains, the Arkansas lowlands belong to two physiographic regions: the Mississippi Alluvial Plain and the Gulf Coastal Plain. The highest elevation in Arkansas, at 2,753 ft (840 m), is Magazine Mountain, standing north of the Ouachitas in the Arkansas River Valley. The state's lowest point, at 55 ft (17 m), is on the Ouachita River in south-central Arkansas. The mean elevation of the state is approximately 650 ft (198 m).

Arkansas's largest lake is the artificial Lake Ouachita, covering 63 sq mi (163 sq km); Lake Chicot, in southeastern Arkansas, and oxbow of the Mississippi River, is the state's largest natural lake, with a length of 18 mi (29 km). Bull Shoals Lake, occupying 71 sq mi (184 sq km), is shared with Missouri. Principal rivers include the Mississippi, forming most of the eastern boundary; the Arkansas (the sixth longest river in the country), beginning in Colorado and flowing 1,450 mi (2,334 km) through Kansas and Oklahoma and across central Arkansas to the Mississippi; and the Red, White, Ouachita, and St. Francis rivers, all of which likewise drain south and southeast into the Mississippi. Numerous springs are found in Arkansas, of which the best known are Mammoth Springs, near the Missouri border, one of the largest in the world, with a flow rate averaging nine million gal (34 million l) an hour, and Hot Springs in the Ouachitas.

Crowley's Ridge, a unique strip of hills formed by sedimentary deposits and windblown sand, lies west of and parallel to the St. Francis River for about 180 mi (290 km). The ridge is rich in fossils and has an unusual diversity of plant life.

CLIMATE

Arkansas has a temperate climate, warmer and more humid in the southern lowlands than in the mountainous regions. At Little Rock, the normal daily temperature ranges from 40°f (4°c) in January to 82°f (27°c) in July. A record low of 29°f (34°c) was set on 13 February 1905 at the Pond weather station, and a record high of 120°f (49°c) was recorded on 10 August 1936 at the Ozark station.

Average yearly precipitation is approximately 45 in (114 cm) in the mountainous areas and greater in the lowlands; Little Rock receives an annual average of 50.5 in (128 cm). Snowfall in the capital averages 5.1 in (12 cm) a year.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Arkansas has at least 2,600 native plants, and there are many naturalized exotic species. Cypresses, water oak, hickory, and ash grow in the Mississippi Valley, while the St. Francis Valley is home to the rare cork tree. Crowley's Ridge is thick with tulip trees and beeches. A forest belt of oak, hickory, and pine stretches across south-central and southwestern Arkansas, including the Ozark and Ouachita mountains. The Mexican juniper is common along the White River's banks. The state has at least 26 native varieties of orchid; the passion flower is so abundant that it was once considered for designation as the state flower, but the apple blossom was finally chosen instead.

Arkansas's native animals include 15 varieties of bat and 3 each of rabbit and squirrel. Common throughout the state are mink, armadillo, white-tailed deer, and eastern chipmunk. The only remaining native population of black bears is found in the White River National Wildlife Refuge and the Trusten Holder Wildlife Management Area. These two sites are part of the Cache-Lower White River area, which has been designated as a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance for the role it plays as a wintering habitat for migratory birds. Among 300 native birds are such game birds as the eastern wild turkey, mourning dove, and bobwhite quail. Among local fish are catfish, gar, and the unusual paddle fish. Arkansas counts 20 frog and toad species, 23 varieties of salamander, and 36 kinds of snake.

In April 2006, a total of 29 species occurring within the state were on the threatened and endangered species list of the US Fish and Wildlife Service. These included 23 animals (vertebrates and invertebrates) and 6 plant species. The Arkansas Game and Fish Commission lists the leopard darter and fat pocketbook pearly mussel as threatened species. The bald eagle is listed as endangered, along with the Indiana and gray bats, cave crayfish, pink mucket, several species of mussel, pallid sturgeon, least tern, and red-cockaded woodpecker. Among endangered or threatened plants are the Missouri bladderpod, pondberry, eastern prairie fringed orchid, and running buffalo clover. In 1983, Arkansas established the Non-Game Preservation Committee to promote sound management, conservation, and public awareness of the state's nongame animals and native plants.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

In 1949, the Arkansas General Assembly created the Arkansas Pollution Control Commission. This legislation was amended in later years to be known as the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act. Under an extensive reorganization of state government in 1971, the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology (ADPC & E) was created as a cabinet-level agency and the commission was renamed the Arkansas Pollution Control and Ecology Commission. (In 1996, the Arkansas General Assembly voted to change the name of the department to the Arkansas Department of Environmental QualityADEQ, effective 31 March 1999.) Although the terms are frequently confused or used interchangeably by persons not connected with either governmental unit, the commission and the department are two separate, but related, entities. The commission, with guidance from the governor and the Arkansas General Assembly, determines the environmental policies for the state, and the department employees are responsible for implementing those policies.

The initial authority to regulate water and air sources has been expanded to open-cut mining, solid waste, hazardous waste, recycling, and underground storage tanks. In 2001, an ADEQ focus on recycling waste oil resulted in a 91% increase in the amount of waste oil recycled, from 21,189 tons in 2000 to 41,500 tons in 2001. In 2002, ADEQ turned its attention to recycling of wood waste.

In 1987, the state adopted some of the first "ecoregion" water-quality standards in the nation. These standards recognize the distinct physical, chemical, and biological properties of the six geographical regions of the state and establish separate water quality standards within each region. In 2005, federal Environment Protection Agency (EPA) grants awarded to the state included $8.9 million for safe drinking water projects. A grant in excess of $4.6 million was awarded for water pollution prevention projects.

The EPA delegated responsibility for its clean-air programs to ADEQ. These programs include New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS), Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD), and State Implementation Plan (SIP). In 2003, 40.6 million lb of toxic chemicals were released by the state.

Citizen's groups actively involved with environmental issues include: the Arkansas Native Plant Society, Arkansas Audubon Society, Arkansas Canoe Club, Arkansas Herpetological Society, Arkansas Wildlife Federation, Audubon Society of Central Arkansas, League of Women Voters, Ozark Society, Sierra ClubArkansas Chapter, and National Water Center. The Arkansas Environmental Federation presents industry's viewpoints on environmental issues.

The Buffalo River, designated as a national river, flows through northern Arkansas. One of the wildest areas in the state is the 113,000-acre (46,000-hectare) White River Refuge, which contains more than 100 small lakes. About 8% of the state is wetland. The wetlands of the Cache-Lower White River were designated as Ramsar Wetlands of International Importance in 1989. The site includes two national wildlife refuges, managed by the federal government, and three wildlife management areas, managed by the state. The Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission was established in 1975 for, among other purposes, the preservation of rivers and natural areas and to serve as a source of information on plant and animal species of Arkansas.

In 2003, the EPA database listed 78 hazardous waste sites in Arkansas, 10 of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006. Jacksonville Municipal Landfill and the Rogers Road Municipal Landfill (also in Jacksonville) were both deleted from the list in 2006. In 2005, the EPA spent over $6.3 million through the Superfund program for the cleanup of hazardous waste sites in the state.

POPULATION

Arkansas ranked 32nd in population in the United States with an estimated total of 2,779,154 in 2005, an increase of 4% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, Arkansas's population grew from 2,350,725 to 2,673,400, an increase of 13.7%. The population is projected to reach 2.96 million by 2015 and 3.15 million by 2025. The average population density in 2004 was 52.9 per sq mi.

As of 2004, 13.8% of the population was age 65 or over (compared with a national average of 12.4%), partially reflecting the large number of retirees who settled in the state during the early 1980s. The median age was 36.6, and 24.6% of the population was under 18 years old.

The largest city in Arkansas is Little Rock, which had a 2004 estimated population of 184,081. The Little Rock-North Little Rock metropolitan area had an estimated 636,636 residents in 2004. Other major cities with large populations include Ft. Smith, North Little Rock, Pine Bluff, and Fayetteville.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Arkansas's population is predominantly white, composed mainly of descendants of immigrants from the British Isles. The largest minority group consists of black Americans, estimated at 418,950 in 2000, or 15.7% of the population. That percentage had risen to 15.8% by 2004. The American Indian population was estimated at 17,808 in 2000. In 2004, 0.7% of the population was American Indian. About 86,866 Arkansans, or 3.2% of the total population, was of Hispanic or Latino origin, nearly double the 1990 figure of 44,000 (1.9%). That figure had risen to 4.4% by 2004. In 2000 the Asian population was estimated at 20,220, and Pacific Islanders numbered 1,668. In 2004, the Asian population was 0.9% and Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders made up 0.1% of the total population. The 2000 census listed 3,974 Vietnamese (up from 1,788 in 1990), 3,126 Chinese (1,575 in 1990), 2,489 Filipinos, 3,104 Asian Indians (1,202 in 1990), and 1,036 Japanese. The foreign-born population numbered 73,690, or 2.8% of all Arkansas residents, up from 24,867, or 1%, in 1990. In 2004, 1.2% of the total population reported origin of two or more races.

LANGUAGES

A few place-names, such as Arkansas itself, Choctaw, Caddo, and Ouachita, attest to the onetime presence of American Indians in the Territory of Arkansas, mostly members of the Caddoan tribe, with the Cherokee the most influential.

Arkansas English is essentially a blend of Southern and South Midland speech, with South Midland dominating the mountainous northwest; and Southern, the southeastern agricultural areas. Common in the east and south are redworm (earthworm) and mosquito hawk (dragonfly). In the northwest appear South Midland whirlygig (merry-go-round) and sallet (garden greens).

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category "Other Pacific Island languages" includes Chamorro, Hawaiian, Ilocano, Indonesian, and Samoan.

LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 2,492,205 100.0
  Speak only English 2,368,450 95.0
  Speak a language other than English 123,755 5.0
Speak a language other than English 123,755 5.0
  Spanish or Spanish Creole 82,465 3.3
  German 7,444 0.3
  French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 7,312 0.3
  Vietnamese 3,467 0.1
  Chinese 2,529 0.1
  Laotian 2,502 0.1
  Tagalog 1,627 0.1
  Korean 1,250 0.1
  Japanese 1,193 0.0
  Other Pacific Island languages 1,185 0.0
  Italian 1,106 0.0

In 2000, 2,368,450 Arkansans (95% of the residents five years old or older) spoke only English at home, a decrease from the 97.2% recorded in 1990.

RELIGIONS

Although French Roman Catholic priests had worked as missionaries among the American Indians since the early 18th century, the state's first mission was founded among the Cherokee by a Congregationalist, Cephas Washburn, in 1820. When the Cherokee were removed to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), the mission moved there as well, remaining active through the Civil War. William Patterson may have been the first Methodist to preach in Arkansas, around 1800, in the area of Little Prairie: the first Methodist circuit, that of Spring River, was organized in 1815. The first Baptist church was likely that of the Salem congregation, begun in 1818 near what is now Pocahontas.

The vast majority of religious adherents in the state belong to Evangelical Protestant congregations. The largest denomination is the Southern Baptist Convention, which had 685,301 adherents in 1,372 congregations in 2000; there were 13,119 newly baptized members in 2002. In 2000, the American Baptist Association had 115,916 adherents and 570 congregations and the Baptist Missionary Association of America had 87,244 adherents and 359 congregations. The Churches of Christ claimed 86,342 adherents in 754 congregations that same year.

The leading mainline Protestant group in 2000 was the United Methodist Church, with 179,383 adherents in 747 congregations. By 2004, however, the United Methodist Church reported a statewide membership of 138,987. The Roman Catholic population of Arkansas in 2004 was 106,051 with 88 parishes. The estimated Jewish population in 2000 was 1,600 people. About 42.9% of the population did not specify a religious affiliation.

TRANSPORTATION

Although railroad construction began in the 1850s, it was not until after the Civil War (186165) that any lines were completed. The most important railroad, the St. Louis, Iron Mountain, and Southern line, reached Little Rock in 1872 and was subsequently acquired by financier Jay Gould, who added the Little Rock and Ft. Smith line to it in 1882. By 1890, the state had about 2,200 mi (3,500 km) of track. In 1974, trackage totaled 3,559 mi (5,728 km). As of 2003, Arkansas had a total of 3,484 rail mi (5,609 km) of track, of which the three Class I roads that served the state accounted for 2,607 rail miles (4,197 km). In that same year, nonmetallic minerals were the top commodity carried by rail in the state, for shipments originating within the state. For rail shipments terminating within the state, coal (by weight) was the top commodity. As of 2006, Amtrak passenger trains serviced Little Rock, Walnut Ridge, Malvern, Arkadelphia, and Texarkana en route from St. Louis to Dallas.

Intensive road building began in the 1920s, following the establishment of the State Highway Commission and the inauguration of a gasoline tax. By 2004, Arkansas had 98,606 mi (158,755 km) of public roads, streets, and highways. During that same year, there were some 950,000 automobiles and around 938,000 trucks of all types registered in Arkansas. In 2004, there were 1,862,430 licensed drivers in the state.

Beginning in the 1820s, steamboats replaced keelboats and flatboats on Arkansas rivers. Steamboat transportation reached its peak during 187090, when it was supplanted by the railroads that were opened during the same two decades. Development of the Arkansas River, completed during the early 1970s, made the waterway commercially navigable all the way to Tulsa. In 2004, Arkansas had 1,860 mi (2,994 km) of navigable inland waterways. Waterborne shipments in 2003 totaled 15.083 million tons.

In 2005, Arkansas had a total of 321 public- and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 238 airports, and 83 heliports. The principal airport in the state is Adams Field at Little Rock. In 2004, the airport had 1,138,249 enplanements.

HISTORY

Evidence of human occupation of Arkansas reaches back to about 10,000 bc. The bluff dwellers of the Ozark Plateau were among the first human beings to live in what is now Arkansas, making their homes in caves and beneath overhanging rock cliffs along the banks of the upper White River. Farther south are the remains of another primitive people, the Mound Builders. The most significant of the Stone Age monuments they left are those of the Toltec group in Lonoke County, some 25 mi (40 km) southeast of Little Rock. Eventually, both ancient peoples vanished, for reasons that remain unclear.

Foremost among the American Indian tribes in Arkansas were the Quapaw (meaning "downstream people" or "South Wind people"), agriculturists who had migrated to southern Arkansas in the early 16th century; the Caddo, fighters from Texas, who claimed the western region between the Red and Arkansas rivers; the warlike Osage, who hunted north of the Arkansas River and in present-day Missouri; and the Choctaw. Another prominent tribe, the Cherokee, arrived in the early 19th century, after federal and state authorities had taken their land east of the Mississippi and driven them westward. Nearly all these American Indians had been expelled to what is now Oklahoma by the time Arkansas became a state.

The first Europeans to set foot in Arkansas were Spaniards, led by Hernando de Soto. They crossed the Mississippi River, probably near present-day Helena, in spring 1541, roamed the land for a year or so, and then returned to the mighty river, where De Soto was buried in 1542. More than 100 years later, in 1673, a small band of Frenchmen led by Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, and Louis Jolliet, a fur trader and explorer, ended their voyage down the Mississippi at the mouth of the Arkansas River and returned north after being advised by friendly American Indians that hostile tribes lay to the south. Nine years later, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, led an expedition from Canada down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, stopping at Indian villages in Arkansas along the way and, on 9 April 1682, claiming all the Mississippi Valley for his king, Louis XIV.

Henri de Tonti, who had been second in command to La Salle, came back to Arkansas in 1686 to claim a land grant at the confluence of the Arkansas and White rivers, a few miles inland from the Mississippi. He left six men there; the log house they built was the beginning of Arkansas Post, the first permanent white settlement in the lower Mississippi Valley. Though tiny and isolated, Arkansas Post upheld the French claim to the Mississippi Valley until 1762, when France ceded the territory to Spain. Restored to France in 1800, the territory was sold to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. White settlers soon began arriving in Arkansas, and in 1806, the Louisiana territorial legislature created the District of Arkansas as a separate entity. When the Louisiana Purchase was further subdivided, Arkansas became part of the Missouri Territory. In 1819, Arkansas gained territorial status in its own right, and its boundaries were fixed by Congress. The territorial capital was moved from Arkansas Post to Little Rock in 1821. By 1835, Arkansas Territory had a population of 52,240, including 9,838 slaves. It was admitted to the Union in 1836 as a slave state, paired with the free state of Michigan in accordance with the Missouri Compromise.

Increasing numbers of slaves were brought into the largely agricultural state as the cultivation of cotton spread. Arkansas, like the rest of the South, was headed for secession, although it waited to commit itself until the Civil War (186165) had begun. There was considerable Union sentiment in the state, especially in the hilly northern and western counties, which lacked the large plantations and the slaves of southern and eastern Arkansas. But the pro-Union sympathies crumbled after Confederate guns fired on Ft. Sumter, SC, and the secession convention was held at Little Rock on 6 May 1861. The final vote to leave the Union was 69-1: the lone holdout was Isaac Murphy of Madison County, who became the first Unionist Democrat governor at the end of the war.

The largest Civil War battle fought in Arkansas, and one of the most significant battles of the war west of the Mississippi, was at Pea Ridge, in the northwest corner of the state. After three days of fighting, the Union forces retreated, and then the Confederate forces relinquished the field. By September 1863, the Union Army had taken Little Rock, and the Confederate capital was moved to Washington, in Hempstead County, until the conclusion of hostilities in 1865. Like virtually all white southerners, Arkansas's white majority hated the postwar Reconstruction government and repudiated it thoroughly at the first opportunity. Reconstruction officially ended in 1874, when the reenfranchised white Democratic majority adopted a new state constitution, throwing out the carpetbagger constitution of 1868. The most colorful figure in postwar Arkansas was federal judge Isaac C. Parker, known as the Hanging Judge. From his court at Ft. Smith, he had sole jurisdiction over Indian Territory, which had become a gathering place for the nation's worst cutthroats. Parker and his deputy marshals fought them relentlessly. From 1875 through 1896, the judge hanged 79 men on his Ft. Smith gallows. The struggle was not one-sided: 65 of Parker's deputy marshals were killed.

Industrialization, urbanization, and modernization did not come to Arkansas until after the depression of the 1930s. Following World War II (193945), the state became the first in the South to integrate its public colleges and universities. Little Rock's school board decided in 1954 to comply with the US Supreme Court's desegregation decision. Nevertheless, in September 1957, Governor Orval E. Faubus called out the National Guard to block the integration of Central High School at Little Rock. US President Dwight D. Eisenhower enforced a federal court order to integrate the school by sending in federal troops. The 1957 crisis brought years of notoriety to Arkansas, as Faubus, then in his second term, was elected to a third term and then to three more.

By the end of the Faubus administration, the public mood had changed, and the contrast between Faubus and his successor could not have been greater. Winthrop Rockefeller, millionaire scion of a famous family, moved to Arkansas from New York in the early 1950s, established himself as a gentleman rancher, and devoted himself to luring industry into his adopted state and building a Republican Party organization in one of the most staunchly Democratic states in the Union. Elected governor in 1966, Rockefeller thus became the first Republican to capture the Arkansas statehouse since Reconstruction. The specific accomplishments of his two terms were relatively fewhe and the Democratic-controlled legislature warred incessantlybut he helped immeasurably in bringing a new image and a new spirit to the state.

Rockefeller's successors have continued the progressive approach he took. Governor Bill Clinton, who became US president in 1992, introduced a number of reforms. These included investment tax credits to help corporations modernize their facilities and thereby to create jobs. Clinton also signed a "bare bones" health insurance law, which dropped state requirements for some of the more costly coverages and thus made health insurance affordable for small businesses. He increased expenditures for education and passed legislation requiring competency tests for teachers. But Clinton, like other governors before him, remained hampered in his efforts to improve Arkansas's economy and standard of living by the state constitutional requirement that any increase in the state income tax obtain approval of two-thirds of the legislature. Arkansas continued to rank among the poorest states in the nation, with a per capita income in 1990 of only $14,000 (46th among the states). By 1998, its ranking had improved, with 14.8% of its people living below poverty level, making it the 12th poorest state in the nation. In 200203, Arkansas had an 18.8% poverty rate; that percentage dropped to 16.4% in 200304. The US poverty rate in 2004 was 12.7%, up from 12.5% in 2003. Arkansas's poverty rate contributes to its status as an unhealthy state: Arkansas was ranked 46th on the United Health Foundation's state health ratings in 2004.

In 1994, a federal special prosecutor began to investigate the actions of several members of Little Rock's Rose law firm, in which First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton had been a partner, in connection with the failed Whitewater real estate venture. Governor Jim Guy Tucker resigned from office in July 1996 after his conviction on fraud and conspiracy charges stemming from his bank dealings. In March 2000, independent counsel Robert Ray began filing final reports detailing the six-year investigation into Whitewater, and that September, he issued a report finding that neither President Bill Clinton nor First Lady Hillary Clinton had knowingly participated in any criminal conduct. Susan McDougal, with her husband a controlling partner in the Whitewater land deal, found guilty of fraud in 1996, was pardoned by President Clinton in January 2001, just before he left office.

While the state was rocked by political scandal in the 1990s, it also coped with tragic school shootings. On 24 March 1998, two students (ages 11 and 13) went on a rampage in a Jonesboro school, killing four students and a teacher, and wounding ten others. Another shooting occurred in the small community of Prairie Grove on 11 May 2000, when a seventh-grade student left school in a rage and later engaged in an exchange of gunfire with an officer nearby; both were injured. While the nation wrestled with the problem of violence in its schools and the issue of gun control, for Arkansas residents it was a problem that was too close to home.

STATE GOVERNMENT

Arkansas's fifth constitution, enacted in 1874, has survived several efforts to replace it with a more modern charter. In November 1980, voters turned down yet another proposed new constitution. In May 1995, the Governor's Task Force for a New Constitution was appointed in anticipation of a proposed 1996 constitutional convention. However, in December 1995, a referendum authorizing the convention was defeated by the voters. The constitution had been amended 91 times by January 2005. Eight of the approved amendments have been superseded and are not printed in the current edition of the constitution. The total adopted does not include five amendments proposed and adopted since statehood.

Arkansas's bicameral legislature, the general assembly, consists of a 35-member Senate and a 100-member House of Representatives. Regular legislative sessions are held in odd-numbered years, begin in January, and are limited to 60 calendar days. Senators serve four-year terms and must be at least 25 years old; representatives serve for two years and must be at least 21. Each legislator must be a US citizen and have resided for at least two years in the state and one year in the county or district prior to election. Legislators' salaries in 2004 were $13,751 per biennial session.

The executive officers elected statewide are the governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, and attorney general, all of whom serve four-year terms. The governor is limited to a maximum of two consecutive elected terms. The governor and lieutenant governor, who run separately, must be US citizens, be at least 30 years old, and have resided in Arkansas for seven years. As of December 2004 the governor's salary was $75,296.

A bill passed by a majority in both houses of the legislature becomes law if signed by the governor, if passed over his veto by a majority of all elected members of each house, or if neither signed nor returned by the governor within five days (Sundays excepted) when the legislature is in session or 20 days (Sundays included) after session adjournment. Under an initiative procedure, 8% of those who voted for governor in the last election may propose a law, and 10% of the voters (for governor at the last election) may initiate a constitutional amendment; initiative petitions must be filed at least four months before the general election in order to be voted upon at that time. A referendum on any measure passed by the General Assembly or any item of an appropriations bill or other measure may be petitioned by 6% of the voters; referendum petitions must be filed within 90 days of the session in which the act in question was passed. A successful referendum measure may be repealed by a two-thirds vote of all elected members of the General Assembly. Constitutional amendments may also be proposed by the General Assembly (and approved by a majority vote of both houses) or by constitutional convention. Proposed amendments must be ratified by a majority of voters.

To vote in Arkansas, one must be a US citizen, at least 18 years old, a state resident, and not able to claim the right to vote in another jurisdiction. Restrictions apply to convicted felons.

Arkansas Presidential Vote by Political Parties, 19482004
YEAR ELECTORAL VOTE ARKANSAS WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN STATES' RIGHTS DEMOCRAT
*Won US presidential election.
1948 9 *Truman (D) 149,659 50,959 40,068
1952 8 Stevenson (D) 226,300 177,155
CONSTITUTION
1956 8 Stevenson (D) 213,277 186,287 7,008
NAT'L STATES' RIGHTS
1960 8 *Kennedy (D) 215,049 184,508 28,952
1964 6 *Johnson (D) 314,197 243,264 2,965
AMERICAN IND.
1968 6 Wallace (AI) 188,228 190,759 240,982
AMERUCAN
1972 6 *Nixon (R) 199,892 448,541 2,887
1976 6 *Carter (D) 498,604 267,903
LIBERTARIAN
1980 6 *Reagan (R) 398,041 403,164 8,970
1984 6 *Reagan (R) 388,646 534,774 2,2221
1988 6 *Bush (R) 349,237 466,578 3,297
IND. (Perot)
1992 6 *Clinton (D) 505,823 337,324 99,132
1996 6 *Clinton (D) 475,171 325,416 69,884
GREEN
2000 6 *Bush, G. W. (R) 422,768 472,940 13,421
POPULIST PARTY OF ARKANSAS (Nader)
2004 6 *Bush, G. W. (R) 469,953 572,898 6,171

POLITICAL PARTIES

The principal political groups in Arkansas are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, each affiliated with the national party organizations.

Before the Civil War (186165), politics in Arkansas were fraught with violence. Republicans ruled during Reconstruction, which officially ended in Arkansas after the constitution of 1874 had been adopted by the new Democratic majority. During the election of 1872, the Liberal Republicans, nicknamed Brindletails, opposed the Radical Republicans, or Minstrels. After the Minstrel candidate, Elisha Baxter, was elected, he proved so independent a governor that some of the party leaders who had supported him attempted to oust him through a court order in April 1874, declaring his defeated opponent, Joseph Brooks, the winner. Supported by a militia of about 300 blacks under white command, Brooks took over the statehouse; Baxter, bolstered by his own 300-man black army, set up his headquarters three blocks away. The so-called Brooks-Baxter War finally ended with President Ulysses S. Grant's proclamation of Baxter as the lawful governor. Baxter did not seek reelection-instead Augustus H. Garland was elected, the first of a long series of Bourbon Democrats who were to rule the state well into the 20th century.

After Reconstruction, blacks in Arkansas continued to vote and to be elected to public office; under what became known as the fusion principle, black Republican and white Democratic leaders in the Plantation Belt often agreed not to oppose each other's candidates. Segregation in public places was still outlawed, and Little Rock was perhaps the most integrated city in the South. During the 1890s, however, as in the rest of the South, Democrats began to pass laws imposing segregation and disfranchising blacks as well as poor whites. In 1906, the Democrats instituted a nominating primary for whites only.

On the rocky path to progressive government, Arkansans elected several governors who stand out as progressive: George Donaghey (190913), Charles Brush (191721), Thomas McRae (192125), Carl Bailey (193539), and Sidney McMath (194853). Although elected to the governorship as a progressive in 1954, McMath's protégé Orval Faubus took a segregationist stand in 1957. In subsequent years, poor whites tended to support Faubus, while blacks and more affluent whites opposed him. Faubus's successor, progressive Republican Winthrop Rockefeller, was strongly supported by blacks. Rockefeller was followed by three more progressives, all Democrats: Dale Bumpers, David Pryor, andafter Bumpers and Pryor had graduated to the US SenateBill Clinton. In a major upset, Clinton was defeated in 1980 by Republican Frank White, but he recaptured the statehouse in 1982 and won reelection in 1984, 1986, and 1990. Clinton ran for and won the presidency in 1992 with a plurality of 53% in Arkansas. Clinton won presidential reelection in 1996, gaining 54% of the vote, against 37% for Republican challenger Bob Dole and 8% for Independent Ross Perot. In the 2000 presidential election, George W. Bush won 51% of the vote to Al Gore's 45% and 2% for Green Party candidate Ralph Nader; in 2004, Bush was reelected with 54% of the vote to Democrat John Kerry's 37%. In 2004 there were 1,686,000 registered voters; there is no party registration in the state. The state had six electoral votes in the 2004 presidential election.

On 8 November 1994, Democratic governor Jim Guy Tucker was one of the few of his party nationwide to resist a Republican challenge. However, in 1996 Tucker was forced to resign following his conviction on charges related to the Whitewater prosecution, and the governorship was assumed by Lieutenant Governor Mike Huckabee. Huckabee was elected in his own right in 1998 and reelected in 2002.

In 1996, the vacated US Senate seat of Democrat David Pryor was won by US Representative Tim Hutchinson, a Republican. Hutchinson was the first Republican ever to be popularly elected to the US Senate from Arkansas. In 1998 Democrat Blanche Lincoln was voted into office, only the second woman in Arkansas history to be elected to the Senate; she was reelected with 56% of the vote in 2004. Democrat Mark Pryor, son of David Pryor, was elected to the US Senate in 2002. Arkansas's US representatives following the 2006 elections included one Republican and three Democrats. As of 2006, the state legislature had 27 Democrats and 8 Republicans in the Senate, and 72 Democrats and 28 Republicans in the House. As of 2006, there were 23 women serving in the state legislature.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

There are 75 counties in Arkansas, 10 of them with 2 county seats. Each county is governed by a quorum court, consisting of between 9 and 15 justices of the peace, elected for 2-year terms; the county judge, who presides, does not vote but has veto power, which may be overridden by a three-fifths vote of the total membership. Elected county officials, who serve two-year terms, include the sheriff, assessor, coroner, treasurer, and county supervisor. In 2005, Arkansas had 499 municipalities, administered under the mayor-council or city-manager form of government. There were 704 special districts and 310 public school districts.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 105,930 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.

STATE SERVICES

To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in Arkansas operates under the authority of the governor; the emergency management director is designated as the state homeland security adviser.

Educational services in Arkansas are administered primarily by the Department of Education and the Department of Higher Education. The State Highway and Transportation Department has primary responsibility for roads, rails, and public transit; the offices of motor vehicle registration and driver services are in the Department of Finance and Administration. The Department of Information Systems governs the state's computer links, while the Department of Parks and Tourism encourages visitors.

Health and welfare services are under the jurisdiction of the Department of Health and Human Services. Public protection is provided primarily through the Department of Emergency Management, State Police, National Guard, and Civil Air Patrol, as well as the Department of Correction, which operates prisons and work-release centers. The Public Service Commission regulates utilities in the state.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

Arkansas's highest court is the Arkansas Supreme Court, which consists of a chief justice and six associate justices, elected for staggered eight-year terms. An appeals court of 12 judges, also elected for eight-year terms, was established in 1978.

Arkansas's courts of original jurisdiction are the circuit courts (law) and the chancery courts (equity), of which there are 24 circuits each. In 1999, there were 30 circuit court judges serving four-year terms and 33 chancery probate court judges serving six-year terms. An additional 43 judges were serving both circuit and chancery courts. Courts of limited jurisdiction include justice of the peace, county, municipal, and police courts, and courts of common pleas.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 13,807 prisoners were held in state and federal prisons in Arkansas, an increase from 13,315, or 3.7%, from the previous year. As of year-end 2004, a total of 962 inmates were female, up from 866, or 11.1%, from the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), Arkansas had an incarceration rate of 495 per 100,000 population in 2004.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Arkansas in 2004 had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 499.1 reported incidents per 100,000 population, or a total of 13,737 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 110,464 reported incidents, or 4.13 reported incidents per 100,000 people. Arkansas has a death penalty, which can be carried out by lethal injection or electrocution, depending upon the prisoner's request. As of 1976, the state has executed 27 persons; there was one execution in 2005. As of 1 January 2006, there were 38 death row inmates.

In 2003, Arkansas spent $105,532,650 on homeland security, an average of $38 per state resident.

ARMED FORCES

As of 2004, there were five military installations in Arkansas, the principal ones being Little Rock Air Force Base with the most active-duty military personnel in the state (6,156), and the Army's Pine Bluff Arsenal, with the most civilian employees (1,065). Military personnel in the state numbered 7,676 in 2004, Reserve and National Guard numbered 2,554, and there were 1,714 civilian employees. Firms in the state received $493 million in defense contract awards in 2004, while the Defense Department payroll was about $1.2 billion, including retired military pay.

There were 268,353 veterans of US military service in Arkansas as of 2003, of whom 36,703 served in World War II; 28,509 in the Korean conflict; 79,280 during the Vietnam era; and 42,007 during 19902000 (in the Gulf War). US Veterans Administration spending in Arkansas was $1.0 billion in 2004.

In June 2003, the Arkansas State Police had 559 full-time sworn officers.

MIGRATION

Near the end of the 18th century, American Indians from east of the Mississippi, displaced by white settlement, entered the area now known as Arkansas. However, as the availability of cheap land in Louisiana Territory drew more and more white settlersin particular, veterans of the War of 1812, who had been promised 160-acre (65-hectare) tractsthe Indians were pressured to cross the border from Arkansas to present-day Oklahoma.

After the end of the Mexican War, thousands of Arkansans immigrated to Texas, and others were attracted to California in 1849 by the gold rush. Because of a law passed in 1859 requiring free blacks to leave the state by the end of the year or risk being enslaved, Arkansas's population of free blacks dropped from 682 in 1858 to 144 in 1860. During Reconstruction, the state government encouraged immigration by both blacks and whites. Literature sent out by the Office of State Lands and Migration, under the tenure of William H. Grey, a black leader, described the state as a new Africa. Railroads, seeking buyers for the lands they had acquired through government grants, were especially active in encouraging immigration after Reconstruction. Later immigrants included Italians and, in the early 1900s, Germans.

During the Depression era (1930s) and thereafter, Arkansas lost a substantial proportion of its farm population, and many blacks left the state for the industrial cities of the Midwest and the east and west coasts. The net loss from migration totaled 919,000 between 1940 and 1970. Between 1970 and 1980, however, the state gained 180,000 residents through migration, as the Ozarks became one of the fastest-growing rural areas in the United States. The state experienced a small net decline of 2,000 in migration between 1980 and 1983. Net migration from 1985 to 1990 amounted to a gain of nearly 36,600. Between 1990 and 1998, there were net gains of 106,000 in domestic migration and 9,000 in international migration. In 1998, Arkansas admitted 914 immigrants. Between 1990 and 1998, the state's overall population increased by 8%. In the period 200005, net international migration was 21,947 and net internal migration was 35,664, for a net gain of 57,611 people.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION

Among the many interstate agreements in which Arkansas participates are the Arkansas River Basin Compact of 1970 (with Oklahoma), Arkansas-Mississippi Great River Bridge Construction Compact, Bi-State Criminal Justice Center Compact, Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact, Interstate Mining Compact Commission, Interstate Oil and Gas Compact, Red River Compact, South Central Interstate Forest Fire Protection Compact, Southern Growth Policies Board, Southern Regional Education Board, and Southern States Energy Board. There are boundary agreements with Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. In fiscal year 2005, Arkansas received federal grants totaling $3.818 billion, an estimated $3.776 billion in fiscal year 2006, and an estimated $4.016 billion in fiscal year 2007.

ECONOMY

During the 19th century, Arkansas's economic growth was hindered by credit problems. When the state's two central banks, the Arkansas State Bank and the Real Estate Bank, failed during the 1840s, the government defaulted on bonds issued by the latter and amended the constitution to prohibit all banking in Arkansas. Although banking was restored after the Civil War (186165), the state defaulted on its obligations once more in 1877, this time following a decision by the Arkansas supreme court that $10 million worth of railroad bonds issued during Reconstruction were unconstitutional. Not until 1917 did New York banks again accept Arkansas securities.

Cotton dominated Arkansas's agricultural economy until well into the 20th century, when rice, soybeans, poultry, and fish farming diversified the output. Coal mining began in the 1870s, bauxite mining near the turn of the century, and oil extraction in the 1920s. Lumbering developed in the last quarter of the 19th century, reached its peak about 1909, and then declined until the 1920s, when reforestation started. Industrialization was limited however, and resources were generally shipped out of state for processing. Not until the 1950s did Arkansas enjoy significant success in attracting industry, thanks in large part to the efforts of Winthrop Rockefeller.

By the 1990s, principal industries in Arkansas had become manufacturing, dominated by lumber and wood products companies; agriculture; forestry; and tourism. Fifty-seven Fortune 500 parent firms are found in Arkansas, including Wal-Mart Stores, Tyson Foods, Dillard Department Stores, Beverly Enterprises, and Alltel. Other important corporations include Jacuzzi, Riceland Foods, Maybelline, Whirlpool, International Paper, American Greetings, and Georgia Pacific. Stephens Inc., in Little Rock, is the largest off-Wall Street investment firm in the country. Growth in gross state product (GSP) rose to 6% in 1999, but fell to 2.8% in 2000 and 1.7% in 2001. Contributing to Arkansas's GSP of $80.902 billion in 2004 were manufacturing (durable and nondurable goods) at $14.85 billion (18.3% of GSP); real estate at $7.417 (9% of GSP); and healthcare and social assistance at $6.150 billion (7.6% of GSP). In 2004, of the 61,778 firms that had employees, a total of 60,007, or 97.1%, were small businesses. In addition, the number of self-employed persons in that same year rose 8.6%, from 149,093 in 2003 to 161,842 in 2004. New business rose from 8.3%in 2003 to 7,852 in 2004, surpassing business terminations that same year of 6,481. In addition, business bankruptcies in 2004 totaled 376, down 12.4% from 2003. In 2005, personal bankruptcies (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) totaled 881 per 100,000 people, ranking Arkansas as the seventh in the United States.

INCOME

In 2005, Arkansas had a gross state product (GSP) of $87 billion, which accounted for 0.7% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state at number 34 in highest GSP among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004 Arkansas had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $25,814. This ranked 49th in the United States and was 78% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4.1%. Arkansas had a total personal income (TPI) of $70,987,900,000, which ranked 34th in the United States and reflected an increase of 7.0% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 5.1%. Earnings of persons employed in Arkansas increased from $49,196,825,000 in 2003 to $52,896,830,000 in 2004, an increase of 7.5%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reports that the three-year average median household income for 200204 in 2004 dollars was $33,948, compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same pe-riod, an estimated 17.6% of the population was below the poverty line, as compared to 12.4% nationwide.

LABOR

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006 the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Arkansas numbered 1,398,400, with approximately 71,800 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 5.1%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 1,189,400. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in Arkansas was 10.2% in March 1983. The historical low was 4.1% in September 2000. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that approximately 4.6% of the labor force was employed in construction; 16.5% in manufacturing; 20.8% in trade, transportation and public utilities; 4.4% in financial activities; 9.6% in professional and business services; 12.5% in education and health services; 8% in leisure and hospitality services; and 17.4% in government.

Chartered in 1865, the Little Rock Typographical Union, consisting of Arkansas Gazette employees, was the first labor union in the state. The United Mine Workers (UMW) was established in the Ft. Smith area by 1898; six years later, the UMP led in the founding of the Arkansas Federation of Labor. Between 1904 and World War I (191418), a series of progressive labor laws was enacted, including a minimum wage, restrictions on child labor, and prohibitions against blacklisting and payment of wages in scrip. Union strength waned after the war, however, and the labor movement is not a powerful force in the state today.

The US Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in 2005, a total of 54,000 of Arkansas' 1,138,000 employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 4.8% of those so employed. This was unchanged from 2004, and below the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 68,000 workers (6%) in Arkansas were covered by a union or employee association contract, which included those workers who reported no union affiliation. As of 1 January 2006 Arkansas was one of 22 states with a right-to-work law.

As of 1 March 2006, Arkansas had a state-mandated minimum wage rate of $5.15 per hour. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 45.6% of the employed civilian labor force.

AGRICULTURE

Farm marketing's in Arkansas were over $6 billion in 2005 (11th in the United States), with crops and livestock accounting for about 35% and 65%, respectively. The state is the nation's leading producer of rice and is among the leaders in cotton, soybeans, and grain sorghum.

Cotton was first grown in the state about 1800, along the river valleys. Confined mainly to slaveholding plantations before the Civil War (186165), cotton farming became more widespread in the postwar period, expanding into the hill country of the northwest and eventually into the deforested areas of the northeast, which proved to be some of the most fertile farmland in the nation. As elsewhere in the postbellum South, sharecropping by tenant farmers predominated well into the 20th century, until mechanization and diversification gradually brought an end to the system. Rice was first grown commercially in the early 1900s; by 1920, Arkansas had emerged as a poultry and soybean producer.

During 2004, Arkansas produced 124,425,000 bushels of soybeans, valued at $690,559,000; 32,860,000 bushels of wheat, worth $115,010,000; 3,570,000 tons of hay, worth $166,180,000; and 4,704,000 bushels of sorghum for grain, valued at $10,142,000. The rice harvest in 2004 was 96,600,000 hundredweight (4.39 million kg), worth $768,196,000. The cotton crop in 2004, 2,085,000 bales, was worth $488,390,000.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Poultry farms are found throughout Arkansas, but especially in the northern and western regions. Broiler production accounts for over 40% of the state's agricultural receipts. Arkansas was the second-highest broiler-producing state in the United States in 2003 (after Georgia); 5.4 billion lb (2.5 billion kg) of broilers were valued at $2 billion.

In 2004, it was estimated that Arkansas produced 3.5 billion eggs. In 2003 Arkansas produced 477 million lb (217 million kg) of turkey, valued at $176.5 million and 125.9 million lb (57.2 million kg) of chickens, valued at $8.8 million.

The yield of the state's 29,000 milk cows in 2003 was 352 million lb (160 million kg) of milk. In 2005, Arkansas had an estimated 1.9 million cattle and calves valued at $1.5 billion. In 2004, Arkansas had an estimated 330,000 hogs and pigs valued at $32.3 million.

FISHING

As of 2005, the state ranked second only to Mississippi in catfish farming. As of 1 January 2005, there were 153 catfish operations covering 31,500 acres (14,300 hectares) of water surface, with 100.6 million stocker-size and 184 million fingerling/fry catfish in early 2006. Some producers rotate fish crops with row crops, periodically draining their fish ponds and planting grains in the rich and well-fertilized soil. Most public fishing areas are frequently stocked with trout. Arkansas had 685,634 licensed anglers in 2004. There are three national fish hatcheries in Arkansas.

FORESTRY

Forestland comprised 18,771,000 acres (7,596,000 hectares), 56% of the state's total land area, in 2003. Of that total, 18,373,000 acres (7,435,000 hectares) were commercial timberland. The southwest and central plains, the state's timber belt, constitute one of the most concentrated sources of yellow pine in the United States. Lumber production in 2004 totaled 2.9 billion board feet, third in the United States. Three national forests in Arkansas covered a total of 3,540,000 acres (1,432,638 hectares) in 2003.

MINING

According to the US Geological Survey, the value of nonfuel mineral production in Arkansas in 2004 totaled $518 million, an increase of 13.8% from 2003. Bromine, crushed stone, cement (port-land and masonry), and construction sand and gravel were the top four nonfuel minerals produced by value, respectively, and accounted for 92% of all nonfuel mineral output by value in the state for 2004. Overall, Arkansas accounted for more than 1% of all US nonfuel mineral output.

A total of 32.9 million metric tons of crushed stone were produced in 2004 (valued at $162 million), as well as 9.37 million metric tons of construction sand and gravel with a value of $53.5 million.

Arkansas in 2004 continued to be the leading bromine-producing state, accounting for most US production. Michigan was the only other state to produce bromine. Also in that year, Arkansas, remained the only state that produced silica stone. A total of 655 metric tons was produced, with a value of $3.66 million. The state also ranked fifth in gemstones in 2004, with output valued at $590,000.

ENERGY AND POWER

As of 2003, Arkansas had 39 electrical power service providers, of which 15 were publicly owned and 17 were cooperatives. Of the remainder, four were investor owned and three were owners of independent generators that sold directly to customers. As of that same year there were over 1.415 million retail customers. Of that total, over 832,486 received their power from investor-owned service providers. Cooperatives accounted for 419,184 customers, while publicly owned providers had 164,252 customers.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 13.548 million kW, with total production that same year at 50.401 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, 82.6% came from electric utilities, with the remainder coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 23.504 billion kWh (46.6%), came from coal-fired plants, with nuclear fueled plants in second place at 14.869 billion kWh (29.1%). Natural gas-fired plants accounted for 14.5% of all power generated, with hydroelectric and other renewable fueled plants at 3.7%.

As of 2006, Arkansas had one operating nuclear power facility, the Arkansas Nuclear One power plant in Pope County.

As of 2004, Arkansas had proven crude oil reserves of 51 million barrels, or less than 1% of all US reserves, while output that same year averaged 18,000 barrels per day. Including federal off shore domains, the state that year ranked 19th (18th excluding federal off shore) in reserves and 17th (16th excluding federal off shore) among the 31 producing states. In 2004, Arkansas had 6,660 producing oil wells and accounted for less than 1% of all US production. As of 2005, the state's two small refineries had a crude oil distillation capacity of 76,800 barrels per day.

In 2004, Arkansas had 3,460 producing natural gas and gas condensate wells. In 2003 (the latest year for which data was available) marketed gas production (all gas produced excluding gas used for repressuring, vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed) totaled 169.599 billion cu ft (4.8 billion cu m). As of 31 December 2004, proven reserves of dry or consumer-grade natural gas totaled 1,835 billion cu ft (52.1 billion cu m).

Arkansas in 2004 had two producing coal mines, one surface and one underground. Coal production that year totaled 7,000 short tons, down from 8,000 short tons in 2003. Of the total produced in 2004, the surface mine accounted for 6,000 short tons.

INDUSTRY

Manufacturing in Arkansas is diverse, ranging from blue jeans to bicycles, though resource industries such as rice processing and woodworking still play a major role.

According to the US Census Bureau Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, the state's manufacturing sector covered some 19 product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $54.547 billion. Of that total, the food manufacturing sector accounted for the largest portion, at $14.064 billion. It was followed by primary metal manufacturing, at $5.419 billion; transportation equipment manufacturing, at $4.122 billion; paper manufacturing, at $3.858 billion; and fabricated metal product manufacturing, at $3.844 billion.

In 2004, a total of 193,746 people in Arkansas were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 155,852 were production workers. In terms of total employment, the food manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees at 49,972, with 43,043 actual production workers. It was followed by fabricated metal product manufacturing, with 16,558 employees (11,808 actual production workers); plastics and rubber products manufacturing, with 15,078 employees (12,160 actual production workers); transportation equipment manufacturing, with 15,004 employees (12,287 actual production workers); and machinery manufacturing, with 14,324 employees (10,274 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that the state's manufacturing sector paid $6.391 billion in wages. Of that amount, the food manufacturing sector accounted for the largest portion, at $1.259 billion. It was followed by fabricated metal product manufacturing, at $610.668 million; plastics and rubber products manufacturing, at $537.290 million; paper manufacturing, at $524.614 million; and transportation equipment manufacturing, at $512.188 million.

COMMERCE

According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, the state's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $34.4 billion from 3,498 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 2,156 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 1,152 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 190 establishments. Sales by durable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $10.1 billion, while wholesalers of nondurable goods saw sales of $17.5 billion. Electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry had sales of $6.7 billion.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, Arkansas was listed as having 12,141 retail establishments with sales of $25.6 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (1,783); gasoline stations (1,695); miscellaneous store retailers (1,404) food and beverage stores (1,354); clothing and clothing accessories stores (1,201); and building material/garden equipment and supplies dealers (1,095). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts stores accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $7.09 billion, followed by general merchandise stores at $5.2 billion; gasoline stations at $3.02 billion; and food and beverage stores at $2.8 billion. A total of 134,197 people were employed by the retail sector in Arkansas that year.

During 2005, exports of goods from the state were valued at $3.8 billion, ranking the state 36th in the nation.

CONSUMER PROTECTION

Under the mandate of Consumer Protection Act of 1971, the Consumer Protection Division (CPD) of the Office of the Attorney General has principal responsibility for consumer affairs. The CPD serves as a central coordinating agency for individual consumer complaints, conducts investigations, acts as an advocate and mediator in resolving complaints, and prosecutes civil cases on behalf of Arkansas citizens.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's Attorney General can initiate civil (but not criminal) proceedings; represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies; administer consumer protection and education programs; and handle consumer complaints. However, the Attorney General's Office has limited subpoena powers. In antitrust actions, the attorney general can act on behalf of consumers who are incapable of acting on their own and may initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts.

The office of the Consumer Protection Division is located in Little Rock.

BANKING

In 1836, the first year of statehood, the legislature created the Arkansas State Bank, and the Real Estate Bank, which were intended to promote the plantation system. Fraud, mismanagement, and the consequences of the financial panic of 1837 ruined both banks and led to the passage in 1846 of a constitutional amendment prohibiting the incorporation of any lending institution in Arkansas. Money grew scarce, with credit being rendered largely by suppliers and brokers to farmers and planters until after the Civil War (186165), when the prohibition was removed.

As of June 2005, Arkansas had 163 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 72 credit unions (CUs), all of which were federally chartered. Excluding the CUs, the Memphis market area (which includes portions of Tennessee, Arkansas and Mississippi) had 52 financial institutions in 2004, with deposits of $26.946 billion, followed by the Little Rock/North Little Rock area, with 37 institutions and $9.799 billion in deposits. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for only 3.6% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $1.584 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining 96.4% ($42.280 billion) in assets held.

As of the early 1980s, the Arkansas usury law imposed a 10% ceiling on interest rates (one of the most rigid in the United States); which the US Supreme Court upheld in 1981. The rise of the federal rate above that limit, beginning in mid-1979, caused a considerable outflow of capital from Arkansas. The Arkansas Usury Law was changed in December 1992 with the Interest Rate Control Amendment, which set the maximum interest rate on general loans at 5% above the Federal Reserve Discount Rate. The Arkansas Supreme Court interpreted the amendment to mean that the rate on consumer loans would be 5% above the discount rate, up to 17%. Although many institutions offered higher interest rates anyway, the ability to do so was formalized in the Financial Modernization Act of 1999. Opposition to usury came primarily from religious factions and labor unions, but low levels of investment during the 1990s motivated the Arkansas government to change the law. State-chartered banks in Arkansas are regulated by the Arkansas State Bank Department.

In 2005, Arkansas experienced strong economic growth in 2005, which benefited the state's financial community as institutions based in the state experienced record net income growth, due mainly to increased net operating income. In 2004, median net interest margins (NIMsthe difference between the lower rates offered to savers and the higher rates charged on loans) for Arkansas' insured institutions stood at 4.14%, up from 4.13% in 2003.

INSURANCE

In 2004 there were 1.77 million individual life insurance policies in force with a total value of $83.9 billion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was $136.2 billion. The average coverage amount is $47,400 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled $461.6 million.

As of 2003, there were 11 property and casualty and 38 life and health insurance companies incorporated or organized in the state. Direct premiums for property and casualty insurance amounted to $3.69 billion in 2004. That year, there were 15,067 flood insurance policies in force in the state, with a total value of $1.3 billion.

In 2004, 46% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 5% held individual policies, and 30% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 17% of residents were uninsured. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged at 21% for single coverage and 29% for family coverage. The state offers a 120-day health benefits expansion program for small-firm employees in connection with Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were over 1.8 million auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $25,000 per individual and $50,000 for all persons injured, as well as property damage liability of $25,000. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $698.28.

SECURITIES

There are no securities exchanges in Arkansas. In 2005, there were 570 personal financial advisers employed in the state and 1,420 securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. In 2004, there were over 30 publicly traded companies within the state, with over 14 NASDAQ companies, 9 NYSE listings, and 1 AMEX listing. In 2006, the state had five Fortune 500 companies; Wal-Mart Stores (Bentonville) ranked first in the state and second in the nation with revenues of over $315 billion, followed by Tyson Foods (Springdale), Murphy Oil (El Dorado), Alltel (Little Rock), and Dillard's (Little Rock). All five of these companies were listed on the NYSE.

PUBLIC FINANCE

Under the 1874 constitution, state expenditures may not exceed revenues. The mechanism adopted each biennium to prevent deficit spending is a Revenue Stabilization Act. This Act provides the funding for state appropriations by assigning levels of funding priority to the appropriations. All higher level appropriations must be fully funded before any lower level appropriations are funded. In the event of insufficient revenues to fund appropriations, each agency reduces its spending to correspond to the general revenues allocated to the agency. Efforts to install a statewide Web-based information system met with technical and training difficulties that had slowly been rectified as of 2006. Fiscal year 2006 general funds were estimated at nearly $3.8 billion for resources and $3.8 billion for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to Arkansas were nearly $4.7 billion. For fiscal year 2007, federal funding for the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) and the HOME Investment Partnership Program was increased.

ArkansasState Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
AMOUNT PER CAPITA
Abbreviations and symbols: - zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 14,225,176 5,172,79
  General revenue 11,679,719 4,247.17
    Intergovernmental revenue 4,041,889 1,469.78
    Taxes 5,580,678 2,029.34
      General sales 2,149,527 781.65
      Selective sales 784,503 285.27
      License taxes 187,876 68.32
      Individual income tax 1,685,585 612.94
      Corporate income tax 181,830 66.12
      Other taxes 591,357 215.04
    Current charges 1,543,848 561.40
    Miscellaneous general revenue 513,304 186.66
  Utility revenue - -
  Liquor store revenue - -
align="left">  Insurance trust revenue 2,545,457 925.62
Total expenditure 12,674,325 4,608.85
  Intergovernmental expenditure 3,233,499 1,175.82
  Direct expenditure 9,440,826 3,433.03
    Current operation 7,074,989 2,572.72
    Capital outlay 1,005,560 365.66
    Insurance benefits and repayments 991,592 360.58
    Assistance and subsidies 245,563 89.30
    Interest on debt 123,122 44.77
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 1,528,630 555.87
Total expenditure 12,674,325 4,608.85
  General expenditure 11,682,733 4,248.27
    Intergovernmental expenditure 3,233,499 1,175.82
    Direct expenditure 8,449,234 3,072.45
  General expenditures, by function:
    Education 4,730,047 1,720.02
    Public welfare 2,995,212 1,089.17
    Hospitals 532,800 193.75
    Health 316,062 114.93
    Highways 1,116,310 405.93
    Police protection 79,800 29.02
    Correction 351,786 127.92
    Natural resources 225,132 81.87
    Parks and recreation 83,065 30.21
    Government administration 476,279 173.19
    Interest on general debt 123,122 44.77
    Other and unallocable 653,118 237.50
  Utility expenditure - -
  Liquor store expenditure - -
  Insurance trust expenditure 991,592 360.58
Debt at end of fiscal year 3,749,282 1,363.38
Cash and security holdings 18,988,203 6,904.80

TAXATION

In 2005, Arkansas collected $6,552 million in tax revenues ($2,358 per capita), which placed it 18th among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Property taxes accounted for 8.5% of the total; sales taxes, 39.3%; selective sales taxes, 13.5%; individual income taxes, 28.6%; corporate income taxes, 4.2%; and other taxes, 5.9%.

As of 1 January 2006, Arkansas had six individual income tax brackets of 1.0-7.0%. The state taxes corporations at rates of 1.0-6.5%, depending on tax bracket.

In 2004, state and local property taxes amounted to $1,100,938,000 ($400 per capita). The per capita amount ranks the state 49th among the 50 states. Local governments collected $580,614,000 of the total and the state government, $520,324,000. Although local property taxes are the lowest in the nation, state property tax collections are unusually high.

Arkansas taxes retail sales at a rate of 6%. In addition to the state tax, local taxes on retail sales can reach as much as 5.50%, making for a potential total tax on retail sales of 11.50%. Food purchased for consumption off-premises is taxable. The tax on cigarettes is 59 cents per pack, which ranks 32nd among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Arkansas taxes gasoline at 21.5 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, Arkansas citizens received $1.47 in federal spending.

ECONOMIC POLICY

First as chairman of the Arkansas Industrial Development Commission and later as governor of the state (196771), Winthrop Rockefeller succeeded in attracting substantial and diverse new industries to Arkansas. In 1979, Governor Bill Clinton formed the Department of Economic Development from the former Arkansas Industrial Development Commission for the purpose of stimulating the growth of small business and finding new export markets. The Arkansas Development Finance Authority was created in 1985 in order to support small-scale economic development of new businesses, mortgages, education, and health care. The Economic Development Commission offers such incentives to new businesses as an Enterprise Zone Program, income tax credit, sales and use tax refunds, among others. In 2003, the legislature passed the Consolidated Incentive Act which combined six previ-ous economic development incentive programs into one package, plus added some additional incentives for investment and regional development. The six programs consolidated in the Act were the Enterprise Zone program (Advantage Arkansas), which provides incentives for investments in areas with high poverty and/or unemployment); the Economic Investment Tax Credit program (InvestArk Program); the Economic Development Incentives Act (CreateRebate); the Arkansas Economic Development Act (AEDA), which offers tax reductions for investments of at least $5 million dollars creating at least 100 new permanent jobs; plus incentive programs for improvements in energy technology and biotechnology. By the act, companies would be allowed to sell tax credits earned in order to realize the benefits earlier. The act seeks to promote regional development by rewarding counties which enter into binding compacts with each other to further economic development.

In 2006, the rubber and plastics industry was a targeted industry for the state, due, in part, to the influx of a large number of automotive parts suppliers to the state. Arkansas is home to approximately 200 plastics and rubber companies. Because of its central location in the country, halfway between Canada and Mexico and between the two US coasts, Arkansas provides a valuable transportation advantage. A billion-dollar program to improve approximately 380 mi (600 km) of interstate highways was scheduled to be completed in 2005.

HEALTH

The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 7.6 per 1,000 live births. The birth rate in 2003 was 14 per 1,000 population. The abortion rate stood at 9.8 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 81.3% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 82% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2003 was 10.2 deaths per 1,000 population. As of 2002, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were: heart disease, 307.4; cancer, 231.8; cerebrovascular diseases, 82.4 (the highest in the nation); chronic lower respiratory diseases, 53.2; and diabetes, 29.3. The mortality rate from HIV infection was 3 per 100,000 population. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 6.7 per 100,000 population. In 2002, about 58.9% of the population was considered overweight or obese. As of 2004, Arkansas ranked sixth in the nation for the highest percentage of resident smokers, with 25.5%.

In 2003, Arkansas had 88 community hospitals with about 9,900 beds. There were about 388,000 patient admissions that year and 4.6 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 5,700 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $1,130. Also in 2003, there were about 242 certified nursing facilities in the state with 24,791 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 72.6%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 60.9% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year. Arkansas had 205 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 729 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there was a total of 1,120 dentists in the state.

About 30% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare programs in 2004; the state had the third-highest percentage of Medicare recipients in the nation (following West Virginia and Maine). Approximately 17% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $3 million.

SOCIAL WELFARE

In 2004, about 85,000 people received unemployment benefits, with an average weekly unemployment benefit of $228. In fiscal year 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 373,764 persons (152,916 households); the average monthly benefit was about $89.47 per person. That year, the total benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was about $401.2 million.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. Arkansas's TANF program is called Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA). In 2004, the state program had 22,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this TANF program totaled $22 million fiscal year 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 546,080 Arkansas residents. This number included 310,790 retired workers, 58,020 widows and widowers, 95,960 disabled workers, 28,060 spouses, and 53,240 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 20.1% of the total state population and 93.1% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $888; widows and widowers, $795; disabled workers, $846; and spouses, $429. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $451 per month; children of deceased workers, $554; and children of disabled workers, $249. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments in December 2004 went to 87,928 Arkansas residents, averaging $361 a month.

HOUSING

In 2004, there were an estimated 1,233,203 housing units in Arkansas, of which 1,099,086 were occupied. In the same year, 65.5% of all housing units were owner-occupied. It was estimated that about 98,716 units were without telephone service, 1,709 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 5,662 lacked complete kitchen facilities. Though most units relied on gas and electricity for heating fuels, about 40,890 households used wood for a primary heating source. About 69% of all units were single-family, detached homes; 12.7% were mobile homes. The average household had 2.43 members.

The Department of Housing and Urban Development awarded $39.6 million in grants to the Arkansas state program in 2002, including $24.9 million in community development block grants. About 15,900 new housing units were authorized in 2004. The median home value in 2004 was $79,006, the lowest in the country. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $773 while the monthly cost for renters was at a median of $517. In September 2005, the state was awarded grants of $680,321 from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for rural housing and economic development programs. For 2006, HUD allocated to the state over $19.3 million in community development block grants.

EDUCATION

In 2004, 79.2% of all Arkansans 25 years of age and older were high school graduates. Some 18.8% had obtained a bachelor's degree or higher.

In some ways, Little Rock was an unlikely site for the major confrontation over school integration that occurred in 1957. The school board had already announced its voluntary compliance with the Supreme Court's desegregation decision, and during Governor Faubus's first term (195556), several public schools in the state had been peaceably integrated. Nevertheless, on 5 September 1957, Faubus, claiming that violence was likely, ordered the National Guard to seize Central High School to prevent the entry of nine black students. When a mob did appear following the withdrawal of the National Guardsmen in response to a federal court order later that month, President Dwight Eisenhower dispatched federal troops to Little Rock, and they patrolled the school grounds until the end of the 1958 spring semester. Although Faubus's stand encouraged politicians in other southern states to resist desegregation, in Arkansas integration proceeded at a moderate pace. By 1980, Central High School had a nearly equal balance of black and white students, and the state's school system was one of the most integrated in the South.

Public school enrollment in fall 2002 totaled 451,000. Of these, 319,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 132,000 attended high school. Approximately 69.9% of the students were white, 23.1% were black, 5.3% were Hispanic, 1.1% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 0.6% were American Indian/Alaskan Native. Total enrollment was estimated at 449,000 in fall 2003 and expected to be 449,000 by fall 2014, a decrease of 0.5% during the period 2002 to 2014. There were 27,500 students enrolled in 189 private schools in fall 2003. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $3.5 billion. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005, eighth graders in Arkansas scored 272 out of 500 in mathematics compared with the national average of 278.

As of fall 2002, there were 127,372 students enrolled in college or graduate school; minority students comprised 21.4% of total postsecondary enrollment. As of 2005, Arkansas had 47 degree-granting institutions. The largest institution of higher education in the state is the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville (established in 1871). The state university system also has campuses at Fort Smith, Little Rock, Monticello, and Pine Bluff, as well as a medical school. Student aid is provided by the State Scholarship Program within the Department of Higher Education, by the Arkansas Student Loan Guarantee Foundation, and by the Arkansas Rural Endowment Fund, Inc.

ARTS

The Arkansas Arts Council was established in 1971 as one of seven agencies of the Department of Arkansas Heritage, which include the Arkansas Historic Preservation Program, the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission, the Delta Cultural Center, the Historic Arkansas Museum, the Mosaic Templars Cultural Center, and the Old State House Museum. Major funding comes from the state and the National Endowment for the Arts. In 2005, the National Endowment for the Arts awarded seven grants totaling $616,200 to Arkansas arts organizations, and the National Endowment for the Humanities awarded eight grants totaling $1,739,430 to Arkansas organizations. Arkansas is also affiliated with the regional Mid-America Arts Alliance.

Little Rock is the home of the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra (ASO). The ASO celebrated 41 years of performance with its 2006/07 season. Little Rock is also home to the Arkansas Festival Ballet, the Arkansas Repertory Theater, and the Arkansas Arts Center, which holds art exhibits and classes, as well as children's theater performances.

The best-known center for traditional arts and crafts is the Ozark Folk Center at Mountain View. The Ozark Folk Center offers workshops in music and crafts as well as weekly evening concerts that focus on preserving "mountain music" from the Ozark region. As of 2006, the Annual Arkansas Folk Festival was held in Mountain View in April. The Regional Studies Center of Lyon College at Batesville presents an annual Ozark history and culture program.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

In calendar year 2001, Arkansas had 35 public library systems, with a total of 209 libraries, of which 169 were branches. In that same year, the state's public libraries held 5,497,000 volumes of books and serial publications, while total circulation amounted to 10,452,000. The system also had 112,000 audio and 101,000 video items, 5,000 electronic format items (CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks), and five bookmobiles. Important collections include those of the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville (1,556,572 volumes), Arkansas State University at Jonesboro (544,326), the Central Arkansas Library System of Little Rock (528,982), and the News Library of the Arkansas Gazette, also in Little Rock. The total operating income of the public library system was $38,704,000 in 2001. Arkansas received $72,000 in federal grants, while state grants that year came to $4,106,000. The state spent 59.3% of this income on staff and 17.7% on the collection.

There were 78 museums in 2000 and a number of historic sites. Principal museums include the Arkansas Arts Center and the Museum of Science and History, both at Little Rock; the Arkansas State University Museum at Jonesboro; and the University of Arkansas Museum at Fayetteville, specializing in archaeology, anthropology, and the sciences. Also of interest are the Stuttgart Agricultural Museum; the Arkansas Post County Museum at Gillett, whose artifacts are housed in recreated plantation buildings; Hampson Museum State Park, near Wilson, which has one of the largest collections of Mound Builder artifacts in the United States; the Mid-American Museum at Hot Springs, which has visitor-participation exhibits; and the Saunders Memorial Museum at Berryville, with an extensive collection of firearms.

Civil War battle sites include the Pea Ridge National Military Park, the Prairie Grove Battlefield State Park, and the Arkansas Post National Memorial. The Ft. Smith National Historic Site in-cludes buildings and museums from the days when the town was a military outpost on the border of Indian Territory.

COMMUNICATIONS

In 2004, 88.6% of the state's occupied housing units had telephones, the lowest rate in the nation. In addition, by June of that same year there were 307,323 mobile wireless telephone subscribers. In 2003, 50.0% of Arkansas households had a computer and 42.2% had Internet access, the second-lowest in the nation (after Mississippi) for both categories. By June 2005, there were 258,564 high-speed lines in Arkansas, 236,325 residential and 22,239 for business.

There were 63 major radio stations (7 AM, 56 FM) and 17 major television stations in 2005. A total of 23,195 Internet domain names had been registered in Arkansas as of 2000.

PRESS

The first newspaper in Arkansas, the Arkansas Gazette, established at Arkansas Post in 1819 by William E. Woodruff, ceased publication in 1991. In 2005, there were 14 morning dailies, 14 evening papers, and 16 Sunday papers. In 1992, Little Rock's two major dailies, the Arkansas Democrat and the Democrat Gazette, merged.

The following table shows the 2005 circulations of the leading dailies:

AREA NAME DAILY SUNDAY
Fort Smith Southwest Times Record (m, S) 37,462 43,322
Jonesboro Jonesboro Sun (m, S) 23,156 26,481
Little Rock Arkansas Democrat-Gazette (m, S) 182,391 280,529
Springdale-Rogers Morning News (m, S) 37,669 43,289

In 2005, there were 97 weekly publications in Arkansas. Of these there are 87 paid weeklies, 2 free weeklies, and 8 combined weeklies. The total circulation of paid weeklies (288,228) and free weeklies (43,482) is 331,710.

ORGANIZATIONS

In 2006, there were over 2,190 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 1,478 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations. Among the national organizations with headquarters in Arkansas are the American Crossbow Association in Huntsville; the American Fish Farmers Federation in Lonoke; and the Ozark Society, the American Parquet Association, the Federation of American Hospitals, and the Civil War Round Table Associates, all located in Little Rock. The national headquarters of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan is in Harrison.

The Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) was founded in Little Rock in 1970 and has since spread to some 20 other states, becoming one of the most influential citizens' lobbies in the United States. Heifer Project International, a social welfare organization that provides agricultural and community development assistance in third world countries, is headquartered in Little Rock. The Arkansas Arts Council and the Historic Preservation Alliance of Arkansas are based in Little Rock.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

In 2004, Arkansas received 218,000,000 visitors and generated 57,300 jobs in the travel industry. Pulaski and Garland counties accounted for the most visited by tourists.

Leading attractions in Arkansas are the mineral waters and recreational facilities at Hot Springs, Eureka Springs, Mammoth Spring, and Heber Springs. The Crater of Diamonds, near Murfreesboro, is the only known public source of natural diamonds in North America. For a fee, visitors may hunt for diamonds and keep any they find; more than 100,000 diamonds have been found in the area since 1906, of which the two largest are the 40.42-carat Uncle Sam and the 34.25-carat Star of Murfreesboro. The World's Championship Duck Calling Contest is held at the beginning of the winter duck season in Stuttgart. The city of Hamburg hosts the Armadillo Festival.

In support of the industry, the Arkansas Tourism Development Act of 1999 provides incentives for qualified new or expanding tourism facilities and attractions. The program applies to cultural or historical sites; recreational or entertainment facilities; natural, theme, and amusement parks; plays and musicals; and gardens. To qualify, the project must cost more than $500,000 and have a positive effect on the state. The state has 14 tourist information centers. In 2002, the state had some 19.9 million visitors with travel expenditures reaching over $3.9 billion (a 2.8% increase from 2000). The new William Jefferson Clinton Presidential Library in Little Rock has the largest collection of presidential artifacts. The University of Alabama recently opened the Clinton School of Public Service.

SPORTS

Arkansas has no major professional sports teams but it does have a minor league baseball team, the Travelers. Oaklawn Park in Hot Springs has a 62-day thoroughbred-racing season each spring, and dog races are held in West Memphis from April through November. Several major rodeos take place in summer and fall, including the Rodeo of the Ozarks in Springdale in early July.

The University of Arkansas has competed in the Southeastern Conference since 1990, when it ended its 76-year affiliation with the Southwest Conference. The Razorback football team won the Cotton Bowl in 1947, 1965, 1976, and 2000; the Orange Bowl in 1978; the Sugar Bowl in 1969; and the Bluebonnet Bowl in 1982. The men's basketball team won the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I basketball championship in 1994; won or shared the Southwest Conference championship in 1977, 1978, 1979, 1981, and 1982; and won the Southeastern Conference in 1994 and 2000.

FAMOUS ARKANSANS

Arkansas has produced one president of the United States, William Jefferson Clinton (b.1946). Clinton, a Democrat, defeated President George H. W. Bush in the 1992 presidential election and was reelected in 1996. Clinton's wife is the former Hillary Rodham (b.Illinois, 1947). Arkansas has yet to produce a vice president or a Supreme Court justice, although one Arkansan came close to reaching both offices: US Senator Joseph T. Robinson (18721937) was the Democratic nominee for vice president in 1928, on the ticket with Al Smith; later, he was Senate majority leader under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. At the time of his death, Robinson was leading the fight for Roosevelt's bill to expand the Supreme Court's membership and had reportedly been promised a seat on the court if the bill passed. Robinson's colleague, Hattie W. Caraway (b.Tennessee, 18781950), was the first woman elected to the US Senate, serving from 1931 to 1945.

After World War II (193945), Arkansas's congressional delegation included three men of considerable power and fame: Senator John L. McClellan (18961977), investigator of organized labor and organized crime and champion of the Arkansas River navigation project; Senator J. William Fulbright (b.Missouri, 190595), chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee; and Representative Wilbur D. Mills (190992), chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee until scandal ended his political career in the mid-1970s.

Other federal officeholders include Brooks Hays (18981981), former congressman and special assistant to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, as well as president of the Southern Baptist Convention, the nation's largest Protestant denomination; and Frank Pace Jr. (191288), secretary of the Army during the Truman administration.

General Douglas MacArthur (18801964), supreme commander of Allied forces in the Pacific during World War II, supervised the occupation of Japan and was supreme commander of UN troops in Korea until relieved of his command in April 1951 by President Harry Truman.

Orval E. Faubus (191094) served six terms as governor (a record), drew international attention during the 1957 integration crisis at Little Rock Central High School, and headed the most powerful political machine in Arkansas history. Winthrop Rockefeller (b.New York, 191773) was Faubus's most prominent successor. At the time of his election in 1978, Bill Clinton was the nation's youngest governor.

Prominent business leaders include the Stephens brothers, W. R. "Witt" (190791) and Jackson T. (19232005), whose Stephens, Inc., investment firm in Little Rock is the largest off Wall Street; and Kemmons Wilson (19132003), founder of Holiday Inns.

Other distinguished Arkansans are Edward Durrell Stone (190278), renowned architect; C. Vann Woodward (190899), Sterling Professor Emeritus of History at Yale University; and the Right Reverend John M. Allin (192198), presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church of the United States. John H. Johnson (19182005), publisher of the nation's leading black-oriented magazinesEbony, Jet, and othersis an Arkansan, as is Helen Gurley Brown (b.1922), former editor of Cosmopolitan.

Harry S. Ashmore (b.South Carolina, 191698) won a Pulitzer Prize for his Arkansas Gazette editorials calling for peaceful integration of the schools during the 1957 crisis; the Gazette itself won a Pulitzer for meritorious public service that year. Paul Greenberg (b.Louisiana, 1937), of the Pine Bluff Commercial, is another Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist. John Gould Fletcher (18861950) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning poet. Other Arkansas writers include Dee Brown (b.Louisiana, 19082002), Maya Angelou (b.Missouri, 1928), Charles Portis (b.1933), and Eldridge Cleaver (193598).

Arkansas planter Colonel Sanford C. Faulkner (180374) is credited with having written the well-known fiddle tune "The Arkansas Traveler" and its accompanying dialogue. Perhaps the best-known country music performers from Arkansas are Johnny Cash (19322003) and Glen Campbell (b.1938). Film stars Dick Powell (190463) and Alan Ladd (191364) were also Arkansans.

Notable Arkansas sports personalities include Jerome Herman "Dizzy" Dean (191174) and Bill Dickey (190793), both members of the Baseball Hall of Fame; Brooks Robinson (b.1937), considered by some the best-fielding third baseman in baseball history; and star pass-catcher Lance Alworth (b.Mississippi, 1940), a University of Arkansas All-American and member of the Professional Football Hall of Fame.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alampi, Gary (ed.). Gale State Rankings Reporter. Detroit: Gale Research, Inc., 1994.

Angelou, Maya. The Collected Autobiographies of Maya Angelou. New York: Modern Library, 2004.

. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. N. Y.: Bantam, 1971.

Bumpers, Dale. The Best Lawyer in a One-Lawyer Town: A Memoir. New York: Random House, 2003.

Cities of the United States. 5th ed. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale, 2005.

Clinton, Bill. My Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 2006 Edition. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 2006.

FDIC, Division of Research and Statistics. Statistics on Banking: A Statistical Profile of the United States Banking Industry. Washington, D.C.: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 1993.

Gatewood, Willard B., and Jeannie Whayne (eds.). The Arkansas Delta: Land of Paradox. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1993.

Hamilton, Nigel. Bill Clinton: An American Journey. New York: Random House, 2003.

McDougal, Jim, and Curtis Wilkie. Arkansas Mischief: the Birth of a National Scandal. N.Y.: Henry Holt, 1998.

Newman, Katherine S. Rampage: The Social Roots of School Shootings. New York: Basic Books, 2004.

Norman, Corrie E., and Don S. Armentrout (eds.) Religion in the Contemporary South: Changes, Continuities, and Contexts. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2005.

Paulson, Alan C. Roadside History of Arkansas. Missoula, Mont.: Mountain Press, 1998.

Polakow, Amy. Daisy Bates: Civil Rights Crusader. North Haven, Conn.: Linnet Books, 2003.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. Arkansas, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Digest of Education Statistics, 1993. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 1993.

US Department of the Interior, US Fish and Wildlife Service. Endangered and Threatened Species Recovery Program. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 1990.

Whayne, Jeannie M. A New Plantation South: Land, Labor, and Federal Favor in Twentieth-Century Arkansas. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.

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Arkansas

ARKANSAS

ARKANSAS. Arkansas, located just west of the Mississippi River, straddles a border between the South and the West and encompasses something of both those regions in its history and customs.

Throughout most of the eighteenth century, the small white population was concentrated at Arkansas Post, located on the Arkansas River just a few miles above where it feeds into the Mississippi River. Arkansas Post was established by Henri de Tonti in 1686, but it was a small and primitive affair that had a difficult time surviving. It was abandoned in 1699, founded again in 1721, and then moved several times between 1749and 1780.

While Arkansas Post clearly had importance as a place for reprovisioning boats on the long journey on the Mississippi River, it had political and economic importance as well. Politically, it gave the French—and, after the Seven Years' War, the Spanish—a foothold in an otherwise undermanned region, and it provided them a means for establishing relations with Native Americans in the area, particularly the Quapaws.

Other native groups in Arkansas had less contact with whites at the post, but the Osages did make themselves known. While their home villages were in southwestern Missouri, the Osages claimed most of northern and western Arkansas as their hunting grounds and ferociously protected their prerogatives there, effectively inhibiting white settlement in western Arkansas until the early nineteenth century. When the Americans took over and began to resettle Cherokee and Choctaw Indians in west Arkansas, the Osages resisted and were themselves resettled to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).

The American Era in Arkansas

The Louisiana Purchase ushered in the American era in Arkansas, and it had implications for the Indians there, some of whom had moved to Arkansas voluntarily in the late eighteenth century to escape the Americans. Cherokees, for example, settled along the Black and St. Francis rivers in the 1780s and 1790s. Although some eastern Indians, particularly the Cherokees, were "removed" to Arkansas in the late 1810s, they were later resettled in Indian Territory. Native groups would find themselves at a distinct disadvantage as the Americans spread across the Mississippi River; established plantation agriculture, particularly on Quapaw lands in southeastern Arkansas; and placed the state on a certain economic trajectory and a collision course with the Civil War.

As white settlers swept into the region in the first three decades of the nineteenth century, they found ample fertile land to develop in Arkansas and secured the cooperation of the federal government in removing all Indians from the territory by the mid-1830s. By the time that Arkansas applied for separate territorial status in 1819—it had been part of Missouri Territory until then—slavery was firmly established, and it came as a shock when New York Representative John Taylor proposed effectively banning slavery. The debate that ensued became intertwined with Missouri's application for statehood, and, in fact, the idea of a dividing line (36 degrees, 30 minutes—the border between Missouri and Arkansas), which became one of the key features of the great Missouri Compromise, was first articulated by Taylor in connection with the Arkansas bill. In the end, of course, slavery remained intact in Arkansas and became an important element in the delta's economy and in the state's political history.

Other differences existed between the southeast and northwest. While the southeast was given over to cotton cultivation, plantation agriculture, and a higher concentration of land ownership, a mixed agriculture of wheat, corn, livestock, and orchards predominated in the northwest, where land holdings tended to be much smaller. Part of the Arkansas Ozark Mountain range, northwest Arkansas was simply not suitable for plantation agriculture. The northwest was predominantly Whig in political orientation, and although some Whigs had interests in the delta, most planters there were Democrats.

A crucial factor in the ability of southeastern planters to control Arkansas politics was their influence upon the capital city. The first territorial capital, Arkansas Post, proved to be an inadequate location, and in 1820 a centrally located site farther up the Arkansas River, known as the "little rock," was chosen as the new territorial capital. Little Rock developed rapidly, and with significant ties to the southeastern Arkansas planters, Little Rock businessmen and politicians could be counted upon to support issues of importance to them.

Conflicts over Statehood

Its central role in the political struggle between the southeast and the northwest became manifest when Arkansas drafted its first state constitution in early 1836. The drive for statehood in Arkansas had been influenced by the desire to maintain a balance on the national level between slave and free states. When it became clear in 1834 that the territory of Michigan was preparing to apply for state-hood in the near future, Arkansas territorial delegate Ambrose Sevier was determined that Arkansas would be paired with Michigan.

When delegates met in Little Rock to draft a state constitution, southeastern planters were defeated in their attempts to apply the three-fifths rule in counting slaves for purposes of representation, but they succeeded in carving out a three-district political structure: one made up of southeast counties, one of northwest counties, and one of three counties in the center of the state. The largest of those three counties in the central district was, of course, Pulaski, where Little Rock was located. Northwestern delegates largely opposed this arrangement because it was clear that this central district would support the southeast, but enough northwestern delegates voted in favor of it to secure its passage.

Arkansas in the Civil War

When the secession crisis of 1860 took place, some Southerners believed that President Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency alone was sufficient to justify immediate secession, but most Arkansans were willing to give Lincoln a chance to prove that he was not, as he insisted, opposed to slavery where it existed. Those most in favor of immediate secession were from the southeastern delta; those most opposed were from the northwest. A secession convention was called in March 1861, just as Lincoln was taking the oath of office. The northwestern delegates succeeded in defeating the immediate secessionists, but the convention scheduled an election to take place the following August that would allow voters to decide the issue. Before that election could be held, however, Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter on April 12, and in response Lincoln put out a call for troops to all the states. Arkansas's moment of truth had arrived. The secession convention called itself back into session and voted 69to 1 to secede and join the Confederate cause.

Although few important battles were fought in the state, the Civil War brought devastation to Arkansas. It was ill-positioned to fight a war. Due to banking problems, the state was in poor economic standing at the time the Civil War broke out. Meanwhile, state officials feared—with justification—that Arkansas troops would be transferred east of the river, leaving Arkansas relatively defenseless. Although the Confederate military never fully abandoned Arkansas, it remained a lower priority and suffered as a consequence.

Ironically, the largest battles fought in the state took place in northwest Arkansas, the area least in favor of secession. On March 7–8, 1862, Federal forces pushed into the state from Missouri, hoping to wipe out Confederate resistance in the northwest counties and possibly reach the Arkansas River valley. Confederate forces met the Union forces at Pea Ridge (or Elkhorn Tavern). After a seesaw battle with heavy losses on the Federal side, the Confederates were ultimately forced to retire south to the Boston Mountains, but the Federals failed to follow them. Neither side truly won the battle as neither achieved its objectives. Much of Arkansas was then embroiled in a relentless guerrilla war from which many civilians, particularly in northwest Arkansas, fled.

The Reconstruction Era

The Reconstruction history of Arkansas is similar to that of other southern states. Initially Confederates regained political office under President Andrew Johnson's mild Reconstruction policies, only to be removed and disfranchised under congressional (or radical) Reconstruction. The Republican Party of Arkansas, like that of other southern states, attempted to build railroads, founded an educational system, and fell victim to charges of corruption. Ultimately, Reconstruction was overturned and a Redeemer Democrat, Augustus Garland, took over as Democratic governor in 1874.

One major issue emanating from the Civil War was what to do about the freedmen. The Freedmen's Bureau functioned in Arkansas during its brief life, but planters soon regained the upper hand and reduced the Arkansas freedmen to a kind of peasantry through the sharecropping system. Meanwhile, the cotton economy sank into a long decline, although Arkansas planters remained locked into it through the system of advances they received from cotton factors, who demanded they grow cotton. The state legislature, now controlled by Democrats, forswore an activist role in addressing the economic problems facing farmers. By the early 1880s farmers in Arkansas were in such dire straits that they formed the Agricultural Wheel, an organization determined to influence the legislature to address their problems. By 1886 they mounted a candidate for governor who very nearly defeated the Democratic candidate.

The fact that blacks had voted for the "Wheel" candidate did not escape the attention of leading Democrats, and fearful of the threat from below, Democrats were motivated to conquer by dividing their enemies along racial lines. In 1891 the legislature enacted both segregation and disfranchising legislature. The Separate Coach law prohibited blacks from riding in first-class coaches within the state. The election law of 1891 discriminated against illiterate voters (by allowing only election officials to mark their ballots) and imposed a poll tax. A final disfranchising piece of legislation became effective in 1906 when the state Democratic Party declared a "white only" policy, whereby only whites could vote in the Democratic primary.

Industrial Development Emerges

The end of the nineteenth century also marked something of an economic renaissance in Arkansas, albeit of a very limited kind. Despite efforts on the part of Arkansas boosters to attract industry and development to the state, the only industries that emerged were extractive in nature. The lumber industry, for example, became extraordinarily important all over Arkansas, from the eastern delta to the Ouachita and Ozark mountains in the west. Northern financiers and entrepreneurs, eager to reach the wealth of the Arkansas forests, extended hundreds of miles of railroad into a state that on the eve of the Civil War had less than a hundred miles of rail line. Deforestation in eastern Arkansas led directly to the expansion of the plantation system there and an explosion of population growth in the early twentieth century. By the end of that century, coal mining had become important. In central Arkansas, meanwhile, bauxite mining emerged near Benton. But efforts to move beyond these extractive industries and broaden the economy past its dependence on agriculture failed.

Progressivism, Riots, and Flood

Just as the urge to reform and perfect swept across the rest of the country during the Progressive Era, it touched Arkansas as well. It was during the first decades of the twentieth century that the convict leasing system was eliminated, women got the right to vote, and the educational infrastructure was improved. Both the initiative and the referendum were adopted in Arkansas. Prohibition was implemented in 1916, three years before the national ban. As the automobile became a more important means of transportation, roads expanded. Unfortunately, many road improvement districts went bankrupt during the economic downturn following World War I. The governors of the 1920s and 1930s struggled with this legacy of debt.

But those two decades brought other significant problems that captured the attention of the state's governors and legislators. In 1919 a race riot in Phillips County brought unfavorable publicity. This was "red summer," when labor strife and race riots occurred across the country. In the Arkansas case, black sharecroppers had formed a union and hired an attorney to represent them in suits they planned to file against planters for whom they worked. The planters learned of the union and purportedly concluded that the union was planning to murder them and appropriate their lands. After an incident outside a union meeting left a white man dead, a full-fledged race riot resulted, and Governor Charles Brough called on the president to dispatch troops from Camp Pike. Five whites and at least twenty-five blacks were killed, although unofficial reports suggest the number of blacks killed greatly exceeded that number.

While the Elaine Race Riot brought unfavorable publicity to the state, the sharp decline in prices paid for agricultural products that persisted throughout the 1920s brought ruin to farmers and many of the merchants and bankers who depended upon the agricultural economy. As if their economic woes were not problem enough, the great flood of 1927 inundated Arkansas. More than two million agricultural acres were flooded within the state. Arkansas had hardly recovered from this disaster and was reeling from the deteriorating economic conditions faced by Americans after the stock market crash of 1929 when the drought of 1930–1931 struck. Crops withered in the fields and livestock died while the Red Cross ruminated over whether a drought was the kind of natural disaster they should respond to. Finally, the Red Cross stepped in, but it was New Deal programs fostered under Franklin Roosevelt's presidency that began to improve the agricultural economy. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) launched its crop reduction program in 1933 and secured the cooperation of planters and farmers throughout the state in "plowing up" up to 30 percent of the planted cotton acres. Farmers were given a check for "renting" the plowed-up acres to the government, although they were free to raise certain unrestricted crops on those lands.

As it worked out, the AAA greatly advantaged planters and large farmers and brought further devastation to tenant farmers. Planters who no longer needed the services of tenant farmers simply evicted them. Many planters refused to share the crop payments with the tenants remaining on their plantation.

Some historians have credited the AAA program with being largely responsible for the demise of the tenancy and sharecropping system and the emergence of capital-intensive agriculture. But World War II played an important role in pulling labor away from agricultural areas—sending them to the military or to work in defense industries—and, in any case, the transition from labor-intensive to capital-intensive agriculture in the Arkansas delta depended upon the creation of a marketable mechanical cotton harvester. Those were developed during the war and began to come off assembly lines in sufficient numbers by the late 1940s to begin a revolution in southern agriculture. As chemicals, some of them developed during the war for other purposes, were put to use on the delta plantations to keep weeds down, the shift was further augmented. By the end of the 1950s the transition was all but complete, leaving in its wake a massive depopulation of the Arkansas delta that wreaked havoc on small-town economies.

Attracting Industry to the State

The state was not quiescent in the face of the changes transforming the delta. At Governor Orval Faubus's suggestion, the legislature created the Arkansas Industrial Development Commission in 1955. Despite more than fifty years of efforts to expand industrial production in the state, no industrial base of any significance had been established. Faubus appointed Winthrop Rockefeller, scion of the famous New York Rockefellers, who had settled in Arkansas after World War II, as the first director of the AIDC. He served as director for nine years and pursued industrial development with zeal and energy. He had some successes, but the kinds of industries that ultimately settled in Arkansas were of a character that did not promote further development. In fact, with more than six hundred new industrial plants located in the state during his tenure, providing more than ninety thousand new jobs, those factories paid low wages to largely unskilled workers. By the mid-1960s, moreover, it was clear that Arkansas was serving as a way station for those industries on a trek south in search of lower wages. Towns that secured factories in 1955 would likely be looking for replacement factories a decade later.

Ironically, it was in part the fear of losing industrial development possibilities that influenced Little Rock businessmen to take a stand on the Central High School crisis that began in 1957. Governor Orval Faubus had taken an extreme segregationist position just when it seemed the Little Rock school board had worked out a reasonable plan of gradual integration. He called out the National Guard to prevent nine black children from entering the school in the fall of 1957, and President Dwight D. Eisenhower was ultimately forced to nationalize the state guard and send in troops to enforce integration. The next year, Faubus elected to close the schools rather than allow them to be integrated.

For their part, the businessmen recognized that the crisis had drawn national and international attention that threatened their efforts to encourage industrial development in the city. They wanted an end to the bad publicity. By the early 1960s, even Faubus was changing his tune. With black voters gaining strength, particularly in the Arkansas delta, he began courting them and forswearing his segregationist past. When he decided not to run for office in 1966, his former AIDC director, Winthrop Rockefeller, secured the Republican nomination and defeated Jim Johnson, an avid race baiter. Clearly, Arkansas had had enough of the politics of race.

The Republican Rise to Power

The last six decades of the twentieth century witnessed a dramatic economic and political transformation in Arkansas. The emergence of the Republican Party and an economic boom in northwest Arkansas, two events that were not entirely unrelated, changed the face of the Arkansas political and economic landscape. While the delta struggled economically in the wake of the transformation of the plantation system, it reinvented itself politically as black voters made themselves felt at the polls. For the first time since Reconstruction, blacks were elected to important political positions on the local level in Arkansas.

Meanwhile, the rise of four economic giants in northwest Arkansas put that region on a phenomenal growth trajectory. Sam Walton, a retail genius, founded Wal-Mart, with its headquarters in Bentonville. John Tyson began his chicken business in Springdale, and his son, Don Tyson, expanded it dramatically and made it a worldwide enterprise. J. B. Hunt, who began as a simple trucker, founded a trucking empire and moved his headquarters to northwest Arkansas. John A. Cooper, who had founded a successful retirement community known as Cherokee Village, worked his magic in Bella Vista beginning in the 1960s, at approximately the same time that Walton, Don Tyson, and Hunt were laying the foundation for their businesses. The three business enterprises attracted a number of vendors and allied industries, and the population growth that followed generated an unprecedented construction boom.

Most of those who moved into northwest Arkansas and crowded into the growing suburbs of Little Rock were conservative in orientation. Only the presence of three moderate Democrats who could speak the language of fiscal conservatism kept the state otherwise in the hands of the Democrats. Dale Leon Bumpers, David Pryor, and Bill Clinton all served as governor between 1972 and 1992 (with the exception of a two-year period when a maverick Republican, Frank White, occupied the state house). Bumpers and Pryor would go on to have distinguished careers in the Senate, and Clinton, of course, went to the White House. In fact, his departure may have played a significant role in the Republican resurgence in Arkansas. Not only did he take with him many young Democrats who might have positioned themselves for elective office had they remained in Arkansas, but he also left the state in the hands of his Democratic lieutenant governor, Jim Guy Tucker, who proved to be more vulnerable than any one could have imagined. Within two years, Tucker faced serious charges arising from the Whitewater investigation and resigned, giving the seat over to Mike Huckabee, a popular Republican. Meanwhile, Republicans were experiencing a political renaissance elsewhere in the state, claiming a congressional seat in 1992 and a Senate seat in 1996. Clearly, by the end of the twentieth century, the Republican Party had become a force to be reckoned with, and the massive demographic changes that had occurred in the previous fifty years were a major factor in bringing that about.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bolton, S. Charles. Arkansas: Remote and Restless, 1800–1860. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1998.

Donovan, Timothy P., Willard B. Gatewood, and Jeannie Whayne, eds. Governors of Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1995.

Dougan, Michael B. Arkansas Odyssey: The Saga of Arkansas from Prehistoric Times to the Present. Little Rock, Ark.: Rose, 1993.

Johnson, Ben F. III. Arkansas in Modern America, 1930–1999. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2000.

Moneyhon, Carl. Arkansas and the New South, 1874–1929. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1997.

Reed, Roy. Faubus: The Life and Times of an American Prodigal. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1997.

Whayne, Jeannie, Tom DeBlack, George Sabo, and Morris S. Arnold. Arkansas: A Narrative History. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2002.

Whayne, Jeannie, and Willard B. Gatewood, eds. The Arkansas Delta: A Land of Paradox. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1993.

JeannieWhayne

See alsoDesegregation ; Plantation System of the South .

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Arkansas (state, United States)

Arkansas (är´kənsô´, ärkăn´zŭs), state in the south-central United States. It is bordered by Tennessee and Mississippi, across the Mississippi River (E), Louisiana (S), Texas and Oklahoma (W), and Missouri (N).

Facts and Figures

Area, 53,104 sq mi (137,539 sq km). Pop. (2010) 2,915,918, a 9.1% increase since the 2000 census. Capital and largest city, Little Rock. Statehood, June 15, 1836 (25th state). Highest pt., Magazine Mt., 2,753 ft (840 m); lowest pt., Ouachita River, 55 ft (17 m). Nickname, Land of Opportunity. Motto,Regnat Populus [The People Rule]. State bird, mockingbird. State flower, apple blossom. State tree, pine. Abbr., Ark.; AK

Geography

The Arkansas River flows southeast across the state between the Ozark plateau and the Ouachita Mountains and runs down to the southern and eastern plains to empty into the Mississippi River. The other rivers of the state also flow generally SE or S to the Mississippi; these include the Saint Francis (which forms part of the E Missouri line), the White River, the Ouachita, and the Red River (which forms part of the Texas line). The state's transportation network is based on rivers as well as roads, railroads, and air travel. The 440 mi (708 km) Arkansas River Navigation System links Oklahoma and Arkansas to the Mississippi River.

The capital and largest city is Little Rock; other important cities are Fort Smith, North Little Rock, Pine Bluff, Hot Springs, and West Memphis.

The climate of Arkansas is marked by long, hot summers and mild winters. The state's many lakes and streams and its abundant wildlife provide excellent hunting and fishing. The mineral springs at Hot Springs also attract many visitors to Arkansas, where tourism is an important industry.

Economy

A major cotton-producing state in the 19th cent., Arkansas has since diversified its agricultural production and overall economy. Cotton is still an important crop, but ranks below soybeans and rice. Arkansas has become a leading producer of poultry, raising over one billion broiler chickens a year; turkeys, dairy goods, and catfish are also important. The state's most important mineral products are petroleum, bromine and bromine compounds, and natural gas, and it is the nation's leading bauxite producer. Principal manufactures are food products, chemicals, lumber and paper goods, electrical equipment, furniture, automobile and airplane parts, and machinery. The Pine Bluff Arsenal is among military installations contributing to the Arkansas economy.

Government and Higher Education

The state constitution (1874) provides for an elected governor and bicameral legislature, with a 35-member senate and a 100-member house of representatives. Arkansas sends two senators and four representatives to the U.S. Congress and has six electoral votes.

Bill Clinton was elected governor five times between 1978 and 1990. Jim Guy Tucker, a Democrat, succeeded Clinton but resigned in 1996 when he was convicted of fraud in a Whitewater-related scheme; Republican Mike Huckabee, the lieutenant governor, became governor, and was reelected in 1998 and 2002. In 2006, Mike Beebe, a Democrat, was elected to the post; he was reelected in 2010. Republican Asa Hutchinson was elected governor in 2014.

Among the institutions of higher education in the state are the Univ. of Arkansas, at Fayetteville; Arkansas State Univ., at Jonesboro; Hendrix College and the State College of Arkansas, at Conway; Ouachita Baptist College and Henderson State College, at Arkadelphia; the College of the Ozarks, at Clarksville; Arkansas College, at Batesville; and Harding College, at Searcy.

History

Early History to Statehood

A people known as the Bluff Dwellers, who inhabited caves, probably lived in the Arkansas area before 500. They were followed by the Mound Builders, who received their name from the mounds they constructed, apparently for ceremonial purposes. The first Europeans to arrive in Arkansas (1541–42) were probably members of the Spanish expedition under Hernando De Soto. Later the French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet came S along the Mississippi to the mouth of the Arkansas River. A number of Native American groups, such as the Osage, Quapaw, and Caddo, lived in the vicinity.

In 1682, Robert La Salle's lieutenant, Henri de Tonti, established Arkansas Post, the first white settlement in the Arkansas area. La Salle claimed the Mississippi valley for France, and the region became part of the French territory of Louisiana. The French ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain in 1762 but regained it before it passed to the United States under the Louisiana Purchase (1803).

Arkansas became part of the Territory of Missouri in 1812. The cotton boom of 1818 brought the first large wave of settlers, and the Southern plantation system, moving west, fixed itself in the alluvial plains of S and E Arkansas. In 1819 the area was made a separate entity, and the first territorial legislature met at Arkansas Post. The capital was moved to Little Rock in 1821. Arkansas achieved statehood in 1836.

The Civil War

As the Civil War began, poorer farmers were generally indifferent to questions of slavery and states' rights. The slaveholding planters held the most political power, however, and after some hesitation, Arkansas seceded (1861) from the Union. In the Civil War, Confederate defeats at Pea Ridge (Mar., 1862), Prairie Grove (Dec., 1862), and Arkansas Post (Jan., 1863) led to Union occupation of N Arkansas, and General Grant's Vicksburg campaign separated states W of the Mississippi from the rest of the Confederacy. In Sept., 1863, federal troops entered Little Rock, where a Unionist convention in Jan., 1864, set up a government that repudiated secession and abolished slavery. Because the state refused at first to enfranchise former slaves, Arkansas was not readmitted to the Union until 1868, when a new constitution gave African Americans the right to vote and hold office.

Reconstruction

Reconstruction in Arkansas reached a turbulent climax in the struggle (1874) of two Republican claimants to the governorship, Elisha Baxter and Joseph Brooks. Baxter's apparent success in the election was not accepted by Brooks, and followers of the two men resorted to violence in what became known as the Brooks-Baxter War. After President Ulysses S. Grant declared Baxter to be governor, Baxter called a constituent assembly dominated by Democrats to frame a new state constitution. The convention adopted (1874) the constitution that, in amended form, still remains in force.

During Reconstruction the so-called carpetbaggers and scalawags were detested by most Arkansas whites, but their administrations brought advances in education and (at exorbitant costs caused by corruption) railroad construction. Because of high cotton prices and the failure to give the freed slaves any economic status, the broken plantation system was replaced by sharecropping and farm tenancy. The lives of the people of the Ozarks remained largely unchanged; they retained the customs, skills, and superstitions that have given the hill folk their distinctive regional characteristics. In the late 19th cent., as railroad construction proceeded, Arkansas's population grew substantially, and bauxite and lumbering industries developed. Oil was discovered in Arkansas, near El Dorado, in 1921.

Hard Times

Disaster struck in 1927 when the Mississippi River overflowed, flooding one fifth of the state. With the fortunes of the state pegged to the price of cotton, the depression of the early 1930s (see Great Depression) struck hard. Dispossessed tenants, black and white, formed (1939) the Southern Tenant Farmers Union; after trouble with the authorities, it moved its headquarters to Memphis, Tenn. A strike called in 1936 spread to other regions before its strength waned. Other impoverished farmers migrated west to California as "Arkies" —like the "Okies" from neighboring Oklahoma. After World War I, African Americans left the state in a steady stream to the industrial North. World War II brought further loss of population as workers left Arkansas for war factories elsewhere. The war, however, created a boom for new industries in the state, notably the processing of bauxite into aluminum.

The Postwar Era

The decline of industrial output after the war was offset by the vigorous efforts of a state development commission formed in 1955 to attract new industry to Arkansas. Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas became a center of national and world attention in 1957 when he resisted the desegregation of public schools in Little Rock (see integration). Arkansas has long been dominated by the Democratic party, but in 1966 Winthrop Rockefeller (see under Rockefeller, John Davison was elected the state's first Republican governor since Reconstruction. Although reelected in 1968, Rockefeller lost the governorship to a Democrat, Dale Bumpers, in 1970.

In 1971, Arkansas and Oklahoma joined in the Arkansas River Navigation System, a project that developed the Arkansas River basin to provide water transportation to the Mississippi. In the early 1990s, the Arkansas-based Wal-Mart merchandise chain, founded by Arkansan Sam Walton in 1962 as a small-town discount store, became the largest retailer in the United States. Bill Clinton, the governor of Arkansas (1979–81, 1983–92), was elected president of the United States in 1992. In the mid- to late 1990s national attention focused on Arkansas as Clinton associates, including Jim Guy Tucker, his successor as governor, were embroiled in Whitewater and other scandals.

Bibliography

See L. J. White, Politics on the Southwestern Frontier: Arkansas Territory, 1819–1836 (1964); H. S. Ashmore, Arkansas (1984); I. J. Spitzberg, Racial Politics in Little Rock, 1954–1964 (1987); G. T. Hanson and C. H. Moneyhon, Historical Atlas of Arkansas (1989).

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Arkansas

ARKANSAS

Arkansas has maintained a certain backwoods reputation in spite of its attempts to modernize and industrialize. At first totally dependent on the cotton crop grown on slaveholding plantations, the state was forced to diversify its agriculture after the Civil War. Today agriculture is only a small part of the state's economic output; such sectors as manufacturing, mining, and services are far more important to the state's economy. Arkansas continues to struggle to provide employment for its poorest citizens, many of whom lack education and job skills.

Hernando de Soto (c.14961592) led the first Spanish expedition into Arkansas in 1541. In 1673 a French expedition headed by Father Jacques Marquette (16371675) and Louis Jolliet (16451700) entered the territory, as did Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle (16431687) in 1682. La Salle claimed the whole Mississippi valley for France. The first permanent European settlement was at Arkansas Post, at the confluence of the Arkansas and White Rivers. France held onto the territory until 1762 when it was ceded to Spain, although it was later returned to French control. The French sold Arkansas to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Initially, part of the Missouri Territory, Arkansas, became an independent territory in 1819 and entered the Union as a slave state in 1836.

Southern and eastern Arkansas fast became cotton-growing areas, with the large plantations run by slave labor which characterized other southern states. The northern and western counties in the Ozark and Ouachita mountains were populated by smaller, poorer white farmers.

In the mid-nineteenth century the state was beset by credit problems. The state's two largest banks failed in the 1840s, the government defaulted on bonds issued by one of the banks. A measure of the fatalism and distrust of banks on the part of the rural population is evident in the fact that the state constitution was amended to prohibit all banking in the state. After the American Civil War (18611865) banking was restored, but the state again defaulted on its obligations to pay off railroad bonds. Until 1917 Arkansas securities were not honored by New York banks.

Transportation was slow to develop in Arkansas. Before the Civil War, commerce developed along the rivers where freight was shipped by hand-propelled keelboats and later, by steamboat. Thus the major towns in the state, such as Little Rock, Camden, Fort Smith, and Pine Bluff, grew along the waterways. Little Rock boasted over 300 steamboats docking in 1859. In the later nineteenth century towns were founded not only by the rivers but also in the interior. This happened in the 1870s, when the railroads begin to traverse the state, laying 2,200 miles of track by 1890.

In 1861 after a period of hesitation the state voted to secede from the Union. After the South's defeat in 1865 a Reconstruction (18651877) government was established that was led by Governor Powell Clayton and other northern Republican politicians. The people in Arkansas hated the corruption and exploitation they suffered under these profiteering outsiders, whom they called carpetbaggers. They ruled the state until 1874 and left such a bad reputation that after Reconstruction, the Democratic Party was in power for many decades to come.

When the Confederacy collapsed property values in the South deflated rapidly. In order to restore agricultural productivity in Arkansas after the war a system of "sharecropping" was developed. According to historian Harry S. Ashmore "It would prove a blight to whites and blacks alike in the years to come, and at its worst it properly could be condemned as the replacement of slavery with a form of peonage. But it provided a means of survival for both races in a desperate time. . . ."

After Reconstruction Arkansas railroads promoted immigration from other states and from abroad, hoping for settlers to establish themselves on the land the railroads had received through government grants. The railroads also controlled large stands of virgin timber. By the 1880s the two largest landowners in Grant County were the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad and the Muskegon Lumber Company of Michiganthe latter evidence that most of the lumbering profits were going out of state.

Arkansas was slow to modernize and did not really emerge from its agricultural past until after the Great Depression (19291939). Its farm economy gradually changed from total dependence on cotton to the growing of crops like rice and soybeans and the production of poultry. Cotton, formerly grown only on large plantations, began to appear in the northwest hill country. Tenant farming was the norm for several decades after the Civil War. Coal mining began in the late nineteenth century; the state also mined bauxite and produced oil. Lumbering was important until around 1909, when it decreased until reforestation began in the 1920s. Pulaski County's industrial development was slowed down by the controversy over school integration in Little Rock in 1957, but development continued in the following decades.

In 1966 Winthrop Rockefeller became the first Republican governor since Reconstruction, bringing a new, businesslike image to the state. Though he warred constantly with a Democratic legislature he did encourage investment in the state. In the early 1970s the Arkansas River navigation system opened up a water route between the Mississippi River and Oklahoma, helping to promote industrial expansion in several river ports along the Arkansas River. By this time the tenant farmer economy had been virtually eliminated by farm mechanization and industrialization.

A later governor, William Jefferson Clinton, who became U.S. President in 1992, brought a number of reforms to the state in areas such as health insurance, education funding, and investment tax credits for corporations. Arkansas's constitution, however, requires a two-thirds majority vote of the legislature for new state income taxation and this had hampered the state government's efforts to improve the state's standard of living.

In the mid-1990s Arkansas's important industries were manufacturing, especially lumber and wood products, agriculture, forestry, and tourism. Over 40 percent of the state's annual gross product was now based on commercial, financial, and professional services. Some industries such as chicken processing, enjoyed close relations with the state's regulatory system. The state's per capita income was under $17,000 in 1996, ranking it only 47th in the nation. Although a number of important labor reforms were passed at the beginning of the century Arkansas is not a strong union state, with only eight percent of workers claiming union membership.

See also: Keelboats, Reconstruction, Sharecropping, Steamboats



FURTHER READING

Ashmore, Harry S. Arkansas: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1978.

Du Vall, Leland. Arkansas: Colony and State. Little Rock, AR: Rose, 1973.

Fletcher, John Gould. Arkansas. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 1989.

Gatewood, Willard B., and Jeannie Whayne, eds. The Arkansas Delta: Land of Paradox. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 1993.

Whayne, Jeannie M. A New Plantation South: Land, Labor, and Federal Favor in Twentieth-Century Arkansas. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 1983.

Harry S. Ashmore, Arkansas: A Bicentennial History, 1978">

deep in the arkansas consciousness is a tragic sense that across three centuries of existence as a colony, territory, and state its people have been misunderstood and put upon.

harry s. ashmore, arkansas: a bicentennial history, 1978

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Arkansas

ARKANSAS


Fort Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Little Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

The State in Brief

Nickname: Land of Opportunity

Motto: Regnat populus (The people rule)

Flower: Apple blossom

Bird: Mockingbird

Area: 53,179 square miles (2000; U.S. rank: 29th)

Elevation: Ranges from 55 feet to 2,753 feet above sea level

Climate: Long hot summers, mild winters, ample rainfall

Admitted to Union: June 15, 1836

Capital: Little Rock

Head Official: Governor Michael D. Huckabee (R) (until 2007)

Population

1980: 2,286,000

1990: 2,350,725

2000: 2,673,398

2003 estimate: 2,725,714

Percent change, 19902000: 13.7%

Percent change, 20002003: 2.0%

U.S. rank in 2003: 32nd

Percent of residents born in state: 63.9% (2000)

Density: 51.3 people per square mile (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 112,672

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 2,138,598

Black or African American: 418,950

American Indian and Alaska Native: 17,808

Asian: 20,220

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 1,668

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 86,866

Other: 40,412

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 181,585

Population 5 to 19 years old: 578,924

Percent 65 years and over: 14.0%

Median age: 35.3 years (2000)

Vital Statistics

Total number of births (2002): 37,437

Total number of deaths (2001): 27,124 (infant deaths, 307)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 3,581

Economy

Major industries: Food products, agriculture, tourism, manufacturing

Unemployment rate: 5.6% (November 2004)

Per capita income: $24,296 (2003; U.S. rank: 50th)

Median household income: $33,259 (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 18.5% (3-year average, 2001-2003)

State income tax rate: Ranges from 1.0% to 7.0%

State sales tax rate: 5.125%

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Arkansas (river, United States)

Arkansas (ärkăn´zəs, är´kənsô´), river, c.1,450 mi (2,330 km) long, rising in the Rocky Mts., central Colo., and flowing generally SE across the plains to the Mississippi River, SE Ark.; drains 160,500 sq mi (415,700 sq km). The Canadian and Cimarron rivers are its main tributaries. It is the chief waterway for the state of Arkansas, where it drains a broad valley. The upper course of the Arkansas River has many rapids and flows through the Browns Canyon National Monument and Royal Gorge, one of the deepest canyons in the United States. More than 25 dams on the river provide flood control, power, and irrigation. During the warm months, because of its extensive use for irrigation, the middle course of the Arkansas is reduced to a trickle. The John Martin dam and reservoir in Colorado is one of the largest water-storage and flood-control units in the river basin. The Arkansas River Navigation System, opened in 1971, makes the river navigable to Tulsa, Okla., 440 mi (708 km) upstream. The Spanish explorers Coronado and De Soto probably traveled along portions of the river in the 1540s. In 1806, Zebulon Pike, an American army officer, explored the river's upper reaches in Colorado. The Arkansas River was an important trade and travel route in the 19th cent.

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Arkansas

Arkansas State in s central USA, bounded on the e by the Mississippi River. The capital (and only large city) is Little Rock. It was acquired by the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and was admitted to the Union as the 25th state in 1836. Arkansas was one of the 11 Confederate states during the American Civil War. Noted for its resistance to black equality in the 1960s, Ex-President Bill Clinton was governor of Arkansas (1978–80, 1983–92). In the e and s the land is low, providing excellent farmland for cotton, rice, and soya beans. The principal waterway is the Arkansas river which (like all the state's rivers) drains into the Mississippi. The nw of the state, including part of the Ozarks, is higher land. Little Rock is located on the Arkansas, where the hills meet the plains. Forests are extensive and economically important. Bauxite processing, timber, and chemicals are the main industries. Area: 137,539sq km (53,104sq mi). Pop. (2000) 2,673,400.

http://www.state.ar.us

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Arkansas

Arkansas River with its source high up in the Rockies of central Colorado, USA, and flowing 2335km (1450mi) to the Mississippi River in se Arkansas. Fourth-longest river in the US, it flows e through Kansas, se across the ne corner of Oklahoma, and then se to Arkansas.

Statehood :

June 15, 1836

Nickname :

The Land of Opportunity

State bird :

Mockingbird

State flower :

Apple Blossom

State tree :

Pine tree

State motto :

The people rule


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Arkansas (indigenous people of North America)

Arkansas, Native North Americans: see Quapaw.

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Arkansas

Arkansas •Nassau • hacksaw • heartsore •bedsore • Ensor • fretsaw • chainsaw •Esau, seesaw •jigsaw •ripsaw, whipsaw •eyesore • Warsaw • bowsaw •footsore • Luxor • plesiosaur •stegosaur • Arkansas • Chickasaw •dinosaur • brontosaur

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Arkansas

ARKANSAS

ARKANSAS , state in the south central part of the United States. It had an estimated Jewish population of 3,000 in 1967 out of a general population of 1,980,600 and 2,000 out of a total population of 2,673,400 in 2000. The first documented Jewish settler in Arkansas was Abraham Block, who came in 1823 and established a store at Washington, Arkansas (now known as Old Washington State Park), located on the Southwest Trail. He was a fairly wealthy man, husband of Frances "Fannie" Isaacs, whose father, Isaiah *Isaacs, was the initial Jewish settler in Richmond, Virginia. Block was acquainted with early Texas luminaries, such as Sam Houston, Davy Crockett, Stephen Austin, and Jim Bowie. Block's neighbor, smithy James Black, forged the famous Bowie knife. (Block's two-story home still stands.) He was followed to Arkansas by the brothers Jacob, Hyman, and Louis Mitchell, who immigrated to Hot Springs in 1830. They became successful merchants, conducting a large business between Fort Smith, Little Rock, and Hot Springs. In 1839 the eldest of the brothers, Jacob, organized a stagecoach line between Little Rock and Hot Springs. Samuel Adler, father of Cyrus *Adler, settled in Van Buren in the late 1850s.

From 1830 until the close of the Civil War Jews went to Arkansas sporadically. Some 200 Jewish merchants were in the state by 1860 and more than 70 served in the Confederate Army. Several were captured, and two lost their lives. Max Frauenthal, a Civil War hero, settled at Conway in 1872 and established what became one of the state's largest stores. After 1865 there was a large influx of Jews into the state. A number of towns were named for Jews, including such men as Louis and Joseph Altheimer, Adolph Felsenthal, J.D. Goldman, and Morris Levy, all of whom played vital roles in the state's history. Several sawmill towns were named for Jewish men, such as Henry Berger, Sol Bertig, and Victor Waldstein. At the close of the Civil War, the increase in the number of Jews led to the establishment of congregations throughout the state: Anshe Emeth in Pine Bluff and B'nai Israel in Little Rock formed congregations almost simultaneously in 1866–67; Beth El in Helena (1867); Beth El Emeth in Camden (1869); House of Israel in Hot Springs (1875); Mount Sinai in Texarkana (1876); Temple of Israel in Fort Smith (1880) merged with a second congregation and formed United Hebrew Congregation (1886); Orthodox Shul in Jonesboro (1892); Temple Israel in Jonesboro (1896); Agudath Achim in Little Rock (1904); Beth El in Newport (1904); Dermott Congregation in Dermott (1905); B'nai Israel in Pine Bluff (1907); Sheareth Israel in Hot Springs (1907); Bene Israel in Eudora (1912); B'rith Sholom in Osceola (1912); B'nai Israel in Fort Smith (1913); Tifereth Israel in Forrest City (1914); Marianna Congregation in Marianna (1914); Ahavah Achim in Wynne (1915); Ohev Zedek in El Dorado (1920s); Reform Congregation in El Dorado (1920s); Temple Israel in Pine Bluff (1921); Temple Israel in Blytheville (1936); Beth Israel in El Dorado (1940s); Meir Chayim in McGehee (1947); Beth Jacob in Hot Springs (1950); Temple Shalom in Fayetteville (1981); Lubavitch of Arkansas in Little Rock (1992). The Chabad-Lubavitch Hebrew Academy of Arkansas was opened in Little Rock in 2003 with 16 students. An outstanding

philanthropic institution is the Leo N. Levi Memorial Hospital (now Levi Hospital) established in 1914 in Hot Springs.

In 1931 the Jews of Arkansas formed a Kehillah-type organization, the Arkansas Jewish Assembly, which sought to strengthen the scattered Jews of the state. Supplying spiritual leaders to small congregations, promoting Jewish educational programs and youth groups, and holding yearly conventions, it was successful until 1951, when Jewish Federations began fulfilling such functions. Jews have occupied important government positions in Arkansas, including Jacob Trieber, United States District Court judge, 1900–27 (first Jewish Federal judge), and Sam Frauenthal, associate justice of the Arkansas Supreme Court. In 1997 Annabelle C. Imber, a Jew by choice, was the first woman elected to the Arkansas State Supreme Court. Many other Jewish citizens have served as mayors, aldermen, councilmen, and state senators and representatives.

Rabbi Ira E. Sanders, leader of Congregation B'nai Israel of Little Rock from 1926–63 (and as rabbi emeritus until his death in 1985), was an outspoken proponent of integration during the 1957 school crisis. He was followed in 1963 by Rabbi E.E. Palnick, who continued the civil rights efforts of his predecessor. Little Rock's Jewish women were prominent workers in the Women's Emergency Committee, which sought to reopen the city's high schools, which were closed by Gov. Orval Faubus after the desegregation order.

Of the 30 documented congregations established in the state between 1866 and 2004, only a few survive. Jewish communities with active congregations are located in Little Rock (3), Bentonville, Fayetteville, Fort Smith, Hot Springs, Jonesboro, and Helena (the latter two have but a handful of adherents).

bibliography:

M.K. Bauman and B. Kalin, (eds.), The Quiet Voices: Southern Rabbis and Black Civil Rights, 1880s to 1990s (1997), 95–120; C.G. LeMaster, A Corner of the Tapestry: A History of the Jewish Experience in Arkansas, 1820s–1990s (1994), 3–12, 43–46, 51–93, 222–25, 309–31, 374–78; Sheppard, in: Arkansas State Gazetteer (1866), 319–21, 324–29; ajhsp, 3 (1893), 24, 38; 6 (1897), 144, 149, 150; 19 (1910), 96; Herndon, in: Centennial History of Arkansas, 2 (1922), 23, 100, 136, 396, 739, 895, 984; D.E. Wagoner, Levi Arthritis Hospital: More Lasting Than Marble or Stone (1984).

[Carolyn G. LeMaster (2nd ed.)]

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Arkansas

Arkansas

■ ARKANSAS BAPTIST COLLEGE G-10

1600 Bishop St.
Little Rock, AR 72202-6067
Tel: (501)374-7856
Web Site: http://www.arbaptcol.edu/

Description:

Independent Baptist, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1884. Setting: urban campus. Endowment: $306,174. Total enrollment: 375. 3% from top 10% of their high school class, 20% from top quarter, 40% from top half. Full-time: 258 students, 52% women, 48% men. Part-time: 117 students, 65% women, 35% men. 99% black. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, accelerated degree program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

175 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. 25 computers available on campus for general student use.

■ ARKANSAS NORTHEASTERN COLLEGE C-16

PO Box 1109
Blytheville, AR 72316-1109
Tel: (870)762-1020
Fax: (870)763-3704
Web Site: http://www.anc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1975. Setting: 80-acre rural campus with easy access to Memphis. Endowment: $187,500. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4680 per student. Total enrollment: 1,830. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 513 applied, 100% were admitted. 17% from top 10% of their high school class. 3 valedictorians. Full-time: 962 students, 64% women, 36% men. Part-time: 868 students, 69% women, 31% men. Students come from 3 states and territories, 17% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 29% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 40% 25 or older, 5% transferred in. Retention: 50% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Option: deferred admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1410 full-time, $47 per semester hour part-time. State resident tuition: $1710 full-time, $57 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3210 full-time, $107 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $220 full-time, $6 per semester hour part-time, $20 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group. Social organizations: 10 open to all. Most popular organizations: Gamma Beta Phi, Association of Childhood Education International, Nursing Club, Cultural Diversity, Adult Student Association. Major annual events: Fall Funfest, Spring Funfest, Evening Student Appreciation Night. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Adams/Vines Library with 15,493 books, 3,704 microform titles, 165 serials, 682 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $371,306. 280 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

In a rural area with a population of 22,000.

■ ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

PO Box 10
State University, AR 72467
Tel: (870)972-2100
Admissions: (870)972-3024
Fax: (870)972-2090
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.astate.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Arkansas State University System. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates (specialist). Founded 1909. Setting: 942-acre small town campus with easy access to Memphis. Endowment: $36.5 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $6.5 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3700 per student. Total enrollment: 10,414. Faculty: 606 (447 full-time, 159 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. 3,488 applied, 65% were admitted. Full-time: 7,194 students, 58% women, 42% men. Part-time: 1,944 students, 63% women, 37% men. Students come from 42 states and territories, 49 other countries, 10% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 17% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 28% 25 or older, 18% live on campus, 10% transferred in. Retention: 65% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Arkansas State University-Beebe, East Arkansas Community College, Mid-South Community College, ASU-Regional Programs, ASU-Mountain Home, ASU-Paragould, Arkansas Northeastern College. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, proof of immunization, proof of enrollment in selective service for men over 18, SAT or ACT. Recommended: ACT. Required for some: ACT ASSET or ACT COMPASS. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $15. State resident tuition: $4260 full-time, $142 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,965 full-time, $365.50 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $1180 full-time, $37 per credit hour part-time, $25 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, location, and program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, location, and program. College room and board: $4190. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 192 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 15% of eligible men and 7% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, intramurals, academic clubs, minority/international organizations. Major annual events: Homecoming, International Night, Springfest. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. 2,315 college housing spaces available; 1,722 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Dean B. Ellis Library with 586,176 books, 578,473 microform titles, 1,675 serials, 15,649 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.8 million. 510 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Jonesboro is located on Crowley's Ridge, bordering the rich Mississippi Delta Agricultural and Industrial Center. Buses, railroads and airlines service the area. Jonesboro is 65 miles from Memphis, 133 miles from Little Rock, and 261 miles from St. Louis. The mean temperature is 60 degrees, and the average annual rainfall is 50 inches. There are more than 102 active clubs, and organizations, theaters, a Community Center, and several city parks in the city. Lake Frierson State Park and Craighead Forest Park and lake are nearby.

■ ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY-BEEBE F-11

PO Box 1000
Beebe, AR 72012-1000
Tel: (501)882-3600
Admissions: (501)882-8280
Fax: (501)882-8370
Web Site: http://www.asub.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Arkansas State University System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1927. Setting: 320-acre small town campus with easy access to Memphis. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $11,374 per student. Total enrollment: 3,976. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 30:1. 2 class presidents, 1 valedictorian, 20 student government officers. Full-time: 2,124 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 1,852 students, 57% women, 43% men. Students come from 25 states and territories, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 38% 25 or older, 12% live on campus, 2% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1824 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $3000 full-time. College room and board: $2480.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 19 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Arkansas Education Association, Art Club, Agri Club, Social Science Club, Leadership Council. Major annual events: Organizational Fair, Harvestfest/Spring Dance, Leadership Council activities. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. 160 college housing spaces available; 126 were occupied in 2003-04. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Abington Library with 90,000 books, 500 serials, and 10 audiovisual materials. 375 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY-MOUNTAIN HOME B-10

1600 South College St.
Mountain Home, AR 72653
Tel: (870)508-6100
Admissions: (870)508-6104
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.asumh.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Arkansas State University. Awards certificates and terminal associate degrees. Setting: 136-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 1,031. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 735 applied, 52% were admitted. Full-time: 625 students, 64% women, 36% men. Part-time: 406 students, 72% women, 28% men. Students come from 11 states and territories, 3 other countries, 0.1% from out-of-state, 44% 25 or older, 15% transferred in. Retention: 46% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: placement scores, ACT, SAT Subject Tests, COMPASS, ASSET. Entrance: noncompetitive. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $2130 full-time, $71 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3660 full-time, $122 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $240 full-time, $8 per credit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Choral group. Social organizations: 13 open to all. Most popular organizations: Phi Theta Kappa, Circle K, Criminal Justice Club, Mortuary Science Club, Student Ambassadors. Major annual events: Gaston Lecture Club events, Jingle-on-the-Green. College housing not available. Norma Wood Library with 30,682 books, 1,439 microform titles, 6,634 serials, 2,150 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $319,675. 60 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY-NEWPORT D-13

7648 Victory Blvd.
Newport, AR 72112
Tel: (870)512-7800
Free: 800-976-1676
Web Site: http://www.asun.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Arkansas State University. Awards certificates, diplomas, and transfer associate degrees. Total enrollment: 896. 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 16% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 38% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, independent study, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: Common Application. Required: interview, ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program.

■ ARKANSAS TECH UNIVERSITY E-8

Russellville, AR 72801
Tel: (479)968-0389
Free: 800-582-6953
Admissions: (479)968-0343
Fax: (479)964-0522
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.atu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees (Educational Specialist's). Founded 1909. Setting: 516-acre small town campus. Endowment: $12.4 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $790,945. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3641 per student. Total enrollment: 6,842. Faculty: 398 (252 full-time, 146 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 19:1. 3,459 applied, 48% were admitted. 17% from top 10% of their high school class, 43% from top quarter, 70% from top half. Full-time: 5,365 students, 52% women, 48% men. Part-time: 963 students, 61% women, 39% men. Students come from 37 states and territories, 34 other countries, 4% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 21% 25 or older, 30% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 66% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; business/marketing; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4290 full-time, $143 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8580 full-time, $286 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $410 full-time, $4 per credit hour part-time, $145 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and location. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and location. College room and board: $4290. College room only: $2290. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 97 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 5% of eligible men and 4% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Student Activities Board, Wesley Foundation, Chi Alpha, Baptist Student Union. Major annual events: SAB Bingo Night, Homecoming, Timeout for Tech. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. College housing designed to accommodate 1,579 students; 1,813 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Ross Pendergraft Library and Technology Center with 259,372 books, 880,006 microform titles, 1,054 serials, 6,975 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.1 million. 700 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Russellville, the crossroads for State Highways 7, 22, 124, and 64, is located equidistant from Little Rock, Hot Springs, Harrison, and Fort Smith. Interstate 40 passes just north of Russellville, a city of 25,000. A 36,600 acre lake, formed by a lock and dam on the navigable Arkansas River, lies southwest of the city. The area, served by airplane, rail, and bus lines, is experiencing vigorous industrial development, which includes the construction of the first nuclear power plant in the Southwest. Recreational facilities in the area include lakes, picnic areas, city parks, swimming pools, tennis courts, and private country clubs. There are the usual civic organizations of a city. Part-time employment is available in stores and on campus.

■ BLACK RIVER TECHNICAL COLLEGE B-13

1410 Hwy. 304 East
Pocahontas, AR 72455
Tel: (870)248-4000
Free: 800-919-3086
Admissions: (870)892-4565
Fax: (870)248-4100
Web Site: http://www.blackrivertech.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1972. Setting: 55-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 1,243. Full-time: 652 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 591 students, 55% women, 45% men. Students come from 2 states and territories, 53% 25 or older. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, self-designed majors, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Option: Common Application. Required for some: high school transcript, interview, ACT, ACT ASSET, or SAT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: night patrol. College housing not available. Black River Technical College Library with 10,000 books, 200 serials, and an OPAC. 100 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CENTRAL BAPTIST COLLEGE F-9

1501 College Ave.
Conway, AR 72034-6470
Tel: (501)329-6872
Free: 800-205-6872
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cbc.edu/

Description:

Independent Baptist, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1952. Setting: 11-acre small town campus. Endowment: $974,667. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3614 per student. Total enrollment: 395. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 154 applied, 68% were admitted. 6% from top 10% of their high school class, 31% from top quarter, 63% from top half. Full-time: 328 students, 45% women, 55% men. Part-time: 67 students, 45% women, 55% men. Students come from 14 states and territories, 1 other country, 10% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 15% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.3% international, 27% 25 or older, 40% live on campus, 19% transferred in. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; theology and religious vocations; psychology. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 8/15.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $13,110 includes full-time tuition ($7950), mandatory fees ($500), and college room and board ($4660).

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Major annual events: Harvest Party, Discovery Day, Spring Fling. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. On-campus residence required through senior year. J. E. Cobb Library with 50,448 books, 27,268 microform titles, 330 serials, and 4,827 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $78,269. 38 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of Central Arkansas.

■ COSSATOT COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS J-4

PO Box 960
De Queen, AR 71832
Tel: (870)584-4471
Free: 800-844-4471
Web Site: http://www.cccua.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of University of Arkansas System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1991. Setting: rural campus. Endowment: $110,096. Total enrollment: 1,020. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 361 applied, 83% were admitted. Students come from 6 states and territories, 2% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 10% Hispanic, 10% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Costs Per Year:

Area resident tuition: $1350 full-time, $45 per credit hour part-time. State resident tuition: $1650 full-time, $55 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4950 full-time, $165 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $250 full-time, $15 per course part-time, $53 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available.

■ CROWLEY'S RIDGE COLLEGE C-15

100 College Dr.
Paragould, AR 72450-9731
Tel: (870)236-6901
Free: 800-264-1096
Fax: (870)236-7748
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.crowleysridgecollege.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed, affiliated with Church of Christ. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Setting: 112-acre small town campus. Endowment: $1 million. Total enrollment: 183. 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application. Required: high school transcript, recommendation form filled out by high school. Required for some: interview. Placement: ACT, ACT ASSET required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. 112 college housing spaces available; 80 were occupied in 2003-04. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Learning Center with an OPAC and a Web page. 9 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ EAST ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE F-14

1700 Newcastle Rd.
Forrest City, AR 72335-2204
Tel: (870)633-4480; 877-797-3222
Fax: (870)633-7222
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.eacc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1974. Setting: 40-acre small town campus with easy access to Memphis. Endowment: $217,500. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3666 per student. Total enrollment: 1,477. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. Full-time: 745 students, 70% women, 30% men. Part-time: 732 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 4 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 41% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 47% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1470 full-time, $49 per credit hour part-time. State resident tuition: $1710 full-time, $57 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $2070 full-time, $69 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $150 full-time, $5 per credit hour part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 4 open to all. Most popular organizations: Gamma Beta Phi, Baptist Student Union, Student Activities Committee, Lambda Alpha Epsilon. Major annual events: Spring Barbecue, Homecoming. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, 16-hour patrols by trained security personnel. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center plus 1 other with 21,908 books and 109 serials. 26 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Forrest City, with a population of 13,803, is the county seat of St. Francis County.

■ HARDING UNIVERSITY F-11

900 East Center
Searcy, AR 72149-0001
Tel: (501)279-4000
Free: 800-477-4407
Admissions: (501)279-4407
Fax: (501)279-4865
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.harding.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed, affiliated with Church of Christ. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1924. Setting: 200-acre small town campus with easy access to Little Rock. Endowment: $78.4 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $64,685. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6559 per student. Total enrollment: 5,744. Faculty: 332 (226 full-time, 106 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 1,658 applied, 62% were admitted. 27% from top 10% of their high school class, 52% from top quarter, 76% from top half. 16 National Merit Scholars. Full-time: 3,879 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 213 students, 53% women, 47% men. Students come from 50 states and territories, 70% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 4% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 5% 25 or older, 73% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 83% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, 2 recommendations, interview, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 6/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $16,512 includes full-time tuition ($10,800), mandatory fees ($400), and college room and board ($5312). College room only: $2636. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $360 per semester hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $20 per semester hour. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 52 open to all; local fraternities, local sororities; 50% of eligible men and 39% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: University Singers, RENEW (environmental group), JOY, concert choir, Omicron Delta Kappa. Major annual events: Spring Sing Festival, Homecoming Musical, Club Induction Week. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. 2,990 college housing spaces available; 2,952 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Brackett Library plus 1 other with 253,436 books, 251,230 microform titles, 16,879 serials, 8,281 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.3 million. 327 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Searcy is a small town located approximately 50 miles from Little Rock. The climate is temperate. A public library, two large hospitals, many churches, and a variety of shops serve the city of 20,000. Greer's Ferry Lake, with approximately 400 miles of shoreline, is located within 30 miles of campus. The Little Red River, which is famous for its rainbow trout, runs through the edge of Searcy. About 45 minutes from Harding, the University owns a 1,200 acre camp consisting of many log buildings, bluffs, and horse stables.

■ HENDERSON STATE UNIVERSITY I-8

1100 Henderson St.
Arkadelphia, AR 71999-0001
Tel: (870)230-5000
Free: 800-228-7333
Admissions: (870)230-5028
Fax: (870)230-5144
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hsu.edu

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1890. Setting: 139-acre small town campus with easy access to Little Rock. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $367,540. Total enrollment: 3,584. Faculty: 229 (161 full-time, 68 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 2,020 applied, 58% were admitted. 18% from top 10% of their high school class, 43% from top quarter, 75% from top half. Full-time: 2,713 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 376 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 24 states and territories, 27 other countries, 14% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 17% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 20% 25 or older, 9% transferred in. Retention: 63% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; business/marketing; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Ouachita Baptist University.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.5 high school GPA, ACT. Required for some: essay, 3 recommendations. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 7/15. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4050 full-time, $135 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8100 full-time, $270 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $575 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Part-time tuition varies according to course load and program. College room and board: $3888. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 85 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 11% of eligible men and 13% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Heart and Key, Student Government Association, Residence Hall Association. Major annual events: homecoming, Spring Fling, Parents' Weekend. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, controlled dormitory access. 950 college housing spaces available; 876 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Huie Library with 262,572 books, 212,722 microform titles, 1,516 serials, 18,717 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $756,161. 125 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Arkadelphia is 55 miles southwest of Little Rock, and 35 miles south of Hot Springs, America's oldest national park. Arkadelphia is a modern, progressive city, and a well-known educational center. The Missouri Pacific Railroad, U.S. Interstate 30, U.S. Highway 67, and state highways make this city easily accessible from all parts of the state.

■ HENDRIX COLLEGE F-9

1600 Washington Ave.
Conway, AR 72032-3080
Tel: (501)329-6811
Free: 800-277-9017
Admissions: (501)450-1362
Fax: (501)450-3843
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hendrix.edu/

Description:

Independent United Methodist, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1876. Setting: 158-acre suburban campus with easy access to Little Rock. Endowment: $149.4 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $639,278. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $12,354 per student. Total enrollment: 1,031. Faculty: 107 (85 full-time, 22 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 1,086 applied, 83% were admitted. 37% from top 10% of their high school class, 73% from top quarter, 91% from top half. 7 National Merit Scholars, 12 valedictorians, 8 student government officers. Full-time: 1,001 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 21 students, 52% women, 48% men. Students come from 36 states and territories, 10 other countries, 45% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 4% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.5% international, 1% 25 or older, 97% live on campus, 2% transferred in. Retention: 81% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: social sciences; psychology; biological/life sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at American University, Associated Colleges of the South. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: 1 recommendation. Required for some: interview. Entrance: very difficult. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $27,946 includes full-time tuition ($21,336), mandatory fees ($300), and college room and board ($6310). College room only: $2760. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $2248 per course. Part-time mandatory fees: $40 per year. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 53 open to all. Most popular organizations: Volunteer Action Center, student government, music ensembles, Multicultural Development Committee, Social Committee. Major annual events: Coffee House, Spring Music Festival, Campus Kitty Week. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 917 college housing spaces available; 846 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Olin C. and Marjorie H. Bailey Library with 216,172 books, 184,127 microform titles, 799 serials, 2,151 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $839,394. 75 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of Central Arkansas.

■ ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE G-10

4520 South University
Little Rock, AR 72204
Tel: (501)565-5550
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of ITT Educational Services, Inc. Awards terminal associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1993. Setting: urban campus. Core.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available.

■ JOHN BROWN UNIVERSITY B-4

2000 West University St.
Siloam Springs, AR 72761-2121
Tel: (479)524-9500; 877-JBU-INFO
Admissions: (479)524-7150
Fax: (479)524-9548
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.jbu.edu/

Description:

Independent interdenominational, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1919. Setting: 200-acre small town campus. Endowment: $49.2 million. Total enrollment: 1,904. Faculty: 148 (83 full-time, 65 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 874 applied, 62% were admitted. 29% from top 10% of their high school class, 59% from top quarter, 87% from top half. 2 National Merit Scholars, 17 valedictorians. Full-time: 1,581 students, 51% women, 49% men. Part-time: 78 students, 56% women, 44% men. Students come from 44 states and territories, 37 other countries, 72% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 3% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 4% 25 or older, 76% live on campus, 4% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; communications/journalism; visual and performing arts. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $20,910 includes full-time tuition ($14,544), mandatory fees ($736), and college room and board ($5630). Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $600 per semester hour. Part-time tuition varies according to course load and program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 20 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Student Ministries Organization, Student Missionary Fellowship, African Heritage Fellowship. Major annual events: homecoming, Christmas Candlelight Service, Parents' Weekend. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. On-campus residence required through junior year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Arutunoff Learning Resource Center plus 4 others with 114,799 books, 52,215 microform titles, 3,775 serials, 10,697 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $446,451. 100 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Located in the Benton County foothills of the beautiful Ozarks. The town is easily accessible from all parts of the state. The seasons are delightfully mild. Siloam Springs is far enough south to insure mild winters, and the summer nights are pleasantly cool. Northwest Arkansas is considered a very healthful location, and is noted as a summer retreat for many tourists from all sections of the United States.

■ LYON COLLEGE D-12

PO Box 2317
Batesville, AR 72503-2317
Tel: (870)793-9813
Free: 800-423-2542
Admissions: (870)698-4250
Fax: (870)698-4622
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lyon.edu/

Description:

Independent Presbyterian, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1872. Setting: 136-acre small town campus. Endowment: $42.9 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $12,239 per student. Total enrollment: 488. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. 470 applied, 72% were admitted. 29% from top 10% of their high school class, 69% from top quarter, 93% from top half. 1 National Merit Scholar, 11 valedictorians, 20 student government officers. Full-time: 458 students, 50% women, 50% men. Part-time: 30 students, 70% women, 30% men. Students come from 20 states and territories, 17 other countries, 17% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 10% 25 or older, 75% live on campus, 11% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; biological/life sciences; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Required for some: essay, 2 recommendations. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $21,130 includes full-time tuition ($14,420), mandatory fees ($440), and college room and board ($6270). College room only: $2580. Part-time tuition: $600 per credit hour.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 48 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local sororities; 10% of eligible men and 13% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Baptist Christian Ministry, Student Activities Council, Pre-Med Club. Major annual events: Arkansas Scottish Festival, Service Day, Lyonfest Weekend. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service. 421 college housing spaces available; 363 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Mabee-Simpson Library with 181,789 books, 2,928 microform titles, 646 serials, 6,744 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $467,046. 81 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Batesville is located on the banks of the White River, in the foothills of the Ozarks 90 miles north of Little Rock, and 120 miles northwest of Memphis. The climate is mild, summer mean is 78 degrees and the winter mean is 40 degrees. Average annual rainfall is 48 inches. There are many churches in the area, a fine city library, hospitals, and 4 radio stations and cable TV.

■ MID-SOUTH COMMUNITY COLLEGE F-16

2000 West Broadway
West Memphis, AR 72301
Tel: (870)733-6722
Admissions: (870)733-6732
Fax: (870)733-6719
Web Site: http://www.midsouthcc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1993. Setting: 80-acre suburban campus with easy access to Memphis. Endowment: $894,155. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3581 per student. Total enrollment: 1,467. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 214 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 457 students, 70% women, 30% men. Part-time: 1,010 students, 62% women, 38% men. Students come from 2 other countries, 5% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 49% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.4% international, 48% 25 or older, 5% transferred in. Retention: 41% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: ACT, ASSET, COMPASS. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1410 full-time, $47 per credit part-time. State resident tuition: $1740 full-time, $58 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3150 full-time, $105 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $210 full-time, $7 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and reciprocity agreements.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group. Social organizations: 6 open to all. Most popular organizations: Phi Theta Kappa, Baptist Collegiate Ministry, Campus Ministry International, Student Ambassador, Skills-USA-Vica. Major annual events: Student Appreciation Day, Stress Free Zone, Job Fair. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, security during class hours. College housing not available. Mid-South Community College Library/Media Center with 14,672 books, 88 serials, 2,151 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $135,643. 280 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ NATIONAL PARK COMMUNITY COLLEGE H-8

101 College Dr.
Hot Springs, AR 71913
Tel: (501)760-4222
Fax: (501)760-4100
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.npcc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Arkansas Department of Higher Education. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1973. Setting: 50-acre suburban campus with easy access to Little Rock. Endowment: $11.3 million. Total enrollment: 2,996. 4,969 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 1,237 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 1,759 students, 61% women, 39% men. 2% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 6% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.03% international, 63% 25 or older, 17% transferred in. Retention: 100% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, allied health programs. Options: Common Application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Recommended: ACT ASSET. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group, student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: student newspaper, choral group. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. College housing not available. Garland County Community College Library with 17,800 books, 290 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $280,000. 270 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ NORTH ARKANSAS COLLEGE B-8

1515 Pioneer Dr.
Harrison, AR 72601
Tel: (870)743-3000
Free: 800-679-6622
Admissions: (870)391-3221
Fax: (870)391-3339
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.northark.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1974. Setting: 40-acre small town campus. Endowment: $333,030. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4218 per student. Total enrollment: 2,187. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 737 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 1,138 students, 62% women, 38% men. Part-time: 1,049 students, 62% women, 38% men. Students come from 14 states and territories, 2% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 40% 25 or older, 5% transferred in. Retention: 48% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1590 full-time, $53 per credit hour part-time. State resident tuition: $2130 full-time, $71 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4110 full-time, $137 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $150 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 8 open to all. Most popular organizations: Phi Beta Lambda, Phi Theta Kappa, Student Nurses Association, Vocational Industrial Clubs, Baptist Student Union. Major annual events: cookouts, Homecoming, plays. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. North Arkansas College Library plus 1 other with 29,969 books, 5,671 microform titles, 340 serials, 2,879 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $356,001. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ NORTHWEST ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE B-5

One College Dr.
Bentonville, AR 72712
Tel: (479)636-9222
Free: 800-995-6922
Fax: (479)619-4116
Web Site: http://www.nwacc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1989. Setting: 77-acre urban campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2292 per student. Total enrollment: 4,915. 893 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 4 states and territories, 31% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Placement: SAT or ACT, ACT ASSET, ACT COMPASS required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 9 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Advisory Activity Council, Gamma Beta Phi, Phi Beta Lambda, Student Nurses Association, Students in Free Enterprise. Major annual events: Red Ribbon Week, Student Organization Fair, Fall Festival. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. College housing not available. Library Resource Center plus 1 other with 15,500 books, 159 serials, and an OPAC. 97 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ OUACHITA BAPTIST UNIVERSITY I-8

410 Ouachita St.
Arkadelphia, AR 71998-0001
Tel: (870)245-5000
Admissions: (870)245-5578
Fax: (870)245-5500
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.obu.edu/

Description:

Independent Baptist, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1886. Setting: 84-acre small town campus with easy access to Little Rock. Endowment: $58.7 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $54,895. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7503 per student. Total enrollment: 1,499. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 1,058 applied, 58% were admitted. 33% from top 10% of their high school class, 60% from top quarter, 82% from top half. 6 National Merit Scholars, 10 valedictorians. Full-time: 1,399 students, 55% women, 45% men. Part-time: 100 students, 53% women, 47% men. 44% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 6% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 3% 25 or older, 86% live on campus, 4% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; theology and religious vocations; communications/journalism. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at Henderson State University. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.75 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 8/15, 12/1 for early action. Notification: continuous, 12/1 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $21,990 includes full-time tuition ($16,650), mandatory fees ($340), and college room and board ($5000). Part-time tuition: $460 per semester hour.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 60 open to all; local fraternities, local sororities; 20% of eligible men and 30% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Phi Beta Lambda, Campus Activities Board, Student Education Association, Student Foundation, International Club. Major annual events: Tiger Tunes, Tiger Traks, Homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, career services, multi-cultural services, student support services. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, controlled dormitory access. 1,487 college housing spaces available; 1,274 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Riley-Hickinbotham Library plus 1 other with 139,278 books, 263,171 microform titles, 1,931 serials, 8,306 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $559,221. 189 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Ouachita Baptist University is located in Arkadelphia, Arkansas, about 70 miles southwest of Little Rock on I-30 and 35 miles south of Hot Springs. There is frequent Amtrak service to and from the city. Facilities for air transportation are available both in Hot Springs and Little Rock. Arkadelphia has a population of more than 10,000, including the students of Ouachita and Henderson State University.

■ OUACHITA TECHNICAL COLLEGE H-8

One College Circle
Malvern, AR 72104
Tel: (501)337-5000
Fax: (501)337-9382
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.otcweb.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1972. Setting: 11-acre small town campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2800 per student. Total enrollment: 1,590. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 325 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 556 students, 64% women, 36% men. Part-time: 1,034 students, 45% women, 55% men. Students come from 2 states and territories, 2 other countries, 0.1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 12% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.3% international, 45% 25 or older, 6% transferred in. Retention: 50% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: SAT or ACT, ACT COMPASS or ACT ASSET. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

One-time mandatory fee: $35. State resident tuition: $1560 full-time, $52 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3120 full-time, $104 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $420 full-time, $14 per credit hour part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Major annual event: awards ceremony. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Ouachita Technical College Library/Learning Resource Center with 8,000 books, 6,151 microform titles, 100 serials, 1,200 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $118,492. 125 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ OZARKA COLLEGE C-11

PO Box 10
Melbourne, AR 72556
Tel: (870)368-7371
Free: 800-821-4335
Fax: (870)368-4733
Web Site: http://www.ozarka.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1973. Setting: 40-acre rural campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1507 per student. Total enrollment: 756. 157 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 569 students, 70% women, 30% men. Part-time: 187 students, 74% women, 26% men. 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 0.3% black, 43% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing and information science technology programs. Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Required for some: essay, recommendations, interview. Placement: ACT, ACT ASSET required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/19.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1950 full-time, $65 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5040 full-time, $168 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $330 full-time, $10 per credit hour part-time, $30 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group. Social organizations: 7 open to all. Most popular organizations: VICA, Phi Beta Lambda, Drama Club, HOSA, Phi Theta Kappa. Major annual events: Community Service Day, Career Day. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: security patrols 7 a.m. to 11 p.m. College housing not available. Ozarka College Library with 10,500 books, 4,000 serials, 1,500 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $171,858. 114 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ PHILANDER SMITH COLLEGE G-10

812 West 13th St.
Little Rock, AR 72202-3799
Tel: (501)375-9845
Free: 800-446-6772
Admissions: (501)370-5310
Fax: (501)370-5225
Web Site: http://www.philander.edu/

Description:

Independent United Methodist, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1877. Setting: 25-acre urban campus. Endowment: $9.6 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $86,500. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2280 per student. Total enrollment: 949. 224 applied, 100% were admitted. 3% from top 10% of their high school class, 15% from top quarter, 31% from top half. Full-time: 781 students, 66% women, 34% men. Part-time: 168 students, 62% women, 38% men. Students come from 14 states and territories, 19 other countries, 9% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 0.4% Hispanic, 97% black, 0% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 32% 25 or older, 26% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 60% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, independent study, summer session for credit, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: SAT or ACT required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $10. Comprehensive fee: $13,515 includes full-time tuition ($6950), mandatory fees ($1415), and college room and board ($5150). College room only: $3330. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to class time, course load, and program. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Part-time tuition: $290 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $21 per credit hour, $200 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to class time, course load, and program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 10 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 8% of eligible men and 9% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Pre-Alumni Council, Student Christian Fellowship. Major annual events: Senior Day, Homecoming, Founders' Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. 419 college housing spaces available; 249 were occupied in 2003-04. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. M. L. Harris Library with 60,000 books, 3,816 microform titles, 280 serials, 196 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $96,000. 95 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of Arkansas - Little Rock.

■ PHILLIPS COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS H-14

PO Box 785
Helena, AR 72342-0785
Tel: (870)338-6474
Fax: (870)338-7542
Web Site: http://www.pccua.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of University of Arkansas System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1965. Setting: 80-acre small town campus with easy access to Memphis. Total enrollment: 2,322. 45% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, medical laboratory technician programs. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, early admission. Placement: ACT, ACT ASSET required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/25. Notification: continuous until 8/25.

Costs Per Year:

Area resident tuition: $750 full-time, $50 per semester hour part-time. State resident tuition: $885 full-time, $59 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $1455 full-time, $97 per semester hour part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. 39,000 books and 352 serials. 200 computers available on campus for general student use.

Community Environment:

Helena is in a suburban area, and blessed with a mild, warm climate. There are churches of major denominations, libraries, a museum, an accredited general hospital, and major civic and service organizations.

■ PULASKI TECHNICAL COLLEGE G-10

3000 West Scenic Dr.
North Little Rock, AR 72118
Tel: (501)812-2200
Admissions: (501)812-2734
Fax: (501)812-2316
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.pulaskitech.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1945. Setting: 40-acre urban campus with easy access to Little Rock. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1765 per student. Total enrollment: 7,685. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 25:1. 2,268 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 3,953 students, 66% women, 34% men. Part-time: 3,732 students, 69% women, 31% men. Students come from 3 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 46% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.3% international, 54% 25 or older. Retention: 46% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $2161 full-time, $72 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3570 full-time, $119 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $255 full-time, $8 per credit hour part-time, $15.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group. Campus security: security personnel 7 a.m. to 11 p.m. College housing not available. Ottenheimer Library with 16,378 books, 234 serials, 1,520 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $324,647. 75 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ REMINGTON COLLEGE-LITTLE ROCK CAMPUS G-10

8901 Kanis Rd.
Little Rock, AR 72205
Tel: (501)312-0007
Fax: (501)225-3819
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.remingtoncollege.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed.

■ RICH MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE H-5

1100 College Dr.
Mena, AR 71953
Tel: (479)394-7622
Fax: (479)394-2628
Web Site: http://www.rmcc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1983. Setting: 40-acre small town campus. Endowment: $301,360. Total enrollment: 973. Students come from 2 states and territories, 2 other countries, 2% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 0% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/25. Notification: continuous until 8/25.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $960 full-time, $40 per semester hour part-time. State resident tuition: $1200 full-time, $50 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3600 full-time, $150 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $72 full-time, $3 per semester hour part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Most popular organizations: SGA, Baptist Student Union, Phi Theta Kappa, Golf Club, TV and Video Club. Major annual events: SGA Spring Cookout, fall welcome back activities, Honors Ceremony. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: administrator on night duty. College housing not available. St. John Library with 13,299 books, 417 microform titles, 81 serials, 674 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $103,418. 88 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ SOUTH ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE L-9

PO Box 7010
El Dorado, AR 71731-7010
Tel: (870)862-8131
Free: 800-955-2289
Admissions: (870)864-7142
Fax: (870)864-7122
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.southark.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Arkansas Department of Higher Education. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1975. Setting: 4-acre small town campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2511 per student. Total enrollment: 1,368. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. Full-time: 612 students, 75% women, 25% men. Part-time: 756 students, 67% women, 33% men. Students come from 2 states and territories, 6% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 32% black, 0.3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 43% 25 or older. Retention: 46% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: SAT or ACT. Required for some: ACT COMPASS. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/25.

Costs Per Year:

Area resident tuition: $1710 full-time. State resident tuition: $1950 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $3600 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: security guard. College housing not available. South Arkansas Community College Library with 22,652 books and 223 serials. 75 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

El Dorado is the seat of Union County, lying 117 miles south of Little Rock. Important industries are timber, poultry, oil, and chemicals. Bus and air service is available. Community services include a public library, two hospitals, several churches, an arts center, and good shopping facilities. There is good hunting and fishing in the general area, and water sports on nearby lakes and rivers.

■ SOUTHEAST ARKANSAS COLLEGE I-11

1900 Hazel St.
Pine Bluff, AR 71603
Tel: (870)543-5900
Admissions: (870)543-5957
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.seark.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1991. Total enrollment: 2,197. Full-time: 1,017 students, 72% women, 28% men. Part-time: 1,180 students, 68% women, 32% men. Students come from 3 states and territories, 0% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 48% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 58% 25 or older, 0% transferred in. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, early admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: SAT or ACT, ACT ASSET required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group. Most popular organizations: Phi Beta Lambda, HOSA, Phi Theta Kappa, Student Senate. Major annual event: Spring Fling. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: student patrols. College housing not available. Southeast Arkansas Technical College Library with 5,000 books and 75 serials. 62 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ SOUTHERN ARKANSAS UNIVERSITY-MAGNOLIA L-7

100 East University
Magnolia, AR 71753
Tel: (870)235-4000
Admissions: (870)235-4040
Fax: (870)235-5005
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.saumag.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Southern Arkansas University System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1909. Setting: 781-acre small town campus. Endowment: $17.2 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $188,891. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1837 per student. Total enrollment: 3,057. 1,492 applied, 81% were admitted. 41% from top quarter of their high school class, 72% from top half. Full-time: 2,398 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 405 students, 72% women, 28% men. Students come from 31 states and territories, 37 other countries, 20% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 26% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 5% international, 18% 25 or older, 36% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 65% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: ACT. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 8/27.

Costs Per Year:

State resident tuition: $3900 full-time, $130 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5910 full-time, $197 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $390 full-time, $390 per year part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room and board: $3790. College room only: $1960.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: national fraternities, national sororities; 10% of eligible men and 10% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, IMPACT. Major annual events: homecoming, Parents' Day, Spring Fling. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. College housing designed to accommodate 1,399 students; 1,460 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Magale Library with 151,166 books, 1 million microform titles, 1,065 serials, 12,130 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $853,529. 175 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ SOUTHERN ARKANSAS UNIVERSITY TECH K-8

100 Carr Rd.
PO Box 3499
Camden, AR 71711
Tel: (870)574-4500
Admissions: (870)574-4492
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sautech.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Arkansas Department of Higher Education. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1967. Setting: 96-acre rural campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5250 per student. Total enrollment: 1,767. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 21:1. 555 applied, 100% were admitted. 4% from top 10% of their high school class, 50% from top quarter, 84% from top half. Full-time: 554 students, 41% women, 59% men. Part-time: 1,213 students, 43% women, 57% men. Students come from 6 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 25% black, 0.3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 54% 25 or older, 2% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at Arkansas Fire Training Academy, Environmental Academy.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/15. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1638 full-time, $63 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $2184 full-time, $84 per hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $574 full-time, $21 per credit hour part-time. College room and board: $3413. College room only: $2100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run radio station. Social organizations: 11 open to all. Most popular organizations: Phi Beta Lambda, SAU Tech Ambassadors, Allied Health Student Club, Computer Club, Phi Theta Kappa. Major annual events: Fall Convocation, Red Ribbon Week, High Tech EXPO 2002. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, patrols by trained security personnel. 42 college housing spaces available; 17 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Southern Arkansas University Tech Learning Resource Center with 17,389 books, 250 microform titles, 115 serials, 960 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $149,793. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS C-5

800 Hotz Hall
Fayetteville, AR 72701-1201
Tel: (479)575-2000
Free: 800-377-8632
Admissions: (479)575-5346
Fax: (479)575-7515
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uark.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of University of Arkansas System. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1871. Setting: 357-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $692 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $88.3 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6244 per student. Total enrollment: 17,821. Faculty: 824 (787 full-time, 37 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 6,040 applied, 87% were admitted. 32% from top 10% of their high school class, 61% from top quarter, 86% from top half. 45 National Merit Scholars, 160 valedictorians. Full-time: 11,743 students, 50% women, 50% men. Part-time: 2,538 students, 47% women, 53% men. Students come from 50 states and territories, 103 other countries, 19% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 5% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 13% 25 or older, 29% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 81% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 8/15, 11/15 for early action. Notification: 10/1, 12/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. State resident tuition: $4361 full-time, $145.38 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $12,089 full-time, $402.96 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $1133 full-time. College room and board: $6365. College room only: $3782. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 273 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 11% of eligible men and 19% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: University programs, Booster Club, Associated Student Government, Black Students Association, Alpha Phi Omega. Major annual events: Welcome Week, Redeye, Homecoming. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, RAD (Rape Aggression Defense program). College housing designed to accommodate 3,704 students; 3,741 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. David W. Mullins Library plus 4 others with 1.7 million books, 4.6 million microform titles, 22,485 serials, 25,291 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $11.7 million. 1,252 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AT BATESVILLE D-12

PO Box 3350
Batesville, AR 72503
Tel: (870)793-7581
Admissions: (870)612-2010
Fax: (870)793-4988
Web Site: http://www.uaccb.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of University of Arkansas System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Setting: small town campus. Total enrollment: 1,317. Full-time: 784 students, 71% women, 29% men. Part-time: 533 students, 66% women, 34% men. 0% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 3% black, 0.5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 40% 25 or older, 9% transferred in. Retention: 57% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: Common Application. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: security cameras. University of Arkansas Community College at Batesville Library with 8,000 books, 149 serials, 1,500 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 25 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AT HOPE K-6

PO Box 140
Hope, AR 71802-0140
Tel: (870)777-5722
Fax: (870)722-5957
Web Site: http://www.uacch.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of University of Arkansas System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1966. Setting: 60-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 1,213. 463 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 676 students, 67% women, 33% men. Part-time: 537 students, 74% women, 26% men. Students come from 4 states and territories, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 30% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.2% international, 38% 25 or older. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT, ACT ASSET recommended; ACT ASSET required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 4 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Phi Theta Kappa, Phi Beta Lambda, Circle K. Major annual events: Thanksgiving cookout/can drive, Fish Fry, Halloween Festival. Campus security: on-campus security during class hours. College housing not available. University of Arkansas Community College at Hope Library with 8,023 books, 111 serials, 614 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $160,919.

■ UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AT MORRILTON F-9

One Bruce St.
Morrilton, AR 72110
Tel: (501)354-2465
Admissions: (501)977-2014
Fax: (501)354-9948
Web Site: http://www.uaccm.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of University of Arkansas System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1961. Setting: 63-acre rural campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2690 per student. Total enrollment: 1,514. 595 applied, 100% were admitted. 5% from top 10% of their high school class, 20% from top quarter, 50% from top half. 0% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 8% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 44% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships. Off campus study.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: immunization records. Placement: ACT, ACT ASSET or ACT COMPASS required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1920 full-time, $64 per credit hour part-time. State resident tuition: $2100 full-time, $70 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3060 full-time, $102 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $210 full-time, $7. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 10 open to all. Most popular organizations: Business Students' Organization, Student Activity Board, Early Childhood Development Organization, Graphic Design Club, Student Practical Nurses Organization. Major annual event: Spring Fling. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. College housing not available. Gordon Library with 6,600 books and 76 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $109,433. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT FORT SMITH E-4

PO Box 3649
Fort Smith, AR 72913-3649
Tel: (479)788-7000; 888-512-5466
Admissions: (479)788-7038
Fax: (479)788-7003
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uafortsmith.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 4-year, coed. Part of University of Arkansas System. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1928. Setting: 120-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $34.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3216 per student. Total enrollment: 6,787. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 23:1. 2,691 applied, 63% were admitted. 9% from top 10% of their high school class, 32% from top quarter, 65% from top half. Full-time: 3,838 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 2,949 students, 57% women, 43% men. Students come from 30 states and territories, 10 other countries, 14% from out-of-state, 4% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 4% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 38% 25 or older, 5% transferred in. Retention: 68% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; business/marketing; computer and information sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study. ROTC: Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for health-related programs. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $2160 full-time, $72 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7050 full-time, $235 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $670 full-time, $21 per credit hour part-time, $20 per term part-time. College room and board: $5400.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group. Social organizations: 43 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Activities Council, Phi Beta Lambda, Alpha Lambda Delta, College Republicans, Baptist Collegiate Ministry. Major annual events: Back to School Bash, Season of Entertainment, Student/Staff Picnic. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Boreham Library with 82,000 books, 82,596 microform titles, 527 serials, 3,037 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.2 million. 866 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT LITTLE ROCK G-10

2801 South University Ave.
Little Rock, AR 72204-1099
Tel: (501)569-3000
Admissions: (501)569-3127
Fax: (501)569-8915
Web Site: http://www.ualr.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of University of Arkansas System. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1927. Setting: 150-acre urban campus. Endowment: $7.6 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.8 million. Total enrollment: 11,757. 2,531 applied, 99% were admitted. Full-time: 5,733 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 3,597 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 45 states and territories, 43 other countries, 4% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 32% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 35% 25 or older, 3% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 64% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, proof of immunization. Placement: SAT or ACT required. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4230 full-time, $141 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $11,100 full-time, $370 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $982 full-time, $32.75 per credit hour part-time. College room only: $2950.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 104 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 2% of eligible men and 2% of eligible women are members. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. Option: coed housing available. Ottenheimer Library plus 1 other with 3,998 serials and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.7 million. 500 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS FOR MEDICAL SCIENCES G-10

4301 West Markham
Little Rock, AR 72205-7199
Tel: (501)686-5000
Admissions: (501)686-5730
Web Site: http://www.uams.edu/

Description:

State-supported, upper-level, coed. Part of University of Arkansas System. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees (bachelor's degree is upper-level). Founded 1879. Setting: 5-acre urban campus. Endowment: $22.1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $28.1 million. Total enrollment: 2,016. 5% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 14% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 42% 25 or older. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, part-time degree program, graduate courses open to undergrads. ROTC: Army (c).

Collegiate Environment:

Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. Option: coed housing available. Medical Sciences Library with 183,975 books, 1,567 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.6 million.

■ UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT MONTICELLO K-11

Monticello, AR 71656
Tel: (870)367-6811
Admissions: (870)460-1026
Fax: (870)460-1321
Web Site: http://www.uamont.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of University of Arkansas System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1909. Setting: 400-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 2,875. 1,208 applied, 73% were admitted. Full-time: 2,253 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 441 students, 73% women, 27% men. Students come from 20 states and territories, 2 other countries, 9% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 28% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.4% international, 22% 25 or older, 25% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 54% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program. Off campus study at University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, proof of immunization. Placement: SAT or ACT required; ACT recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/1.

Collegiate Environment:

Choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: national fraternities, national sororities; 20% of eligible men and 22% of eligible women are members. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. 634 college housing spaces available; 477 were occupied in 2003-04. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. 126,229 books and 862 serials. 140 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT PINE BLUFF I-11

1200 North University Dr.
Pine Bluff, AR 71601-2799
Tel: (870)543-8000
Free: 800-264-6585
Admissions: (870)575-8487
Fax: (870)543-2021
Web Site: http://www.uapb.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of University of Arkansas System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1873. Setting: 327-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 3,303. 1,701 applied, 89% were admitted. Full-time: 2,897 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 303 students, 67% women, 33% men. Students come from 30 states and territories, 17 other countries, 30% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% Hispanic, 95% black, 0.2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 15% 25 or older, 43% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 64% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at University of Arkansas, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, University of Arkansas at Monticello, University of Arkansas Community College at Hope. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Placement: SAT or ACT required. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 6% of eligible men and 6% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Pre-Alumni Club, Honors College. Major annual events: Unity Fest, Homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. 1,489 college housing spaces available; 1,140 were occupied in 2003-04. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Watson Memorial Library with 287,857 books, 136,742 microform titles, 3,041 serials, and an OPAC. 1,000 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL ARKANSAS F-9

201 Donaghey Ave.
Conway, AR 72035-0001
Tel: (501)450-5000
Admissions: (501)450-5145
Fax: (501)450-5228
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uca.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1907. Setting: 365-acre small town campus. Endowment: $32.1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $643,985. Total enrollment: 11,375. Faculty: 607 (478 full-time, 129 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 5,830 applied, 68% were admitted. 24% from top 10% of their high school class, 48% from top quarter, 84% from top half. Full-time: 9,127 students, 58% women, 42% men. Part-time: 842 students, 62% women, 38% men. Students come from 38 states and territories, 55 other countries, 5% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 17% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 11% 25 or older, 42% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 73% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; health professions and related sciences; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Required for some: minimum 2.75 high school GPA. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4500 full-time, $150 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9000 full-time, $300 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $1164 full-time, $35 per credit hour part-time, $61 per term part-time. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room and board: $4320. College room only: $1940. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 32 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 10% of eligible men and 10% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Royal Rooters, student orientation staff, Ambassadors. Major annual events: Bearfacts Days, Homecoming, Parents' Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, security personnel at entrances during evening hours. College housing designed to accommodate 3,600 students; 3,797 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Torreyson Library with 505,000 books, 850,000 microform titles, 2,000 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.4 million. 1,500 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Conway, population 45,000, is a growing center served by major highways, the Union Pacific Railway, and Little Rock National Airport which is 35 miles away. It is within a few miles of the geographic center of the state. Lake Conway, which covers approximately 6,500 acres, between Conway and Little Rock, is one of the principal resorts of the state. The Arkansas River, the largest to cross the state, is less than ten miles from Conway. Conway is a city with three colleges and is the government seat of Faulkner County. It has a diverse economic background, which includes manufacturers, education, government and service industries. Several major manufacturing firms including Kimberly Clark, Nucor Steel, Touksen and AmTran have facilities here. Axiom, a data processing center, has its corporation headquarters located in Conway and employs approximately 2,000 people. The city has many beautiful residences, churches, businesses, and public buildings.

■ UNIVERSITY OF THE OZARKS E-7

415 North College Ave.
Clarksville, AR 72830-2880
Tel: (479)979-1000
Free: 800-264-8636
Admissions: (479)979-1421
Fax: (479)979-1355
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ozarks.edu/

Description:

Independent Presbyterian, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1834. Setting: 56-acre small town campus with easy access to Little Rock. Endowment: $58.7 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6063 per student. Total enrollment: 628. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 665 applied, 93% were admitted. 20% from top 10% of their high school class, 40% from top quarter, 78% from top half. 15 valedictorians. Full-time: 588 students, 52% women, 48% men. Part-time: 40 students, 68% women, 33% men. Students come from 22 states and territories, 22 other countries, 36% from out-of-state, 4% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 5% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 17% international, 6% 25 or older, 66% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 67% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Required for some: essay, high school transcript, recommendations, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Comprehensive fee: $20,210 includes full-time tuition ($14,470), mandatory fees ($480), and college room and board ($5260). Part-time tuition: $605 per credit hour.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run radio station. Social organizations: 27 open to all. Most popular organizations: Phi Beta Lambda, Planet Club, SGA, Student Foundation Board, Baptist Campus Ministries. Major annual events: Study Night Breakfast, Christmas Formal, Back to School Dance. Student services: health clinic. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. 475 college housing spaces available; 393 were occupied in 2003-04. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Robson Library with 105,000 books, 9,900 microform titles, 16,000 serials, 4,000 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $419,216. 145 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Clarksville is the county seat of Johnson County. The town lies 105 miles northwest of Little Rock on Interstate 40, & is 65 miles east of Fort Smith. The Continental bus line serves this area. Primarily an agricultural community, it also has some manufacturing. There are motel accommodations, and a hospital. A swimming pool, athletic fields, baseball park, football field, tennis courts, and all the outdoor sports are available. Annual events include the Peach Festival.

■ UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX-LITTLE ROCK CAMPUS G-10

10800 Financial Center Parkway
Little Rock, AR 72211
Tel: (501)225-9337
Free: 800-228-7240
Admissions: (480)557-1712
Web Site: http://www.phoenix.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 2003. Total enrollment: 499. Faculty: 69 (2 full-time, 67 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 7:1. 31 applied. Full-time: 327 students, 69% women, 31% men. 0.3% Native American, 0% Hispanic, 7% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 27% transferred in. Core. Calendar: continuous. Advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Required: 1 recommendation. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $110. Tuition: $9540 full-time, $318 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $560 full-time, $70 per course part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available. University Library with 442 books, 666 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. System-wide operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.2 million.

■ WILLIAMS BAPTIST COLLEGE C-13

60 West Fulbright Ave.
Walnut Ridge, AR 72476
Tel: (870)886-6741
Free: 800-722-4434
Admissions: (870)759-4117
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wbcoll.edu/

Description:

Independent Southern Baptist, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1941. Setting: 180-acre rural campus. Endowment: $5.4 million. Total enrollment: 653. 407 applied, 69% were admitted. Full-time: 511 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 142 students, 51% women, 49% men. Students come from 13 states and territories, 5 other countries, 20% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 3% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.4% international, 13% 25 or older, 62% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 61% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at Coalition for Christian Colleges and Universities. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 26 open to all. Most popular organizations: campus ministries, Fellowship of Christian Athletes, International Club, Alpha Psi Omega. Major annual events: Homecoming, Spring Fling, First Week. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Felix Goodson Library with 57,321 books, 284 serials, and an OPAC. 71 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Walnut Ridge is a rural area with a temperate climate. Railroads serve the area as well as a city airport. There are churches of major denominations, a public library, and a hospital. Recreational activities include boating and water sports. The city has Lions and Kiwanis organizations. An annual county fair is held. Part-time employment opportunities are limited.

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Arkansas

Arkansas

ARKANSAS BAPTIST COLLEGE

1600 Bishop St.
Little Rock, AR 72202-6067
Tel: (501)374-7856
Web Site: http://www.arbaptcol.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Israel R. Dunn, Jr.
Registrar: Annie A. Hightower
Admissions: Freddie M. Fox
Financial Aid: Evelyn Jones
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Baptist Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 258, PT 117 Faculty: FT 17, PT 14 Student-Faculty Ratio: 9:1 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 124 semester hours, Bachelors Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Volleyball M & W

ARKANSAS NORTHEASTERN COLLEGE

PO Box 1109
Blytheville, AR 72316-1109
Tel: (870)762-1020
Fax: (870)763-3704
Web Site: http://www.anc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. John P. Sullins
Registrar: June Walters
Admissions: June Walters
Financial Aid: June Walters
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1410 full-time, $47 per semester hour part-time. State resident tuition: $1710 full-time, $57 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3210 full-time, $107 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $220 full-time, $6 per semester hour part-time, $20 per term part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 962, PT 868 Faculty: FT 73, PT 100 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Library Holdings: 15,493 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACBSP, NLN

ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

PO Box 10
State University, AR 72467
Tel: (870)972-2100
Admissions: (870)972-3024
Fax: (870)972-2090
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.astate.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Leslie Wyatt
Registrar: Tracy Finch
Admissions: Tammy Fowler
Financial Aid: Gregory Thornburg
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Arkansas State University System Scores: 47.6% ACT 18-23; 29.6% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 65 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $15.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $15. State resident tuition: $4260 full-time, $142 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,965 full-time, $365.50 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $1180 full-time, $37 per credit hour part-time, $25 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, location, and program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, location, and program. College room and board: $4190. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 7,194, PT 1,944, Grad 1,276 Faculty: FT 447, PT 159 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Exams: ACT, Other, SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 74 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 18 Library Holdings: 586,176 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 credit hours, Associates; 124 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AANA, ACA, APTA, ASLHA, CORE, CSWE, JRCERT, JRCEPAT, NAACLS, NASAD, NASM, NASPAA, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Bowling W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Soccer W; Tennis W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY-BEEBE

PO Box 1000
Beebe, AR 72012-1000
Tel: (501)882-3600
Admissions: (501)882-8280
Fax: (501)882-8370
Web Site: http://www.asub.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Eugene McKay
Registrar: James Washburn
Admissions: James Washburn
Financial Aid: Dena Prior
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Arkansas State University System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1824 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $3000 full-time. College room and board: $2480. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,124, PT 1,852 Faculty: FT 63, PT 34 Student-Faculty Ratio: 30:1 Exams: ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 12 Library Holdings: 90,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ABET, NAACLS

ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY-MOUNTAIN HOME

1600 South College St.
Mountain Home, AR 72653
Tel: (870)508-6100
Admissions: (870)508-6104
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.asumh.edu/
President/CEO: Ed Coulter
Admissions: Rosalyn Blagg
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Arkansas State University Scores: 60% ACT 18-23; 24% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 52 Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $2130 full-time, $71 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3660 full-time, $122 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $240 full-time, $8 per credit part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 625, PT 406 Faculty: FT 38, PT 24 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Exams: ACT, Other, SAT II Library Holdings: 30,682 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ABFSE

ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY-NEWPORT

7648 Victory Blvd. Newport, AR 72112
Tel: (870)512-7800
Free: 800-976-1676
Web Site: http://www.asun.edu/
President/CEO: Larry Williams
Admissions: Tara Byrd
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Arkansas State University Admission Plans: Open Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester Faculty: FT 23, PT 27 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Exams: ACT, Other Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 credits, Associates

ARKANSAS TECH UNIVERSITY

Russellville, AR 72801
Tel: (479)968-0389
Free: 800-582-6953
Admissions: (479)968-0343
Fax: (479)964-0522
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.atu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Robert C. Brown
Registrar: Tammy Rhodes
Admissions: Shauna Donnell
Financial Aid: Shirley M. Goines
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 45.61% ACT 18-23; 34.98% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 48 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4290 full-time, $143 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8580 full-time, $286 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $410 full-time, $4 per credit hour part-time, $145 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and location. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and location. College room and board: $4290. College room only: $2290. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 5,365, PT 963, Grad 514 Faculty: FT 252, PT 146 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 63 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 30 Library Holdings: 259,372 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates; 124 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, AAMAE, AHIMA, NASM, NCATE, NLN, NRPA Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running W; Football M; Golf M; Tennis W; Volleyball W

BLACK RIVER TECHNICAL COLLEGE

1410 Hwy. 304 East
Pocahontas, AR 72455
Tel: (870)248-4000
Free: 800-919-3086
Admissions: (870)892-4565
Fax: (870)248-4100
Web Site: http://www.blackrivertech.edu/
President/CEO: Richard Gaines
Registrar: Margaret Snapp
Admissions: Jim Ulmer
Financial Aid: Carolyn Collins
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 15% ACT 18-23; 10% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 652, PT 591 Faculty: FT 30, PT 40 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: Other Library Holdings: 10,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: CARC

CENTRAL BAPTIST COLLEGE

1501 College Ave.
Conway, AR 72034-6470
Tel: (501)329-6872
Free: 800-205-6872
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cbc.edu/
President/CEO: Charles Attebery
Registrar: Phylis Hoffmann
Admissions: Cory Calhoun
Financial Aid: Christi Bell
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Baptist % Accepted: 68 Admission Plans: Early Admission Application Deadline: August 15 Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $13,110 includes full-time tuition ($7950), mandatory fees ($500), and college room and board ($4660). Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 328, PT 67 Faculty: FT 17, PT 33 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 40 Library Holdings: 50,448 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates; 127 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M & W; Basketball M & W; Softball W; Volleyball W

COSSATOT COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS

PO Box 960
De Queen, AR 71832
Tel: (870)584-4471
Free: 800-844-4471
Web Site: http://www.cccua.edu/
President/CEO: Frank G. Adams
Registrar: Brenda Morris
Admissions: Kay Cobb
Financial Aid: Denise Hammond
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Arkansas System % Accepted: 83 Admission Plans: Open Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Area resident tuition: $1350 full-time, $45 per credit hour part-time. State resident tuition: $1650 full-time, $55 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4950 full-time, $165 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $250 full-time, $15 per course part-time, $53 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 34, PT 40 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACBSP

CROWLEY'S RIDGE COLLEGE

100 College Dr.
Paragould, AR 72450-9731
Tel: (870)236-6901
Free: 800-264-1096
Fax: (870)236-7748
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.crowleysridgecollege.edu/
President/CEO: Ken Hoppe
Registrar: Paul McFadden
Admissions: Nancy Joneshill
Financial Aid: David Goff
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Church of Christ Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 6, PT 10 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: Other Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Volleyball W

EAST ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE

1700 Newcastle Rd.
Forrest City, AR 72335-2204
Tel: (870)633-4480; 877-797-3222
Fax: (870)633-7222
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.eacc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Coy Grace
Registrar: Sarah Buford
Admissions: DeAnna Adams
Financial Aid: Alvin Coleman
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 48% ACT 18-23; 4% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For applicants 18 or over who demonstrate ability to benefit from college: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1470 full-time, $49 per credit hour part-time. State resident tuition: $1710 full-time, $57 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $2070 full-time, $69 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $150 full-time, $5 per credit hour part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 745, PT 732 Faculty: FT 38, PT 53 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Library Holdings: 21,908 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACBSP, NLN

HARDING UNIVERSITY

900 East Center
Searcy, AR 72149-0001
Tel: (501)279-4000
Free: 800-477-4407
Admissions: (501)279-4407
Fax: (501)279-4865
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.harding.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. David B. Burks
Registrar: Ron Finley
Admissions: Glenn Dillard
Financial Aid: Dr. Jon Roberts
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Church of Christ Scores: 97% SAT V 400+; 96% SAT M 400+; 41% ACT 18-23; 39% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 62 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: June 01 Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $16,512 includes full-time tuition ($10,800), mandatory fees ($400), and college room and board ($5312). College room only: $2636. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $360 per semester hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $20 per semester hour. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 3,879, PT 213, Grad 1,652 Faculty: FT 226, PT 106 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 56 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 73 Library Holdings: 253,436 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AAMFT, AAFCS, ACBSP, CSWE, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M; Lacrosse M; Soccer M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Ultimate Frisbee M & W; Volleyball W

HENDERSON STATE UNIVERSITY

1100 Henderson St.
Arkadelphia, AR 71999-0001
Tel: (870)230-5000
Free: 800-228-7333
Admissions: (870)230-5028
Fax: (870)230-5144
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hsu.edu
President/CEO: Dr. Charles D. Dunn
Registrar: Tom Gattin
Admissions: Vikita Hardwrick
Financial Aid: Jo Holland
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 97% SAT V 400+; 97% SAT M 400+; 55% ACT 18-23; 32% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 58 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: July 15 Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4050 full-time, $135 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8100 full-time, $270 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $575 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Part-time tuition varies according to course load and program. College room and board: $3888. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,713, PT 376, Grad 495 Faculty: FT 161, PT 68 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Exams: ACT, SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 56 Library Holdings: 262,572 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 semester hours, Associates; 124 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AACSB, AAFCS, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running W; Football M; Golf M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

HENDRIX COLLEGE

1600 Washington Ave.
Conway, AR 72032-3080
Tel: (501)329-6811
Free: 800-277-9017
Admissions: (501)450-1362
Fax: (501)450-3843
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hendrix.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. J. Timothy Cloyd
Registrar: Xinying Wang
Admissions: Karen R. Foust
Financial Aid: Tammy Gillis
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: United Methodist Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 12% ACT 18-23; 54% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 83 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 01 Application Fee: $40.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $27,946 includes full-time tuition ($21,336), mandatory fees ($300), and college room and board ($6310). College room only: $2760. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $2248 per course. Part-time mandatory fees: $40 per year. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 1,001, PT 21, Grad 9 Faculty: FT 85, PT 22 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 56 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 97 Library Holdings: 216,172 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 32 courses, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: NASM, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M & W; Rugby M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE

4520 South University
Little Rock, AR 72204
Tel: (501)565-5550
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/
Registrar: Dr. Pat Hunnicutt
Admissions: Tom Crawford
Financial Aid: Tresa Smith
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: ITT Educational Services, Inc Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $100.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $100. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Not available Exams: Other Credit Hours For Degree: 96 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACICS

JOHN BROWN UNIVERSITY

2000 West University St.
Siloam Springs, AR 72761-2121
Tel: (479)524-9500; 877-JBU-INFO
Admissions: (479)524-7150
Fax: (479)524-9548
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.jbu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Charles Pollard
Registrar: Dr. Paul Hines
Admissions: Don Crandall
Financial Aid: Kim Eldridge
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: interdenominational Scores: 99.06% SAT V 400+; 98.12% SAT M 400+; 37.31% ACT 18-23; 45.77% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 62 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $20,910 includes full-time tuition ($14,544), mandatory fees ($736), and college room and board ($5630). Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $600 per semester hour. Part-time tuition varies according to course load and program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 1,581, PT 78, Grad 245 Faculty: FT 83, PT 65 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 63 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 76 Library Holdings: 114,799 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates; 124 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: ABET, ACCE, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Soccer M & W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

LYON COLLEGE

PO Box 2317
Batesville, AR 72503-2317
Tel: (870)793-9813
Free: 800-423-2542
Admissions: (870)698-4250
Fax: (870)698-4622
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lyon.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Walter B. Roettger
Registrar: Janelle Elliott
Admissions: Denny Bardos
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Presbyterian Scores: 95% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 28% ACT 18-23; 56% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 72 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $21,130 includes full-time tuition ($14,420), mandatory fees ($440), and college room and board ($6270). College room only: $2580. Part-time tuition: $600 per credit hour. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 458, PT 30 Faculty: FT 44, PT 15 Student-Faculty Ratio: 10:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 70 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 75 Library Holdings: 181,789 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M & W; Soccer M & W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

MID-SOUTH COMMUNITY COLLEGE

2000 West Broadway
West Memphis, AR 72301
Tel: (870)733-6722
Admissions: (870)733-6732
Fax: (870)733-6719
Web Site: http://www.midsouthcc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Glen F. Fenter
Registrar: Leslie Anderson
Admissions: Leslie Anderson
Financial Aid: Jackie Brubaker
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 51% ACT 18-23; 9% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For adults who demonstrate ability to benefit from college: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1410 full-time, $47 per credit part-time. State resident tuition: $1740 full-time, $58 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3150 full-time, $105 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $210 full-time, $7 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and reciprocity agreements. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 457, PT 1,010 Faculty: FT 34, PT 65 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: ACT, Other Library Holdings: 14,672 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates

NATIONAL PARK COMMUNITY COLLEGE

101 College Dr.
Hot Springs, AR 71913
Tel: (501)760-4222
Fax: (501)760-4100
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.npcc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Tom Spencer
Registrar: Dr. Allen Bradley Moody
Admissions: Dr. Allen B. Moody
Financial Aid: Lisa Hopper
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Arkansas Department of Higher Education Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,237, PT 1,759 Faculty: FT 64, PT 83 Student-Faculty Ratio: 21:1 Exams: Other, SAT I and SAT II or ACT Library Holdings: 17,800 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: AHIMA, ACBSP, JRCERT, NAACLS, NLN

NORTH ARKANSAS COLLEGE

1515 Pioneer Dr.
Harrison, AR 72601
Tel: (870)743-3000
Free: 800-679-6622
Admissions: (870)391-3221
Fax: (870)391-3339
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.northark.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Jeffrey Olson
Registrar: Jane Brown
Admissions: Charla McDonald Jennings
Financial Aid: Nancy Fountain
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 61.93% ACT 18-23; 11.47% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1590 full-time, $53 per credit hour part-time. State resident tuition: $2130 full-time, $71 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4110 full-time, $137 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $150 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,138, PT 1,049 Faculty: FT 66, PT 90 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Library Holdings: 29,969 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, JRCERT, NAACLS, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Softball W

NORTHWEST ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE

One College Dr.
Bentonville, AR 72712
Tel: (479)636-9222
Free: 800-995-6922
Fax: (479)619-4116
Web Site: http://www.nwacc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Becky Paneitz
Admissions: Dr. Charles Mullins
Financial Aid: Diana Johnson
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 66, PT 169 Exams: Other, SAT I or ACT Library Holdings: 15,500 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: CARC, JRCEMT

OUACHITA BAPTIST UNIVERSITY

410 Ouachita St.
Arkadelphia, AR 71998-0001
Tel: (870)245-5000
Admissions: (870)245-5578
Fax: (870)245-5500
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.obu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Andrew Westmoreland
Registrar: Judy Jones
Admissions: Judy Jones
Financial Aid: Lane Smith
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Baptist Scores: 97% SAT V 400+; 96% SAT M 400+; 41% ACT 18-23; 39% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 58 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 15 Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $21,990 includes full-time tuition ($16,650), mandatory fees ($340), and college room and board ($5000). Part-time tuition: $460 per semester hour. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,399, PT 100 Faculty: FT 114, PT 28 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 48 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 86 Library Holdings: 139,278 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates; 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, AAFCS, NASM, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running W; Football M; Golf M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

OUACHITA TECHNICAL COLLEGE

One College Circle
Malvern, AR 72104
Tel: (501)337-5000
Fax: (501)337-9382
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.otcweb.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Barry Ballard
Registrar: Linda Johnson
Admissions: Linda Johnson
Financial Aid: Teresa Avery
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 53% ACT 18-23; 9% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Onetime mandatory fee: $35. State resident tuition: $1560 full-time, $52 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3120 full-time, $104 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $420 full-time, $14 per credit hour part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 556, PT 1,034 Faculty: FT 33, PT 66 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: Other, SAT I or ACT Library Holdings: 8,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates

OZARKA COLLEGE

PO Box 10
Melbourne, AR 72556
Tel: (870)368-7371
Free: 800-821-4335
Fax: (870)368-4733
Web Site: http://www.ozarka.edu/
President/CEO: Douglas Rush
Registrar: Ron Helm
Admissions: Randy Scaggs
Financial Aid: Gayle Cooper
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1950 full-time, $65 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5040 full-time, $168 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $330 full-time, $10 per credit hour part-time, $30 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 569, PT 187 Faculty: FT 31, PT 40 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Exams: ACT, Other Library Holdings: 10,500 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 credit hours, Associates

PHILANDER SMITH COLLEGE

812 West 13th St.
Little Rock, AR 72202-3799
Tel: (501)375-9845
Free: 800-446-6772
Admissions: (501)370-5310
Fax: (501)370-5225
Web Site: http://www.philander.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Julius S. Scott, Jr.
Registrar: Delores Voliber
Admissions: Arnella Hayes
Financial Aid: Linda Bell
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: United Methodist Scores: 41% SAT V 400+; 39% SAT M 400+; 21% ACT 18-23 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $10. Comprehensive fee: $13,515 includes full-time tuition ($6950), mandatory fees ($1415), and college room and board ($5150). College room only: $3330. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to class time, course load, and program. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Part-time tuition: $290 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $21 per credit hour, $200 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to class time, course load, and program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 781, PT 168 Faculty: FT 40, PT 46 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 26 Library Holdings: 60,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 124 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: ACBSP, CSWE, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Volleyball W

PHILLIPS COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS

PO Box 785
Helena, AR 72342-0785
Tel: (870)338-6474
Fax: (870)338-7542
Web Site: http://www.pccua.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Steven W. Jones
Registrar: James Brasel
Admissions: Lynn Boone
Financial Aid: Barbra Stevenson
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Arkansas System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Area resident tuition: $750 full-time, $50 per semester hour part-time. State resident tuition: $885 full-time, $59 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $1455 full-time, $97 per semester hour part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 60, PT 10 Exams: ACT, Other Library Holdings: 39,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACBSP, NAACLS, NLN

PULASKI TECHNICAL COLLEGE

3000 West Scenic Dr.
North Little Rock, AR 72118
Tel: (501)812-2200
Admissions: (501)812-2734
Fax: (501)812-2316
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.pulaskitech.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Dan Bakke
Admissions: Clark Atkins
Financial Aid: Kris Burford
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $2161 full-time, $72 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3570 full-time, $119 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $255 full-time, $8 per credit hour part-time, $15. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 3,953, PT 3,732 Faculty: FT 111, PT 344 Student-Faculty Ratio: 25:1 Library Holdings: 16,378 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ADA, CARC

REMINGTON COLLEGE-LITTLE ROCK CAMPUS

8901 Kanis Rd.
Little Rock, AR 72205
Tel: (501)312-0007
Fax: (501)225-3819
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.remingtoncollege.edu/
President/CEO: David Caldwell
Admissions: David Caldwell
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Professional Accreditation: ACCSCT

RICH MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE

1100 College Dr.
Mena, AR 71953
Tel: (479)394-7622
Fax: (479)394-2628
Web Site: http://www.rmcc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Janet Smith
Admissions: Dr. Steve Rook
Financial Aid: Mary Standerfer
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $960 full-time, $40 per semester hour part-time. State resident tuition: $1200 full-time, $50 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3600 full-time, $150 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $72 full-time, $3 per semester hour part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 348, PT 625 Faculty: FT 19, PT 36 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Library Holdings: 13,299 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates

SOUTH ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 7010
El Dorado, AR 71731-7010
Tel: (870)862-8131
Free: 800-955-2289
Admissions: (870)864-7142
Fax: (870)864-7122
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.southark.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Kathy Matlock
Registrar: Dean Inman
Admissions: Dean Inman
Financial Aid: John Jefferson
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Arkansas Department of Higher Education Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 25 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Area resident tuition: $1710 full-time. State resident tuition: $1950 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $3600 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 612, PT 756 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: Other, SAT I or ACT Library Holdings: 22,652 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: AOTA, APTA, JRCERT, NAACLS

SOUTHEAST ARKANSAS COLLEGE

1900 Hazel St.
Pine Bluff, AR 71603
Tel: (870)543-5900
Admissions: (870)543-5957
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.seark.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Philip E. Shirley
Admissions: Barbara Dunn
Financial Aid: Donna Cox
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,017, PT 1,180 Faculty: FT 49, PT 80 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: Other, SAT I or ACT Library Holdings: 5,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, JRCERT, NLN

SOUTHERN ARKANSAS UNIVERSITY-MAGNOLIA

100 East University
Magnolia, AR 71753
Tel: (870)235-4000
Admissions: (870)235-4040
Fax: (870)235-5005
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.saumag.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. David Rankin
Registrar: Dr. G. Edward Nipper
Admissions: Sarah Jennings
Financial Aid: Bronwyn Sneed
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Southern Arkansas University System Scores: 56% ACT 18-23; 20% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: State resident tuition: $3900 full-time, $130 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5910 full-time, $197 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $390 full-time, $390 per year part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room and board: $3790. College room only: $1960. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,398, PT 405, Grad 254 Faculty: FT 141, PT 43 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: ACT, SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 54 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 36 Library Holdings: 151,166 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 65 semester hours, Associates; 124 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: CSWE, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M; Softball W; Tennis W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

SOUTHERN ARKANSAS UNIVERSITY TECH

100 Carr Rd.
PO Box 3499 Camden, AR 71711
Tel: (870)574-4500
Admissions: (870)574-4492
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sautech.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Roger L. Worsley
Registrar: Wayne Banks
Admissions: Dr. Reginald Cooper
Financial Aid: Vicki Taylor
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Arkansas Department of Higher Education Scores: 64% ACT 18-23; 8% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 15 Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1638 full-time, $63 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $2184 full-time, $84 per hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $574 full-time, $21 per credit hour part-time. College room and board: $3413. College room only: $2100. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 554, PT 1,213 Faculty: FT 38, PT 43 Student-Faculty Ratio: 21:1 Library Holdings: 17,389 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS

800 Hotz Hall
Fayetteville, AR 72701-1201
Tel: (479)575-2000
Free: 800-377-8632
Admissions: (479)575-5346
Fax: (479)575-7515
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uark.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. John A. White
Registrar: Alice Lacey
Admissions: Dawn Medley
Financial Aid: Ed Schroeder
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Arkansas System Scores: 98% SAT V 400+; 98.9% SAT M 400+; 35.5% ACT 18-23; 46.4% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 87 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 15 Application Fee: $40.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $40. State resident tuition: $4361 full-time, $145.38 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $12,089 full-time, $402.96 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $1133 full-time. College room and board: $6365. College room only: $3782. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 11,743, PT 2,538, Grad 3,095 Faculty: FT 787, PT 37 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 39 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 28 Library Holdings: 1,714,085 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 124 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AACN, AAFCS, ABA, ACA, APA, ASLA, ASLHA, AALS, CORE, CSWE, FIDER, NASM, NCATE, NLN, NRPA Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Gymnastics W; Soccer W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AT BATESVILLE

PO Box 3350
Batesville, AR 72503
Tel: (870)793-7581
Admissions: (870)612-2010
Fax: (870)793-4988
Web Site: http://www.uaccb.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Anthony G. Kinkel
Admissions: Andy Thomas
Financial Aid: Kristen Cross
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Arkansas System Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 784, PT 533 Faculty: FT 38, PT 58 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I and SAT II or ACT Library Holdings: 8,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: NLN

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AT HOPE

PO Box 140
Hope, AR 71802-0140
Tel: (870)777-5722
Fax: (870)722-5957
Web Site: http://www.uacch.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. James L. Taylor
Registrar: Danita Ormand
Admissions: Danita Ormand
Financial Aid: Judy Anderson
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Arkansas System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma or equivalent not required Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 676, PT 537 Faculty: FT 37, PT 25 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Exams: ACT, Other Library Holdings: 8,023 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ABFSE, CARC

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AT MORRILTON

One Bruce St.
Morrilton, AR 72110
Tel: (501)354-2465
Admissions: (501)977-2014
Fax: (501)354-9948
Web Site: http://www.uaccm.edu/
President/CEO: Nathan Crook
Registrar: Wanda Hensley
Admissions: Dr. Gary Gaston
Financial Aid: Teresa Cash
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Arkansas System Scores: 50% ACT 18-23; 15% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1920 full-time, $64 per credit hour part-time. State resident tuition: $2100 full-time, $70 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3060 full-time, $102 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $210 full-time, $7. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 40, PT 40 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Exams: ACT, Other Library Holdings: 6,600 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 63 credit hours, Associates

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT FORT SMITH

PO Box 3649
Fort Smith, AR 72913-3649
Tel: (479)788-7000; 888-512-5466
Admissions: (479)788-7038
Fax: (479)788-7003
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uafortsmith.edu/
President/CEO: Joel R. Stubblefield
Registrar: Penny Pendleton
Admissions: Marion M. Dunagan
Financial Aid: Mary Cogbill
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Arkansas System Scores: 56% ACT 18-23; 24% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 63 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $2160 full-time, $72 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7050 full-time, $235 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $670 full-time, $21 per credit hour part-time, $20 per term part-time. College room and board: $5400. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 3,838, PT 2,949 Faculty: FT 186, PT 185 Student-Faculty Ratio: 23:1 % Receiving Financial Aid: 57 Library Holdings: 82,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 124 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Air Force Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, ADA, JRCERT, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Volleyball W

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT LITTLE ROCK

2801 South University Ave.
Little Rock, AR 72204-1099 Tel: (501)569-3000
Admissions: (501)569-3127
Fax: (501)569-8915
Web Site: http://www.ualr.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Joel E. Anderson
Registrar: Dr. Sam Howell
Admissions: John Noah
Financial Aid: John Noah
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Arkansas System Scores: 43.9% ACT 18-23; 16.9% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4230 full-time, $141 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $11,100 full-time, $370 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $982 full-time, $32.75 per credit hour part-time. College room only: $2950. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 5,733, PT 3,597, Grad 1,984 Faculty: FT 429, PT 320 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 3 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 65 credit hours, Associates; 124 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEHSA, ABA, ACCE, ASLHA, AALS, CORE, CSWE, NASAD, NASM, NASPAA, NAST, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M & W; Soccer W; Swimming and Diving W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS FOR MEDICAL SCIENCES

4301 West Markham
Little Rock, AR 72205-7199
Tel: (501)686-5000
Admissions: (501)686-5730
Web Site: http://www.uams.edu/
President/CEO: I. Dodd Wilson
Registrar: Dwana McKay
Admissions: Mona Stiles
Financial Aid: Paul Carter
Type: Two-Year Upper Division Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Arkansas System H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 506, PT 177, Grad 447 % Receiving Financial Aid: 51 Library Holdings: 183,975 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, ACPhE, ADA, ADtA, APA, ASC, AClPE, CARC, CEPH, JRCERT, JRCEMT, JRCNMT, LCMEAMA, NAACLS, NLN

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT MONTICELLO

Monticello, AR 71656
Tel: (870)367-6811
Admissions: (870)460-1026
Fax: (870)460-1321
Web Site: http://www.uamont.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Jack Lassiter
Registrar: Dr. Debbie Bryant
Admissions: Mary Whiting
Financial Aid: Susan Brewer
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Arkansas System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,253, PT 441, Grad 181 Faculty: FT 157, PT 90 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: ACT, SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 25 Library Holdings: 126,229 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 hours, Associates; 124 hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: CSWE, NASM, NCATE, NLN, SAF Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running W; Football M; Golf M; Softball W; Tennis W

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT PINE BLUFF

1200 North University Dr.
Pine Bluff, AR 71601-2799
Tel: (870)543-8000
Free: 800-264-6585
Admissions: (870)575-8487
Fax: (870)543-2021
Web Site: http://www.uapb.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Lawrence A. Davis, Jr.
Registrar: Erica Fulton
Admissions: Erica W. Fulton
Financial Aid: Carolyn Iverson
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Arkansas System Scores: 61.6% SAT V 400+; 52.6% SAT M 400+; 30.2% ACT 18-23; 2.5% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,897, PT 303, Grad 103 Faculty: FT 168, PT 68 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 96 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 43 Library Holdings: 287,857 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates; 124 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AAFCS, CSWE, NAIT, NASAD, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL ARKANSAS

201 Donaghey Ave.
Conway, AR 72035-0001
Tel: (501)450-5000
Admissions: (501)450-5145
Fax: (501)450-5228
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uca.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Lu Hardin
Registrar: Anthony D. Sitz
Admissions: Penny Hatfield
Financial Aid: Cheryl Lyons
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 95.2% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 40% ACT 18-23; 39.7% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 68 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4500 full-time, $150 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9000 full-time, $300 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $1164 full-time, $35 per credit hour part-time, $61 per term part-time. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room and board: $4320. College room only: $1940. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 9,127, PT 842, Grad 1,406 Faculty: FT 478, PT 129 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 42 Library Holdings: 505,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 124 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, AACN, AAFCS, ADtA, AOTA, APTA, ASLHA, NASAD, NASM, NAST, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running W; Football M; Golf M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis W; Track and Field W; Volleyball W

UNIVERSITY OF THE OZARKS

415 North College Ave.
Clarksville, AR 72830-2880
Tel: (479)979-1000
Free: 800-264-8636
Admissions: (479)979-1421
Fax: (479)979-1355
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ozarks.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Rick Niece
Registrar: Wilma Harris
Admissions: James D. Decker
Financial Aid: Jana Hart
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Presbyterian Scores: 96% SAT V 400+; 88% SAT M 400+; 63% ACT 18-23; 24% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 93 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Comprehensive fee: $20,210 includes full-time tuition ($14,470), mandatory fees ($480), and college room and board ($5260). Part-time tuition: $605 per credit hour. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 588, PT 40 Faculty: FT 44, PT 17 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 52 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 66 Library Holdings: 105,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 124 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W

UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX-LITTLE ROCK CAMPUS

10800 Financial Center Parkway
Little Rock, AR 72211
Tel: (501)225-9337
Free: 800-228-7240
Admissions: (480)557-1712
Web Site: http://www.phoenix.edu/
Admissions: Nina Omelcanko
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $110.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $110. Tuition: $9540 full-time, $318 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $560 full-time, $70 per course part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Continuous, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 327, Grad 172 Faculty: FT 2, PT 67 Student-Faculty Ratio: 7:1 Library Holdings: 442 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors

WILLIAMS BAPTIST COLLEGE

60 West Fulbright Ave.
Walnut Ridge, AR 72476
Tel: (870)886-6741
Free: 800-722-4434
Admissions: (870)759-4117
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wbcoll.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Jerol B. Swaim
Registrar: Tonya Bolton
Admissions: Angela Flippo
Financial Aid: Barbara Turner
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Southern Baptist Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 511, PT 142 Faculty: FT 27, PT 10 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 75 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 62 Library Holdings: 57,321 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 hours, Associates; 128 hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Golf M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Volleyball W

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Arkansas

Arkansas

ARKANSAS BAPTIST COLLEGE

Adult and Continuing Education and Teaching, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Computer Science, AB

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Work, B

ARKANSAS NORTHEASTERN COLLEGE

Agriculture, A

Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Operations, A

Business/Commerce, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

General Studies, A

Industrial Mechanics and Maintenance Technology, A

Industrial Production Technologies/Technicians, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Metallurgical Technology/Technician, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, BM

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agribusiness, B

Agricultural Education, MO

Agricultural Sciences, MO

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Agriculture, B

Allied Health and Medical Assisting Services, MO

Animal Sciences, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MO

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Business Education, MO

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, BMO

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, AB

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Communication and Media Studies, MO

Communication Disorders, M

Communication, Journalism and Related Programs, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Science, BM

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MO

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Criminology, B

Curriculum and Instruction, MDO

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, BM

Economics, B

Education, MDO

Educational Administration and Supervision, MO

Educational Leadership and Administration, MDO

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Electronic Commerce, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, MO

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Engineering, B

Engineering Technology, AB

English, MO

English Education, MO

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Sciences, D

Exercise and Sports Science, M

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Forensic Science and Technology, AB

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

General Studies, AB

Geography, B

Gerontological Nursing, O

Graphic Communications, B

Health and Physical Education, B

Health Education, O

Health Teacher Education, B

History, BMDO

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

Journalism, BM

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Management Information Systems and Services, AM

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, BM

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Media Studies, M

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, AB

Music, BMO

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, BMO

Nurse Anesthetist, M

Nursing, MO

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Performance, M

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BMO

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, M

Physics, B

Physics Teacher Education, B

Plant Sciences, B

Political Science and Government, BMO

Psychology, B

Public Administration, M

Radio and Television, B

Reading Teacher Education, MO

Rehabilitation Counseling, M

School Psychology, M

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, MO

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, M

Social Work, B

Sociology, BMO

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, BMDO

Speech and Interpersonal Communication, MO

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Speech Teacher Education, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Student Personnel Services, M

Technology Teacher Education/Industrial Arts Teacher Education, A

Theater, MO

Transportation/Transportation Management, B

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, B

ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY-BEEBE

Agriculture, A

Animal Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Computer Programming, Vendor/Product Certification, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Computer Technology/Computer Systems Technology, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

General Studies, A

Health/Medical Preparatory Programs, A

Industrial Mechanics and Maintenance Technology, A

Information Technology, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Quality Control Technology/Technician, A

Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Technologies, A

ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY-MOUNTAIN HOME

Audiology/Audiologist and Hearing Sciences, A

Business/Office Automation/Technology/Data Entry, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Forensic Science and Technology, A

Funeral Service and Mortuary Science, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Opticianry/Ophthalmic Dispensing Optician, A

ARKANSAS TECH UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agribusiness, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Child Development, A

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical/Medical Social Work, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst, B

Creative Writing, B

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, A

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Economics, B

Education, BM

Education/Teaching of the Gifted and Talented, M

Educational Leadership and Administration, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering, B

Engineering Physics, B

English, M

English as a Second Language, M

English Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Fish, Game and Wildlife Management, M

Foreign Language Teacher Education, B

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

General Studies, AB

Geology/Earth Science, B

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, B

Health Professions and Related Clinical Sciences, B

History, M

Hospitality Administration/Management, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Industrial Mechanics and Maintenance Technology, A

Information Science/Studies, AM

Journalism, BM

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Liberal Studies, M

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Mechanical Engineering, B

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, A

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nuclear Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Sciences, B

Psychology, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, M

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, M

Student Personnel Services, M

Systems Science and Theory, M

BLACK RIVER TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Avionics Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Dietetics/Dieticians, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

CENTRAL BAPTIST COLLEGE

Bible/Biblical Studies, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Counseling Psychology, B

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, B

Education, A

General Studies, A

Human Services, B

Music, AB

Organizational Behavior Studies, B

Religious/Sacred Music, B

Theology and Religious Vocations, B

COSSATOT COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Environmental Studies, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Occupational Safety and Health Technology/Technician, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

Wood Science and Wood Products/Pulp and Paper Technology, A

CROWLEY'S RIDGE COLLEGE

Bible/Biblical Studies, A

General Studies, A

EAST ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

HARDING UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Advertising, B

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art Therapy/Therapist, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biochemistry, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Broadcast Journalism, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business/Corporate Communications, B

Chemistry, B

Christian Studies, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Communication and Media Studies, B

Communication Disorders, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Engineering, B

Computer Science, B

Corrections and Criminal Justice, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, BM

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Design and Applied Arts, B

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Digital Communication and Media/Multimedia, B

Divinity/Ministry (BD, MDiv.), B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, BM

Economics, B

Education, MO

Education/Teaching of Individuals in Early Childhood Special Education Programs, B

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Specific Learning Disabilities, B

Educational Leadership and Administration, BMO

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Fashion Merchandising, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

French Language and Literature, B

General Studies, B

Graphic Design, B

Health Teacher Education, B

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

History, B

Human Development and Family Studies, B

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Information Technology, B

Interior Design, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

International/Global Studies, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Law and Legal Studies, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Marriage and Family Therapy/Counseling, BM

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Missions/Missionary Studies and Missiology, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Painting, B

Pastoral Counseling and Specialized Ministries, B

Pastoral Studies/Counseling, BM

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Administration, B

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Reading Teacher Education, BM

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Religious Education, B

Sales, Distribution and Marketing Operations, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Sciences, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Social Work, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Speech Teacher Education, B

Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Teacher Education, Multiple Levels, B

Theology and Religious Vocations, M

Theology/Theological Studies, B

Youth Ministry, B

HENDERSON STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Aeronautics/Aviation/Aerospace Science and Technology, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Commerce, B

Chemistry, B

Child Care and Support Services Management, A

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Community Psychology, M

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, BM

Education, MO

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Educational Leadership and Administration, MO

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English as a Second Language, M

English Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

History, B

Journalism, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Liberal Studies, M

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, M

Middle School Education, M

Music, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Painting, B

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BM

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Public Administration, B

Reading Teacher Education, M

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, M

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, MO

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, BM

Teacher Education and Professional Development, Specific Subject Areas, B

HENDRIX COLLEGE

Accounting, BM

Anthropology, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Computer Science, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

French Language and Literature, B

German Language and Literature, B

History, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Mathematics, B

Music, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE

Accounting and Business/Management, B

Animation, Interactive Technology, Video Graphics and Special Effects, B

Business Administration and Management, B

CAD/CADD Drafting and/or Design Technology/Technician, A

Computer and Information Systems Security, B

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Software Technology/Technician, B

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

E-Commerce/Electronic Commerce, B

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

System, Networking, and LAN/WAN Management/Manager, A

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, A

Web/Multimedia Management and Webmaster, A

JOHN BROWN UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Bible/Biblical Studies, AB

Biochemistry, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Broadcast Journalism, AB

Building/Construction Finishing, Management, and Inspection, AB

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Computer Graphics, B

Construction Engineering, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Divinity/Ministry (BD, MDiv.), B

Education, B

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering, B

Engineering Technology, A

Engineering/Industrial Management, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Sciences, B

Environmental Studies, B

Health Teacher Education, B

History, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Journalism, AB

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Marriage and Family Therapy/Counseling, M

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mechanical Engineering, B

Missions/Missionary Studies and Missiology, B

Music, AB

Music Teacher Education, B

Pastoral Studies/Counseling, BM

Psychology, B

Public Relations, Advertising, and Applied Communication, AB

Public Relations/Image Management, AB

Radio and Television, B

Radio, Television, and Digital Communication, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Religious Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language/ESL Language Instructor, B

Theology/Theological Studies, B

LYON COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Computer Science, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, B

Economics, B

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, B

History, B

Mathematics, B

Music, B

Philosophy and Religious Studies, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

MID-SOUTH COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Management Information Systems and Services, A

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, A

Web/Multimedia Management and Webmaster, A

NATIONAL PARK COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Child Development, A

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Computer Graphics, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Finance, A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, A

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, A

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, A

Physical Sciences, A

Public Administration, A

Public Health (MPH, DPH), A

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, A

NORTH ARKANSAS COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Agriculture, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biomedical Technology/Technician, A

Business/Commerce, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Assistant, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Electromechanical and Instrumentation and Maintenance Technologies/Technicians, A

Electromechanical Technology/Electromechanical Engineering Technology, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Forensic Science and Technology, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Institutional Food Workers, A

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

NORTHWEST ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Finance, A

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Occupational Safety and Health Technology/Technician, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

OUACHITA BAPTIST UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Bible/Biblical Studies, AB

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Communication Disorders Sciences and Services, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer Science, B

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, B

Education, B

English Language and Literature, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

French Language and Literature, B

Graphic Design, B

History, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Missions/Missionary Studies and Missiology, B

Music, B

Music History, Literature, and Theory, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Music Theory and Composition, B

Pastoral Counseling and Specialized Ministries, B

Pastoral Studies/Counseling, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Piano and Organ, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Engineering, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Nursing Studies, B

Pre-Pharmacy Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Religious/Sacred Music, B

Russian Language and Literature, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Theology/Theological Studies, B

Voice and Opera, B

Youth Ministry, B

OUACHITA TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Child Care and Support Services Management, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Management Information Systems and Services, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

OZARKA COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Banking and Financial Support Services, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Health Information/Medical Records Technology/Technician, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

PHILANDER SMITH COLLEGE

Biological and Physical Sciences, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Computer Science, B

Educational Administration and Supervision, B

Elementary and Middle School Administration/Principalship, B

English Language and Literature, B

Health and Physical Education, B

Hospitality Administration/Management, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Mathematics, B

Music, B

Organizational Behavior Studies, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

PHILLIPS COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business Teacher Education, A

Chemistry, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Cosmetology/Cosmetologist, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, A

Education, A

English Language and Literature, A

Graphic and Printing Equipment Operator Production, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Instrumentation Technology/Technician, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Mathematics, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Music, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physics, A

Social Sciences, A

Technology Education/Industrial Arts, A

PULASKI TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electromechanical Technology/Electromechanical Engineering Technology, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Occupational Therapist Assistant, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

RICH MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

SOUTH ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business/Commerce, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

General Studies, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Management Information Systems and Services, A

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

SOUTHEAST ARKANSAS COLLEGE

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biology Technician/BioTechnology Laboratory Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business/Commerce, A

Criminology, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

General Studies, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, A

Science, Technology and Society, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

SOUTHERN ARKANSAS UNIVERSITY-MAGNOLIA

Accounting, B

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Agriculture, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biological and Physical Sciences, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Broadcast Journalism, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Commerce, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Community Organization and Advocacy, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Education, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering Physics, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

General Studies, A

History, B

Industrial Technology/Technician, AB

Journalism, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Library Science, M

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics Teacher Education, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

SOUTHERN ARKANSAS UNIVERSITY TECH

Airframe Mechanics and Aircraft Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Engineering Technologies/Technicians, A

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

General Studies, A

Industrial Mechanics and Maintenance Technology, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Office Management and Supervision, A

Teaching Assistants/Aides, A

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, A

Web/Multimedia Management and Webmaster, A

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS

Accounting, BM

Adult and Continuing Education and Teaching, MDO

Agribusiness, B

Agricultural Communication/Journalism, B

Agricultural Economics, BM

Agricultural Education, M

Agricultural Sciences, MD

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Agricultural/Biological Engineering and Bioengineering, B

Agronomy and Soil Sciences, MD

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Animal Sciences, BMD

Anthropology, BM

Apparel and Textiles, B

Applied Physics, M

Architecture, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Bioengineering, MD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MD

Business/Commerce, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Cell Biology and Anatomy, MD

Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences, B

Chemical Engineering, BMD

Chemistry, BMD

Civil Engineering, BMD

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Disorders, M

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Comparative Literature, MD

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Engineering, BMD

Computer Science, MD

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MDO

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Crop Production, B

Curriculum and Instruction, D

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, BM

Economics, BMD

Education, MDO

Educational Administration and Supervision, MDO

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Electronic Materials, MD

Elementary Education and Teaching, BMO

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MD

English, MD

English Language and Literature, B

Entomology, MD

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, M

Environmental Sciences, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, M

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Food Science, B

Food Science and Technology, MD

Foods, Nutrition, and Wellness Studies, B

French Language and Literature, BM

Geography, BM

Geological and Earth Sciences/Geosciences, B

Geology/Earth Science, BM

German Language and Literature, BM

Health and Physical Education, B

Health Education, MD

Higher Education/Higher Education Administration, MDO

History, BMD

Horticultural Science, BM

Hospitality and Recreation Marketing Operations, B

Human Development and Family Studies, B

Industrial and Manufacturing Management, M

Industrial Engineering, B

Industrial/Management Engineering, MD

Information Technology, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, D

Interior Design, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Journalism, BM

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Kinesiology and Movement Studies, MD

Landscape Architecture, B

Law and Legal Studies, MP

Logistics and Materials Management, BM

Management Information Systems and Services, M

Management Science, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, BMD

Mathematics Teacher Education, M

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Middle School Education, M

Molecular Biology, MD

Music, BM

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Operations Research, M

Ornamental Horticulture, B

Philosophy, BMD

Photonics, MD

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, M

Physics, BMD

Plant Pathology/Phytopathology, M

Plant Sciences, D

Political Science and Government, BM

Poultry Science, BMD

Psychology, BMD

Public Administration, BM

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Public Policy Analysis, D

Recreation and Park Management, MD

Rehabilitation Counseling, MD

Secondary Education and Teaching, MO

Social Work, BM

Sociology, BM

Spanish Language and Literature, BM

Special Education and Teaching, M

Statistics, M

Telecommunications, M

Theater, M

Translation and Interpretation, M

Transportation and Highway Engineering, BM

Transportation/Transportation Management, M

Vocational and Technical Education, MDO

Writing, M

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AT BATESVILLE

Business/Commerce, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, A

Data Entry/Microcomputer Applications, A

Education, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Information Technology, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Medical Office Management/Administration, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

System Administration/Administrator, A

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, A

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AT HOPE

Business Administration and Management, A

Child Care Provider/Assistant, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Funeral Service and Mortuary Science, A

Human Services, A

Industrial Mechanics and Maintenance Technology, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Machine Shop Technology/Assistant, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Trade and Industrial Teacher Education, A

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AT MORRILTON

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Child Development, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Computer Typography and Composition Equipment Operator, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Horticultural Science, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Ornamental Horticulture, A

Survey Technology/Surveying, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT FORT SMITH

Accounting, B

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Biology Teacher Education, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Child Development, A

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services, AB

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, AB

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Diagnostic Medical Sonography/Sonographer and Ultrasound Technician, B

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical/Electronics Equipment Installation and Repair, A

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Forensic Science and Technology, A

General Studies, A

Graphic Design, AB

History, B

History Teacher Education, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, AB

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, A

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Psychology, B

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

Technical and Business Writing, B

Visual and Performing Arts, A

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT LITTLE ROCK

Accounting, B

Adult and Continuing Education and Teaching, M

Advertising, B

Anthropology, B

Applied Mathematics, M

Applied Science and Technology, MD

Art Education, M

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, BM

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Bioinformatics, MD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Business/Commerce, B

Chemistry, BM

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Science, BM

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Corporate and Organizational Communication, M

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Criminology, M

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, M

Economics, B

Education, BMDO

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Hearing Impairments, Including Deafness, B

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Multiple Disabilities, M

Education/Teaching of the Gifted and Talented, M

Educational Administration and Supervision, MDO

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Health, B

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

French Language and Literature, B

General Studies, A

Geology/Earth Science, B

Gerontology, MO

Health Services Administration, M

Health Teacher Education, B

Higher Education/Higher Education Administration, D

History, B

Information Science/Studies, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Journalism, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Landscape Architecture, A

Law and Legal Studies, PO

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Liberal Studies, M

Management Information Systems and Services, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, M

Mathematics, BM

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, AB

Middle School Education, M

Music, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Philosophy, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, BM

Public Administration, M

Public Affairs, M

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Public History, M

Radio and Television, B

Reading Teacher Education, M

Rhetoric, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, M

Sign Language Interpretation and Translation, AB

Social Work, BM

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, M

Speech and Interpersonal Communication, M

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Survey Technology/Surveying, B

Technical and Business Writing, BM

Writing, M

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS FOR MEDICAL SCIENCES

Anatomy, MDO

Biochemistry, MDO

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MDO

Biomedical Technology/Technician, A

Biophysics, MDO

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Communication Disorders, M

CytoTechnology/Cytotechnologist, B

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, AB

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Environmental and Occupational Health, M

Immunology, MDO

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, AB

Microbiology, MDO

Molecular Biology, MDO

Neurobiology and Neurophysiology, MDO

Nuclear Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Nursing, MD

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nutritional Sciences, M

Pathology/Experimental Pathology, M

Pharmaceutical Administration, M

Pharmaceutical Sciences, M

Pharmacology, MDO

Pharmacy, MP

Physiology, MDO

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

Toxicology, MDO

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT MONTICELLO

Accounting, B

Agricultural Production Operations, A

Agriculture, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Education, BM

Educational Leadership and Administration, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Forestry, BM

History, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Mathematics, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Natural Resources and Conservation, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Sciences, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Social Work, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, B

Wood Science and Wood Products/Pulp and Paper Technology, A

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT PINE BLUFF

Accounting, B

Agricultural Economics, B

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Agriculture, B

Agronomy and Crop Science, B

Animal Sciences, B

Apparel and Textiles, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Computer Science, B

Corrections, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Biology, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Fashion Merchandising, B

Gerontology, B

History, B

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, B

Industrial Technology/Technician, AB

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, AB

Mathematics, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Psychology, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Technology Education/Industrial Arts, B

Trade and Industrial Teacher Education, B

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL ARKANSAS

Accounting, BM

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biological and Physical Sciences, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Commerce, B

Chemistry, B

Child Care and Support Services Management, A

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Communication Disorders, M

Community Psychology, M

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Science, M

Counseling Psychology, M

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, M

Economics, BM

Education, MD

Educational Leadership and Administration, O

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Elementary and Middle School Administration/Principalship, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English, M

English Composition, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Studies, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Finance, B

Foreign Language Teacher Education, M

French Language and Literature, B

General Studies, A

Geographic Information Systems, O

Geography, BO

Health Education, M

History, BM

Home Economics, M

Human Development, M

Insurance, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, M

Journalism, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Kinesiology and Movement Studies, M

Library Science, M

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, BM

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Medical Physics, M

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, B

Music, BM

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, M

Music Theory and Composition, M

Nuclear Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Advanced Practice, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, BM

Performance, M

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Sciences, B

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, ABMd

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, BMD

Public Administration, B

Reading Teacher Education, BM

Religion/Religious Studies, B

School Psychology, MD

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Student Personnel Services, M

UNIVERSITY OF THE OZARKS

Accounting, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Studies, B

General Studies, B

History, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music, B

Philosophy and Religious Studies, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Religious Education, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Teacher Education, Multiple Levels, B

UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX-LITTLE ROCK CAMPUS

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Information Technology, B

WILLIAMS BAPTIST COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Divinity/Ministry (BD, MDiv.), B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

History, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Music, AB

Music Teacher Education, B

Pastoral Studies/Counseling, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Religious Education, B

Religious/Sacred Music, B

Theology/Theological Studies, AB

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Arkansas

ARKANSAS

STATE EDUCATION OFFICE

Mari Serebrov, Communications Manager
Arkansas Department of Workforce Education
Three Capitol Mall
Little Rock, AR 72201-1083
(501)682-1500

STATE REGULATORY INFORMATION

For specific information, contact the Arkansas State Department of Education, address above.

ARKADELPHIA

American Red Cross - Diamond Valley

405 South 5th., Arkadelphia, AR 71923. Nursing. Founded 1993. Contact: Debra Lemay, Dir., (870)246-2682, (866)737-2677, Fax: (870)246-4402, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing not available. Term: Month. Tuition: $50 includes all class materials. Enrollment: men 15, women 60. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Nurses Aide

Arkadelphia Beauty College

2708 Pine St., Arkadelphia, AR 71923. Cosmetology, Barber. Founded 1930. Contact: Charles Kirkpatrick, (870)246-6726, Fax: (870)246-6363, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ezclick.net/~beautycollege. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $6,600 for cosmetology and barbering; $4,100 for cosmetology instructor; $3,516 for nail technology. Enrollment: Total 48. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Barbering (1500 Hr); Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Nail Technology (600 Hr)

Henderson State University

1100 Henderson St., Arkadelphia, AR 71999-0001. Other. Founded 1890. Contact: Tom Gattin, Registrar, (870)230-5000, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.hsu.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $4,138 per year (in-state); $7,778 per year (out-of-state). Enrollment: Total 2,698. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Secretarial, General (2 Yr)

Ouachita Baptist University

410 Ouachita St., Arkadelphia, AR 71998-0001. Other. Founded 1886. Contact: David Goodman, Dir. of Admissions, (870)245-5000, 800-342-5628, Fax: (870)245-5500, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.obu.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $15,920 per year. Enrollment: Total 1,438. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: NASM; NCATE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Data Processing; Music

BATESVILLE

University of Arkansas Community College at Batesville

PO Box 3350, Batesville, AR 72503. Two-Year College. Founded 1975. Contact: Andy Thomas, (870)793-7581, (870)612-2010, 800-508-7878, Fax: (870)793-4988, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.uaccb.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $630 full time or $42/credit hr in-district; $795 or $53 out-of-district; $1560 or $104 Out-of-state; $80/credit hr on-l. Enrollment: Total 1,353. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: NLNAC; NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Accounting Technology (1 Yr); Administrative Assistant (2 Yr); Banking & Finance (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Clerical, General (1 Yr); Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Computer Servicing - Software Applications (1 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Early Childhood Education (1-2 Yr); Electronics, Industrial (1 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (1-2 Yr); Industrial Maintenance (1-2 Yr); Medical Office Management (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (1 Yr); Technological Studies (2 Yr)

BEEBE

Arkansas State University, Beebe Campus

PO Box 1000, Beebe, AR 72012. Two-Year College. Founded 1927. Contact: Robin Hayes, Dir. of Admissions, (501)882-3600, 800-632-9985, Fax: (501)882-8370, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.asub.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $71 per credit in-state resident; $122 per credit out-of-state. Enrollment: men 1,490, women 2,145. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agriculture, General (62 Hr); Air Conditioning (30 Hr); Auto Body & Fender Repair (30 Hr); Business (62 Hr); Computer Repair (30 Hr); Crime Scene Technology (30 Hr); Criminal Justice (62 Hr); Diesel Technology (30 Hr); Early Childhood Education (62 Hr); Education (62 Hr); Electronics & Computer Technology (30 Hr); Health Occupations (62 Hr); Industrial Technology (65 Hr); Mathematics (62 Hr); Medical Laboratory Technology (62 Hr); Nursing, Practical (30 Hr); Office Technology (30 Hr); Paramedic (62 Hr); Physical Education (62 Hr); Science (62 Hr)

BLYTHEVILLE

Arkansas Northeastern College

2501 S. Division St., PO Box 1109, Blytheville, AR 72315. Two-Year College. Founded 1975. Contact: Johnny Moore, Admissions Counselor, (870)762-1020, Fax: (870)763-1654, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.anc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,524 per year (in-district); $1,804 per year (in-state); $3,204 per year (out-of-state) - excludes books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 2,018. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Computerized; Agriculture, General (2 Yr); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (1 Yr); Art (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (1 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Computer Aided Drafting & Design (1 Yr); Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Computer Networking (1 Yr); Computer Repair (1 Yr); Computer Support Technology (1 Yr); Crime Scene Technology (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (1 Yr); Dental Assisting; Early Childhood Education (2 Yr); Electrical Technology; Horticulture (2 Yr); Industrial Management & Supervision (2 Yr); Industrial Technology (2 Yr); Landscaping (1-2 Yr); Machinist, General; Mechanical Technology; Mid-Management (1 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Office Technology (2 Yr); Paramedic (1 Yr); Steelmaking (2 Yr); Welding Technology (1 Yr)

Blytheville Academy of Cosmetology

100 E. Main St., Blytheville, AR 72315. Cosmetology. Contact: Lucille Coleman, Owner, (870)763-6326. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $5,505 cosmetologist; $1,650 nail technologist; $1,500 cosmetology instructor (prices do not include books and supplies). Enrollment: men 4, women 14. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Nail Technology (600 Hr)

CAMDEN

Southern Arkansas University Tech

P O Box 3499, Camden, AR 71711. Two-Year College. Founded 1968. Contact: Rodge Worsley, Dir., (870)574-4558, Fax: (870)574-4478, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.sautech.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $720 per semester in-state resident; $960 nonresident. Enrollment: men 385, women 488. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: FAA; NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Aviation Maintenance Technology; Business Administration (2 Yr); Computer Aided Design; Computer Aided Manufacturing; Computer Programming (2 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Computer Technology; Data Processing (1 Yr); Day Care - Nursery School Administration (1 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Environmental Technology; Fire Science; Food Preparation & Service (1 Yr); Graphic Design (2 Yr); Hotel & Restaurant Management (2 Yr); Industrial Maintenance; Manufacturing Technology; Nursing, Practical; Office Management; Quality Control (2 Yr); Robotics; Word Processing (1 Yr)

CLARKSVILLE

University of the Ozarks

415 N. College Ave., Clarksville, AR 72830-2880. Other. Founded 1834. Contact: Jana Hart, Interim Dean Admissions/Financial Aid, (479)979-1227, (479)979-1000, 800-264-8636, Fax: (479)979-1355, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ozarks.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $13,312/yr. Enrollment: Total 730. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC; NCATE; IACBE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General

CONWAY

Arkansas Beauty School - Conway

1061 Markham St., Conway, AR 72032. Cosmetology. Founded 1967. Contact: Tamara Cotton, (501)329-8303, Fax: (501)329-8303. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $5,300 for cosmetology; $2,500 for nail technician and cosmetology instructor (plus books and supplies). Enrollment: men 2, women 37. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

Arthur's Beauty College (Conway)

2320 Washington Ave., Conway, AR 72032. Cosmetology. Contact: Chris Strawn, Dir./Instructor/Owner, (501)329-7770, Fax: (501)329-7781, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://arthursbeautycollege.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $2,385 to $8,500 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 0, women 52. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Esthetician (600 Hr); Nail Technology (600 Hr)

DE QUEEN

Cossatot Community College of the University of Arkansas

183 Hwy 399, PO Box 960, De Queen, AR 71832. Two-Year College. Founded 1975. Contact: Frank Adams, Chancellor, (870)584-4471, 800-844-4471, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://cccua.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $42 per credit hour (in-district); $50 (out-of-district); $150 (out-of-state). Enrollment: men 261, women 600. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated; Administrative Assistant; Automotive Collision Repair; Automotive Technology; Banking & Finance; Business Management; Carpentry; Child Care & Guidance; Computer Literacy; Computer Technology; Data Processing; Electronics Technology; Environmental Technology; Fire Fighting; Industrial Technology; Marketing & Sales; Nursing, Practical; Retail Management; Small Engine Repair; Truck Driving; Welding Technology; Word Processing

EL DORADO

South Arkansas Community College

300 South West Ave., PO Box 7010, El Dorado, AR 71731. Two-Year College. Founded 1967. Contact: Dean G. Inman, Dir. of Enrollment Services, (870)862-8131, 800-955-2289, Fax: (870)864-7109, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.southark.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,360 per year (in-state); $2,800 per year (out-of-state). Enrollment: Total 391. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC; NASM; NCATE; NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Sm); Business Administration (2-4 Sm); Chemical Technology (4 Sm); Child Care & Guidance (1-4 Sm); Computer Information Science (4 Sm); Criminal Justice (4 Sm); Electronics, Industrial (2 Sm); Emergency Medical Technology (1-4 Sm); Environmental Technology (4 Sm); Industrial Maintenance (2 Sm); Marketing & Sales (2 Sm); Medical Laboratory Technology (6 Sm); Nurse, Assistant (82 Hr); Nursing, Practical (3 Sm); Office Technology (2 Sm); Paramedic (3 Sm); Physical Therapy Aide (5 Sm); Radiologic Technology (6 Sm); Truck Driving (8 Wk); Welding Technology (2 Sm)

FORREST CITY

Crowley's Ridge Technical Institute

PO Box 925, Forrest City, AR 72335. Trade and Technical, Nursing, Cosmetology. Founded 1966. Contact: Burl W. Lieblong, President, (501)633-5411, 800-842-2317, Fax: (501)633-9328, E-mail: [email protected] us, Web Site: http://www.crti.tec.ar.us. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: varies with program. Enrollment: men 113, women 136. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (3 Sm); Appliance Repair (3 Sm); Auto Body & Fender Repair (4 Sm); Auto Mechanics (4 Sm); Building Trades (3 Sm); Child Care & Guidance (4 Sm); Drafting Technology (3 Sm); Electronics Technology (4 Sm); Industrial Technology (4 Sm); Machine Shop (4 Sm); Nursing, Practical (3 Sm); Welding Technology (4 Sm); Word Processing (3 Sm)

East Arkansas Community College

1700 Newcastle Rd., Forrest City, AR 72335-2204. Two-Year College. Founded 1974. Contact: Catherine Coleman, VP for Student Affairs, (870)633-4480, 877-797-3222, Fax: (870)633-7222, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.eacc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,224 per year (in-state); $1,704 per year (out-of-state). Enrollment: Total 1,498. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agriculture, General; Art; Business Management; Child Care & Guidance; Child Care - Nanny; Cisco Network; Computer Information Science; Criminal Justice; Drafting, Machine Design; Education; Electronics & Communication; Emergency Medical Technology; Environmental Technology; Geographic Information Systems; Industrial Management & Supervision; Industrial Technology; Internet Technologies; Leadership Training; Microcomputers; Nursing, L.P.N.; Office Technology; Paramedic; Radiologic Technology; Web Development; Word Processing

FORT SMITH

Arkansas Continental Beauty College

2000 N. B, Fort Smith, AR 72901. Cosmetology. Founded 1960. Contact: Dora Jean Hester, (501)783-3301, (501)783-6245, Fax: (501)783-7860, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $7,000-Cosmetology, $2,000-Manicurist, $2,000 Aesthics. Enrollment: Total 48. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Beauty (600 Hr); Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

Arthur's Beauty College (Fort Smith)

2000 North B St., Fort Smith, AR 72901-3342. Cosmetology. Contact: Chris Strawn, Dir./Instructor/Owner, (501)982-8987, (479)783-3301, Fax: (479)783-7860, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.arthursbeautycollege.com. Private. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $2,385 to $8,500 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 2, women 44. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Esthetician (600 Hr); Nail Technology (600 Hr)

Askins VoTech

7716 Hwy. 271 S., Fort Smith, AR 72903. Trade and Technical. Founded 1991. Contact: Linetta Hollinghead, (479)646-4803, Fax: (479)646-4803, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $4,450 includes books, EPA test and enrollment fee. Enrollment: Total 25. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCET. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (38 Wk)

Mellie's Beauty College

311 S. 16th St., Fort Smith, AR 72901. Cosmetology, Other. Founded 1955. Contact: Mitzie McKinney, (501)782-5059, Fax: (501)782-0568, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $6,960 Cometology; Esthetics $3,240; $2,642 Manicuring; $2,160 Cosmetology Instructor (includes books and supplies). Enrollment: men 2, women 36. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Esthetician (600 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

HARRISON

North Arkansas College

1515 Pioneer Ridge, Harrison, AR 72601. Two-Year College. Founded 1967. Contact: Dr. Jeff Olson, Director of Technology, (870)743-3000, (870)391-3221, 800-679-6622, Fax: (870)391-3250, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.northark.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $39/credit hr in-district; $49 in-state $99 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 2,152. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NCAHLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Heating (32 Wk); Auto Body & Fender Repair (32 Wk); Auto Mechanics (32 Wk); Business Education (32 Wk); Carpentry; Clerical, General (23 Wk); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Heavy Equipment (32 Wk); Hotel & Restaurant Management (2 Yr); Machine Shop (32 Wk); Nursing, Practical (47 Wk); Truck Driving (16 Wk); Welding Technology (32 Wk)

HEBER SPRINGS

Arkansas State University - Heber Springs Campus

71 Cleburne Park Rd., Heber Springs, AR 72543. Two-Year College. Contact: Debbie Thompson, Coordinator of Admissions, (501)250-9900, (501)250-9905, Fax: (501)250-9903, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.asub.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $71 per credit in-state resident; $122 per credit out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agriculture, General (62 Hr); Air Conditioning (30 Hr); Auto Body & Fender Repair (30 Hr); Business (62 Hr); Computer Repair (30 Hr); Crime Scene Technology (30 Hr); Criminal Justice (62 Hr); Diesel Technology (30 Hr); Early Childhood Education (62 Hr); Education (62 Hr); Electronics & Computer Technology (30 Hr); Health Occupations (62 Hr); Industrial Technology (65 Hr); Mathematics (62 Hr); Medical Laboratory Technology (62 Hr); Nursing, Practical (30 Hr); Office Technology (30 Hr); Paramedic (62 Hr); Physical Education (62 Hr); Science (62 Hr)

HELENA

Phillips Community College of the University of Arkansas

Box 785, Campus Dr., Helena, AR 72342. Two-Year College. Founded 1965. Contact: Linda Killion, (870)338-6474, 800-865-6474, Fax: (870)338-7542, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.pccua.edu/. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,760 pear year (in-state); $3,430 per year (out-of-state). Enrollment: Total 907. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: CAAHEP; NAACLS; NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Art (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Business Management (2 Yr); Computer Technology (2 Yr); Cosmetology (1 Yr); Drafting Technology (2 Yr); Electronics, Industrial (2 Yr); Engineering (2 Yr); Hospitality (2 Yr); Industrial Technology (2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Music (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Office Technology (2 Yr); Printing Technology, Lithographic (1 Yr); Welding Technology (1 Yr)

HOT SPRINGS

Broadway School of Real Estate

1009 W. Grand Ave., Hot Springs, AR 71913. Other, Correspondence. Founded 1962. Contact: Kent Keahey, Pres., (501)623-3029, 800-926-6085, Fax: (501)623-8632, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.keahey.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $350 for 60 hours. Enrollment: men 160, women 160. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Real Estate, Basic (60 Hr); Real Estate Broker (30 Hr); Real Estate, Commercial

Hot Springs Beauty College

100 Cones Rd., Hot Springs, AR 71901. Cosmetology. Contact: Wentz Akard, Chief executive officer, (501)624-4258. Private. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $7,050 for cosmetology; $2,820 for all others. Enrollment: men 3, women 34. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Esthetician (600 Hr); Nail Technology (600 Hr)

Hot Springs Rehabilitation Center

PO Box 1358, 105 Reserve Ave., Hot Springs, AR 71901. Other. Founded 1961. Contact: Charles Tapp, Admission Coordinator, (501)624-4411, Fax: (501)624-0019, Web Site: http://hotsprings.dina.org/health/hsrc.html. Public. Coed. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 320. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Clerical (5 Mo); Accounting, General (14 Mo); Auto Body & Fender Repair (18 Mo); Auto Parts Specialist (9 Mo); Baking (9 Mo); Bookkeeping (5 Mo); Building Maintenance (12 Mo); Clerk, File (4 Mo); Cook & Stewards Training (2 Mo); Cooking, Commercial (4 Mo); Cook, Short Order (2 Mo); Cosmetology (13 Mo); Custodial Training (6 Mo); Data Processing (12 Mo); Dry Cleaning & Laundry (5 Mo); Food Preparation & Service (4 Mo); Handicapped, Special Education; Marketing & Sales (4 Mo); Printing (16 Mo); Printing, Offset (12 Mo); Rehabilitation Therapy; Secretarial, General (12 Mo); Small Engine Repair (9 Mo); Welding Technology (12 Mo); Word Processing

HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK

National Park Community College

101 College Dr., Hot Springs National Park, AR 71913. Two-Year College. Founded 1973. Contact: Brad Moody, Registrar, (501)760-4222, 800-760-1825, Fax: (501)760-4100, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.npcc.edu. Public. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,215 per year (in-state); $2,991 per year (out-of-state). Enrollment: Total 2,605. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: CAAHEP; NLNAC; JRCERT; NAACLS; NCAHLC; COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business; Computer Science; Emergency Medical Technology; Fire Protection Technology; Graphic Design; Health Information Technology; Hospitality; Medical Laboratory Technology; Medical Technology - Phlebotomy; Metal Trades Technology; Nursing, R.N.; Radiologic Technology; Recreation Technology

JACKSONVILLE

Arkansas State University - Little Rock Air Force Base Center

840 Leadership Dr., Ste. 112, Jacksonville, AR 72099. Two-Year College. Contact: Katie Wilson, Registrar Asst., (501)988-4151, Fax: (501)983-9344, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.asub.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $72 per credit in-state resident. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agriculture, General (62 Hr); Air Conditioning (30 Hr); Auto Body & Fender Repair (30 Hr); Business (62 Hr); Computer Repair (30 Hr); Crime Scene Technology (30 Hr); Criminal Justice (62 Hr); Diesel Technology (30 Hr); Early Childhood Education (62 Hr); Education (62 Hr); Electronics & Computer Technology (30 Hr); Health Occupations (62 Hr); Industrial Technology (65 Hr); Mathematics (62 Hr); Medical Laboratory Technology (62 Hr); Nursing, Practical (30 Hr); Office Technology (30 Hr); Paramedic (62 Hr); Physical Education (62 Hr); Science (62 Hr)

Arthur's Beauty College (Jacksonville)

2600 John Harden Dr., Jacksonville, AR 72076. Cosmetology. Contact: Chris Strawn, Dir./Instructor/Owner, (501)982-8987, Fax: (501)982-1133, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://arthursbeautycollege.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $2,385 to $8,500 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 7, women 121. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Esthetician (600 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

JONESBORO

Arkansas Academy of Hair Design

3512 E. Nettleton, Jonesboro, AR 72401. Cosmetology, Other. Founded 1962. Contact: Suzette Davidson, (870)935-3531, Fax: (870)935-6944, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.arkansasacademyofhairdesign.bizonthe.net. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $3,600. Enrollment: men 2, women 48. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (9 Mo); Cosmetology Instructor (4 Mo); Manicurist (4 Mo)

Arkansas State University Technical Center Practical Nursing Program

5504 Krueger Dr., Jonesboro, AR 72401. Two-Year College. Founded 1967. Contact: Laura Walton, Counselor, (870)932-2176, Fax: (870)972-0801, Web Site: http://www.asutc.org. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $600 per semester (12 or more credits); $50 per credit hour. Enrollment: men 100, women 250. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NATEF; NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Nursing, Practical (45 Wk)

LITTLE ROCK

Arkansas Beauty School - Little Rock

5108 Baseline Rd., Little Rock, AR 72209. Cosmetology. Founded 1954. Contact: P. Ray, (501)562-5673, Fax: (501)562-6037, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $5,300 cosmetology; $2,650 for nail technician and cosmetology instructor (plus books and supplies). Enrollment: men 1, women 36. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

Baptist Health Medical Center

9601 Interstate 630, Exit 7, Little Rock, AR 72205-7299. Allied Medical. Contact: Doug Weeks, Sr., VP, (501)202-2000, 888-227-8478, Fax: (501)202-1464, Web Site: http://www.baptist-health.com; Web Site: http://www.baptist-health.com/contact/. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Hour. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: CAAHEP. Curriculum: Medical Technology; Nursing, Practical

Baptist Health Schools of Nursing and Allied Health

11900 Colonel Glenn Rd., Ste. 1000, Little Rock, AR 72210-2820. Allied Medical, Nursing. Founded 1921. Contact: Louise Estoker, (501)202-6200, 800-345-3046, Fax: (501)202-7406, Web Site: http://baptist-health.org. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Registered Nursing $3,750-$6,000; Practical Nursing $2,200; Allied Health Schools $1,650-$4,000. Enrollment: men 34, women 314. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: CAAHEP; NAACLS; NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Histologic Technology (1 Yr); Medical Record Technology (1 Yr); Medical Technology (1 Yr); Medical Transcription (1 Yr); Nuclear Medical Technology (1 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (1 Yr); X-Ray Technology (2 Yr)

Bee Jay's Academy

1907 Hinson Loop, Little Rock, AR 72212. Cosmetology. Founded 1973. Contact: Jane Powell, (501)224-2442, Fax: (501)224-8586. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $5,295 cosmetology; $4,548 esthetician or electrolysis; $2,280 nail technician or cosmetology instructor. Enrollment: men 4, women 22. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Electrology (600 Hr); Esthetician (600 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr); Skin Care (600 Hr)

Career One

100 N. Rodney Parham, Ste. 1C, Little Rock, AR 72205. Allied Medical. Founded 1995. Contact: Philip Katz, (501)217-9485, Fax: (501)217-9455. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $400-$500. Enrollment: Total 50. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Medical Technology - Phlebotomy; Nurse, Assistant (75 Hr)

Central Flying Service, Inc.

Little Rock National Airport, Little Rock, AR 72202. Flight and Ground. Founded 1939. Contact: Cameron Baker, (501)975-9330, (501)975-9320, 800-888-5387, Fax: (501)975-9520, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Enrollment: men 300, women 25. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: FAA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Aircraft Flight Instruction; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Advanced Ground; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Airline Transport Pilot; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Basic Ground; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Commercial Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor Additional Rating; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Instrument Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Multi-Engine Rating - Airplane; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Primary Flying

Eastern College of Health Vocations

6423 Forbing Rd., Little Rock, AR 72209. Allied Medical. Founded 1979. Contact: Cindy Chrisman, (501)568-0211. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 10, women 140. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ABHES. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Medical Assistant (10 Mo)

Eaton Beauty Stylist College

814 W. 7th St., Little Rock, AR 72201. Cosmetology. Founded 1902. Contact: Dawn Creekmore, (501)375-0211, Fax: (501)375-3595, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $6,375 for cosmetologist; $1,550 for cosmetology instructor (prices do not include books and supplies). Enrollment: men 2, women 9. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr)

Excel Models and Talent

8201 Cantrell Rd., Ste. 300, Little Rock, AR 72227. Trade and Technical. Founded 1987. Contact: Melissa Moody, Owner/Dir., (501)227-4232, Fax: (501)228-5084, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.excel-mt.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: varies with program. Enrollment: Total 60. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Acting (20 Hr); Modeling & Charm (20 Hr); Modeling & Personal Improvement (20 Hr); Modeling, Professional (20 Hr)

ITT Technical Institute (Little Rock)

4520 S. University, Little Rock, AR 72204. Trade and Technical, Business, Other. Founded 1993. Contact: Pat Hunnicutt, Dir., (501)565-5550, 800-ITT-TECH, Fax: (501)565-4747, Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu; Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/contact/form.cfm. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $14,196 per year. Enrollment: Total 455. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Computer Aided Drafting & Design (96 Credits); Computer Networking (96 Credits); Electrical Engineering Technology (96 Credits); Multimedia Design (96 Credits); Software Development/Engineering (96 Credits); Web Development (96 Credits)

Rainey School of Real Estate

10515 W. Markham, Little Rock, AR 72205. Correspondence. Founded 1988. Contact: Kimberly Singleton, (501)221-8800, 877-291-1632, Fax: (501)221-8880, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.raineyrealty.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $250. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Real Estate Sales License (60 hrs)

Remington College (Little Rock Campus)

19 Remington Dr., Little Rock, AR 72204. Trade and Technical, Two-Year College.(501)312-0007, Fax: (501)225-3819, Web Site: http://remingtoncollege.edu; Web Site: http://remingtoncollege.edu/contact2.php4?campus=LIT. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Month. Tuition: $11,780-$31,540. Enrollment: Total 310. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Computer Networking (24 Mo); Criminal Justice (24 Mo); Medical Assistant (8 Mo); Medical Insurance Specialist (8 Mo); Pharmacy Technician (8 Mo)

Stanley H. Kaplan Educational Center, Ltd.

10220 W. Markham, Ste. 220, Little Rock, AR 72205. Other. Founded 1938. Contact: Brian Gibson, Center Mgr., (501)224-1060, 800-527-8378, Fax: (501)225-7408, Web Site: http://www.kaplan.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 456. Accreditation: ACCET. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Remediation; Self Improvement

Trammell School of Real Estate

7009 Geyer Springs Rd., Little Rock, AR 72209. Other. Founded 1984. Contact: Allen W. Trammell, Pres., (501)568-5652, 800-568-5662, Fax: (501)568-7006. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Tuition: $175. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Curriculum: Real Estate, Basic

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

4301 W. Markham, Little Rock, AR 72205. Allied Medical. Founded 1973. Contact: Holly Hiryak, Dir. of Admissions, (501)686-5000, Fax: (501)526-4282, Web Site: http://www.uams.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 20. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: JRCRTE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Art (2 Yr); Child Care & Guidance (2 Yr); Engineering (2 Yr); Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Inhalation Therapy Technology; Law Enforcement (2 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Nursing, Vocational (2 Yr); Office Administration (2 Yr); Secretarial, General

Velvatex College of Beauty Culture

1520 Dr. Martin Luther King Dr., Little Rock, AR 72202-5452. Cosmetology. Founded 1929. Contact: Barbara A. Douglas, (501)372-9678, Fax: (501)376-1336. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Hour. Tuition: $1,500 to $3,880 (plus books and supplies). Enrollment: men 0, women 13. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

MAGNOLIA

Southern Arkansas University

Vice President for Academic Affairs, Magnolia, AR 71753. Other. Founded 1909. Contact: Corbet Lamkin, (870)235-4004, Fax: (870)235-5005, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.saumag.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,798 per year (in-state); $5,618 per year (out-of-state). Enrollment: Total 2,398. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCATE; NLNAC; NASM. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business Administration (2 Yr); Industrial Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr)

MALVERN

Ouachita Technical College

One College Cir., Malvern, AR 72104. Two-Year College. Founded 1972. Contact: Linda Johnson, VP Student Affairs/Registrar, (501)337-5000, (501)332-3658, 800-337-0266, Fax: (501)337-9382, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.otcweb.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,746 per year. Enrollment: Total 1,291. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Administrative Assistant; Automotive Service; Computer Information Science; Computer Repair; Computer Technology; Early Childhood Education; Electronics, Industrial; Industrial Maintenance; Industrial Technology; Machine Tool & Die; Management; Manufacturing Technology; Medical Transcription; Nursing, Practical; Office Technology; Secretarial, Legal

MARKED TREE

Delta Vocational Technical School

Hwy. 63 N., Marked Tree, AR 72365. Trade and Technical. Founded 1967. Contact: Patti H. Talbot, (870)358-2117, Fax: (870)358-4117, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Trisemester. Tuition: $450. Enrollment: men 1,250, women 1,250. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (1 Yr); Agri-Power Equipment (1 Yr); Appliance Repair (1 Yr); Auto Body & Fender Repair (1 Yr); Auto Mechanics (1 Yr); Automotive Collision Repair (1 Yr); Bookkeeping (1 Yr); Cosmetology (1 Yr); Digital Computing (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Solar (2 Yr); High School Diploma; Mechanics, Diesel (1 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Secretarial, General (1 Yr); Welding Technology (1 Yr)

MCGEHEE

UAM College of Technology-McGehee

Box 747, 1609 E. Ash, P.O. Box 747, McGehee, AR 71654. Two-Year College. Founded 1975. Contact: Vickey Haycox, (870)222-5360, 800-747-5360, Fax: (870)222-4709, Web Site: http://www.uamont.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $42 per credit hour (technical programs); $56 per credit hour (college credit courses). Enrollment: men 330, women 670. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agriculture - Production (24 Mo); Automotive Service (18 Mo); Business Technology (18 Mo); Child Care & Guidance (10 Mo); Nursing, Practical (11 Mo); Welding Technology (11 Mo)

MELBOURNE

Ozarka College

218 College Dr., Melbourne, AR 72556. Trade and Technical, Two-Year College, Nursing. Founded 1991. Contact: E. R. Brown, Registrar, (870)368-7371, 800-821-4335, Fax: (870)368-2091, Web Site: http://www.ozarka.edu; Web Site: http://www.ozarka.edu/contact_us.cfm. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $480 for 12 or more hours or $40 per credit hour. Enrollment: men 252, women 494. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Automotive Service (4 Sm); Business Technology (1-2 Yr); Culinary Arts (1 Yr); General Studies (2 Yr); Health Information Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, L.P.N. (3 Sm); Physical Therapy Aide (2 Yr)

MENA

Rich Mountain Community College

1100 College Dr., Mena, AR 71953. Two-Year College. Founded 1983. Contact: Janet F. Smith, Ph.D., Pres., (479)394-7622, Fax: (479)394-2760, Web Site: http://www.rmcc.edu; Tammy Young, Admissions Officer, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $924 per year (in-state); $3,348 per year (out-of-state). Enrollment: Total 451. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business Administration (4 Sm); Business Technology (2 Sm); Computer Business Systems Technology (2-4 Sm); Computer Networking (2 Sm); Computer Repair (2 Sm); Machine Shop (2 Sm); Nursing, Practical (3 Sm); Office Technology (4 Sm)

MORRILTON

UA Community College at Morrilton

One Bruce St., Morrilton, AR 72110. Two-Year College. Founded 1961. Contact: Mary Clark, (501)977-2000, (501)977-2053, 800-264-1094, Fax: (501)977-2134, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.uaccm.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $64 per credit hour in-county students, $70 per credit hour out-of-county students, $102 per credit hour out-of-state st. Enrollment: Total 1,500. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning (2 Yr); Automotive Collision Repair (2 Yr); Automotive Service (2 Yr); Business Technology (2 Yr); Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Drafting Technology (2 Yr); Early Childhood Specialist (2 Yr); Graphic Design (2 Yr); Horticulture (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Retail Management (2 Yr); Surveying (2 Yr); Welding Technology (3 Sm)

MOUNTAIN HOME

Marsha Kay Beauty College

408 Hwy. 201 N., Mountain Home, AR 72653-3164. Cosmetology. Contact: Marsha Kay, (870)425-7575; Snedecor, Director. Private. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $6,700 plus $200 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 1, women 17. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr)

NEWPORT

White River Vocational Technical School

Box 1120, Newport, AR 72112. Trade and Technical. Founded 1975. Contact: Pamela Cicirello, (501)523-8966. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Term: Other. Tuition: $450. Enrollment: men 70, women 90. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (37 Wk); Agri-Engineering & Mechanics (37 Wk); Agri-Power Equipment; Appliance Repair (37 Wk); Auto Body & Fender Repair; Automotive Systems (37 Wk); Automotive Technology (37 Wk); Business Occupations (37 Wk); Data Processing; Mechanics, Diesel (37 Wk); Nursing, Practical (37 Wk); Secretarial, General (37 Wk); Truck Driving (10 Wk)

NORTH LITTLE ROCK

Arkansas College of Barbering and Hair Design

200 E. Washington Ave., North Little Rock, AR 72114. Barber, Cosmetology. Contact: Larry Little, President, (501)376-9696. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $6,673 plus $527 books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 80. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Barbering (1500 Hr)

Lee's School of Cosmetology, Inc.

2700 W. Pershing Blvd., North Little Rock, AR 72114-3800. Cosmetology. Founded 1978. Contact: Linda Lee, Pres., (501)758-8108, Fax: (501)758-2800. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $7,200 for cosmetology; $2,000 for cosmetology instructor. Enrollment: men 2, women 37. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Beauty; Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Manicurist

New Tyler Barber College, Inc.

1221 E. 7th St., North Little Rock, AR 72114-4973. Barber, Cosmetology. Founded 1979. Contact: Daniel Bryant, Dir., (501)375-0377, Fax: (501)375-1241. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $6,620 for barbering; $2,120 cosmetology instructor (prices do not include books and supplies). Enrollment: Total 59. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Barbering (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr)

Shorter College

604 Locust, North Little Rock, AR 72114. Two-Year College. Founded 1886. Contact: Mrs. Jerry Griff, Registrar, (501)374-6305, Fax: (501)374-9333. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 61, women 59. Degrees awarded: Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Business Administration; Computer Operations; Fine Arts; Fire Science; Medical Technology; Nurses Aide; Secretarial, General; Social Work Technology

OZARK

Arkansas Tech. University - Ozark Campus

PO Box 506, Ozark, AR 72949. Trade and Technical. Founded 1966. Contact: Linda Smith, Assistant to the Registrar, (479)667-2117, (866)225-2884, Fax: (479)667-1422, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://atuoc.atu.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $40/credit hour. Enrollment: Total 300. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (1 Yr); Automotive Service (1 Yr); Automotive Technology (1 Yr); Auto Painting (1 Yr); Business Technology (1 Yr); Computer Science - Terminal Operation (1 Yr); Cosmetology (18 Mo); Electronics Technology (1 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (1 Sm); Laboratory Technology (1 Yr); Maintenance, Electronics (2 Yr); Medical Transcription (1 Yr); Nursing, Practical (18 Mo); Paramedic (18 Mo); Welding Technology (1 Yr)

PARAGOULD

Crowley's Ridge College

100 College Dr., Paragould, AR 72450. Contact: Ken Hoppe, President, (870)236-6901, Web Site: http://www.crowleysridgecollege.edu. Private. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $5,970 in-state; $5,970 Out-of-state.

PINE BLUFF

Arthur's Beauty College (Pine Bluff)

2710 Commerce Cir., Pine Bluff, AR 71601. Cosmetology. Contact: Chris Strawn, Dir./Instructor/Owner, (870)534-0494, Fax: (870)534-0494, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://arthursbeautycollege.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $2,385 to $8,500 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 6, women 104. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Esthetician (600 Hr); Nail Technology (600 Hr)

Deluxe Beauty School

1609 W. 26th Ave., Pine Bluff, AR 71613-1666. Cosmetology. Founded 1940. Contact: Stephanie Mitchner, (870)534-7609, Fax: (870)534-1236. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $6,500. Enrollment: men 1, women 29. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1 Yr)

Jefferson School of Nursing

1600 West 40th, Pine Bluff, AR 71603. Contact: Jessie Clemmons, Director, (870)541-7850, (870)541-7858, Web Site: http://www.jrmc.org. Private. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $3,000. Enrollment: Total 53.

Seark College Radiologic Technology Program

1900 Hazel St., Pine Bluff, AR 71603. Allied Medical, Two-Year College. Founded 2000. Contact: Marilyn H. Carter, Program Coordinator, (870)543-5900, 888-732-7582, Fax: (870)543-5927, Web Site: http://www.seark.org. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,500 per year, $3,000 total. Enrollment: men 1, women 13. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (2 Yr)

Southeast Arkansas College

1900 Hazel St., Pine Bluff, AR 71603. Two-Year College. Founded 1959. Contact: Linda E. Lewis, VP, Academic Affairs, (870)543-5900, 888-SEA-RKTC, Fax: (870)543-5927, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.seark.org. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,600 per year (in-state); $3,100 per year (out-of-state). Enrollment: Total 1,145. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (2 Yr); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (1 Yr); Banking & Finance; Biological Technology (1-2 Yr); Business Technology (1-2 Yr); Computer Aided Design (2 Yr); Computer Aided Drafting (2 Yr); Computer Networking; Crime Scene Technology; Criminal Justice (1-2 Yr); Drafting, Architectural; Drafting Technology (1-2 Yr); Early Childhood Specialist (2 Yr); Education (2 Yr); Electricity, Industrial (1-2 Yr); Electronics Technology (1 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (1 Yr); Fire Science (2 Yr); General Studies (14 Mo-2 Yr); Information Sciences Technology (1-2 Yr); Machine Tool & Die (1 Yr); Management Development (1 Sm); Mechanical Technology (1-2 Yr); Nurse, Assistant (1 Sm); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Nursing, R.N.; Office Administration (2 Yr); Office, General (1 Yr); Paramedic (1 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy; Surgical Technology (1-2 Yr); Technological Studies (1 Sm-2 Yr); Web Development (1 Sm); Welding Technology (1 Yr)

POCAHONTAS

Black River Technical College

1410 Hwy. 304 East, Pocahontas, AR 72455. Two-Year College. Founded 1972. Contact: M. Richard Gaines, Pres., (870)892-4565, (870)248-4000, Fax: (870)892-3546, Web Site: http://blackrivertech.org. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $43 per credit hr., in-district; $57 out-of-district; $169 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 1,200. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Administrative Assistant; Automotive Collision Repair; Automotive Service; Aviation Maintenance Technology; Business Administration; Business Technology; Computer Networking; Criminal Justice; Diesel Technology; Dietetic Technology; Dietician Training; Early Childhood Education; Electronics, Industrial; Emergency Medical Technology; Fire Science; Industrial Maintenance; Machine Shop; Microcomputers; Nursing, Practical; Respiratory Therapy

RUSSELLVILLE

Arkansas Beauty College

109 N. Commerce, Russellville, AR 72801. Cosmetology. Founded 1964. (479)968-3075, Fax: (479)968-3556. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $2,650. Enrollment: Total 83. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

Arkansas Tech. University - Main Campus

1605 Coliseum Dr., Ste. 141, Russellville, AR 72801. Other. Founded 1909. Contact: Wyatt Watson, Dir. of Inst. Research, (479)968-0389, 800-582-6953, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://atu.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,432/year, full-time, in-state. Enrollment: men 2,960, women 3,523. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: ABET; AACSB; NASM; NCATE; NLNAC; AHIMA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available.

SEARCY

Arkansas State University - Searcy

PO Box 909, Searcy, AR 72145. Two-Year College. Contact: Heather Stogner, Student Services, (501)207-4014, Fax: (501)268-0263, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.asub.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $71 per credit in-state resident; $122 per credit out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agriculture, General (62 Hr); Air Conditioning (30 Hr); Auto Body & Fender Repair (30 Hr); Business (62 Hr); Computer Repair (30 Hr); Crime Scene Technology (30 Hr); Criminal Justice (62 Hr); Diesel Technology (30 Hr); Early Childhood Education (62 Hr); Education (62 Hr); Electronics & Computer Technology (30 Hr); Health Occupations (62 Hr); Industrial Technology (65 Hr); Mathematics (62 Hr); Medical Laboratory Technology (62 Hr); Nursing, Practical (30 Hr); Office Technology (30 Hr); Paramedic (62 Hr); Physical Education (62 Hr); Science (62 Hr)

Foothills Institute Technical School

PO Box 909, Searcy, AR 72145. Trade and Technical. Founded 1966. Contact: Don Harlan, President, (501)207-4000, (501)207-4015, Fax: (501)207-4019, Web Site: http://www.foothills.tec.ar.us. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $928. Enrollment: men 150, women 150. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (2 Sm); Air Conditioning (2 Sm); Auto Body & Fender Repair (2 Sm); Auto Mechanics (4 Sm); Automotive Collision Repair (2 Sm); Business Education (2 Sm); Computer Repair (2 Sm); Day Care - Nursery School Administration (2 Sm); Electronics, Industrial (2 Sm); Electronics Technology (2 Sm); Machine Shop (2 Sm); Machine Tool & Die (2 Sm); Mechanics, Diesel (2 Sm); Medical Record Technology (2 Sm); Nursing, Practical (3 Sm); Paramedic (3 Sm); Word Processing (2 Sm)

Searcy Beauty College

1004 S. Main, Searcy, AR 72143. Cosmetology. Founded 1981. Contact: Clifteen Barker, (501)268-6300, Fax: (501)268-5718. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $6,650 for cosmetology; $2,850 for nail technology; $2,750 for cosmetology instructor. Enrollment: men 3, women 74. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

SILOAM SPRINGS

John Brown University

2000 W. University St., Siloam Springs, AR 72761. Other. Founded 1919. Contact: Dr. Charles Pollard, Pres., (479)524-9500, (479)524-7157, 877-528-4636, Fax: (479)524-4196, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.jbu.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $13,724; $19,758 (with room, board, fees). Enrollment: Total 1,939. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: NCATE; NCA-HLC; ABET; ACCE; IACBE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Art (2 Yr); Broadcasting, Nontechnical (2 Yr); Broadcasting Technology (2 Yr); Building Construction Technology (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Business Education (2 Yr); Design (2 Yr); Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Journalism (2 Yr); Music (2 Yr); Office Administration (2 Yr); Public Relations (2 Yr); Secretarial, General (2 Yr)

SPRINGDALE

Career Academy of Hair Design

200 S. Holcomb St., Springdale, AR 72764. Cosmetology. Contact: Roger A. Barnes, Administrator, (479)756-6060, Fax: (479)756-0465, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://beautyschool.edu. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $6,245 cosmetology; $2,660 nail technology; $2,565 cosmetology instructor (prices do not include books and supplies). Enrollment: men 2, women 89. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Nail Technology (600 Hr)

Northwest Technical Institute

709 S. Old Missouri Rd., Springdale, AR 72764. Trade and Technical. Founded 1975. Contact: Charles Kelley, Pres., (479)751-8824, Fax: (479)751-7780, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.nti.tec.ar.us. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies by program. Enrollment: men 1,750, women 1,500. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Automotive Technology (11 Mo); Business (11 Mo); Computer Information Science (11-18 Mo); Diesel Technology (18 Mo); Drafting, Architectural (11 Mo); Electronics Technology (18 Mo); Industrial Maintenance (11 Mo); Machine Tool Programming Technology (11 Mo); Nursing, Practical (11 Mo); Refrigeration Technology (11 Mo); Surgical Technology (11 Mo); Truck Driving (6 Wk)

Petra Allied Health, Inc.

750 Mathias Dr., PO Box 6611, Springdale, AR 72766. Allied Medical. Founded 1992. Contact: James Anderson, (479)750-9876, 800-785-9876, Fax: (479)750-4655, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://petraalliedhealth.edu. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Medical Insurance Specialist (14 Wk); Medical Technology - Phlebotomy (6 Wk); Nurses Aide (4 Wk)

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Arkansas

Arkansas

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environmental Protection

6 Population

7 Ethnic Groups

8 Languages

9 Religions

10 Transportation

11 History

12 State Government

13 Political Parties

14 Local Government

15 Judicial System

16 Migration

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Energy and Power

27 Commerce

28 Public Finance

29 Taxation

30 Health

31 Housing

32 Education

33 Arts

34 Libraries and Museums

35 Communications

36 Press

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

38 Sports

39 Famous Arkansans

40 Bibliography

State of Arkansas

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME : French derivation of Akansas or Arkansas, a name given to the Quapaw Indians by other tribes.

NICKNAME : The Natural State.

CAPITAL: Little Rock.

ENTERED UNION: 15 June 1836 (25th).

OFFICIAL SEAL: Coat of arms surrounded by the words “Great Seal of the State of Arkansas.”

FLAG: On a red field, 25 stars on a blue band border, a white diamond containing the word “Arkansas” and four blue stars.

COAT OF ARMS: In front of an American eagle is a shield displaying a steamboat, plow, beehive, and sheaf of wheat, symbols of Arkansas’s industrial and agricultural wealth. The angel of mercy, the goddess of liberty encircled by 13 stars, and the sword of justice surround the eagle, which holds in its talons an olive branch and three arrows, and in its beak a banner bearing the state motto.

MOTTO: Regnat populus (The people rule).

SONG: “Arkansas.”

FLOWER: Apple blossom.

TREE: Pine.

BIRD: Mockingbird.

INSECT: Honeybee.

GEM: Diamond.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Robert E. Lee’s birthday, 19 January; Birthdays of Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert E. Lee, 3rd Monday in January; George Washington’s Birthday and Daisy Gatson Bates Day, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Veterans’ Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Eve, 24 December; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 6 AM CST = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

Located in the western south-central United States, Arkansas ranks 27th in size among the 50 states. The total area of Arkansas is 53,187 square miles (137,754 square kilometers), of which land takes up 52,078 square miles (134,882 square kilometers) and inland water, 1,109 square miles (2,872 square kilometers). Arkansas extends about 275 miles (443 kilometers) east-west and 240 miles (386 kilometers) north-south. The total boundary length of Arkansas is 1,168 miles (1,880 kilometers).

2 Topography

The Boston Mountains (sometimes called the Ozark Mountains) in the northwest and the Ouachita Mountains in the west-central region are Arkansas’s major uplands as well as the only mountain chains between the Appalachians and the Rockies. The wide valley of the Arkansas River separates the two chains. The Arkansas lowlands belong to two major regions: the Mississippi Alluvial Plain and the Gulf Coastal Plain. The highest elevation in Arkansas is Magazine Mountain, at 2,753 feet (840 meters), north of the Ouachitas in the Arkansas River Valley. The state’s lowest point, at 55 feet (17 meters), is on the Ouachita River in south-central Arkansas.

Arkansas’s largest lake is the artificial Lake Ouachita, covering 63 square miles (163 square kilometers). Lake Chicot, in southeastern Arkansas is the state’s largest natural lake, with a length of 18 miles (29 kilometers). Principal rivers include the Mississippi, forming most of the eastern boundary; the Arkansas, which begins in Colorado and flows through Kansas and Oklahoma before passing through Arkansas to the Mississippi; and the Red, White, Ouachita, and St. Francis rivers, all of which drain south and southeast into the Mississippi. Numerous springs are found in Arkansas, of which the best known are Mammoth Springs and Hot Springs.

Crowley’s Ridge, a unique strip of hills formed by sedimentary deposits and windblown sand, lies west of and parallel to the St. Francis River for about 180 miles (290 kilometers). The ridge is rich in fossils and has an unusual diversity of plant life.

Arkansas Population Profile

Total population estimate in 2006:2,810,872
Population change, 2000–06:5.1%
Hispanic or Latino†:4.7%
Population by race 
One race:98.6%
White:79.0%
Black or African American:15.4%
American Indian /Alaska Native:0.7%
Asian:0.9%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander:0.2%
Some other race:2.4%
Two or more races:1.4%

Population by Age Group

Major Cities by Population
City Population % change 2000–05
Notes: †A person of Hispanic or Latino origin may be of any race. NA indicates that data are not available.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey and Population Estimates. www.census.gov/ (accessed March 2007).
Little Rock184,5640.8
Fort Smith82,4812.8
Fayetteville66,65514.8
Springdale60,09631.2
Jonesboro59,3586.9
North Little Rock58,803-2.7
Pine Bluff52,693-4.3
Conway51,99920.5
Rogers48,35324.5
Hot Springs37,8475.9

3 Climate

Arkansas has a temperate climate with warmer temperatures and more humidity in the southern lowlands than in the mountainous regions. At Little Rock, the normal daily temperature ranges from 40°f (4°c) in January to 82°f (27°c) in July. A record low temperature of -29°f (-34°c) was set on 13 February 1905 at the Pond weather station. A record high of 120°f (49°c) was set on 10 August 1936 at the Ozark station.

Average yearly precipitation is approximately 45 inches (114 centimeters) in the mountainous areas and greater in the lowlands. Little Rock receives an annual average of 50.5 inches (128 centimeters). Snowfall in the capital averages 5.1 inches (12 centimeters) a year.

4 Plants and Animals

Arkansas has at least 2,600 native plants and there are many adopted exotic species. Cypresses, water oak, hickory, and ash grow in the Mississippi Valley, while Crowley’s Ridge is thick with tulip trees and beeches. The St. Francis Valley is home to the rare cork tree. A forest belt of oak, hickory, and pine stretches across south-central and southwestern Arkansas. The state has at least 26 native varieties of orchid and the passion flower is abundant.

Arkansas’s native animals include 15 varieties of bat and 3 each of rabbit and squirrel. There are also mink, armadillo, white-tailed deer, and eastern chipmunks. Black bears roam the swamp and mountain regions. Arkansas has 20 frog and toad species, 23 varieties of salamander, and 36 kinds of snake. Among 300 native birds are such game birds as the eastern wild turkey, mourning dove, and bobwhite quail. Among local fish are catfish, gar, and the unusual paddle fish. The Arkansas Game and Fish Commission lists the leopard darter and fat pocketbook pearly mussel as threatened species. The peregrine falcon, Indiana and gray bats, and the eastern prairie fringed orchid are among those listed as endangered.

5 Environmental Protection

The Arkansas Pollution Control Commission was created in 1949 and the Arkansas Department of of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) was created in 1971. The Commission determines the environmental policies for the state and the Department employees are responsible for implementing those policies. In 2001, the ADEQ focused on recycling waste oil, resulting in a 91% increase in the amount of waste oil recycled. In 2002, the ADEQ turned its attention to recycling of wood waste.

In 1987, the state adopted some of the first “ecoregion” water quality standards in the nation. These standards recognize the distinct physical, chemical, and biological properties of the six geographical regions of the state and establish separate water quality standards within each region.

Citizens’ groups actively involved with environmental issues include: the Arkansas Native Plant Society, Arkansas Audubon Society, Arkansas Canoe Club, Arkansas Herpetological Society, Arkansas Wildlife Federation, Audubon Society of Central Arkansas, League of Women Voters, Ozark Society, Sierra Club—Arkansas Chapter, and National Water Center. The Arkansas Environmental Federation presents industry’s viewpoints on environmental issues.

Arkansas Population by Race

Census 2000 was the first national census in which the instructions to respondents said, “Mark one or more races.” This table shows the number of people who are of one, two, or three or more races. For those claiming two races, the number of people belonging to the various categories is listed. The U.S. government conducts a census of the population every ten years.

 Number Percent
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000: Redistricting Data. Press release issued by the Redistricting Data Office. Washington, D.C., March, 2001. A dash (—) indicates that the percent is less than 0.1.
Total population2,673,400100.0
One race2,637,65698.7
Two races33,8181.3
White and Black or African American4,7730.2
White and American Indian/Alaska Native16,4390.6
White and Asian3,0610.1
White and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander351
White and some other race5,6080.2
Black or African American and American Indian/Alaska Native1,088
Black or African American and Asian406
Black or African American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander89
Black or African American and some other race600
American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian146
American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander59
American Indian/Alaska Native and some other race262
Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander275
Asian and some other race484
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander and some other race177
Three or more races1,9260.1

The Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission was established in 1975 for the preservation of rivers and natural areas and to serve as a source of information on plant and animal species of Arkansas.

In 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency’s database listed 78 hazardous waste sites, 10 of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006, in Arkansas.

6 Population

In 2006, Arkansas ranked 32nd in the United States in population with an estimated total of 2,810,872 residents. The average population density in 2004 was 52.9 persons per square mile (20.4 persons per square kilometer). The Census Bureau estimates that the population will be 2.96 million by 2015.

As of 2005, about 14% of all residents were 65 years old or older. About 25% were 18 years old or younger. The median age in 2004 was 36.6. The largest city in Arkansas is Little Rock, which had a 2005 estimated population of 184,564. Other major cities (with estimated population figures from 2005) include Fort Smith, 82,481; Fayetteville, 66,655; Springdale, 60,096; Jonesboro, 59,358; and North Little Rock, 58,803.

7 Ethnic Groups

As of 2000, Arkansas’s population is predominantly white, composed mainly of descendants of immigrants from the British Isles. The largest minority group consisted of about 418,950 black Americans. As of 2006, blacks accounted for 15.4% of the population. In 2006, 0.7% of the population was Native American. In the same year, 4.7% of the total population were of Hispanic or Latino origin. The Asian population was estimated at 0.9% and Pacific Islanders made up 0.2% of the population. The 2000 census listed 3,974 Vietnamese, 3,126 Chinese, 2,489 Filipinos, 3,104 Asian Indians, and 1,036 Japanese. The total foreign-born population numbered 73,690, or 2.8% of all Arkansas residents.

8 Languages

Arkansas English is essentially a blend of Southern and South Midland speech, with South Midland dominating the mountainous northwest and Southern the southeastern agricultural areas. A few place names, such as Arkansas itself, Choctaw, Caddo, and Ouachita, attest to the onetime presence of Native Americans, mostly members of the Caddoan tribes, in the Territory of Arkansas. Common in the east and south are the terms redworm (earthworm) and mosquito hawk (dragonfly). In the northwest the south Midland terms include whirlygig (merry-go-round) and sallet (garden greens).

As of 2000, about 2,368,450 Arkansans (95%) who are five years old or older speak only English at home. The most common other languages spoken at home are Spanish (82,465 people), German (7,444), and French (7,312).

9 Religions

The largest denomination in Arkansas is the Southern Baptist Convention, which had 685,301 adherents in 2000. The first Baptist church was likely that of the Salem congregation, begun in 1818 near what is now Pochahontas. Other leading Protestant groups in 2000 were the United Methodist Church, with 179,383 adherents; the American Baptist Association, 115,916 adherents; the Baptist Missionary Association of America, 87,244 adherents; and the Churches of Christ, 86,342 adherents. In 2004, The Roman Catholic population of Arkansas was 106,051. The estimated Jewish population in 2000 was 1,600. About 42.9% of the population were not counted as members of any religious organization.

10 Transportation

The most important railroad—the St. Louis, Iron Mountain, and Southern line—reached Little Rock in 1872 and was subsequently acquired by financier Jay Gould, who added the Little Rock and Ft. Smith line to it in 1882. As of 2003, Arkansas had 3,484 rail miles (5,609 kilometers) of track. As of 2006, Amtrak passenger trains serviced Little Rock, Walnut Ridge, Malvern, Arkadelphia, and Texarkana en route from St. Louis to Dallas.

By 2004, Arkansas had 98,606 miles (158,755 kilometers) of public roads, streets, and highways. During the same year, about 950,000 automobiles and 938,000 trucks were registered in Arkansas, and there were 1,862,430 licensed drivers.

Beginning in the 1820s, steamboats replaced keelboats and flatboats on Arkansas rivers. Steamboat transportation reached its peak during 1870–90 until supplanted by the railroads that were opened during the same two decades. Development of the Arkansas River, completed during the early 1970s, made the waterway commercially navigable all the way to Tulsa.

In 2005, Arkansas had 238 airports and 83 heliports. The principal airport in the state is Adams Field at Little Rock.

11 History

Foremost among the Native American tribes in Arkansas were the Quapaw, an agricultural people who had migrated to southern Arkansas in the early 16th century; the Caddo, fighters from Texas; the warlike Osage; and the Choctaw and Chickasaw of the northeast. Another prominent tribe, the Cherokee, arrived in the early 19th century, after federal and state authorities had driven them westward. Nearly all these tribes had been expelled to what is now Oklahoma by the time Arkansas became a state.

The first Europeans to set foot in Arkansas were Spaniards, led by Hernando de Soto in 1541. More than 100 years later, in 1673, a small band of Frenchmen led by Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, and Louis Jolliet, a fur trader and explorer, ended their voyage down the Mississippi at the mouth of the Arkansas River. Nine years later, the French explorer Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, claimed all the Mississippi Valley for his king, Louis XIV.

Statehood In 1762 France ceded the territory to Spain. Restored to France in 1800, the territory was sold to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. After first becoming part of the Missouri Territory, Arkansas gained territorial status in its own right in 1819. The territorial capital was moved from Arkansas Post to Little Rock in 1821. By 1835, Arkansas Territory had a population of 52,240, including 9,838 slaves. It was admitted to the Union in 1836 as a slave state, paired with the free state of Michigan in accordance with the Missouri Compromise.

Increasing numbers of slaves were brought into the largely agricultural state as the cultivation of cotton spread. Arkansas, like the rest of the South, was headed for secession, although it waited to commit itself until the Civil War had begun. There was considerable Union sentiment in the state, but pro-Union sympathies crumbled after Confederate guns fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina. On 6 May 1861, at a convention held in Little Rock, Arkansans voted 69–1 to secede.

By September 1863, the Union Army had taken Little Rock, and the Capital was moved to Washington, in Hempstead County, until the conclusion of hostilities in 1865. Like virtually all white southerners, Arkansas’s white majority hated the postwar Reconstruction government. In 1874 the white Democratic majority adopted a new state constitution, throwing out the carpetbagger constitution of 1868.

Modernization Industrialization, urbanization, and modernization did not come to Arkansas until after the depression of the 1930s. Following World War II, the state became the first in the South to racially integrate its public colleges and universities. Little Rock’s school board decided in 1954 to comply with the US Supreme Court’s racial desegregation decision. Nevertheless, in September 1957, Governor Orval E. Faubus called out the National Guard to block the integration

of Central High School at Little Rock. US President Dwight D. Eisenhower enforced a federal court order to integrate the school by sending in federal troops. Faubus, then in his second term, was elected to a third term and then to three more.

The contrast between Faubus and his successor could not have been greater. Winthrop Rockefeller, millionaire heir of a famous family, moved to Arkansas from New York in the early 1950s, establishing himself as a gentleman rancher and building a Republican Party organization in one of the most strongly Democratic states in the Union. In 1966, Rockefeller became the first Republican governor of Arkansas since Reconstruction. He helped bring a new image and spirit to the state.

Rockefeller’s successors have continued his progressive approach. Governor Bill Clinton, who became United States President in 1992, introduced investment tax credits to help corporations modernize their facilities and thereby to create jobs. Clinton also signed a “bare bones” health insurance law which dropped state requirements for some of the more costly coverages and thus made health insurance affordable for small businesses.

Clinton increased spending for education and passed legislation requiring competency tests for teachers. But Clinton remained hampered in his efforts to increase government spending because the state constitution requires that any increase in the state income tax obtain approval of two-thirds of the Legislature. Bill Clinton was elected president of the United States in 1992.

Arkansas Presidential Vote by Political Parties, 1948–2004

YEAR ARKANSAS WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN STATES’ RIGHTS DEMOCRAT
* Won US presidential election.
1948*Truman (D)149,65950,95940,068
1952Stevenson (D)226,300177,155
    CONSTITUTION
1956Stevenson (D)213,277186,2877,008
    NAT’L STATES’ RIGHTS
1960*Kennedy (D)215,049184,50828,952
1964*Johnson (D)314,197243,2642,965
    AMERICAN IND.
1968Wallace (AI)188,228190,759240,982
    AMERICAN
1972*Nixon (R)199,892448,5412,887
1976*Carter (D)498,604267,903
    LIBERTARIAN
1980*Reagan (R)398,041403,1648,970
1984*Reagan (R)388,646534,7742,221
1988*Bush (R)349,237466,5783,297
    IND. (PEROT)
1992*Clinton (D)505,823337,32499,132
1996*Clinton (D)475,171325,41669,884
    PROGRESSIVE (NADER)
2000*Bush, G. W. (R)422,768472,94028,747
2004*Bush, G. W. (R)469,953572,898

Two school shootings shocked the state in recent years. On 24 March 1998, two students (ages 11 and 13) went on a rampage in a Jonesboro school, killing four students and one teacher, and wounding ten others. Another shooting, in the small community of Prairie Grove on 11 May 2000, involved an angry seventh-grade student who exchanged gunfire with a police officer. Both were injured.

Arkansas continues to rank among the poorest states in the nation, with a per capita personal income in 2004 of only $25,814 (49th among the states).

12 State Government

Arkansas’s fifth constitution, enacted in 1874, had been amended 91 times by January 2005. Arkansas’s legislature, the general assembly, consists of a 35-member senate and a 100-member house of representatives. Senators serve four-year terms; representatives serve for two years. A bill passed by both houses of the legislature becomes law if: it is signed by the governor; the governor’s veto is overridden by a majority of all elected members of each house; or the bill is neither signed nor returned by the governor within five days when the legislature is in session.

The executive officers elected statewide are the governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, and attorney general, all of whom serve four-year terms. The governor may serve a maximum of two consecutive terms. The governor and lieutenant governor must be at least 30 years old, and must be Arkansas residents

for seven years. As of 2004, the governor’s salary was $75,296, and legislators’ salaries were $13,751 per biennial session.

13 Political Parties

Republicans ruled during Reconstruction, which ended in Arkansas after the election of 1872. During the 1890s, as in the rest of the South, Democrats succeeded in passing laws imposing segregation and disenfranchising blacks as well as poor whites.

Although elected to the governorship as a progressive in 1954, Democrat Orval Faubus took a segregationist stand on racial matters in 1957. Faubus’s successor, progressive Republican Winthrop Rockefeller, was followed by three more progressives, all Democrats: Dale Bumpers, David Pryor, and Bill Clinton. In a major upset, Clinton was defeated in 1980 by Republican Frank White, but Clinton recaptured the state-house in 1982 and won reelection in 1984, 1986, and 1990. Clinton ran for and won the US presidency in 1992 and was reelected to a second term in 1996. In 1994, Democratic governor Jim Guy Tucker was one of the few of his party nationwide to resist a Republican landslide. Tucker was subsequently forced to resign due to scandal and was succeeded by his Lieutenant-Governor, Republican Mike Huckabee, who was elected to a full term in 1998 and reelected in 2002. In 2006, Democrat Mike Beebe was elected governor. In the 2004 presidential election, Arkansas made Republican George W. Bush its winner with 54% of the votes.

Both US senators from Arkansas were Democrats following the 2006 midterm elections.

Arkansas Governors: 1836–2007

Independent Democrat – Indep-Dem
1836–1840James Sevier ConwayDemocrat
1840–1844Archibald YellDemocrat
1844Samuel AdamsDemocrat
1844–1849Thomas Stevenson DrewDemocrat
1849John WilliamsonDemocrat
1849Richard C. ByrdDemocrat
1849–1851John Selden RoaneDemocrat
1851John R. HamptonDemocrat
1852–1860Elias Nelson ConwayDemocrat
1860–1862Henry Massey RectorIndep-Dem
1862Thomas FletcherDemocrat
1862–1864Harris FlanaginDemocrat
1864–1868Isaac MurphyUnionist
1868–1871Powell ClaytonRepublican
1871–1873Ozra A. HadleyRepublican
1873–1874Elisha BaxterRepublican
1874–1877Augustus Hill GarlandDemocrat
1877–1881William Read MillerDemocrat
1881–1883Thomas James ChurchillDemocrat
1883–1885James Henderson BerryDemocrat
1885Ben T. EmbryDemocrat
1885–1889Simon P. HughesDemocrat
1889–1893James Philip EagleDemocrat
1893–1895William Meade FishbackDemocrat
1895–1897James Paul ClarkeDemocrat
1897–1901Daniel Webster JonesDemocrat
1901–1907Jeff DavisDemocrat
1907John Sebastian LittleDemocrat
1907John I. MooreDemocrat
1907–1909Xenophon Overton PindallDemocrat
1909Jesse M. MartinDemocrat
1909–1913George W. DonagheyDemocrat
1913Joseph Taylor RobinsonDemocrat
1913William Kavanaugh OldhamDemocrat
1913Junius Marion FutrellDemocrat
1913–1917George Washington HaysDemocrat
1917–1921Charles Hillman BroughDemocrat
1921–1925Thomas Chipman McRaeDemocrat
1925–1927Tom Jefferson TerralDemocrat
1927–1928John Ellis MartineauDemocrat
1928–1933Harvey ParnellDemocrat
1933–1937Junius Marion FutrellDemocrat
1937–1941Carl Edward BaileyDemocrat
1941–1945Homer Martin AdkinsDemocrat
1945–1949Benjamin Travis LaneyDemocrat
1949–1953Sidney Sanders McMathDemocrat
1953–1955Francis Adams CherryDemocrat
1955–1967Orval Eugene FaubusDemocrat
1967–1971Winthrop RockefellerRepublican
1971–1975Dale Leon BumpersDemocrat
1975Robert Cowley RileyDemocrat
1975–1979David Hampton PryorDemocrat
1979Joe PurcellDemocrat
1979–1981William Jefferson ClintonDemocrat
1981–1983Frank D. WhiteRepublican
1983–1992William Jefferson ClintonDemocrat
1992–1999James Guy TuckerDemocrat
1999–2006Mike HuckabeeRepublican
2006–Mike BeebeDemocrat

The state’s US representatives following those elections included one Republican and three Democrats. Also in 2006, the state legislature had 27 Democrats and 8 Republicans in the state senate, and 75 Democrats and 25 Republicans in the state house. There were 23 women serving in the state legislature following the 2006 elections, or 17%.

14 Local Government

There are 75 counties in Arkansas, 10 of them with two county seats. Each county is governed by a quorum court, consisting of 9–15 justices of the peace, elected for two-year terms. Elected county executives, who serve two-year terms, include the sheriff, assessor, coroner, treasurer, and county supervisor. Arkansas had 499 municipalities in 2005. There were 310 public school districts.

15 Judicial System

Arkansas’s highest court is the supreme court, consisting of a chief justice and six associate justices, elected for staggered eight-year terms. An appeals court of 12 judges, also elected for eight-year terms, was established in 1978. Other courts include the circuit courts (law) and the chancery courts (equity).

Arkansas had an FBI Violent Crime Index rate of 499.1 per 100,000 population in 2001. In 2004 there were 13,807 prisoners in state and federal correctional institutions.

16 Migration

Near the end of the 18th century, Indians from east of the Mississippi, displaced by white settlement, entered the area now known as Arkansas. However, as the availability of cheap land in Louisiana Territory drew more and more white settlers, particularly veterans of the War of 1812 who had been promised land, the Indians were pressured to cross the border from Arkansas to present-day Oklahoma.

After the end of the Mexican War, thousands of Arkansans immigrated to Texas and others were attracted to California in 1849 by the gold rush. Because of a law passed in 1859 requiring free blacks to leave the state by the end of the year or risk being enslaved, Arkansas’s population of free blacks dropped from 682 in 1858 to 144 in 1860. During Reconstruction, the state government encouraged immigration by both blacks and whites. Later immigrants included Italians and, in the early 1900s, Germans.

During the Depression era (1930s) and thereafter, Arkansas lost a substantial proportion of its farm population and many blacks left the state for the industrial cities of the Midwest and the east and west coasts.

Between 1990 and 1998, the state’s overall population increased by 8%. In the period 2000–06, the population increased by 5.1%.

17 Economy

Cotton dominated Arkansas’s agricultural economy until well into the 20th century, when rice, soybeans, poultry, and fish farming diversified the economy. Coal mining, bauxite mining, the extraction of oil, and lumbering all developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but industrialization was limited.

Not until the 1950s did Arkansas enjoy significant success in attracting industry, thanks in large part to the efforts of Winthrop Rockefeller. By the mid-1990s, Arkansas’s principal industries had become manufacturing, dominated by lumber and wood products companies; agriculture; forestry; and tourism. Fifty-seven Fortune 500 firms are found in Arkansas, including Wal-mart Stores, Tyson Foods, Dillard Department Stores, Beverly Enterprises, and Alltel (all headquartered in the state).

Arkansas’s gross state product in 2004 was $80.9 billion.

18 Income

In 2004, Arkansas had a per capita personal income of $25,814, which ranked 49th in the United States (including the District of Columbia). In 2004, the median household income was $33,948, compared to the national average of $44,473. In 2001, the median income for a family of four was $47,838, compared to the national average of $63,278. For the period 2000–04, 17.6% of Arkansans lived below the federal poverty level, compared to 12.4% of the population nationwide.

19 Industry

Manufacturing in Arkansas is diverse, ranging from blue jeans to bicycles, though resource industries such as rice processing and woodworking still play a major role.

Earnings of persons employed in Arkansas totaled $6.4 billion in 2004. The largest industries in 2004 were food manufacturing, accounting for $1.3 billion of total wages; fabricated metal product manufacturing, $610.7 million wages; and plastics and rubber products manufacturing paying $537.290 million in wages.

20 Labor

In April 2006, the civilian labor force in Arkansas numbered 1,398,400, with approximately 71,800 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 5.1%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. It was estimated that in 2006 4.6% of the labor force was employed in construction; 16.5% in manufacturing; 20.8% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 4.4% in finance, insurance, and real estate; 30.1% in services; and 17.4% in government.

Chartered in 1865, the Little Rock Typographical Union, consisting of Arkansas Gazette employees, was the first labor union in the state. The United Mine Workers was established in the Ft. Smith area by 1898. Six years later, the UMW led in the founding of the Arkansas Federation of Labor. Union strength waned after the war, however, and the labor movement is not a powerful force in the state today. In 2005, 54,000 of Arkansas’s 1,138,000 employed wage and salary workers were members of unions. This represented 4.8% of those so employed. The national average is 12%.

21 Agriculture

Farm marketings in Arkansas were over $6 billion in 2005 (11th in the United States). The state is the nation’s leading producer of rice and is among the leaders in cotton, soybeans, and sorghum. Cotton was first grown in the state about 1800 along the river valleys and became widespread in the post-Civil War period. As elsewhere in the South, sharecropping by tenant farmers predominated well into the 20th century, until modernization gradually brought an end to the system.

During 2004, Arkansas produced 124,425,000 bushels of soybeans, 32,860 bushels of wheat, 3,570,000 tons of hay, and 4,704,000 bushels of sorghum for grain. The rice harvest in 2004 was 96,600,000 hundred-weight (4.39 million kilograms) and the cotton crop was 2,085,000 bales.

22 Domesticated Animals

Poultry farms are found throughout Arkansas, but especially in the northern and western regions. Broiler production accounts for over 40% of the state’s agricultural receipts. Arkansas was the second-highest broiler-producing state in the United States in 2003 (after Georgia). About 5.4 billion pounds (2.5 billion kilograms) of broilers were valued at $2 billion.

In 2004, it was estimated that Arkansas produced 3.5 billion eggs. Arkansas produced 477 million pounds (217 million kilograms) of turkey valued at $176.5 million in 2003. The same year Arkansas sold 125.9 million pounds (57 million kilograms) of chickens valued at $8.8 million.

The dairy yield of the state’s 29,000 milk cows in 2003 was 352 million pounds (160 million kilograms) of milk. In 2005, Arkansas had an estimated 1.9 million cattle and calves valued at $1.5 billion. In 2004, Arkansas had an estimated 330,000 hogs and pigs valued at $32.3 million.

23 Fishing

As of 2005, the state ranked second only to Mississippi in catfish farming. The same year, there were 153 catfish operations covering 31,500 acres (14,300 hectares) of water surface, with 100.6 million stocker-size and 185 million fingerling/fry catfish. Some producers rotate fish crops with row crops, periodically draining their fish ponds and planting grains in the rich and well-fertilized soil. Most public fishing areas are frequently stocked with trout. Arkansas had 685,634 licensed anglers in 2004. There are three national fish hatcheries in Arkansas.

24 Forestry

In 2003, forestland comprised 18,771,000 acres (7,596,000 hectares), 56% of the state’s total land area. Of that total, 18,373,000 acres (7,435,000 hectares) were commercial timberland. The southwest and central plains, the state’s timber belt, constitute one of the most concentrated sources of yellow pine in the United States. Lumber production in 2004 totaled 2.9 billion board feet, third in the United States. Three national forests in Arkansas covered a total of 3,540,000 acres (1,432,638 hectares) in 2003.

25 Mining

In 2004, the US Geological Survey estimate of the value of mineral production in Arkansas was $518 million. 33 million metric tons of crushed stone were produced in 2004, as well as 9.37 million metric tons of construction sand and gravel. Arkansas continues to be the leading bromine-producing state, accounting for most US production. Bromine, crushed stone, cement (both portland and masonry), and construction sand and gravel, respectively, were the top four non-fuel minerals, accounting for 92% of all nonfuel mineral output by value.

26 Energy and Power

As of 2003, Arkansas power plants had a total production of 50.4 billion kilowatt hours, with 82.6% of the total production coming from electric utilities. As of 2006, the state had one nuclear power plant

During 2004, 18,000 barrels per day of crude petroleum were produced and reserves were 51 million barrels. Production of natural gas was 169.6 billion cubic feet (4.8 billion cubic meters), with 1,853 billion cubic feet (52.1 billion cubic meters) of reserves remaining. About 7,000 short tons of coal were mined in 2004.

27 Commerce

Arkansas had wholesale sales totaling $34.4 billion in 2002. Retail sales that year totaled $25.6 billion. In 2005, exports of goods produced within Arkansas amounted to $3.8 billion, ranking the state 36th in the nation.

28 Public Finance

Under the 1874 constitution, state expenditures may not exceed revenues. For 2006, however, revenues for the state were at about $14 billion and expenditures were $12.5 billion. The largest general expenditures were for education ($4.7 billion), public welfare ($2.3 billion), and highways ($1.1 billion). State government debt totaled $3.7 billion, or about $1,363 per person.

29 Taxation

In 2005, the state income tax ranged from 1% to 7%, which ranks the state 49th in the nation. The state sales tax is 6%. The state also imposes severance taxes on oil, natural gas, and other natural resources, along with levies on liquor, gasoline, and cigarettes. City and county property taxes in Arkansas are among the lowest in the nation.

Total tax revenues for 2005 were at approximately $6.5 million, 28.6% of which came from individual income taxes and 39.3% from the sales tax.

In 2005, the infant death rate was 7.6 per 1,000 live births. The overall death rate in 2003 was 10.2 per 1000 resident population. The incidence of death due to cerebrovascular disease was 82.4 per 100,000 population, the highest in the nation. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was 6.7 per 100,000 of the population. The HIV death rate in Arkansas was 3 per 100,000 population the same year. Of adults age 18 years and older, 25.5% were smokers in 2004. In 2003 state health care expenditures totaled $3 million.

In 2003, Arkansas’s 88 hospitals had 9,900 beds. Hospital expenses were $1,130 per inpatient day. In 2004, the state had 205 physicians per 100,000 population and a total of 729 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. About 17% of the adult population was uninsured in 2002.

31 Housing

In 2004, there were an estimated 1,233,203 housing units in Arkansas, of which 1,099,086 were occupied. In the same year, 65.5% of all housing units were owner-occupied. About 69% of all units were single-family, detached homes and 12.7% were mobile homes. The average household size was 2.43 people. It was estimated that about 98,716 units were without telephone service, 1,709 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 5,662 lacked complete kitchen facilities. Though most units relied on gas and electricity for heating fuels, about 40,890 households used wood for a primary heating source.

About 15,900 new housing units were authorized in 2004. The median home value was $79,006. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $773 while the monthly cost for renters was at a median of $517.

32 Education

In 2004, 79.2% of all Arkansans 25 years of age and older were high school graduates. Only 18.8% had completed four or more years of college.

In 1957, the Little Rock school system became the site for public controversy when the school board announced its voluntary compliance with the Supreme Court’s desegregation decision. Though several public schools in the state had been peaceably integrated, on 5 September 1957, then Governor Faubus ordered the National Guard to seize Central High School to prevent the entry of nine black students. The National Guardsmen were withdrawn by a federal court order later that month and President Dwight Eisenhower dispatched federal troops to Little Rock to patrol the school grounds until the end of the 1958 spring semester. By 1980, Central High School had a nearly equal balance of black and white students and the state’s school system was one of the most integrated in the South.

Total enrollment in public schools was estimated at 451,000 in fall 2002. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $3.5 billion. Enrollment in nonpublic schools in fall 2003 was 27,500.

As of fall 2002, there were 127,372 students enrolled in college or graduate school. In the same year Arkansas had 47 degree-granting institutions. The largest institution of higher education in the state is the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville (established in 1871). The state university system also has campuses at Fort Smith, Little Rock, Monticello, and Pine Bluff and a medical school.

33 Arts

The Arkansas Arts Council was established in 1971 as one of six agencies of the Department of Arkansas Heritage. Arkansas recieves a total of $616,200 in grants for state art organizations from the National Endowment for the Arts in 2005. Arkansas also received $1.7 million dollars from the National Endowment for the Humanities and is affiliated with the Mid-America Arts Alliance.

Little Rock is the home of the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra, the Arkansas Festival Ballet, the Arkansas Repertory Theater, and the Arkansas Arts Center, which holds art exhibits and classes, and children’s theater performances. The Shakespeare Festival of Arkansas is staged at the Center Stage Theater in Little Rock.

The best-known center for traditional arts and crafts is the Ozark Folk Center at Mountain View. The Arkansas Folk Festival is held there during two weekends in April and the Family Harvest Festival for three weeks in October. Lyon College at Batesville sponsors two-week summer workshops in Ozark crafts, music, and folklore in association with the center. The Grand Prairie Festival of Arts is held at Stuttgart in September.

34 Libraries and Museums

During 2001, Arkansas had 35 library systems, with a total of 209 libraries, of which 169 were branches. That year, the state’s public libraries held a total circulation of 10.5 million. Important collections include those of the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, Arkansas State University at Jonesboro, the Central Arkansas Library System of Little Rock, and the News Library of the Arkansas Gazette, also in Little Rock.

There were 78 museums in 2000 and a number of historic sites. Principal museums include the Arkansas Arts Center, the Museum of Science and History, and the University of Arkansas Museum at Fayetteville, specializing in archaeology, anthropology, and the sciences. Hampson Museum State Park, near Wilson, has one of the

largest collections of Mound Builder artifacts in the United States. Civil War battle sites include the Pea Ridge National Military Park, the Prairie Grove Battlefield State Park, and the Arkansas Post National Memorial. The Ft. Smith National Historic Site includes buildings and museums from the days when the town was a military outpost on the border of Indian Territory.

35 Communications

In 2004, 88.6% of the state’s households had telephones, the lowest rate in the nation. There were 63 major radio stations (7 AM, 56 FM) and 17 major television stations in 2005. A total of 23,195 Internet domain names were registered as of 2000.

36 Press

The first newspaper in Arkansas, the Arkansas Gazette (established in 1819), was the state’s most widely read and influential journal until 1991 when publication ceased. In 2005, there were 14 morning dailies, 14 evening papers, and 16 Sunday papers. The leading dailies (with 2005 circulations) were the Southwest Times Record (37,669) and the Arkansas Democrat Gazette (182,391).

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

In 2004, the state had about 218 million visitors with travel expenditures reaching over $3.9 billion dollars. The state has 14 tourist information centers.

Leading attractions are the mineral waters and recreational facilities at Hot Springs, Eureka Springs, Mammoth Spring, and Heber Springs. The Crater of Diamonds, near Murfreesboro, is the only known public source of natural diamonds in North America. For a fee, visitors may hunt for diamonds and keep any they find. More than 100,000 diamonds have been found in the area since 1906. The World’s Championship Duck Calling Contest is held at the beginning of the winter duck season in Stuttgart. The city of Hamburg hosts the Armadillo Festival.

38 Sports

Arkansas has no major league professional sports teams, but has a minor league baseball team, the Travelers. Oaklawn Park in Hot Springs has a 62-day thoroughbred-racing season each spring and dog races are held in West Memphis from April through November. Several major rodeos take place in summer and fall, including the Rodeo of the Ozarks in Springdale in early July.

The University of Arkansas has competed in the Southeastern Conference since 1990. The Razorback football team has won seven bowl games. The men’s basketball team won the NCAA Division I basketball championship in 1994 and won or shared the Southwest Conference championship five times. They won the Southeastern Conference in 1994 and 2000.

39 Famous Arkansans

Arkansas has produced one president of the United States, William Jefferson Clinton (b. 1946). Clinton, a Democrat, defeated incumbent George H. W. Bush in the 1992 presidential election and was reelected in 1996. Clinton was elected governor of Arkansas in 1978, becoming the nation’s youngest governor.

Hattie W. Caraway (b.Tennessee, 1878–1950), was the first woman elected to the US Senate, serving from 1931 to 1945. Senator J. William Fulbright (b.Missouri, 1905–1995) was chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

John H. Johnson (b.1918), publisher of the nation’s leading black-oriented magazines—Ebony, Jet, and others—is an Arkansan. John Gould Fletcher (1886–1950) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning

poet. Another prominent Arkansan resident poet and writer is Maya Angelou (b.Missouri, 1928). Perhaps the best-known country music performers from Arkansas are Johnny Cash (1932–2003) and Glen Campbell (b.1938).

Notable Arkansas sports personalities include football coach Paul “Bear” Bryant (1913–1983); Brooks Robinson (b.1937), considered by some the best-fielding third baseman in baseball history; Lou Brock (b.1939), who was known for his base-stealing ability; and star pass-catcher Lance Alworth (b.Mississippi, 1940).

40 Bibliography

BOOKS

Altman, Linda Jacobs. Arkansas. New York: Benchmark Books, 2000.

Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York: Bantam, 1971.

Bristow, M. J. State Songs of America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Kule, Elaine A. Arkansas Facts and Symbols. Rev. ed. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2003.

Lantier, Patricia. Arkansas. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens, 2006.

McNair, Sylvia. Arkansas. New York: Children’s Press, 2001.

Murray, Julie. Arkansas. Edina, MN: Abdo Publishing, 2006.

WEB SITES

Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. Arkansas: the Natural State. www.arkansas.com/ (accessed March 1, 2007).

Official Website for the State of Arkansas. www.state.ar.us/ (accessed March 1, 2007).

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Arkansas

Arkansas

Nicknamed the Natural State, Arkansas was the twenty-fifth state to enter the Union (June 15, 1836). It is located in the western south-central United States, bordered by Missouri , Oklahoma , Texas , Louisiana , Mississippi , and Tennessee . Arkansas ranks twenty-seventh in size among the fifty states, with a total area of 53,187 square miles (137,754 square kilometers).

The first Europeans to explore Arkansas were Spaniards, led by Hernando de Soto (c.1496–1542), in 1541. Prior to their appearance, the region was inhabited by Quapaw, Caddo, Osage, and Choctaw as well as Cherokee tribes.

In 2006, Arkansas ranked thirty-second in the nation's population, with an estimated total of 2,810,872 residents. Its capital city, Little Rock, was home to just under 185,000 people. Although much of Arkansas's population was once African American, the state lost a substantial portion of its farm population during the Great Depression (1929–41; a worldwide economic crisis), and many African Americans migrated to industrialized states to look for work. Modern Arkansas is predominantly white.

Although Arkansas has a diverse manufacturing economy ranging from textiles to bicycle production and including a major woodworking industry, its economy continues to be enhanced by the cotton industry. Other major agricultural industries in the state include soybeans, poultry, and fish farming. Arkansas is home to more than fifty Fortune 500 firms, including Tyson Foods and Wal-Mart Stores.

Arkansas is a poor state. In 2004, 17.9 percent of its population lived below the poverty line, which made Arkansas the fifth poorest state in the nation. In 2003, 18 percent of the state's total population had no health insurance. Of that population, 47 percent had family members who worked full time, year-round.

In 1957, the Little Rock school system became the site for public controversy when the school board announced its voluntary compliance with the Supreme Court 's 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, which called for the desegregation of public schools . On September 5 of that year, nine African American students attempted to enter Central High School. (See Little Rock Central High School Desegregation .) Governor Orval Faubus (1910–1994) ordered the National Guard to take over the school to prevent these children from attending. Guardsmen were removed via court order later that month. By 1980, Central High was one of the most racially balanced schools in the South.

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Arkansas

ARKANSAS

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Arkansas

Arkansas

Regnat populus (Let the people rule).

At a Glance

Name: The word Arkansas is from the French name for the Quapaw tribe, the Arkansa, and the region the tribe inhabited.

Nicknames: Natural State, Razorback State, Land of Opportunity

Capital: Little Rock

Size: 53,182 sq. mi.

Population: 2,673,400

Statehood: Arkansas became the 25th state on June 15, 1836.

Electoral votes: 6 (2004)

U.S. Representatives: 4 (until 2003)

State tree: pine

State flower: apple blossom

State bird: mockingbird

Highest point: Magazine Mountain, 2,753 ft.

The Place

Arkansas is located on the borders of the southern and central parts of the United States. The Ozark Plateau and Ouachita Mountains in the northern and western parts of the state are mountainous and densely forested. The southern and eastern parts of the state are lower in elevation. The Mississippi River forms the eastern border of the state and makes this region suitable for agricultural use. The West Gulf Coastal Plain, in the south and southwestern portion of the state, is low in elevation and has pine forests, natural gas and petroleum deposits, and beds of bromine salts.

Arkansas has many lakes and rivers. The largest is the Arkansas River, which flows southeast across the state. Natural springs are also common around the Ozark Plateau and Ouachita Mountains. Summers in Arkansas are hot and humid while winters are cool, especially in the mountains.

The Past

Native Americans have been living in Arkansas for approximately 12,000 years. The first Europeans to explore the state were Spaniards. In 1541, Hernando de Soto searched for gold and silver deposits in Arkansas. In 1682, French explorers claimed the Louisiana Territory, which included Arkansas. French colonists settled the region and began to exploit its natural resources, including trees and animal furs.

Arkansas: Facts and Firsts

  1. Arkansas is home to 50 state parks, 6 national parks, 2.5 million acres of national forests, seven national scenic byways, and three state scenic byways.
  2. Arkansas's hot springs are nationally known. Some famous Americans, including President Franklin D. Roosevelt, baseball player Babe Ruth, and gangster Al Capone, visited Hot Springs National Park.
  3. Buffalo National River is one of the few free-flowing rivers in the continental United States.
  4. Arkansas has the country's only active diamond mine, Crater of Diamonds State Park, which is located near Murfreesboro. There, tourists and prospectors alike can mine for diamonds and other precious gems, including amethysts, garnets, jaspers, agates, and quartz crystals.
  5. Texarkana is divided by the Arkansas-Texas state line. The city has two governments—one for the Arkansas side and one for the Texas side. The Texarkana post office building straddles the state line, standing in both states.

Spain gained control of the Louisiana Territory in 1762 through a series of wars. In 1800, the region returned to French rule, until the United States bought the territory through the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.

In 1836, Arkansas was admitted to the Union as a slave state. When the Civil War broke out, Arkansas eventually seceded (withdrew) from the Union and joined the Confederate States of America.

Arkansas: State Smart

Arkansas is home to the largest retail headquarters in the United States: that of Wal-Mart, located in Bentonville. In 2000 Wal-Mart had sales of more than $200 billion.

Toward the end of the 1800s, Arkansas began to expand rapidly. Railroads were built, and timber became a leading industry. The state remained mostly agricultural, however, until the 1950s, when manufacturing became more important and Arkansas quickly became industrialized.

The Present

Arkansas is a popular vacation spot. The state's lakes, rivers, and rugged Ozark Mountains make it an ideal location for boating, fishing, water sports, and hiking. Arkansas's many hot springs are also well-known attractions.

Despite its tourist attractions, Arkansas is primarily an industrial state. Food processing is the state's most important industry, but electrical manufacturing is also notable. Agriculture is still significant, and Arkansas leads the country in rice production and the raising of chickens. Cotton and soybeans are also common crops, and lumber and wood product industries flourish.

Arkansas's large deposits of bauxite, an ore used to make aluminum, make mining another key industry. The state also has deposits of natural gas and petroleum.

Born in Arkansas

  1. Helen Gurley Brown , editor
  2. Glen Campbell , singer
  3. Johnny Cash , singer
  4. Eldridge Cleaver , black activist
  5. William Jefferson Clinton , U.S. president
  6. Jay Hanna "Dizzy" Dean , baseball player
  7. James W. Fulbright , U.S. senator
  8. John Grisham , author
  9. Douglas MacArthur , general
  10. Mary Steenburgen , actress

Despite Arkansas's rapid industrialization, the state's citizens have not forgotten their early folk customs. Folk festivals and county fairs, including the Arkansas State Fair and Livestock Show, bring Arkansans together. The town of Mountain View, the Folk Capital of America, preserves the original pioneer lifestyle, and attracts many visitors to the Ozark Folk Center State Park.

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Arkansas

ARKANSAS

In 1673, when Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet ventured into the Arkansas region, residing there were the Caddo, Osage, and Quapaw native peoples. Beginning with the establishment of the Poste des Arkansas (Arkansas Post) in 1686 at the confluence of the Arkansas and Mississippi Rivers, the French fur trade brought radical changes to native societies. Organized by René-Robert Cavalier de La Salle's lieutenant, Henri de Tonti, Arkansas Post drew the Quapaw together with French habitants (farmers), coureurs de bois (literally, "runners of the woods," i.e., fur trappers), and a small French mercantile elite, generating ultimately a class of métis (mixed blood) hunters and traders. In 1762 France ceded Louisiana to Spain, whose rule rested lightly on the inhabitants of the post and did little to change it; as of 1798, its residents numbered 337, along with 56 slaves. After the retrocession to France of Louisiana in 1800 and its purchase by the United States in 1803, Arkansas made its transition from French to American rule, to which the French Creole elite took some exception because of its discomfort with majoritarian republican government, the imported English common law, and a new judicial system.

Following the War of 1812 (1812–1815), settlers from Tennessee and Kentucky seeking land and opportunity flowed rapidly into the expansive Arkansas district of the Missouri Territory, formed in 1812. After Arkansas became a territory in 1819 and the Missouri Compromise (1820) secured slavery, more planters arrived in the Red and Mississippi River deltas. The total population rose from 1,062 in 1810 to 14,273 in 1820. Immigration slowed in the 1820s, but by 1830 the population had reached 30,388. The number of slaves rose from 136 in 1810 to 1,617 in 1820 and then to 4,576 in 1830, mostly the result of slaveholder immigration. The slaves who were marched into the territory suffered the deepest pangs of loss and the worst initial hardships. But for both them and the voluntary pioneers, who homesteaded mostly across the Ozark highlands and plateau, the dreaded "seasoning" process, fears of disease, illness itself, death, and feelings of isolation were commonplace. In this context, plain-preaching Methodist circuit riders and Baptist ministers organized camp meetings and fledgling churches. The Monroe administration relocated Choctaws and Cherokees to Arkansas from 1817 through 1820. A significant portion of the Cherokees, whose numbers reached about five thousand, were successful in building schools, comfortable homes, and farms that were well fenced and stocked with cattle, prompting some contemporaries to conclude that the Cherokees showed the imprint of "civilization" better than many white settlers. The near constant warfare between the Cherokees and the encroaching Osages, however, generated fears. The suspicion and demands of settling whites prompted Congress to remove all the tribes by 1828, a change that was particularly traumatic for the Quapaws. Removal created a turbulent western boundary abutting the new Indian Territory, which U.S. soldiers at Fort Smith policed haphazardly.

Dominated after 1819 by secretary of the Arkansas Territory Robert J. Crittenden, politics in the territory featured a scramble for status, wealth, and power. Most of the leaders were Democratic Republicans and, after 1824, nominal supporters of John Quincy Adams. Merchants, lawyers, and land speculators with ordinary backgrounds, however, vied for position with men, like Crittenden, from slaveholding families in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia. Competition for offices to obtain profits from federal lands and other perquisites spurred jealousies and factions. Public debate generated editorial warfare and duels. Political bloodshed was grist for the national press and for travel books that often depicted Arkansas as extraordinarily lawless and backward (an image that reflected both the moralistic world-view of genteel critics and the "premodern" forms of communal regulation and violent self-help that all-male grand juries often indulged in deference to traditional notions of manliness and honor). Opposition to the Crittenden clique was led by territorial delegate Henry W. Conway and his cousin, Ambrose H. Sevier. This opposition had developed into the Jacksonian Democratic Party by statehood in 1836.

Government and economic development were intertwined. Through the 1820s, territorial delegates petitioned Congress for more liberal land policies and funds to clear waterways, build roads, and improve frontier defense. Moving the capital from Arkansas Post to Little Rock in 1821, the legislature established basic laws, counties, and the militia, adhering to a minimalist system of local government. County courts in towns such as Little Rock (Pulaski), Arkansas Post (Arkansas), Davidsonville (Lawrence), and Washington (Hempstead) administered estates; assessed and collected taxes; licensed merchants, tavern keepers, and ferries; and enlisted residents to build roads and bridges. Increasingly after the War of 1812, pioneer families, mostly in the uplands, concentrated on subsistence farming and household production (raising corn, herding hogs, and making cloth and other items to achieve some level of self-sufficiency). Most yeomen remained unwilling to risk time, energy, and resources on cash crops and slaves. But transportation improvements, especially the arrival of the steamboat in 1820, connected settlers in the Arkansas, White, and Red River valleys with the commerce in agricultural products and commodities on the Mississippi River. In the late 1820s, a minority of the yeomanry occasionally grew cotton for the market, while a small segment of it employed slaves in this endeavor and were successful enough to join the ranks of substantial slave-holders. By 1830, cotton had become the principle cash crop in the territory.

See alsoAmerican Indians: American Indian Relations, 1815–1829; American Indians: American Indian Removal; American Indians: Old Southwest .

bibliography

Arnold, Morris S. Colonial Arkansas, 1686–1804: A Social and Cultural History. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1991.

Bolton, S. Charles. Territorial Ambition: Land and Society in Arkansas, 1800–1840. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1993.

McNeilly, Donald P. The Old South Frontier: Cotton Plantations and the Formation of Arkansas Society, 1819–1861. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2000.

Valencius, Conevery B. The Health of the Country: How American Settlers Understood Themselves and Their Land. New York: Basic Books, 2002.

Whayne, Jeannie, comp. Cultural Encounters in the Early South: Indians and Europeans in Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1995.

Mark M. Carroll

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Arkansas

Arkansas

ARKANSAS BAPTIST COLLEGE G-10
ARKANSAS NORTHEASTERN COLLEGE C-16
ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY
ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY-BEEBE F-11
ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY-MOUNTAIN HOME B-10
ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY-NEWPORT D-13
ARKANSAS TECH UNIVERSITY E-8
BLACK RIVER TECHNICAL COLLEGE B-13
CENTRAL BAPTIST COLLEGE F-9
COSSATOT COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS J-4
CROWLEY'S RIDGE COLLEGE C-15
EAST ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE F-14
HARDING UNIVERSITY F-11
HENDERSON STATE UNIVERSITY I-8
HENDRIX COLLEGE F-9
ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE G-10
JOHN BROWN UNIVERSITY B-4
LYON COLLEGE D-12
MID-SOUTH COMMUNITY COLLEGE F-16
NATIONAL PARK COMMUNITY COLLEGE H-8
NORTH ARKANSAS COLLEGE B-8
NORTHWEST ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE B-5
OUACHITA BAPTIST UNIVERSITY I-8
OUACHITA TECHNICAL COLLEGE H-8
OZARKA COLLEGE C-11
PHILANDER SMITH COLLEGE G-10
PHILLIPS COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS H-14
PULASKI TECHNICAL COLLEGE G-10
REMINGTON COLLEGE-LITTLE ROCK CAMPUS G-10
RICH MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE H-5
SOUTH ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE L-9
SOUTHEAST ARKANSAS COLLEGE I-11
SOUTHERN ARKANSAS UNIVERSITY-MAGNOLIA L-7
SOUTHERN ARKANSAS UNIVERSITY TECH K-8
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS C-5
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AT BATESVILLE D-12
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AT HOPE K-6
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AT MORRILTON F-9
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT FORT SMITH E-4
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT LITTLE ROCK G-10
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS FOR MEDICAL SCIENCES G-10
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT MONTICELLO K-11
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS AT PINE BLUFF I-11
UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL ARKANSAS F-9
UNIVERSITY OF THE OZARKS E-7
UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX-LITTLE ROCK CAMPUS G-10
WILLIAMS BAPTIST COLLEGE C-13

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