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Delaware

Delaware

State of Delaware

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Named for Thomas West, Baron De La Warr, colonial governor of Virginia; the name was first applied to the bay.

NICKNAME: The First State; the Diamond State.

CAPITAL: Dover.

ENTERED UNION: 7 December 1787 (1st).

SONG: "Our Delaware."

MOTTO: Liberty and Independence.

COAT OF ARMS: A farmer and a rifleman flank a shield that bears symbols of the state's agricultural resourcesa sheaf of wheat, an ear of corn, and a cow. Above is a ship in full sail; below, a banner with the state motto.

FLAG: Colonial blue with the coat of arms on a buff-colored diamond; below the diamond is the date of statehood.

OFFICIAL SEAL: The coat of arms surrounded by the words "Great Seal of the State of Delaware 1793, 1847, 1907." The three dates represent the years in which the seal was revised.

BIRD: Blue hen chicken.

FISH: Sea trout.

FLOWER: Peach blossom.

TREE: American holly.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Martin Luther King Jr. Day, 3rd Monday in January; Presidents' Day, 3rd Monday in February; Good Friday, March or April; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans' Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Day After Thanksgiving; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Located on the eastern seaboard of the United States, Delaware ranks 49th in size among the 50 states. The state's total area is 2,044 sq mi (5,295 sq km), of which land takes up 1,932 sq mi (5,005 sq km) and inland water, 112 sq mi (290 sq km). Delaware extends 35 mi (56 km) e-w at its widest; its maximum n-s extension is 96 mi (154 km).

Delaware is bordered on the n by Pennsylvania; on the e by New Jersey (with the line passing through the Delaware River into Delaware Bay) and the Atlantic Ocean; and on the s and w by Maryland.

The boundary length of Delaware, including a general coastline of 28 mi (45 km), totals 200 mi (322 km). The tidal shoreline is 381 mi (613 km). The state's geographic center is in Kent County, 11 mi (18 km) s of Dover.

TOPOGRAPHY

Delaware lies entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain except for its northern tip, above the Christina River, which is part of the Piedmont Plateau. The state's highest elevation is 448 ft (137 m) on Ebright Road, near Centerville, New Castle County. The rolling hills and pastures of the north give way to marshy regions in the south (notably Cypress Swamp), with sandy beaches along the coast. Delaware's mean elevation, 60 ft (18 m), is the lowest in the United States. The lowest point of the state is at sea level at the Atlantic Ocean.

Of all Delaware's rivers, only the Nanticoke, Choptank, and Pocomoke flow westward into Chesapeake Bay. The remainderincluding the Christina, Appoquinimink, Leipsic, St. Jones, Murderkill, Mispillion, Broadkill, and Indianflow into Delaware Bay. There are dozens of inland freshwater lakes and ponds.

CLIMATE

Delaware's climate is temperate and humid. The normal daily average temperature in Wilmington is 55°f (12°c), ranging from an average low of 24°f (4°c) in January to and average high of 86°f (30°c) in July. Both the record low and the record high temperatures for the state were established at Millsboro: 17°f (27°c) on 17 January 1893 and 110°f (43°c) on 21 July 1930. The average annual precipitation (19712000) was 42.8 in (108.7 cm) during 19712000; about 21 in (53 cm) of snow falls each year. Wilmington's average share of sunshine is 55%one of the lowest percentages among leading US cities.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Delaware's mixture of northern and southern flora reflects its geographical position. Common trees include black walnut, hickory, sweetgum, and tulip poplar. Shadbush and sassafras are found chiefly in southern Delaware.

Mammals native to the state include the white-tailed deer, red and gray foxes, eastern gray squirrel, muskrat, raccoon, woodcock, and common cottontail. The quail, robin, wood thrush, cardinal, and eastern meadowlark are representative birds, while various waterfowl, especially Canada geese, are common.

The Delaware Bay Estuary, a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance, offers a habitat for over 90% of the North American populations of five species of migratory birds. It has been estimated that over 1 million shorebirds make use of this area. Five species of marine turtle live in the bay and several species of rare and endangered plants occur in surrounding tidal marshes.

In April 2006, a total of 17 species occurring within the state were on the threatened and endangered species list of the US Fish and Wildlife Service. These included 13 animal (vertebrates and invertebrates) and 4 plant species. Among these are the bald eagle, puma, five species of sea turtle, three species of whale, the Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel, and the small-whorled pogonia.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

The Coastal Zone Act of 1971 outlaws new industry "incompatible with the protection of the natural environment" offshore areas, but in 1979 the act was amended to permit offshore oil drilling and the construction of coastal oil facilities. The traffic of oil tankers into the Delaware Bay represents an environmental hazard.

In 1982, Delaware enacted a bottle law requiring deposits on most soda and beer bottles; deposits for aluminum cans were made mandatory in 1984. In that year, Delaware became the first state to administer the national hazardous waste program at the state level. The state's municipal governments have constructed three municipal land fills to handle the solid waste produced by the state's 670,000 residents. In 2003, the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) database listed 64 hazardous waste sites in Delaware, 14 of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006, including the Dover Air Force Base. In 2005, the EPA spent over $16.5 million through the Superfund program for the cleanup of hazardous waste sites in the state. The same year, federal EPA grants awarded to the state included $6.4 million for a water pollution control revolving fund. In 2003, 13.6 million lb of toxic chemicals were released by the state.

About 17% of the state is covered by wetlands. The Delaware Bay Estuary was designated as a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance in 1992; it is also designated as a Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve. Agricultural, industrial, and urban pollution are the main environmental problems for the area, part of which falls under the jurisdiction of the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control. The site, which extends into New Jersey, contains over 70 separate wetlands with ownership in federal, state, county, and private management.

State environmental protection agencies include the Department of natural resources and Environmental Control, Coastal Zone Industrial Control Board, and Council on Soil and Water Conservation.

POPULATION

Delaware ranked 45th in population in the United States with an estimated total of 843,524 in 2005, an increase of 7.6% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, Delaware's population grew from 666,168 to 783,600, an increase of 17.6%. The population is projected to reach 927,400 by 2015 and 990,694 by 2025.

In 2004, the population density was 425.4 people per square mile. The median age in 2004 was 37.5; 13.1% was age 65 or over, while 23.3% was under 18 years of age.

The largest cities are Wilmington, with an estimated population of 72,664 in 2000, and Dover, the capital, with 138,752 in the metropolitan area in 2004.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Black Americans constitute Delaware's largest racial minority, numbering 150,666 in 2000 and comprising about 19.2% of the population. In 2004, 20.4% of the population was black. As of 2000, approximately 37,277 residents, or 4.8% of the total population (up from 16,000, or 2.4% in 1990), was of Hispanic origin. That figure rose to 5.8% in 2004.

Delaware's 44,898 foreign born made up 5.7% of the state's population in 2000 (more than double the total of 22,275, or 3.3%, in 1990). The United Kingdom, Germany, India, Italy, and Canada were the leading places of origin. In 2004, 1.3% of the population reported origin of two or more races.

LANGUAGES

English in Delaware is basically North Midland, with Philadelphia features in Wilmington and the northern portion. In the north, one wants off a bus, lowers curtains rather than blinds, pronounces wharf without /h/, and says /noo/ and /doo/ for new and due and / krik/ for creek. In 2000, 662,845 Delawareans90.5% of the resident population five years of age or olderspoke only English at home.

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category "African languages" includes Amharic, Ibo, Twi, Yoruba, Bantu, Swahili, and Somali. The category "Other Asian languages" includes Dravidian languages, Malayalam, Telugu, Tamil, and Turkish. The category "Other West Germanic languages" includes Dutch, Pennsylvania Dutch, and Afrikaans.

LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 732,378 100.0
  Speak only English 662,845 90.5
  Speak a language other than English 69,533 9.5
Speak a language other than English 69,533 9.5
  Spanish or Spanish Creole 34,690 4.7
  French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 4,041 0.6
  Chinese 3,579 0.5
  German 3,420 0.5
  Italian 2,860 0.4
  Polish 2,036 0.3
  Korean 1,598 0.2
  African languages 1,298 0.2
  Tagalog 1,284 0.2
  Other Asian languages 1,280 0.2
  Other West Germanic languages 1,245 0.2
  French Creole 1,199 0.2
  Other Indic languages 1,186 0.2

RELIGIONS

The earliest permanent European settlers in Delaware were Swedish and Finnish Lutherans and Dutch Calvinists. English Quakers, Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, and Welsh Baptists arrived in the 18th century, though Anglicization was the predominant trend. The Great Awakening, America's first religious revival, began on 30 October 1739 at Lewes with the arrival of George Whitefield, an Anglican preacher involved in the movement that would later become the Methodist Church. The Methodist Church was the largest denomination in Delaware by the early 19th century. Subsequent immigration brought Lutherans from Germany; Roman Catholics from Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Poland; and Jews from Germany, Poland, and Russia. Most of the Catholic and Jewish immigrants settled in cities, Wilmington in particular.

From 1990 to 2000, the Catholic Church gained 35,399 new members, enough to outnumber the previously dominant mainline Protestants. There were 151,740 Catholics in about 46 congregations in 2000. The United Methodist Church had 59,471 adherents in 162 congregations, Episcopalians numbered 12,993 in 35 congregations, and the Presbyterian Church USA claimed 14,880 adherents in about 37 congregations. There were about 13,500 adherents to Judaism. About 59.4% of the population did not specify affiliation with a religious organization.

TRANSPORTATION

The New Castle and Frenchtown Railroad, a portage route, was built in 1832. The state's first passenger line, the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Railroad, opened six years later. As of 2003, there were 247 rail mi (397 km) of track. In that same year, the top commodity originating in the state carried by Delaware's seven railroads was chemicals. Coal was the top commodity shipped by rail that terminated in the state. As of 2006, Amtrak served Wilmington via the Northeast Corridor main line that connected Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington DC. The Delaware Authority for Regional Transit (DART) provides state-subsidized bus service.

In 2004, the state had 6,044 mi (9,731 km) of public highways, roads, and streets. In that same year, there were some 716,000 registered vehicles and 533,943 licensed drivers in the state. Delaware's first modern highway, and the first dual highway in the United States, running about 100 mi (160 km) from Wilmington to the southern border, was financed by industrialist T. Coleman du Pont between 1911 and 1924. The twin spans of the Delaware Memorial Bridge connect Delaware highways to those in New Jersey; The Delaware Turnpike section of the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway links the bridge system with Maryland. The Lewes-Cape May Ferry provides auto and passenger service between southern Delaware and New Jersey.

In 2004, New Castle, Delaware's chief port, handled 8.169 million tons of goods, followed by Wilmington, with 4.998 million tons that same year. The Delaware River is the conduit for much of the oil brought by tanker to the US east coast. In 2004, Delaware had 99 mi (159 km) of navigable inland waterways. In 2003, waterborne shipments totaled 42.081 million tons.

In 2005, Delaware had a total of 49 public and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 33 airports, 15 heliports, and one seaplane base. Greater Wilmington Airport was the largest and busiest airport in the state.

HISTORY

Delaware was inhabited nearly 10,000 years ago, and a succession of various cultures occupied the area until the first European contact. At that time, the Leni-Lenape (Delaware) Indians occupied northern Delaware, while several tribes, including the Nanticoke and Assateague, inhabited southern Delaware. The Dutch in 1631 were the first Europeans to settle in what is now Delaware, but their little colony (at Lewes) was destroyed by Indians. Permanent settlements were made by the Swedes in 1638 (at Wilmington, under the leadership of a Dutchman, Peter Minuit) and by the Dutch in 1651 (at New Castle). The Dutch conquered the Swedes in 1655, and the English conquered the Dutch in 1664. Eighteen years later, the area was ceded by the duke of York (later King James II), its first English proprietor, to William Penn. Penn allowed Delaware an elected assembly in 1704, but the colony was still subject to him and to his deputy governor in Philadelphia; ties to the Penn family and Pennsylvania were not severed until 1776. Boundary quarrels disturbed relations with Maryland until Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon surveyed the western boundary of Delaware (and the Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary) during the period 176368. By this time, virtually all the Indians had been driven out of the territory.

In September 1777, during the War for Independence, British soldiers marched through northern Delaware, skirmishing with some of Washington's troops at Cooch's Bridge, near Newark, and seizing Wilmington, which they occupied for a month. In later campaigns, Delaware troops with the Continental Army fought so well that they gained the nickname "Blue Hen's Chicken," after a famous breed of fighting gamecocks. On 7 December 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the federal Constitution. Although Delaware had not abolished slavery, it remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War. By that time, it was the one slave state in which a clear majority of blacks (about 92%) were already free. However, white Delawareans generally resented the Reconstruction policies adopted by Congress after the Civil War, and by manipulation of registration laws denied blacks the franchise until 1890.

The key event in the state's economic history was the completion of a railroad between Philadelphia and Baltimore through Wilmington in 1838, encouraging the industrialization of northern Delaware. Wilmington grew so rapidly that by 1900 it encompassed 41% of the state's population; by mid-century the city was home to roughly half the state's population. Considerable foreign immigration contributed to this growth, largely from the British Isles (especially Ireland) and Germany in the mid-19th century and from Italy, Poland, and Russia in the early 20th century.

Flour and textile mills, shipyards, carriage factories, iron foundries, and morocco leather plants were Wilmington's leading enterprises for much of the 19th century. By the early 1900s however, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., founded near Wilmington in 1802 as a gunpowder manufacturer, made the city famous as a center for the chemical industry. Du Pont remained the state's largest private employer in the 1990s, but in the 2000s, MBNA, the bank and credit card company, became the state's largest private employer.

During the same period, Delaware's agricultural income rose. Peaches and truck crops flourished in the 19th century, along with corn and wheat; poultry, sorghum, and soybeans became major sources of agricultural income in the 20th century. Sussex County, home to much of the state's farming, had become the fastest-growing county in Delaware by the mid-1990s. The beach areas of rural Sussex attract resort-goers and retirees. Tourism is expected to be aided by the construction of a north-south expressway that will cut travel time to the state's southern beach communities.

During the 1950s, Delaware's population grew by an unprecedented 40%. The growth was greatest around Dover, site of the East Coast's largest air base, and on the outskirts of Wilmington. Wilmington itself lost population after 1945 because of the proliferation of suburban housing developments, offices, and factories, including two automobile assembly plants and an oil refinery. Although many neighborhood schools became racially integrated during the 1950s, massive busing was instituted by court order in 1978 to achieve a racial balance in schools throughout northern Delaware.

The 1980s ushered in a period of dramatic economic improvement. According to state sources, Delaware was one of only two states to improve its financial strength during the recession that plagued the early part of the decade. In 1988, Delaware enjoyed an unemployment rate of 3.3%, the second lowest in the country. The state's revenues grew at an average of 7.7% in the early 1980s, even while it successively cut the personal income tax. Some of Delaware's prosperity came from a 1981 state law that raised usury limits and lowered taxes for large financial institutions. More than 30 banks established themselves in Delaware, including Chase Manhattan Bank and Manufacturers Hanover.

The state also succeeded in using its simplified incorporation procedures to attract both US and foreign companies, bringing in an estimated $1 million in incorporation fees from Asian companies alone in the late 1980s. By the mid-1990s, the state was the registered home of roughly half the Fortune 500 companies and hundreds of thousands of smaller corporations; however, for most, their presence in the state was strictly on paper. The state sustained a low rate of unemployment into the 1990s; in 1999 it was 3.5%, still below the national average. A year earlier the state ranked sixth in the nation for per capita income ($29,932). Per capita income in 2004 was $35,861, ranking ninth in the nation.

While business fared well in Delaware, the state has lagged behind in social welfare indicators. Delaware's rates of teenage pregnancy and infant mortality have been among the highest in the country while its welfare benefits were lower than those of any other mid-Atlantic state with the exception of West Virginia in the 1990s. Other problems include housing shortages, urban sprawl, and pollution.

Ruth Ann Minner, elected Delaware's first woman governor in 2001, was once a receptionist in the governor's office before winning the position herself. In her 2003 State of the State address, she targeted issues such as pollution, industrial cleanups, and toughening campaign finance laws. In 2003, Delaware was launching a prisoner reentry program, designed to help former inmates successfully reenter society instead of committing further crimes and returning to prison. The three-year pilot program was financed with a $2 million federal grant and was to save the state millions of dollars a year and reduce crime. Prior to the 200506 winter season, Governor Minner urged Delawareans to conserve energy and protect the environment by changing to efficient compact fluorescent lightbulbs.

STATE GOVERNMENT

Delaware has had four state constitutions, adopted in 1776, 1792, 1831, and 1897. Under the 1897 document, as amended (138 times by January 2005), the legislative branch is the General Assembly, consisting of a 21-member Senate and a 41-member House of Representatives. Annual legislative sessions begin in January and must conclude by 30 June. The presiding officers of both houses may issue a joint call for a special session, which is not limited in length. Senators are elected for four years, representatives for two. Members of the House must be at least 24 years old; senators must be 27. All legislators must have been residents of the state for three years and must have lived in their district for one year prior to election. Legislators earned $36,500 annually in 2004.

Delaware's elected executives are the governor and lieutenant governor (separately elected), treasurer, attorney general, and auditor. All serve four-year terms. The governor, who may be reelected twice, must be at least 30 years old and must have been a US citizen for 12 years and a state resident for six years before taking office. As of December 2004, the governor's salary was $132,500. The legislature may override a gubernatorial veto by a three-fifths vote of the elected members of each house. A bill that the governor fails to sign or veto becomes law after 10 days (Sundays excluded) when the legislature is in session. An amendment to the state constitution must be approved by a two-thirds vote in each house of the General Assembly in two successive sessions with an election intervening; Delaware is the only state in which amendments need not be ratified by the voters.

Voters in Delaware must be US citizens, at least 18 years old, and permanent state residents. Restrictions apply to convicted felons and those declared mentally incompetent by the court.

POLITICAL PARTIES

The Democrats were firmly entrenched in Delaware for three decades after the Civil War; a subsequent period of Republican dominance lasted until the depression of the 1930s. Since then, the two parties have been relatively evenly matched.

In 2004 there were 554,000 registered voters; an estimated 42% were Democratic, 36% Republican, and 23% unaffiliated or members of other parties. In the 2000 election, Democrat Al Gore won the state with 55% of the vote, to Republican George W. Bush's 42%. Green Party candidate Ralph Nader won 3% of the vote. In 2004, Democrat John Kerry won 53.3% of the vote to incumbent president George W. Bush's 45.8%. The state had three electoral votes in the 2004 presidential election. Democratic senator Joseph Biden was the ranking member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 2003. Democrat Tom Carper was elected Delaware's junior senator in 2000, after having served two terms as state governor, and five terms in the US House of Representatives. Former two-term governor and Republican Michael Castle was reelected Delaware's House Representative in 2004.

Democratic governor Ruth Ann Minner, elected in 2000, was the first woman to serve in a leadership position in Delaware's House of Representatives, the state's first female lieutenant governor, and first female governor. In 2005, Republicans controlled the

Delaware Presidential Vote by Major Political Parties, 19482004
YEAR ELECTORAL VOTE DELAWARE WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN
*Won US presidential election.
**IND. Candidate Ross Perot received 59,213 votes in 1992 and 28,719 votes in 1996.
1948 3 Dewey (R) 67,813 69,588
1952 3 *Eisenhower (R) 83,315 90,059
1956 3 *Eisenhower (R) 79,421 98,057
1960 3 *Kennedy (D) 99,590 96,373
1964 3 *Johnson (D) 122,704 78,078
1968 3 *Nixon (R) 89,194 96,714
1972 3 *Nixon (R) 92,283 140,357
1976 3 *Carter (D) 122,596 109,831
1980 3 *Reagan (R) 105,700 111,185
1984 3 *Reagan (R) 101,656 152,190
1988 3 *Bush (R) 108,647 139,639
1992** 3 *Clinton (D) 126,054 102,313
1996** 3 *Clinton (D) 140,355 99,062
2000 3 Gore (D) 180,068 137,288
2004 3 Kerry (D) 200,152 171,660

state House (25-15, with 1 independent member), and Democrats controlled the state Senate (13-8).

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

As of 2005, Delaware was divided into three counties. In New Castle, voters elect a county executive and a county council; in Sussex, the members of the elective county council choose a county administrator, who supervises the executive departments of the county government. Kent operates under an elected levy court, which sets tax rates and runs the county according to regulations spelled out by the assembly. Most of Delaware's 57 municipalities elect a mayor and council. In 2005, Delaware had 19 public school districts and 260 special districts. Because of the state's small geographic size, local government in Delaware tends to be weaker than that in other states; here the state operates many programs that elsewhere are found at the local level.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 22,568 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.

STATE SERVICES

To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in Delaware operates under the authority of the governor; a homeland security director is appointed to oversee programs related to homeland security.

Public education is supervised by the Department of Education. Highways are the responsibility of the Department of Transportation, while medical care, mental health facilities, drug- and alcohol-abuse programs, and help for the aging fall within the jurisdiction of the Department of Health and Social Services. Public protection services are provided primarily through the Department Safety and Homeland Security and the Department of Correction. The Department of Labor has divisions covering employment services, vocational rehabilitation, unemployment insurance, and equal employment opportunity. The Economic Development Office supports the economic interests of the state. Other services include those of the Department of Services to Children, Youth and Their Families and the Consumer Protection Unit of the Attorney General's Office. The environment is protected by the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

Delaware's highest court is the Supreme Court, composed of a chief justice and four associate justices, all appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate for 12-year terms, as are all state judges. Other state courts include the court of chancery, comprising a chancellor and two vice-chancellors, and the superior court, which has a president judge and 16 associate judges. There are also judges on the Court of Common Pleas in Wilmington.

Delaware was the last state to abolish the whipping post. During the 190042 period, 1,604 prisoners (22% of the state's prison population) were beaten with a cat-o'-nine-tails. The whipping post, nicknamed "Red Hannah," was used for the last time in 1952 but was not formally abolished until 1972.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 6,927 prisoners were held in Delaware's state and federal prisons, an increase from 6,794 of 2% from the previous year. As of year-end 2004, a total of 557 inmates were female, up by 9.6% from 508 the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), Delaware had an incarceration rate of 488 per 100,000 population in 2004.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Delaware in 2004 had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 568.4 reported incidents per 100,000 population, or a total of 4,720 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 26,272 reported incidents or 3,163.9 reported incidents per 100,000 people. Delaware has a death penalty, of which lethal injection is the sole method of execution. Inmates convicted prior to 13 June 1986 were offered hanging as an alternative. However, the state's gallows have since been dismantled. From 1976 through 5 May 2006 the state executed 14 persons, of which the most recent took place in 2005. As of 1 January 2006, there were 18 inmates on death row.

In 2003, Delaware spent $17,771,313 on homeland security, an average of $22 per state resident.

ARMED FORCES

Delaware's main defense facility is the military airlift wing at Dover Air Force Base. Active-duty military personnel stationed in Delaware in 2004 totaled 5,915, with 1,228 Guard and National Guard, and 777 civilian employees. Department of Defense contracts awarded the state in 2004 totaled $194 million, and defense payroll, including retired military pay, amounted to $417 million.

There were 80,751 veterans of US military service in Delaware as of 2000, of whom 10,873 served in World War II; 9,071 in the Korean conflict; 23,661 during the Vietnam era; and 11,878 in the Persian Gulf War. US Veterans Administration spending in Delaware in 2004 totaled $167 million.

As of 31 October 2004, the Delaware state police employed 643 full-time sworn officers.

MIGRATION

Delaware has attracted immigrants from a variety of foreign countries: Sweden, Finland, and the Netherlands in the early days; England, Scotland, and Ireland during the later colonial period; and Italy, Poland, and Russia, among other countries, during the first 130 years of statehood. The 1960s and 1970s saw the migration of Puerto Ricans to Wilmington. Delaware enjoyed a net gain from migration of 122,000 persons between 1940 and 1970. Between 1970 and 1990, however, there was a net migration of only about 25,000. Net domestic migration between 1990 and 1998 totaled 29,000 while net international migration totaled 8,000. In 1998, Delaware admitted 1,063 foreign immigrants. Between 1990 and 1998, the state's overall population increased 11.6%. In the period 200005, net international migration was 11,226 and net internal migration was 27,912, for a net gain of 39,138 people.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION

Among the interstate agreements to which Delaware subscribes are the Delaware River and Bay Authority Compact, Delaware River Basin Commission, Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, Interstate Compact for Juveniles, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, and Southern Regional Education Board. The Delmarva Advisory Council, representing Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, works with local organizations on the Delmarva Peninsula to develop and implement economic improvement programs. Federal grants to Delaware were $910 million in fiscal year 2005, the second-lowest amount among all the states, behind Wyoming. In fiscal year 2006, federal grants amounted to an estimated $951 million, and in fiscal year 2007, to an estimated $985 million.

ECONOMY

Since the 1930s, and particularly since the mid-1970s, Delaware has been one of the nation's most prosperous states. It was one of the few states whose economic growth rate actually increased during the national recession of 2001, accelerating from 4.5% in 1998 to 6.1% in 1999 to 7.3% in 2000, and to 8.75% in 2001. Although manufacturingpreeminently the chemical and automotive industrieshas historically been the main contributor to the state's economy, its contribution to gross state product shrunk from 16.5% in 1997 to 12.9% in 2001, compared to a 43% contribution from the finance, insurance and real estate sector and 15.3% from general services (hotels, auto repair, personal, health, legal, educational, recreational, etc). The largest employers in the manufacturing sector, the chemical and automobile manufacturing industries, experienced negative growth coming into the 21st century, output from motor vehicles and equipment manufacturing falling 34% 1999 to 2001, and the output from chemicals and allied products manufacturing showing a net decline of 2.6% 1997 to 2001. By contrast, financial services grew 43% during this period, and general services grew 36.4%. Job creation in manufacturing, which was at a positive 2% year-on-year rate in 1999, turned negative (to net layoffs) by the beginning of 2000 and continued at negative rates throughout 2001 and 2002. Job creation in the finance, insurance and real estate (FIRE) sector continued at year-on-year rates of 2% to 3%, but then turned sharply negative in 2002, reaching 4% by the end of the year. Office space vacancy in Wilmington reached 15% in the fourth quarter 2002, but this was below the national average of 16.5%. Positive factors that augur well for a relatively rapid economic recovery in Delaware are continued moderate housing costs that make Delaware more attractive than neighboring states with higher costs, and a related above-average 17% gain in population 1991 to 2001 (the national average-was 13%) that largely reflected the movement of businesses to Delaware's relatively low-cost business environment.

Delaware's gross state product (GSP) in 2004 was $54.274 billion, of which the real estate sector accounted for $6.290 billion, or 11.5% of GSP, followed by manufacturing at $4.841 billion (8.9% of GSP), and professional and technical services at $3.257 billion (6% of GSP). In that same year, there were 68,495 small businesses operating within the state. Of the state's 25833 firms that had employees that year, 24,006, or 92.9%, were small businesses. In 2004, a total of 3,270 new companies were formed in Delaware, down from the previous year by 4.9%. In that same year, business terminations totaled 3,362, up 6.8% from the previous year. Business bankruptcies in 2004 totaled 276, down 45.3% from 2003. In 2005, the personal bankruptcy (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) filing rate was 423 filings per 100,000 people, ranking the state 34th in the nation.

INCOME

In 2005, Delaware had a gross state product (GSP) of $54 billion which accounted for 0.4% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state at number 40 in highest GSP among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004 Delaware had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $35,728. This ranked 11th in the United States and was 108% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4.3%. Delaware had a total personal income (TPI) of $29,656,646,000, which ranked 44th in the United States and reflected an increase of 7.4% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 5.8%. Earnings of persons employed in Delaware increased from $23,845,078,000 in 2003 to $25,377,515,000 in 2004, an increase of 6.4%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reports that the three-year average median household income for 200204 in 2004 dollars was $50,152, compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same period an estimated 8.5% of the population was below the poverty line as compared to 12.4% nationwide.

LABOR

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006 the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Delaware numbered 444,700, with approximately 16,400 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.7%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 437,600. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in Delaware was 8.2%, in January 1977. The historical low was 2.8%, in October 1988. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that approximately 6.6% of the labor force was employed in construction; 18.8% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 10.3% in financial activities; 14.3% in professional and business services; 12.5% in education and health services; 9.5% in leisure and hospitality services; and 13.8% in government. Data for manufacturing was unavailable.

The US Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in 2005, a total of 46,000 of Delaware's 386,000 employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 11.8% of those so employed, up from 12.4% in 2004, and just below the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 50,000 workers (12.9%) in Delaware were covered by a union or employee association contract, which includes those workers who reported no union affiliation. Delaware is one of 28 states without a right-to-work law.

As of 1 March 2006, Delaware had a state-mandated minimum wage rate of $6.15 per hour. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 48.4% of the employed civilian labor force.

AGRICULTURE

Though small by national standards, Delaware's agriculture is efficient and productive. In 2005, Delaware's total farm marketings were $895 million, and its income from crops was $172 million.

Tobacco was a leading crop in the early colonial era but was soon succeeded by corn and wheat. Peaches were a mainstay during the mid-19th century, until the orchards were devastated by "the yellows," a tree disease. Today, the major field crops are corn, soybeans, barley, wheat, melons, potatoes, mushrooms, lima beans, and green peas. Production in 2004 included corn for grain, 23,256,000 bushels, valued at $48,838,000; soybeans, 8,736,000 bushels, $45,864,000; wheat, 2,726,000 bushels, $8,314,000; and barley, 2,080,000 bushels, $3,952,000.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

In 2003 an estimated 8,300 milk cows produced 136 million lb of milk (61.8 million kg). Also during 2003 an estimated 1.5 billion lb (680 million kg) of broilers were produced and valued at an estimated $542.6 million. Broilers accounted for 74% of Delaware's farm receipts in 2004. Delaware had 23,000 cattle and calves valued at around $22.8 million in 2005.

FISHING

Fishing, once an important industry in Delaware, has declined in recent decades. The total commercial landings in 2004 brought 4.3 million lb (1.9 million kg), worth $5.4 million. Clams, plentiful until the mid-1970s, are in short supply because of overharvesting. In 2001, the commercial fishing fleet had 184 vessels. Delaware issued 20,544 sport-fishing licenses in 2004.

FORESTRY

In 2004, Delaware had approximately 383,000 acres (155,000 hectares) of forestland, of which approximately 92% was classified as private forestland. Nonindustrial private landowners owned 85% of Delaware's forests while approximately 8% was publicly owned, and 7% was owned by the forest industry.

Southern Delaware contains many loblolly pine forests as well as the northernmost stand of bald cypress. Northern Delaware contains more hardwoods, such as oak and yellow poplar. Other common species are gum, maple, and American holly, which is Delaware's state tree. Delaware has approximately 32,000 acres (12,950 hectares) of state forests, which are managed on a multiple-use basis and are open to the public.

MINING

The value of nonfuel mineral production in Delaware in 2004 totaled $21.9 million, up more than 22% from 2003, according to data from the US Geological Survey (USGS). However, this figure does not reflect the state's production of magnesium compounds, which are used in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing, and were withheld by the USGS to protect company proprietary data. Construction sand and gravel was the leading nonfuel mineral produced in 2004. Output that year was 2.98 million metric tons or $21.9 million. Delaware in 2004 ranked fourth (out of five states) in the production of magnesium compounds (by volume). Magnesium compounds are extracted from seawater close to the mouth of the Delaware Bay near Lewes and, with aluminum hydroxides, are used in the manufacture of antacid products.

ENERGY AND POWER

As of 2003, Delaware had 17 electrical power service providers, of which 9 were publicly owned and only one was a cooperative. Of the remainder, one was investor owned, five were energy-only providers and one was a delivery-only provider. As of that same year there were 400,768 retail customers. Of that total, 280,525 received their power from investor-owned service providers. The state's sole cooperative had 65,407 customers, while publicly owned providers had 54,829 customers.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 3.393 million kW, with total production that same year at 7.392 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, only 0.4% came from electric utilities, with the remaining 99.6% coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 4.026 billion kWh (54.5%), came from coal-fired plants, with petroleum plants in second place, at 1.716 billion kWh (23.2%) and natural gas plants in third at 1.463 billion kWh (19.8%). Other gas-fueled plants accounted for the remaining 2.5% of all power generated. Delaware has no nuclear power plants.

Delaware has no proven reserves or production of crude oil or natural gas. As of 2005, the state's single refinery had a crude oil distillation capacity of 175,000 barrels per day.

INDUSTRY

From its agricultural beginnings, Delaware has developed into an important industrial state. The state's capital, Wilmington, is called the "Chemical Capital of the World," largely because of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., a chemical industry giant originally founded as a powder mill in 1802.

According to the US Census Bureau's Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, Delaware's manufacturing sector covered some 11 product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $17.488 billion. Of that total, chemical manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $6.512 billion. It was followed by transportation equipment manufacturing at $3.299 billion; food manufacturing at $1.782 billion; plastics and rubber product manufacturing at $630.011 million; and paper manufacturing at $5482.594 million.

In 2004, a total of 36,378 people in Delaware were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 25,669 were actual production workers. In terms of total employment, the food manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees at 9,202, with 7,874 actual production workers. It was followed by chemical manufacturing with 5,760 employees (3,202 actual production workers); transportation equipment manufacturing at 4,080 (3,505 actual production workers); plastics and rubber products manufacturing at 2,634 employees (1,864 actual production workers); and fabricated metal product manufacturing at 2,220 employees (1,616 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that Delaware's manufacturing sector paid $1.623 billion in wages. Of that amount, the chemical manufacturing sector accounted for the largest share at $365.962 million. It was followed by transportation equipment manufacturing at $282.321 million; food manufacturing at $228.561 million; and computer and electronic product manufacturing at $127.029 million.

COMMERCE

According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, Delaware's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $17.2 billion from 997 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 610 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 335 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 52 establishments. Sales by nondurable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $14.5 billion. Sales data for durable goods wholesalers and electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry were not available.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, Delaware was listed as having 3,727 retail establishments with sales of $10.9 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: food and beverage stores (571); clothing and clothing accessories stores (542); miscellaneous store retailers (449); and motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (377). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $2.7 billion, followed by food and beverage stores at $1.6 billion; general merchandise stores at $1.5 billion; and building material/garden equipment and supplies dealers at $1.01 billion. A total of 51,889 people were employed by the retail sector in Delaware that year.

In 2005, Delaware exported $2.5 billion worth of products to foreign markets.

CONSUMER PROTECTION

Consumer protection in Delaware is handled by the Fraud/Consumer Protection Division's Consumer Protection Unit, both of which are under the Office of the Attorney General. Specifically, the Unit is tasked with the responsibility of enforcing the state's consumer protection laws. It investigates consumer complaints; mediates resolution, when appropriate; and takes enforcement, when warranted. It also provides consumer education programs.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the Attorney General's Office: can initiate civil and criminal proceedings; can represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies; and has broad subpoena powers. In antitrust actions, the Attorney General's Office: can act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own; can initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; and can represent counties, cities and other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law.

The offices of the Fraud/Consumer Protection Division and Consumer Protection Unit are located in Wilmington.

BANKING

As of June 2005, Delaware had 35 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 35 credit unions (CUs), all of them federally chartered. Excluding the CUs, the Philadelphia-Cam-den-Wilmington market area had 156 financial institutions in 2004, followed by the Dover area at 11. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for only 0.3% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $1.377 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining 99.7%, or $457.670 billion in assets held.

At the end of 2002, Delaware was home to six of the nation's leading insured credit card banks, including three of the nation's five largest. These credit card banks managed or held one-third of total credit-card loans nationally. Banking is Delaware's most profitable industry, with 12% of jobs and 36% of the gross state product represented by the finance insurance and real estate (FIRE) sectors. From 2001 to 2003, however, FIRE employment declined steadily.

As of 2004, the state's median past-due/nonaccrual loan rate as a percent of total loans was 1.09%, down from 1.35% in 2003. The median net interest margin (the difference between the lower rates offered to savers and the higher rates charged on loans) stood at 3.90% in 2004, down from 3.97% in 2003. Regulation of state-chartered financial institutions is handled by the Office of the State Bank Commissioner, which is a part of the Delaware Department of State.

INSURANCE

In 2004 there were 522,000 individual life insurance policies in force with a total value of over $53 billion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was over $131.3 billion. The average coverage amount is $102,200 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled $269 million.

As of 2003, there were 83 property and casualty and 46 life and health insurance companies incorporated or organized in the state. In 2004, direct premiums for property and casualty insurance totaled $2 billion. That year, there were 18,490 flood insurance policies in force in the state, with a total value of $3.2 billion. About $218 million of coverage was offered through FAIR plans, which are designed to offer coverage for some natural circumstances, such as wind and hail, in high risk areas.

In 2004, 60% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 3% held individual policies, and 23% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 13% of residents were uninsured. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged at 18% for single coverage and 21% for family coverage. The state does not offer an expansion program in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were 569,003 auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $15,000 per individual and $30,000 for all persons injured in an accident, as well as property damage liability of $10,000. Personal injury protection is also mandatory. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $655.42, which ranked as the ninth-highest average in the nation.

SECURITIES

Delaware has no securities exchanges. In 2005, there were 560 personal financial advisers employed in the state. In 2004, there were over 26 publicly traded companies within the state, with over 7 NASDAQ companies, 12 NYSE listings, and 1 AMEX listing. In 2006, the state had one Fortune 500 company; DuPont ranked first in the state and 73rd in the nation, with revenues of over $28.4 billion. Hercules made the Fortune 1,000, at 787th in the nation, with revenues of $2 billion. Both companies are based in Wilmington and traded on the NYSE.

PUBLIC FINANCE

The budget director has lead responsibility for preparing Delaware's annual executive budget for submission to the legislature in January, which is expected to adopt a budget by 30 June for the fiscal year, which begins 1 July. There are both constitutional and statutory requirements that the governor submit, the legislature adopt, and the governor sign a balanced budget.

DelawareState Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
AMOUNT PER CAPITA
Abbreviations and symbols:zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 5,697,849 6,864.88
  General revenue 5,144,482 6,198.17
   Intergovernmental revenue 1,054,363 1,270.32
   Taxes 2,375,482 2,862.03
      General sales - -
      Selective sales 383,383 461.91
      License taxes 882,389 1,063.12
      Individual income tax 781,212 941.22
      Corporate income tax 217,768 262.37
      Other taxes 110,730 133.41
   Current charges 715,471 862.01
   Miscellaneous general revenue 999,166 1,203.81
  Utility revenue 9,814 11.82
  Liquor store revenue - -
  Insurance trust revenue 543,553 654.88
Total expenditure 5,387,960 6,491.52
  Intergovernmental expenditure 922,710 1,111.70
  Direct expenditure 4,465,250 5,379.82
   Current operation 3,306,621 3,983.88
   Capital outlay 442,787 533.48
   Insurance benefits and repayments 401,683 483.96
   Assistance and subsidies 86,233 103.90
   Interest on debt 227,926 274.61
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 1,796,800 2,164.82
Total expenditure 5,387,960 6,491.52
  General expenditure 4,914,614 5,921.22
   Intergovernmental expenditure 922,710 1,111.70
   Direct expenditure 3,991,904 4,809.52
  General expenditures, by function:
   Education 1,701,881 2,050.46
   Public welfare 1,022,013 1,231.34
   Hospitals 56,802 68.44
   Health 289,825 349.19
   Highways 392,101 472.41
   Police protection 78,262 94.29
   Correction 202,782 244.32
   Natural resources 82,540 99.45
   Parks and recreation 47,294 56.98
   Government administration 394,479 475.28
   Interest on general debt 227,926 274.61
   Other and unallocable 418,709 504.47
  Utility expenditure 71,663 86.34
  Liquor store expenditure - -
  Insurance trust expenditure 401,683 483.96
Debt at end of fiscal year 4,158,118 5,009.78
Cash and security holdings 11,244,204 13,547.23

Fiscal year 2006 general funds were estimated at $3.8 billion for resources and $3.2 billion for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to Delaware were nearly $1.2 billion.

In the fiscal year 2007 federal budget, Delaware was slated to receive: $11.2 million in State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) funds to help Delaware provide health coverage to low-income, uninsured children who do not qualify for Medicaid. This funding was a 23% increase over fiscal year 2006; $5.4 million for the HOME Investment Partnership Program to help Delaware fund a wide range of activities that build, buy, or rehabilitate affordable housing for rent or homeownership, or provide direct rental assistance to low-income people. This funding was an 11% increase over fiscal year 2006.

TAXATION

In 2005, Delaware collected $2,725 million in tax revenues, or $3,229 per capita, which placed it fifth among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Selective sales taxes accounted for 14.6% of the total; individual income taxes, 32.4%; corporate income taxes, 9.1%; and other taxes, 43.9%.

As of 1 January 2006, Delaware had six individual income tax brackets ranging from 2.2 to 5.95%. The state taxes corporations at a flat rate of 8.7%.

In 2004, local property taxes amounted to $453,198,00, or $546 per capita. The per capita amount ranks the state 43rd nationally. Delaware has no state level property tax.

Delaware taxes gasoline at 23 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, Delaware citizens received $0.79 in federal spending.

ECONOMIC POLICY

Legislation passed in 1899 permits companies to be incorporated and chartered in Delaware even if they do no business in the state and hold their stockholders' meetings elsewhere. Another incentive to chartering in Delaware is the state's court of chancery, which has extensive experience in dealing with corporate problems.

The Delaware Economic Development Office (DEDO) seeks to create jobs by helping existing businesses to grow and by encouraging out-of-state companies to relocate to Delaware. The Development Office offers a variety of financing programs for small businesses, including assistance with land acquisition, loans and tax credits for capital investments, and state grants to match federal awards for research and development. The Delaware Innovation Fund is a private, nonprofit public/private initiative to assist companies with pre-startup seed money, with long-term loans for establishing patents, business plans, and to begin commercialization ($10,000-$150,000). In the year 2000, the Delaware Economic Development Office Director, and several Delaware lawmakers led a trade mission to Taiwan, establishing a Delaware-Taiwan trade office. In 2003, DEDO was one of 70 organizations participating in bioscience "hotbed" campaign, a concerted effort by a group made up of government development agencies, pharmaceutical and bioscience companies, research institutes, universities, and nonprofits to attract capital, personnel and resources to develop a life sciences cluster. Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and Washington. DC. are recognized as forming a major life sciences hub, dubbed the BioCapital Hub by the industry.

The Delaware Main Street program encourages economic development and revitalization of the state's historic downtowns. The mission of the program supports the Livable Delaware Strategy to promote economic stability, quality of place, and smart growth.

In 2006, the US Chamber of Commerce ranked all 50 states on legal fairness towards business. The chamber found Delaware to be one of five states with the best legal environment for business. The other four were Nebraska, Virginia, Iowa, and Connecticut.

HEALTH

The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 7.4 per 1,000 live births. The birth rate in 2003 was 13.8 per 1,000 population. The abortion rate stood at 31.3 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 84.4% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 86% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2003 was 8.6 deaths per 1,000 population. As of 2002, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were: heart disease, 237.6; cancer, 200.8; cerebrovascular diseases, 50.2; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 43.3; and diabetes, 26.6. The mortality rate from HIV infection was 8.7 per 100,000 population. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 18.9 per 100,000 population. In 2002, about 55.6% of the population was considered overweight or obese. As of 2004, about 24.3% of state residents were smokers.

In 2003, Delaware had six community hospitals with about 2,000 beds. There were about 97,000 patient admissions that year and 2 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 1,700 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $1,508. Also in 2003, there were about 42 certified nursing facilities in the state, with 4,679 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 84.7%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 77.2% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year. Delaware had 272 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 914 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there was a total of 377 dentists in the state.

About 23% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare programs in 2004. Approximately 13% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $1.3 million.

SOCIAL WELFARE

In 2004, about 28,000 people received unemployment benefits, with the average weekly unemployment benefit at $247. In fiscal year 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 61,586 persons (26,052 households); the average monthly benefit was about $88.26 per person. That year, the total of benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was about $65.2 million.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. Delaware's TANF program is called ABC (A Better Chance). In 2004, the state program had 13,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this TANF program totaled $37 million in fiscal year 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 148,860 Delaware residents. This number included 96,620 retired workers, 13,290 widows and widowers, 19,880 disabled workers, 6,990 spouses, and 12,080 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 17.6% of the total state population and 93.8% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $1,004; widows and widowers, $957; disabled workers, $936; and spouses, $524. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $507 per month; children of deceased workers, $667; and children of disabled workers, $288. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments in December 2004 went to 13,452 Delaware residents, averaging $391 a month.

HOUSING

In 2004, there were approximately 367,448 housing units in Delaware, of which 310,676 were occupied; 72.9% were owner-occupied. About 55.4% of all units were single-family, detached homes. It was estimated that about 6,646 units lacked telephone service, 1,674 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 2,334 lacked complete kitchen facilities. Most homes are heated by gas or electricity. The average household had 2.59 members.

In 2004, there were 7,900 new privately owned housing units authorized for construction. The median home value was $171,589. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $1,191 while renters paid a median of $743 per month. In 2006, the state was awarded over $1.9 million in community development block grants from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).

EDUCATION

The development of public support and financing for an adequate public educational system was the handiwork of progressive industrialist Pierre S. du Pont, who undertook the project in 1919. Approximately 86.5% of adult Delawareans were high school graduates in 2004; 26.9% had obtained a bachelor's degree or higher.

In fall 2002, 116,000 students were enrolled in public elementary and secondary schools. Of these, 82,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 34,000 attended high school. Approximately 57.3% of the students were white, 31.9% were black, 7.9% were Hispanic, 2.6% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 0.3% were American Indian/Alaskan Native. Total enrollment was estimated at 116,000 in fall 2003 and expected to be 114,000 in fall 2014, a decrease of 2% during the period 2002 to 2014. There were 25,576 students enrolled in 121 private schools in fall 2003. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $1.33 billion or $10,228 per student, the seventh-highest among the 50 states. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005, eighth graders in Delaware scored 281 out of 500 in mathematics, compared with the national average of 278.

As of fall 2002, there were 49,228 students enrolled in institutions of higher education; minority students comprised 23.7% of total postsecondary enrollment. As of 2005, Delaware had 10 degree-granting institutions. Delaware has two public four-year institutions: the University of Delaware (Newark) and Delaware State College (Dover). Alternatives to these institutions include Widener University and the Delaware Technical and Community College, which has four campuses. There are three independent colleges: Goldey-Beacom College (Wilmington), Wesley College (Dover), and Wilmington College.

ARTS

The Delaware Division of the Arts (DDOA) is a branch of the Delaware Department of State, which administers arts-related grants and programs. The Delaware State Arts Council serves as the advisory board for the DDOA. In 2005, Delaware arts organizations received six grants totaling $671,400 from the National Endowment for the Arts. The Delaware Humanities Forum, an independent, nonprofit organization, was established in 1973 to sponsor programs and distribute grants to organizations promoting the understanding and appreciation of the humanities. In 2005, the National Endowment for the Humanities awarded three grants totaling $500,470 for state programs.

Wilmington has a local symphony orchestra, opera society, and drama league. The Playhouse, located in the Du Pont Building in Wilmington, shows first-run Broadway plays. The restored Grand Opera House, part of Delaware's Center for the Performing Arts in Wilmington, is the home of the Delaware Symphony and the Delaware Opera Guild, as well as host to performances of popular music and ballet.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

In 2001, Delaware had 37 public library systems, with a total of 37 libraries and no branches. In that same year, there were 1,468,000 books and serial publications on the system's shelves, and there was a total circulation of 4,543,000. The system also had 60,000 audio and 50,000 video items, and 3,000 electronic format items (CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks). The University of Delaware's Hugh M. Morris Library, with 2,259,121 volumes, is the largest academic library in the state. Other distinguished libraries include the Eleutherian Mills Historical Library, the Winterthur Library, and the Historical Society of Delaware Library (Wilmington). The Delaware Library Information connects all types of libraries through a statewide computer/telecommunication system. Total public library operating income came to $16,059,000 in fiscal year 2001, including $93,000 from federal grants and $2,906,000 from state grants. For that same year, operating expenditures totaled $14,757,000, of which 61.7% was spent on staff and 15.6% on the collection.

Notable among the state's 27 museums and numerous historical sites are the Hagley Museum and Delaware Art Museum, both in Wilmington, where the Historical Society of Delaware maintains a museum in the Old Town Hall. The Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum features a collection of American antiques and decorative arts. The Brandywine Zoo, adjacent to Rockford Park, is popular with Wilmington's children. The Delaware State Museum is in Dover.

COMMUNICATIONS

In 2004, about 96.0% of Delaware's housing units had telephones. Additionally, by June of that same year there were 593,452 mobile wireless telephone subscribers. In 2003, 59.5% of Delaware households had a computer and 53.2% had Internet access. By June 2005, there were 109,468 high-speed lines in Delaware, 100,381 residential and 9,087 for business.

The state had 5 AM and 9 FM major radio stations and one public television station based in Seaford in 2005. Philadelphia and Baltimore commercial television stations are within range. A total of 19,351 Internet domain names were registered in Delaware by 2000.

PRESS

The Wilmington Morning News and the Wilmington Evening Journal merged with the News Journal in 1989. The News Journal has a daily (afternoon) circulation of 115,641 (139,647 on Sunday), as of 2005. In the state's capital is the Delaware State News with a daily circulation of 16,297 and Sunday circulation of 23,964, as of 2005. Statewide, there were two morning, one evening, and two Sunday papers in 2005. Smaller publications include the Newark Post, Dover Post and the Delaware Coast Press. Wilmington's paid weekly, Dialog, ranked fourth in the United States by circulation, 55,700. Magazines include Delaware Today.

ORGANIZATIONS

In 2006, there were over 1,260 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 708 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations. Among national organizations headquartered in Delaware are the International Reading Association and the American Philosophical Association. The Ancient and Illustrious Order Knights of Malta is based in Wilmington. State arts and educational organizations include the Delaware Academy of Medicine and the Historical Society of Delaware.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

Delaware's travel and recreation industry is second only to manufacturing in economic importance. The Delaware Tourism Office is charged with supporting the tourism industry within the state. In 2001, the state launched a campaign entitled, "Delaware: It's Good to be First," which plays upon the state's claim as the first of the original 13 states to ratify the Constitution. In 2001, there were some 12 million visitors to the state. About 36% were day-trip travelers from surrounding states. Shopping (with no sales tax) and the state's beaches are the most popular attractions; outlet shopping malls are a big attraction for tourists. In 2003, Delaware employed 14,800 persons in the tourism industry.

Rehoboth Beach on the Atlantic Coast bills itself as the "Nation's Summer Capital" because of the many federal officials and foreign diplomats who summer there. Nearby Dewey Beach and Bethany Beach are also fast-growing family vacation spots. Events are the Delaware Kite Festival at Cape Henlopen State Park (east of Lewes) every Good Friday, Old Dover Days during the first weekend in May, and Delaware Day ceremonies (7 December, commemorating the day in 1787 when the state ratified the Constitution) throughout the state. Fort Delaware is a popular historic site. Fishing, clamming, crabbing, boating, and swimming are the main recreational attractions. There are 14 state parks. Delaware is also host to thoroughbred horse racing (Delaware Park Racetrack), slot machine gambling, and NASCAR racing. Winterthur, in Brandywine Valley, boasts a Fairy Tale Garden. All three Delaware counties have a merchants' organization, which sponsors demonstrations of arts and crafts.

SPORTS

Delaware has two major horse-racing tracks: Harrington, which has harness racing, and Dover Downs, which also has a track for auto racing. The MBNA Platinum 500 stock car race is held in June and the MBNA.com 400 is run in September. Thoroughbred races are held at Delaware Park in Wilmington. Wilmington has a minor league baseball team, the Blue Rocks, in the Carolina League. Additionally, the Fightin' Blue Hens of the University of Delaware field teams in a large number of both men's and women's sports.

FAMOUS DELAWAREANS

Three Delawareans have served as US secretary of state: Louis McLane (17861857), John M. Clayton (17961856), and Thomas F. Bayard (182898). Two Delawareans have been judges on the Permanent Court of International Justice at The Hague: George Gray (18401925) and John Bassett Moore (18601947). James A. Bayard (b.Pennsylvania, 17671815), a US senator from Delaware from 1805 to 1813, was chosen to negotiate peace terms for ending the War of 1812 with the British.

John Dickinson (b.Maryland, 17321808), the "Penman of the Revolution," and Caesar Rodney (172884), wartime chief executive of Delaware, were notable figures of the Revolutionary era. George Read (b.Maryland, 173398) and Thomas McKean (b.Pennsylvania, 17341817) were, with Rodney, signers for Delaware of the Declaration of Independence. Naval officers of note include Thomas Macdonough (17831825) in the War of 1812 and Samuel F. du Pont (b.New Jersey, 180365) in the Civil War.

Morgan Edwards (b.England, 172295), Baptist minister and historian, was a founder of Brown University. Richard Allen (b.Pennsylvania, 17601831) and Peter Spencer (17791843) established separate denominations of African Methodists. Welfare worker Emily P. Bissell (18611948) popularized the Christmas seal in the United States, and Florence Bayard Hilles (18651954) was president of the National Woman's Party.

Among scientists and engineers were Oliver Evans (17551819), inventor of a high-pressure steam engine; Edward Robinson Squibb (18191900), physician and pharmaceuticals manufacturer; Wallace H. Carothers (b.Iowa, 18961937), developer of nylon at Du Pont; and Daniel Nathans (192899), who shared the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1978 for his research on molecular genetics. Eleuthère I. du Pont (b.France, 17711834) founded the company that bears his name; Pierre S. du Pont (18701954) was architect of its modern growth.

Delaware authors include Robert Montgomery Bird (180654), playwright; Hezekiah Niles (b.Pennsylvania, 17771839), journalist; Christopher Ward (18681944), historian; Henry Seidel Can-by (18781961), critic; and novelist Anne Parrish (b.Colorado, 18881957). Howard Pyle (18531911) was known as a writer, teacher, and artist-illustrator.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Blashfield, Jean F. Delaware. New York: Children's Press, 2000.

Colbert, Judy. Maryland and Delaware: Off the Beaten Path. Old Saybrook, Conn.: Globe Pequot Press, 1999.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 2006 Edition. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 2006.

Essah, Patience. A House Divided: Slavery and Emancipation in Delaware, 16381865. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.

Harper, Steven Craig. Promised Land: Penn's Holy Experiment, the Walking Purchase, and the Dispossession of Delawares, 16001763. Bethlehem, Pa.: Lehigh University Press, 2006.

Marzec, Robert P. (ed.). The Mid-Atlantic Region. Vol. 2 in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures. West-port, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004.

Munroe, John A. History of Delaware. 3rd ed. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1993.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. Delaware, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

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Delaware

DELAWARE

DELAWARE. Nestled along North America's mid-Atlantic seaboard, Delaware is the second smallest state in the United States, with a land area of 1,954 square miles and a population of 783,600 according to the U.S. census of 2000. Belying its modest size, however, is the significant role that the state has played in the history of the United States. On 7 December 1787, Delaware became the first of the thirteen original states to ratify the U.S. Constitution, hence earning its nickname, "The First State." Since then, Delaware periodically has been in the national spotlight, and has played an important role in the nation's political, social, and economic development.

Delaware's earliest recorded history stretches back to 1609, when English explorer Henry Hudson discovered what became known as the Delaware River on his journey to find passage to China. In the following year, the river and its adjacent bay were named after Lord de la Warr, the then-governor of Virginia, by English sailor Samuel

Argall, who encountered the waterways when seeking shelter from a storm. Although English cartographers affixed the name Delaware to the river and bay, the land itself remained unsettled by Europeans for another two decades.

In the spring of 1631, a small Dutch settlement called Swanendael was established near what is known today as Lewes Creek, in the southern part of the state, marking the first time in which a European power staked a claim to the territory. The settlement itself utterly failed, as another Dutch expedition discovered in 1632 when it found Swanendael abandoned and its inhabitants missing or dead. It was not until March 1638 that a permanent settlement was successfully established farther north, near modern-day Wilmington, by Swedish colonists arriving on two ships, the Kalmar Nyckel and the Vogel Grip. The twenty-five men who remained behind called their settlement Fort Christina, in honor of the Swedish Queen Christina, and by 1643 Johan Printz was installed as the governor of New Sweden.

While the population of New Sweden never exceeded 1,000 inhabitants, it was a successful colony of farmers occupying sturdy wooden cabins. Despite its tranquility, however, New Sweden was threatened by Dutch interests claiming the territory due to the early settlement of Swanendael. On 15 September 1655, the poorly fortified colony was conquered by the Dutch and formally incorporated as a southern extension of New Netherland. Dutch rule itself proved to be relatively short-lived, however; in October 1664 the English conquered all of New Netherland, renaming the territory New York.

The English governed Delaware as part of New York until 1682, when William Penn was given a proprietary grant to the territory, which was divided into the three counties of New Castle, Kent, and Sussex. Since the land was not part of Penn's original Pennsylvania grant, the Delaware holdings were regularly referred to as the Lower Counties on the Delaware. Unlike the other English colonies, therefore, Delaware did not have a proper name until it was finally given independence from the Penn family on the eve of the Revolution in 1776.

Given its newfound status as an independent state, Delaware participated in the Continental Congress debates over independence from Great Britain. Delaware's three delegates to the Congress meeting in Philadelphia were Thomas McKean, George Read, and Caesar Rodney. At the Congress, each state was given one vote, although the delegates were polled individually. The poll taken on 1 July 1776 revealed a division among the Delaware delegates, with McKean voting for independence and Read voting against it. Rodney, who was absent from the 1 July vote, quickly rode to Philadelphia to cast the deciding vote for the Delaware delegation the next day, in favor of independence.

Throughout the colonial era, Delaware's economy was primarily agricultural. The Swedish, Dutch, English, Scots-Irish, and Welsh settlers who came to inhabit the land grew wheat, corn, fruits, and vegetables for personal consumption and sale in larger markets such as Philadelphia. Beginning as early as 1639, African slaves were also imported for labor, particularly into the southern counties of Kent and Sussex. By the end of the eighteenth century, Delaware's economy and social structure came to be increasingly divided, with the northern county, New Castle, focusing on activities such as shipbuilding, tanning, and flour milling, and Kent and Sussex counties remaining overwhelmingly agricultural. By 1790, the dual nature of Delaware's development could be seen in two different statistics: its flour mills near Wilmington were the largest in the nation, while at the same time African American slaves toiling in the fields composed nearly 25 percent of the state's population.

Once established as the first state in the new country, Delaware's social and economic patterns continued to develop along similar lines. Flour millers such as Joseph Tatnall and his son-in-law, Thomas Lea, were among the state's most prominent citizens, but wealthy slaveholders also wielded considerable power and influence. Along with the rest of the country, however, Delaware was transformed by advances in technology and transportation in the early decades of the nineteenth century. In 1802, for example, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (hereafter referred to as DuPont) was founded along the banks of the Brandywine River outside of Wilmington as a manufacturer of gunpowder. Although the du Pont name was a new one to Delaware, the firm and the family behind it grew to be among the world's best known. The demand for powder in the United States was brisk, as explosives were used to clear forests and blast mines, and within a relatively short span of time the names of du Pont and Delaware were closely linked.

That Delaware had both manufacturing interests and slaveholding planters reflected the nation as a whole. Thus, when the Civil War erupted in 1861, Delaware was a microcosm of the North-South political divide. The urban and industrial northern part of the state overwhelmingly supported the Union cause, whereas the state's southern agriculturists often sympathized with the Confederacy. Delaware's top political figures appeared to reflect both sides of the conflict as well. Governor William Burton, U.S. Senators James Bayard and William Saulsbury, and U.S. Representative William Whitely all were on record as supporting the institution of slavery, yet none favored secession for Delaware. Likewise, when the matter of secession came to a vote at the state legislature, the lower house unanimously rejected the proposal, and the Senate did so as well by a vote of 5 to 3. Thus, Delaware became one of only four slave-holding states to remain in the Union during the Civil War.

Although military battles were not waged in Delaware, as a border state it did play an important role during the war. Fort Delaware, located offshore on Pea Patch Island, served as a prison for Confederate soldiers and officers, housing up to 12,500 men in squalid conditions. The state's industries also were important to the Union's war effort, with DuPont supplying one-third to one-half of all Union powder, and smaller firms supplying textiles, leather goods, rail cars, and ships.

In light of Delaware's small size and its loyalty to the Union, the Lincoln administration viewed the state as a potentially important test case in regard to emancipation. In the autumn of 1861, Lincoln proposed that Delaware slaveholders emancipate their slaves in exchange for U.S. government compensation. With some 1,800 slaves in the state at the time, it was estimated that the cost to the U.S. government would be approximately $900,000. When Delaware lawmakers rejected the proposal, the plan was dropped and Lincoln abandoned compensated emancipation, reasoning that if the plan was unacceptable to Delaware slaveholders, it would be even more vigorously opposed by other states. In part, therefore, Lincoln considered the Delaware case when he issued the more sweeping Emancipation Proclamation on 1 January 1863.

In the years following the Civil War, Delawareans cast aside disagreements that had arisen during the conflict and looked ahead to the remaining years of the nineteenth-century with well-founded optimism. Since slavery was already a dying institution in Delaware before the war, former slaveholders adjusted to Emancipation with greater ease than their counterparts farther south. As for the state's manufacturing sector, the closing decades of the century marked a time of growth and consolidation. Although some traditional enterprises such as milling declined due to competition farther west, in general manufacturing expanded and provided employment for the state's growing population. Delaware was not known for any single industry, but instead was characterized by diverse firms involved in leather production, fiber and paper manufacturing, machine building, iron manufacturing, and shipbuilding.

Delaware's economy increasingly turned toward manufacturing and business throughout the nineteenth century, but the small size of the state and of its population meant that the state's economy was likewise smaller than that of other northeastern states. In 1897, however, the Delaware legislature enacted a new General Corporation Law that ultimately made the state a leading force in the American economy. With its flexible corporation statute, its attractive tax provisions, and its Court of Chancery, a tribunal dating back to the colonial era to hear business disputes, the incorporation law was specifically designed to attract companies to incorporate in Delaware, regardless of whether or not they actually operated within the state. In time, thousands of companies incorporated in Delaware.

As Delaware's profile in the national economy rose in the early years of the twentieth century, so did the fortune of its largest firm, DuPont. Despite having been broken up in 1912 due to antitrust violations, DuPont still possessed a government-sanctioned monopoly on military-grade smokeless powder. Not surprisingly, the firm profited handsomely from powder sales during World War I, supplying some 40 percent of all powder used by the United States and its allies. With the resulting capital it now had available, DuPont and the du Pont family members at its helm broadened the activities of the firm by the war's end. Increasingly the company turned toward the manufacture of chemicals and synthetic fibers, and soon Delaware housed numerous research, administrative, and production facilities of the corporate giant that made rayon, nylon, Dacron, Lucite, and cellophane household names. As DuPont rose to become the world's largest chemical company, its power and influence within the state became unrivaled.

As the twentieth century progressed, DuPont and the thousands of Delawareans it employed symbolized the modern face of the state. Still, Delaware retained elements of its agricultural past, particularly in its southern counties of Kent and Sussex. Poultry production, especially of broiler chickens, grew at a phenomenal rate in the 1920s and 1930s, such that by 1942 Delaware farms raised approximately 25 percent of all broilers in the United States. The dramatic growth in broiler production made Sussex one of the wealthiest agricultural counties in the nation by the onset of World War II.

By the middle of the twentieth century, Delaware continued to be characterized by a dual economy—urban and industrial in the north, rural and agricultural in the south—much as it had been 100 years earlier. There was a continuity in the state's social structure as well. Just as Delaware had been one of only four slave states to remain in the Union during the Civil War, race relations in the mid-twentieth century were a mixture of both southern and northern patterns. Whereas schools, restaurants, and theaters were segregated, for example, other types of public accommodations such as libraries, buses, and trains were not. Even before the U.S. Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision outlawed segregation in public schools, however, Delaware had begun the process of desegregation.

In 1950 Chancellor Collins J. Seitz of the Delaware Court of Chancery ordered that the University of Delaware admit African American students, a watershed event in the state's history that ultimately influenced the federal courts as well. Slowly, private institutions throughout Delaware abandoned segregation policies, including the YWCA in 1951, the Catholic school system in 1952, and the state's leading luxury hotel, the Hotel DuPont, in 1953. When the Brown v. Board decision was handed down in 1954, the state's attorney general, H. Albert Young, complied with federal law and oversaw the desegregation of public schools throughout the state.

Meanwhile, the state was undergoing a noticeable demographic transformation. Although the state's population growth exceeded national averages in the post–World War II era, the population of its largest city, Wilmington, was steadily declining. In 1940, Wilmington's population was 112,504; by 1999 that figure had dropped to 71,491 as increasing numbers of people sought life in the suburbs. In addition, Delaware's traditionally rural counties in the south also experienced population growth due to an increase in non-agricultural employment, as well as a willingness of commuters to travel greater distances to jobs. With suburban sprawl taking the place of urban concentration, Delaware became part of the larger megalopolis that extends from New York City to Washington, D.C., in the mid-Atlantic region.

At the close of the twentieth century, Delaware became best known as a center for American corporate business. More than 308,000 companies were incorporated in the state, including 60 percent of the Fortune 500 and 50 percent of the companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Although the vast majority of these firms did not have operations within Delaware, they nevertheless had an important impact on the state's economy through tax receipts and ancillary activities such as legal and financial services. Moreover, due to the Financial Center Development Act of 1981, the state had become a leading center for banking and credit card operations, with Delaware-based banks issuing some 43 percent of all credit cards in the United States by 1997, and providing employment to over 32,000 Delawareans.

Since its first European settlement in 1631, Delaware has transformed significantly. In a state once populated by a handful of Dutch and Swedish settlers, Delaware's population increasingly became more diverse by ethnicity and race, trends that are projected to continue. As the twenty-first century unfolds, new challenges and opportunities await the First State. Like other states in the region, manufacturing and industrial production are being replaced by service sector employment, particularly in fields of banking and corporate services. Despite its small size, Delaware has played an important role in the history of the United States; given its importance to American corporate business and the national economy, it will re-main significant in the years to come.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Delaware. Home page at http://www.delaware.gov.

Hoffecker, Carol E. Corporate Capital: Wilmington in the Twentieth Century. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1983.

Munroe, John A. History Of Delaware. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2001.

Williams, William H. Slavery and Freedom in Delaware, 1639– 1865. Wilmington, Del.: SR Books, 1996.

Wolters, Raymond. The Burden of Brown: Thirty Years of School Desegregation. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984.

Jonathan S.Russ

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Delaware (state, United States)

Delaware (dĕl´əwâr, –wər), one of the Middle Atlantic states of the United States, the country's second smallest state (after Rhode Island). It is bordered by Maryland (W, S), and there is a short border with Pennsylvania (N); New Jersey (E) is across the Delaware Bay and Delaware River

Facts and Figures

Area, 2,057 sq mi (5,328 sq km). Pop. (2010) 897,934, a 14.6% increase since the 2000 census. Capital, Dover. Largest city, Wilmington. Statehood, Dec. 7, 1787 (1st of the original 13 states to ratify the Constitution). Highest pt., 442 ft (135 m), New Castle co.; lowest pt., sea level. Nickname, First State. Motto, Liberty and Independence. State bird, blue hen chicken. State flower, peach blossom. State tree, American holly. Abbr., Del.; DE

Geography

Together with Eastern Shore Maryland and Virginia, Delaware occupies the Delmarva peninsula. It lies on the northeast of the peninsula, facing the Delaware River, which broadens into Delaware Bay; the bay in turn joins the Atlantic Ocean at Cape Henlopen. Delaware is sometimes called the Diamond State, a reference to its small size but relative wealth. With the Delaware River and Bay along its entire eastern edge, no place in the narrow state is far from water.

Many small rivers, often tidal, flow across the state, some E to the Delaware River and Bay and the Atlantic, others W across Maryland to the Chesapeake. In the north the waters of the Christina and Brandywine flow into the Delaware River; in the south the Nanticoke flows SW to Chesapeake Bay. The land is low-lying, from sand dunes in the south to rolling hills on the Pennsylvania border in the north; the average elevation is c.60 ft (18 m), and the highest point, NW of Wilmington on the Pennsylvania border, is only 440 ft (134 m). The capital is Dover, and the only large city is Wilmington.

Economy

Because of Delaware's lenient laws regulating business taxation and practice, some of the nation's largest corporations, especially banking and financial services companies, have major offices in N Delaware. Since the 1990s the finance and insurance sectors have become increasingly important for employment and income and now dominant the state's economy, although manufacturing and agriculture are still significant. The manufacturing, credit card, banking, and insurance industries are largely concentrated in the north, while farming is carried on mainly below the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

Chief agricultural products are broiler chickens, soybeans, corn, and dairy products. Potatoes and other vegetables are also grown. Delaware's small fishing industry harvests mainly clams, menhaden, oysters, and scup. Industries around Wilmington include the large chemicals and materials company that was founded by the Du Pont family in the 19th cent., and the biomedical, apparel, processed foods, and rubber and plastic products industries contribute significantly to the economy. Also economically important are Dover Air Force Base, the largest military facility in the state; tourism, mainly to the state's Atlantic beaches; and gambling.

Government, Politics, and Higher Education

Under the provisions of the 1897 constitution, the governor is elected to a four-year term. The state legislature, called the general assembly, is made up of a senate of 21 members and a house of representatives with 41 members. Delaware is represented in the U.S. Congress by two senators and one representative and has three electoral votes. Pierre S. Du Pont (1977–85) and Michael Castle (1985–93), both Republicans, were succeeded as governor by Democrats Thomas R. Carper (1993–2001), Ruth Ann Minner (2001–9), the state's first woman governor, and Jack Markell (2009–).

The main institutions of higher education are the Univ. of Delaware, at Newark; Delaware State Univ., at Dover; and a division of Widener Univ., at Wilmington.

History

Native Inhabitants and European Claims

Long before Europeans explored the Delaware area, it was inhabited by several Native American groups of the Delaware—notably the Nanticoke in the south and the Minqua in the north. In 1609, Henry Hudson, in the service of the Dutch East India Company, sailed into Delaware Bay. A year later the British captain Sir Samuel Argall, bound for the colony of Virginia, also sailed into the bay. Argall named one of the capes Cape La Warre after the governor of Virginia, Thomas West, Baron De la Warr.

From the time of its discovery, the region was contested by the Dutch and English. The first settlement was established by Dutch patroons, or proprietors, in partnership with the Dutch navigator David Pietersen de Vries; it was called Swanendael and was established (1631) on the site of the town of Lewes. However, within a year it was destroyed by a Native American attack. This attack notwithstanding, the Native Americans were generally friendly and willing to trade with the newcomers.

The Dutch West India Company, organized in 1623, was more interested in trade on the South River, as the Delaware was called at that time, than in settlement (the North River was the Hudson, in the Dutch colony of New Netherland). Several Dutchmen, interested in settling the area, put their services at the disposal of Sweden and colonized the area for that country. The best known of these was Peter Minuit, who had been governor of New Amsterdam (later New York). In 1637–38 Minuit directed the colonizing expedition for the Swedes that organized New Sweden. Fort Christina was founded in 1638 on the site of Wilmington and was named in honor of the queen of Sweden. The colony grew with the arrival of Swedish, Finnish, and Dutch settlers.

English colonists from Connecticut tried to establish trading posts in the Delaware River region and failed, but Dutch interests in the area were not disposed of as easily. Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherland, sailed to the Delaware region in 1651 and established Fort Casimir on the Delaware shore at the site of present-day New Castle. The Swedes captured the fort by surprise in 1654, but their triumph was brief; Stuyvesant returned with an expedition in 1655 and conquered all New Sweden. The Dutch West India Company sold part of New Sweden to the Dutch city of Amsterdam in 1656 and the rest in 1663.

In 1664 the English seized the Dutch holdings on the Delaware. The Dutch recaptured the colony in 1673 and although they held Delaware only briefly, they set up three district courts that marked the beginning of Delaware's division into three counties. The colony was returned to England in 1674 and remained in its hands until the American Revolution.

The Three Lower Counties

The English Duke of York (later James II) annexed the region to New York, land granted him earlier by Charles II. In 1682 the duke transferred the claim to William Penn, who wanted to secure a navigable water route from his new colony of Pennsylvania to the ocean. The three counties of Delaware thus became the Three Lower Counties (or Territories, as Penn called them) of Pennsylvania. The individual counties were called New Castle, Kent (formerly St. Jones), and Sussex (formerly Hoornkill, also known as Whorekill, and Deale). The English proprietors of Maryland contested Penn's claim to Delaware, and the boundary dispute was not fully settled until 1750.

The inhabitants of the Delaware counties were at first unwilling to be joined to the "radical" Quaker colony of Pennsylvania or to have their affairs settled in Philadelphia. They finally accepted the Penn charter of 1701 after provisions were added giving the Three Lower Counties the right to a separate assembly, which first met in 1704. Delaware maintained quasi-autonomy until the American Revolution. The two colonies maintained strong ties, however, and two of Delaware's leading statesmen during the Revolution—Thomas McKean and John Dickinson—were also prominent in Pennsylvania affairs.

Revolution and Statehood

Although there were many Loyalists in Delaware just prior to the American Revolution, Delaware supported independence, with two of its three delegates to the Continental Congress—Caesar Rodney and Thomas McKean—voting for independence. George Read, the third Delaware delegate, voted against independence, fearing that Loyalist sentiment was too strong in the colonies. However, Read subsequently signed the Declaration of Independence.

In 1776 the colony of Delaware became a state, with a president as its chief executive. Regiments from the state rendered valiant service to the patriot cause, especially the Delaware 1st Regiment, which was nicknamed the Blue Hen's Chickens—originally because they carried with them gamecocks bred by a famous hen of Kent and later because they themselves showed the fighting quality of gamecocks. Delaware was a leader in the movement for revision of the form of government under the Articles of Confederation and in 1787 became the first state to ratify the new Constitution of the United States. The state constitution of 1776 was superseded by a new constitution in 1792, which provided that the chief executive be a governor rather than a president.

The late 18th cent. also marked the beginning of industry in Delaware with the establishment of gristmills on the Brandywine and Christina rivers. Wilmington became a center for the manufacture of cloth, paper, and flour—products that helped to build the industrial economy of N Delaware that flourished in the 19th cent. Shortly thereafter, in 1802, Eleuthère Irénée Du Pont established a gunpowder mill on the Brandywine River.

Pro- and Anti-Slavery Factionalism

Prior to the Civil War, Delaware was a slave state, but in the early 19th cent. the number of slaves in the state declined, while the number of free blacks increased. Many citizens of Delaware favored manumission of slaves and belonged to the American Colonization Society, but there were few who sympathized with the growing abolitionist movement and there was strong sentiment for separation of whites and blacks. In the Civil War, Delaware remained loyal to the Union, but pro-Southern feeling increased rather than diminished during the course of the war. Delaware refused to accept an emancipation proposal made by Lincoln in 1861 and did not ratify the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution until 1901. Delaware Democrats subsequently became divided, and the Republican Party emerged in 1905 to assume a leading political role for some years.

Maintaining a Rural–Urban Balance

A new state constitution in 1897 reflected the political strength as well as conservatism of Delaware's farmers through provisions that kept the political strength of Wilmington at a minimum and that of rural areas at a maximum. Many European immigrants came to the state in the late 19th and early 20th cent., settling in the Wilmington area. Southern Delaware's population continued to be made up largely of African Americans and persons of English origin.

Delaware's industries flourished during the 19th cent. as transportation facilities improved. Industry continued to expand in the 20th cent., especially during World Wars I and II. The chemical industry built up by the Du Pont family was broken up by a federal antitrust suit in 1912, but was nonetheless large enough to buy control of General Motors corporation in the 1920s and hold it for many years.

Racial tensions appeared in the state in the 1950s and 60s as Delaware's schools were racially integrated, and after the assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968, rioting erupted in Wilmington. In the 1980s, Governor Pierre S. Du Pont fought to liberalize the state's usury laws and won. As a result, many large New York banks set up subsidiaries in Delaware (especially the Wilmington area), and thousands of jobs were created.

Bibliography

The standard history of the early period is Benjamin Ferris, A History of the Original Settlements on the Delaware (1846). See also Federal Writers' Project, Delaware: A Guide to the First State (1938, rev. ed. 1955, repr. 1973); J. A. Munroe, History of Delaware (2d ed. 1984); W. H. Williams, The First State: An Illustrated History of Delaware (1985).

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Delaware

DELAWARE


Delaware, the second-smallest state in the nation, was once compared by President Thomas Jefferson (18011809) to a diamondsmall, but highly valued. Through most of its history this diminutive state, located between the Atlantic coast and Delaware Bay, has rivaled many larger states in economic prosperity. This prosperity has largely been associated in the public's mind with the du Pont family, the entrepreneurs who created much of Delaware's wealth in the chemical industry.

Both the Dutch and the Swedes staked out colonies in Delaware in the seventeenth century, but it was the English who took over the colony in 1664. The Duke of York ceded the colony to a proprietor, William Penn (16441718), who kept Delaware closely tied to his family and to his beloved Pennsylvania until 1776. Delaware was the first of the new states to ratify the U.S. Constitution in 1787.

When it was still a colony Delaware depended on agriculture. Tobacco was a major crop in the colonial period; it was superseded later by corn, wheat, and peaches. Fishing was also an important economic factor during this period. The industrial development of the state really started with the construction of railroads, the first being the New Castle and Frenchtown Railroad completed in 1832. Finished in 1838 the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Railroad made the industrial development of northern Delaware possible.

By 1900 the population of Wilmington grew dramatically and comprised forty percent of the entire population of the state. Immigrants from Ireland and Germany in the mid-nineteenth century and from southern and eastern Europe in the early twentieth century helped to fuel this population growth and staff the developing industries. While the north developed rapidly the southern portion of the state remained agricultural and largely lacking in economic development. Farmers only gradually began to take advantage of new markets provided by the railroad.

Important Delaware industries in the nineteenth century, mostly centered in Wilmington, included flour and textile mills, shipyards, carriage factories, iron foundries, and morocco leather plants. Shipbuilding in particular was a vital force in the economy during this time, with shipyards making wooden sloops, schooners, and fishing boats located in all the port towns along the Delaware and its tributaries.

In 1802 a French immigrant named Eleuthère I. du Pont, found the right combination of a power source on the Brandywine River, a good location between Philadelphia and New York, and an adequate supply of timber, constructed a mill to produce gunpowder. His family's friendship with then-President Thomas Jefferson helped assure him of government contracts. The area of Wilmington around the Du Pont factory rapidly became a company town, encompassing a large house for the du Pont family, row houses for the workers and even dormitories for single workers and a Sunday school building. Work days were long (averaging 12 hours) and wages, never very high for men, were even lower for women.

Well before the railroad came to Delaware, Philadelphia businessmen saw the need for a better transportation route between Philadelphia and Baltimore. They encouraged the building of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, linking the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland with Delaware Bay via the Delaware River, which was completed in 1829. This three-hundred-mile-long canal benefited Delaware by circumventing the longer sea route from Philadelphia to Baltimore. By this time packet steamboats were plying the canal. Big side-wheelers were also a familiar sight along the Delaware.

Around 1900 the Du Pont Company employed only around four hundred people. It was no more important in Wilmington than a number of other companies. After Alfred I. du Pont, a descendant of the founder, along with his cousins T. Coleman du Pont and Pierre S. du Pont, took over the company, it became a major producer of explosives. During World War I (19141918) the company supplied nearly 1.5 billion pounds of explosives for the Allies, securing the fortunes of the company and making possible a postwar expansion into the chemicals industry. In the late 1990s Du Pont manufactured a host of products such as gasoline additives, antifreeze, dyes, nylon, and rayon; the company employed 11 percent of Delaware's total work force. It had only one major rival, Dow Chemical.

T. Coleman du Pont was also instrumental in promoting the state's first major highway project, begun in 1911, to connect the southern part of the state with Wilmington. The Du Pont Highway became the hub of a network of highways that eventually crossed the state. The trucking industry soon became a major economic force in the state, making possible a healthy poultry industry and boosting the grain industry associated with it.

During the 1950s the population of Delaware grew by forty percent. Both the Wilmington area and the state capital of Dover grew, mostly because of its large air base. One of the impacts of the population's rapid growth was that it strained the state's infrastructure and social services. However because chemical plant workers fled to the suburbs, Wilmington proper actually decreased in population by thirteen percent between 1920 and 1960. Industry followed the same path, with a large General Motors and a Chrysler plant appearing in suburban Wilmington and Newark, respectively. Du Pont also located a huge experimental station near the site of the original powder mills, among other facilities. Another major economic impact was the new interstate, I-95, which was built in New Castle County in the 1960s.

Delaware's unique combination of heavy industry and coastal beauty has brought concerns to the fore regarding environmental protection. In 1971 a Coastal Zone Act was passed, outlawing all new heavy industry because it would be incompatible with the coastal environment. In 1979 this law was amended to allow offshore drilling and construction of coastal oil facilities. Environmentalists remain concerned about the dangers posed by oil tankers in Delaware Bay.

The 1980s were good to Delaware, bringing in an era of economic improvement. Unlike most of the rest of the recession-plagued nation, Delaware prospered during this time. In 1988 Delaware's unemployment rate was only 3.3 percent, the second lowest in the country. A 1981 state law raised the usury limits (interest rates allowable for money lending) and lowered taxes for large financial institutions. This encouraged over thirty banks to set themselves up in Delaware, including such large concerns as Chase Manhattan and Manufacturers Hanover. In addition, the state has been friendly to foreign corporations who seek to incorporate in the state. Since 1899 Delaware has also had an unusual law which allows companies to be incorporated and chartered in Delaware even if they actually do no business in the state and have stockholders' meetings elsewhere. Along with the efforts of Delaware Economic Development Office and the Delaware Innovation Fund (a private fund designed to encourage new companies), this law has helped to bring many new businesses to the state.

In the 1990s Du Pont remained the driving force in Delaware's economy, ranking as the tenth largest U.S. industrial corporation, with sales of $39,689 billion in 1997. A number of other sectors were contributing to the state as well. Other manufacturers were also flourishing, such as the Chrysler Corporation and those associated with the food products industry. Tourism was second only to manufacturing in importance, bringing in $836 million in 1993. Some of the most popular tourist venues include Rehoboth Beach on the Atlantic coast and the state's many historic sites.

Not surprisingly, along with its economic success, Delaware faces social welfare problems and other difficulties associated with industrial growth and decay and with urban blight. The state has lagged well behind many others in welfare benefits and has also experienced housing shortages, urban sprawl, and pollution problems. Since the mid-1970s, however, Delaware has maintained a position as one of the nation's most prosperous states. Delaware ranked fifth among all the states in per capita personal income in 1996, with average per capita disposable income at well over $23,000.

See also: Chrysler Motors, Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, General Motors


FURTHER READING


Federal Writers Project. Delaware: A Guide to the First State. New York: Somerset, 1958.

Hoffecker, Carol E. Delaware: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1977.

Mosley, Leonard. Blood Relations: The Rise and Fall of Du Ponts of Delaware. New York: Atheneum, 1980.

Munroe, John A. History of Delaware. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 1993.

Vessels, Jane. Delaware: Small Wonder. New York: Abrams, 1984.

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Delaware

DELAWARE


Dover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Wilmington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

The State in Brief

Nickname: First State; Diamond State

Motto: Liberty and independence

Flower: Peach blossom

Bird: Blue hen chicken

Area: 2,489 square miles (2000; U.S. rank: 49th)

Elevation: Ranges from sea level to 440 feet above sea level

Climate: Temperate, with mild winters and hot summers

Admitted to Union: December 7, 1787

Capital: Dover

Head Official: Governor Ruth Ann Minner (D) (until 2009)

Population

1980: 594,000

1990: 666,000

2000: 783,600

2003 estimate: 817,491

Percent change, 19902000: 17.6%

Percent change, 20002003: 4.3%

U.S. rank in 2003: 45th

Percent of residents born in state: 48.3% (2000)

Density: 401.1 people per square mile (in 2000, based on 2000 land area)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 31,803

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 584,773

Black or African American: 150,666

American Indian and Alaska Native: 2,731

Asian: 16,259

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 283

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 37,277

Other: 15,855

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 51,531

Population 5 to 19 years old: 166,719

Percent of population 65 years and over: 13%

Median age: 36 years (2000)

Vital Statistics

Total number of births (2003): 12,120

Total number of deaths (2002): 6,860 (infant deaths, 96)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 3,231

Economy

Major industries: Chemicals, agriculture, food products, paper products, printing and publishing, rubber and plastic products

Unemployment rate: 4.0% (November 2004)

Per capita income: $33,321 (2003; U.S. rank: 12th)

Median household income: $50,451 (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 7.7% (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Income tax rate: Ranges from 2.2% to 5.95%

Sales tax rate: None

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Delaware (river, United States)

Delaware (dĕl´əwâr, –wər), river, c.280 mi (450 km) long, rising in the Catskill Mts., SE N.Y., in east and west branches, which meet at Hancock. It flows SE along the New York–Pennsylvania border to Port Jervis, N.Y., then between Pennsylvania and New Jersey generally S to Delaware Bay, an estuary (52 mi/84 km long) between New Jersey and Delaware. Dams and reservoirs (especially the Cannonsville, Pepacton, and Neversink) on the river's headstreams control flooding and provide water for New York City and New Jersey, but the diversion of water from the upper Delaware has increased the salinity of Delaware Bay. The Delaware River Basin Compact (formed 1961) regulates water use in the entire basin. The Delaware cuts through Kittatinny Mt. near Stroudsburg, Pa., forming the Delaware Water Gap, a scenic resort and recreation area. The lower Delaware, from Trenton, N.J. (the head of navigation), past Philadelphia, to Wilmington, Del., flows through a highly industrialized area where water pollution has been a problem. The Delaware has long been commercially and recreationally significant. Its tributaries include the highly industrial Lehigh River, which joins it at Easton, Pa., and the Schuylkill, which joins it at Philadelphia. The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal links it with Chesapeake Bay.

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Delaware

Delaware State in e USA, on the Atlantic coast, occupying a peninsula between Chesapeake and Delaware bays; the capital is Dover, the largest city is Wilmington. Discovered by Henry Hudson in 1609, it was named after the British governor of Virginia, Baron De la Warr. Delaware was settled by Swedes in 1638. The Dutch, under Peter Stuyvesant, conquered the territory by 1655. Although the Dutch briefly recaptured Delaware in 1673, it was under effective English control from 1664 to 1776. One of the original Thirteen Colonies, it was the first to ratify the Articles of Confederation (1789). Despite being a slave state, it maintained a fragile loyalty to the Union during the American Civil War. It is the second smallest US state by area (after Rhode Island), and most of its land is coastal plain. The Delaware River, an important shipping route, forms part of the e boundary. Industries: chemicals, rubber, plastics, metallurgy. Agriculture: cereal crops, soya, dairy produce. Area: 5328sq km (2057sq mi). Pop. (2000) 783,600.

Statehood :

December 7, 1787

Nickname :

The First State

State bird :

Blue hen chicken

State flower :

Peach blossom

State tree :

American holly

State motto :

Liberty and independence


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Delaware

Delaware

ETHNONYMS: Lenape, Munsee, River Indians, Turkey Tribe, Unami


Orientation

Identification. By the end of the eighteenth century the name "Delaware" had become associated with three groups of native people who originally occupied the valley of the Delaware River. The first Europeans called the various people living along the Delaware River by the collective term "River Indians." Years later, when the river was named the Delaware after Sir Thomas West, Lord de la Warr, the first governor of the Virginia colony, the "River Indians" became known by the same name. The few remaining speakers of the Delaware language and the descendants of these people who still strongly identify themselves as Delaware live in two "communities" in Oklahoma. Like their ancestors, they continue to maintain a dispersed residential pattern, but now the areas between individual households are occupied by other Americans. The concentrations of modern "Delaware" can be found in the northeast of Oklahoma in the Bartlesville area, and in the western part of the state around Anadarko. Although these contemporary Delaware appear quite similar to the other Americans around them, many old cultural traits are embedded in their life-styles.

Location. In aboriginal times the three cultures (Lenape, Munsee, "Jerseys") now popularly known as Delaware occupied separate parts of the river valley. The Lenape, the best known of these groups, are the focus of this description. The Lenape inhabited the area along the west side of the lower Delaware River, from old Duck Creek in northern Delaware up to Tohiccon Creek, which flows south of and parallel to the Lehigh River. Lenape territory ran inland as far as the sources of these feeder streams and all of those in between. Today the remnants of the Lenape traditionalists, including eight people who still speak the language, live in Oklahoma. The people who lived on the east side of the lower Delaware River, occupying all of southern New Jersey south of the Raritan River, are identified only as the "Jerseys" in early documents. When these "Jerseys" left their territory they migrated north and northwest, and most of their descendants now live in Canada. The Munsee, or Minsi, occupied the upper Delaware River drainage. By the end of the seventeenth century they had separated into several groups, some of which moved in concert with the Lenape while other Munsee chose Different cultures to live among. A small group of approximately 250 was still living in Kansas in the 1970s. The true Lenape, often referred to as "Unami" after 1750, became known as the "Turtles." The "Jerseys," who after 1780 were sometimes called the "Unalachtigo," later became known as the "Turkeys," and the Munsee (or Minsi) became identified as the "Wolf.

Demography. In 1600 the total aboriginal population of the foraging Lenape was between 250 and 500. The population of the "Jerseys" was somewhat larger, possibly numbering 800 to 1,000 individuals. The Munsee also may have had as many as 1,000 members, but their early history is less clear. Today, thousands of Delaware maintain an ethnic identity through various organizations. These groups, primarily located in the south-central part of the country, include over 25,000 members. The two largest are the Delaware Tribe of Western Oklahoma and the Delaware Tribe of Indians, living in northeastern Oklahoma.

Linguistic Affiliation. The languages of the three cultures called Delaware are included within the Eastern Algonkian family. The Lenape and the "Jerseys" spoke dialects of the same language, while the Munsee language was sufficiently distinct that interpreters were required.


History and Cultural Relations

The Lenape appear to have been in their territory for centuries, if not millennia, prior to 1500. The Lenape and "Jerseys" must have been more closely aligned, but by 1600 marriages and other activities were sufficiently distinct to prevent Cooperation in land sales or migration. The Lenape were bounded on the south by the Cinconicin, a low-level chiefdom which had their main village where Lewes, Delaware, now stands. To the west, in central Pennsylvania, were the powerful Susquehannock, who controlled the fur trade throughout the area and beyond the Monongahela and Ohio rivers to the Mississippi. The heartland of the Iroquois territory lay to the north of the Munsee, and to the north of the "Jerseys" were various independent groups foraging along the Hudson and other rivers and waterways surrounding Manhattan Island. The Susquehannock and Iroquois had grown powerful through fur trading and overshadowed these foraging peoples living along the major rivers. All the people of the Delaware valley formed an economic backwater with minimal participation in the fur trade during the entire sixteenth century.

In 1622 the uprising of the Potomac confederacy stimulated the Susquehannock to seek other outlets for their furs. The most convenient route ran from the head of the Chesapeake up the Elk River and, by a portage, down Minquas Creek through Lenape territory. This brought the Susquehannock to the lower end of the Delaware River where Dutch traders from New Amsterdam (New York) established a trading post. From the earliest records left by these traders, Beginning in 1623, we have clear evidence that the Susquehannock abused and controlled the Lenape during this period, and the Lenape remained in their shadow for nearly forty years.

During this period, Dutch traders and Swedish colonists purchased small plots of land from the Lenape on which to establish several outposts. The Swedes erected a small village where Wilmington, Delaware, now stands. Swedish farmers spread throughout the lower half of the Lenape range, and many intermarried with Lenape. Owing to the low level of funding provided to the Swedish colonists, they could not compete in the fur trade, and they soon focused their attention on tobacco production. Swedish needs for food had stimulated the foraging Lenape, who usually gardened a bit of maize at their summer stations, to increase production for sale to the colonists. Between 1640 and 1660, maize became an important cash crop for the Lenape, providing access to European goods which other nations procured with furs. By 1660, imports of grain from other colonies had captured the local market.

By that time the wars of the Susquehannock, primarily with the Seneca, had created stresses that caused them to become allied with the Lenape and allowed the Lenape to participate more extensively in the fur trade. When English Immigrants began settling the area around 1660 they also made small purchases of land from the Lenape on which to establish farms. These immigrants stimulated the formation of new alliances in the region. In 1674 the Maryland colonists joined with the Seneca and turned on the Susquehannock, who had formerly been their allies. The Susquehannock nation was defeated and scattered, and their power lost forever.

Their lands in central Pennsylvania and to the west became available for Lenape use, although the Maryland colony and some of the Five Nations now held claim to them by right of conquest. Lenape became increasingly active in the fur trade, and a growing number relocated into this vast open area which in 1680 was uncluttered by European immigrants. The political events that led the English Crown to grant a charter for this region to William Penn (1681) at first had Little significance for the Lenape. Penn's policy for just treatment of the native peoples led him to contact every Lenape band and to purchase all their holdings in the Delaware Valley. This program began in 1681 and continued until 1701. Although Penn assiduously protected Lenape rights to lands on which they were seated, the foraging life-style depended on access to forest resources and to the abundant fish runs in the streams feeding the Delaware River. Gradually the various Lenape bands relocated their foraging areas and summer stations farther inland, and by 1750 all the Lenape bands had relocated to the west of their homeland, joining their kin who, in some cases, had moved west more than fifty years previously. Many of those who had left in the 1600s had moved even farther to the west by 1740, where they bought lands from other Native American groups. This established a pattern of movement in which the Lenape made purchases Directly from aboriginal landholders and later sold these lands to colonists or, after 1780, to the U.S. government.

Over the years various Lenape bands established settlements and villages in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, and even Texas. Innumerable Lenape splinter groups moved into still other areas, and many individuals simply settled down among and married with the immigrants who were advancing close behind them. In the second half of the nineteenth Century most of the Lenape then in Kansas made a purchase of land (sometimes seen as land rights) from the Cherokee in Indian Territory, which later became Oklahoma. Lenape settlements among those of the western Cherokee provided a stable environment, but one increasingly susceptible to outside influences. By the 1920s most of the Lenape had come to speak English, and fewer households were to be found where the Lenape language was maintained.


Settlements

The foraging Lenape had no permanent settlements and no villages, and the "Jerseys" in the historic period may have had a similar settlement pattern. The Munsee built small villages similar to those of the Iroquois. Each Lenape band dispersed into nuclear family units for winter hunting. In the spring these families regathered at a summer station near the mouth of the stream that served as the focus of their band's territory. About a dozen such bands can be recognized, each averaging nearly twenty-five members. All the various Lenape bands gathered in late fall for annual renewal rites, just before dispersing for winter hunting. Families or individuals often operated alone even in aboriginal times, and after 1675 this pattern of independence and entrepreneurial activity became pronounced.

From several historic descriptions we know that each aboriginal Lenape family lived in a wigwam, less than nine feet in diameter and under five feet high. The walls were formed from thin bent poles tied at the top. These were covered with bark and grass, as well as with mats woven from reeds. A hearth area occupied the center of the floor area. Such shelters must have served the Lenape traditionalists well into the nineteenth century, although those Lenape who were becoming more sedentary were building cabins as early as the late eighteenth century.


Economy

Subsistence and Commercial Activities. The Lenape were foragers with a seasonal pattern of band aggregation and dispersion geared to effective recovery of naturally available resources within their range. In the early spring they set up their summer stations to take advantage of six species of anadromous fish which spawned in the fresh waters of the Delaware valley watershed. In March the shad were the first of these to arrive from the sea, with a run often lasting as long as four weeks. The other five species came in sequence throughout the summer and into early fall, with the last species spawning in September and October. These fish, plus the catadromous eel and migratory waterfowl resources, provided an abundant and extremely rich protein source for nearly eight months of the year. The winter months, during which deer hunting was the principal activity, were less rich, but sufficient to supply the population with food needs when supplemented/by extensive gathering. Aside from the period from 1640 to 1660 when Lenape bands cash-cropped maize, complex technology was available only through the sale of a few furs and the barter of venison and other native-made Products. After 1680 the Lenape became important in the fur trade, but the demand for this resource had declined. Lenape became known as expert and reliable guides and were Important in opening the frontier straight out to the Pacific Coast. Lenape adoption of the horse in the eighteenth century facilitated their movement west, and they also became horse Traders of note.

The independence and individuality that characterized the foraging ancestors of these people are reflected today in a number of economic factors. Private ownership of their own homes, a reluctance to be part of big businesses, and avoidance of financial encumbrances make the Delaware appear to be secure members of the American mainstream. Although many collectively receive government payments for old treaty obligations, there are none of the difficulties that are noted among other Native American groups where such support has become the mainstay of the economy.

Industrial Arts. The aboriginal Lenape were extraordinarily skilled at leather and quillwork and at carving wooden objects that were often traded to the colonists. Outstanding early examples of these crafts exist in European museum collections. Basketry was one of the skills used by Lenape settled among the seventeenth-century colonists, but aspects of this skill may have been European imports. Much later, ribbon-work applique became a major technique for decorating clothing among the Lenape as it did among many other Native American peoples.

Trade. The Lenape always maintained a relatively low level of trade, both with their aboriginal neighbors and with the later European colonists. Although industrially produced metals, cloth, guns, and glass were immediately of interest to the Lenape, their low level of demand never generated a largescale trading dependence as was often the case with other Native cultures.

Division of Labor. The women of the matrilineal Lenape performed traditional female roles and did whatever gardening was done at their summer stations, including preparing the small plots. Their gathering also included nestlings and eggs, and they shared in harvesting fish during the big runs. Men focused on fishing and were of greater economic importance during the winter hunting when they provided most of the winter food supply. These male roles expanded over the years as men became full-time trappers, guides, scouts, and horse traders.

Land Tenure. Land usage was held in common among all the members of the band, which could be equated with the core members of the lineage and their in-marrying spouses. The aboriginal lands were sold by each of these bands, with all the adult males (over thirteen or fourteen years of age) signing the land transfer documents. After 1740 most of these groups held land in common among much larger social units, equated with towns. Land sales were made by these larger groups, and sometimes by a series of these groups acting as a single political body.


Kinship

Kin Groups and Descent. The Lenape bands were matrilineally related clusters of nuclear families, but with high interband mobility. The "clans" of the Delaware described after 1750, sometimes referred to as "phratries," reflected the three cultures living in the Delaware valley prior to 1700. By the early nineteenth century, these cultures had become identified as being of three "totemic clans," still reflecting their traditional cultural borders.

Kinship Terminology. Both the Lenape and Jerseys seem to have used Hawaiian cousin terminology by the early nineteenth century and semibifurcate terminology for the first ascending generation. This had evolved from the earlier aboriginal system, which remains to be clarified.


Marriage and Family

Marriage. The traditional groups were lineage exogamous, and residence was matrilocal. Polygamy was permitted, but after contact women seem to have preferred to marry or live among the colonists rather than to become secondary wives. Divorce was common and could be initiated by either party.

Domestic Unit. Nuclear families have always been the rule among the Lenape.

Inheritance. In the 1600s most of a person's belongings were placed in the grave. By 1700 the relatives contributed food to a feast and secured goods to bury with the deceased as well as to distribute to participants in the burial rituals, not all of whom were close kin.

Socialization. Children were seldom punished. Low-level social controls plus the rigors of foraging life provided sufficient behavioral controls in the past.


Sociopolitical Organization

Social Organization. In aboriginal times the egalitarian Lenape generally, but not always, equated status with age.

Political Organization. The independent and highly fluid aboriginal bands became more politically united after 1750, with towns being named for individuals who were in effect chiefs.

Social Control. The Lenape have always avoided conflict: any situation that could produce stress is called kwulacan. Even in the face of changing economics and modern sedentary life-styles, Lenape withdraw from controversy and difficulties on any level.

Conflict. Withdrawal from problematical situations has characterized the Lenape since they were first described by Europeans. This encouraged the fissioning of social groups and a tendency to avoid acting as a single political entity. The history of the Lenape, as with some of their neighbors, has been a series of splits among groups, with each group or even family then operating as an independent unit. Such groups often fused with others in complex patterns that render the collective history of these people difficult to follow.


Religion and Expressive Culture

Religious Beliefs. The aboriginal Lenape were animistic, but individuals held strong beliefs about the unity of all living as well as inanimate things. By 1800 the Lenape had adopted many Munsee and Christian beliefs. Today, most practice various Protestant religions, but many still retain a fundamentally animisi worldview largely indistinct from that which their distant ancestors would have found appropriate. Many Europeans interpreted the Manitou of the Lenape to be a supreme deity. Various other beings, particularly those associated with the creation myth, suggest that "Manitou" may have been a generic term applied to spirits of all kinds.

Religious Practitioners. No individuals held strong ritual power, but some people were blessed with the ability to heal.

Ceremonies. The complex rituals held before going on their winter hunting rounds were associated with annual renewal gatherings. These became still more complex as the Lenape adopted increasing numbers of introduced behaviors, particularly as they became more sedentary.

Medicine. Illness could be dispersed by driving out spirits that caused disease. Specially designated curers assisted in this process, aided by herbal remedies and the powers of collective chants and prayers.

Death and Afterlife. Death was caused by evil spirits, and the polluted dead were buried in graves lined with rushes, bark, and mats several hundred meters from their summer encampments. Complex funeral ceremonies involved transportation of the corpse to a prepared burial site, ritual lamentation, and participation in a ritual feast for the dead. Mourning periods varied depending on degrees of kinship, with the surviving spouse continuing for a full year. Some of these aspects of Lenape society continue to this day, ensuring that the souls of the departed will find their way to the west where hunting is good and they will have an easy afterlife.


Bibliography

Becker, Marshall J. (1983). "Boundary between the Lenape and the Munsee: The Forks of Delaware as a Buffer Zone." Man in the Northeast 26:1-20.

Becker, Marshall J. (1989). "Lenape Population at the Time of Contact." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 133:112-122.

Goddard, Ives (1978). "Delaware." In Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 15, Northeast, edited by Bruce G. Trigger, 213-239. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.

Newcomb, William W., Jr. (1956). The Culture and Acculturation of the Delaware Indians. University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Papers, no. 10. Ann Arbor.

Weslager, Clinton A. (1978). The Delaware Indian Westward Migration. Wallingford, Pa.: Middle Atlantic Press.

MARSHALL JOSEPH BECKER

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Delaware

Delaware Confederation of Algonquian-speaking Native Americans. The main members were the Unami, Munsee and Unalachtigo, who occupied territory from Long Island to Pennsylvania and Delaware. Under pressure from settlers and the Iroquois Confederacy, they migrated to the Ohio region in the 18th century. They lost these lands by a treaty of 1795, and subsequently became widely scattered.

http://www.delaware.gov

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Delaware

Delaware •flatware • hardware • glassware •neckwear • headsquare • setsquare •delftware • menswear • shareware •tableware • rainwear • freeware •beachwear • T-square • creamware •swimwear • tinware • knitwear •giftware • kitchenware •womenswear • anywhere •everywhere • nightwear • software •sportswear • nowhere • stoneware •cookware • footwear • somewhere •ovenware • ironware • underwear •leisurewear • Delaware • Tupperware •outerwear • otherwhere • silverware •workwear • earthenware

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Delaware

Del·a·ware • n. (pl. same or -wares) 1. a member of an American Indian people formerly inhabiting the Delaware River valley of New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania. 2. either of two Algonquian languages (Munsi and Unami) spoken by this people. • adj. of or relating to the Delaware or their languages.

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Delaware

DELAWARE

DELAWARE , U.S. state located on the Middle Atlantic seaboard. The first to ratify the United States constitution in 1787, it is the state with the second smallest land mass and the sixth smallest population. In 2001, some 13,500 Jews lived in the state and accounted for 1.7 percent of the Delaware population.

Although Jewish fur traders were in the territory that became Delaware as early as 1655, only a handful of Jews, including Jacob Fiana, Abraham Judah, and Jacob and Daniel Solis,

settled in the area before the middle of the 19th century when Jewish retailers from families in Philadelphia and Baltimore began opening stores in Wilmington. In 1879, 18 Jewish merchants formed Delaware's first Jewish organization, the Moses Montefiore Society, as a religious, educational, and charitable organization. Delaware became the last of the original colonies to have an organized Jewish community and worship services for the High Holidays.

Given Wilmington's prosperity and the influx of Jews from Eastern Europe, the Jewish population of Wilmington grew quickly reaching some 4,000 by 1920. The Jews formed numerous service organizations, including the Young Men's Hebrew Association (today's jcc), the Hebrew Charity Association (today's Jewish Family Service), and the Bichor Cholem Society (today's Kutz Home). By 1929, they had established three Orthodox synagogues, Adas Kodesch, Chesed Shel Emeth, and Machzikey Hadas; a Reform synagogue, Temple Beth Emeth; and a Conservative synagogue, Congregation Beth Sholom. These organizations and synagogues (Adas Kodesch and Chesed Shel Emeth merged in 1957) continued to serve the Wilmington population in 2005. Chabad-Lubavitch began conducting Sabbath services and educational activities in Wilmington and Newark in 1987.

A few Jewish students attended Delaware College, today's University of Delaware, at the end of the 19th century, but Jews did not settle in the college town of Newark until the early 20th century. The Hillel Foundation began activities at the university by 1948. In the early 21st century Hillel served some 800 students a year. The Newark Jewish Community, later known as Temple Beth El, the state's only Reconstructionist synagogue, was organized in 1954.

In the mid-19th century, a small number of Jewish retailers opened businesses in Dover, the state capital, and in several towns in southern Delaware. Jewish growth in the area was slower than in Wilmington, but by the early 20th century, Jewish retailers, peddlers, canners, distillers, and hotel-keepers lived in many towns of southern Delaware including Dover, Lewes, Georgetown, Milford, Millsboro, Seaford, and Smyrna. In 1897, with the aid of hias, the Isaac Benioff family settled in Kent County, becoming Delaware's first Jewish farmers. The Jewish Agriculture Society helped an additional 24 Jewish families establish farms in southern Delaware, primarily in Kent County, between 1912 and 1929. Religious services were held informally in homes until 1939 when the Jewish Congregation of Lower Delaware, a predecessor of today's Conservative synagogue, Congregation Beth Shalom, was incorporated.

In 1997, Jewish vacationers and retirees from Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, and Wilmington along with Jews from Lewes, Rehoboth, and the surrounding Delaware beach communities formed the Seaside Jewish Community. The group, which numbered more than 150 families in 2005, held religious services, educational programs including a Hebrew school, and social events.

Throughout the 20th century, most Delaware Jews continued to live in the Wilmington area, the focal point of Jewish life in Delaware. One Jewish federation, located in Wilmington, served the entire state. However, by the end of the 20th century, the demographics had shifted. A 1995 study estimated that 56% of Delaware's Jews lived in the Wilmington area, 32% in the Newark-Hockessin area, and 12% in southern Delaware.

Jews have become an integral part of life in all parts of the state. They have contributed to the arts, science, business, medicine, journalism, law, and public service. Irving *Shapiro became ceo of the Dupont Company in 1973 and chair of the Business Roundtable in 1976, Roxana Arsht became Delaware's first female judge in 1971, Daniel Herrmann became chief justice of the Delaware Supreme Court in 1973, and Jack Markell was Delaware's state treasurer in 2005.

bibliography:

Ukeles Associates, Inc., 1995 Jewish Population Study of Delaware, Summary Report; T. Young, Becoming American, Remaining Jewish: The Story of Wilmington, Delaware's First Jewish Community 1879–1924 (1999); D. Geffen, Jewish Delaware 1655–1976: History, Sites and Communal Services (1976); T. Young (ed.), Delaware and the Jews (1979).

[Toni Young (2nd ed.)]

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Delaware

Delaware

■ DELAWARE COLLEGE OF ART AND DESIGN B-6

600 North Market St.
Wilmington, DE 19801
Tel: (302)622-8000
Fax: (302)622-8870
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dcad.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Administratively affiliated with Corcoran College of Art and Design. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1997. Setting: 1-acre urban campus. Endowment: $65,295. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4884 per student. Total enrollment: 194. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 5:1. 322 applied, 58% were admitted. Full-time: 148 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 46 students, 41% women, 59% men. Students come from 9 states and territories, 45% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 9% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 13% 25 or older, 50% live on campus, 11% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs. Off campus study at regional galleries and museums. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2 high school GPA, interview, portfolio. Required for some: recommendations. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 8/15.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Tuition: $14,070 full-time, $595 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $200 per term part-time. College room only: $5490.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing designed to accommodate 75 students; 78 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Option: coed housing available. Information Resource Center plus 1 other with 8,000 books, 76 serials, 500 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $33,247. 68 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ DELAWARE STATE UNIVERSITY I-7

1200 North DuPont Hwy.
Dover, DE 19901-2277
Tel: (302)857-6290
Free: 800-845-2544
Admissions: (302)857-6103
Fax: (302)857-6352
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.desu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Delaware Higher Education Commission. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1891. Setting: 400-acre small town campus. Endowment: $13.8 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.2 million. Total enrollment: 3,722. Faculty: (182 full-time). 4,372 applied, 63% were admitted. 5% from top 10% of their high school class, 12% from top quarter, 48% from top half. Full-time: 2,946 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 494 students, 50% women, 50% men. Students come from 31 states and territories, 49% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 81% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 17% 25 or older, 46% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 67% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; social sciences; public administration and social services. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at University of Delaware. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 4/1. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. State resident tuition: $5480 full-time, $213 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $11,704 full-time, $472 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $370 full-time, $105 per term part-time. College room and board: $8298. College room only: $5502.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: national fraternities, national sororities. Most popular organizations: NAACP, Women's Senate, Men's Council. Major annual events: homecoming, Parents' Day, Pride Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. William C. Jason Library with 204,127 books, 77,918 microform titles, 3,094 serials, 13,775 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.4 million. 641 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Dover, the capital of Delaware, is 75 miles from Philadelphia, 85 miles from Baltimore, 90 miles from Washington, DC, and 160 miles from New York City. Railway and bus are available in the area. Dover is an agricultural section noted for fruit, produce, grains and poultry. Many fine old colonial homes steeped in the traditions of the activity of the old town are found in the area."The Green" is the center of activity of the old town and still the hub from which radiate many of the political and government activities of both the city and the state. Located 10 miles south of"The Green" is Barratt's Chapel, often called the"Cradle of Methodism in America." Each year on Dover Days, the first Saturday and Sunday in May, many historic homes are open to the public for a small fee. Dover is the home of the largest air freight terminal in the world. General Food's multimillion-dollar Jell-O plant and Playtex Corporation are also located here.

■ DELAWARE TECHNICAL & COMMUNITY COLLEGE, JACK F. OWENS CAMPUS N-8

PO Box 610
Georgetown, DE 19947
Tel: (302)856-5400
Fax: (302)856-9461
Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Delaware Technical and Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1967. Setting: 120-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 3,936. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 1,122 applied, 73% were admitted. Full-time: 1,600 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 2,336 students, 71% women, 29% men. Students come from 3 states and territories, 9 other countries, 6% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 15% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 48% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, self-designed majors, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, engineering technology, veterinary technology programs. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $10. State resident tuition: $1956 full-time, $81.50 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4890 full-time, $203.75 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $204 full-time, $6 per credit hour part-time, $21 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run radio station. Social organizations: 7 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Student Nursing Association, Phi Beta Kappa, Occupational Therapy Assistant Club, Physical Therapy Assistant Club. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Stephen J. Betze Library plus 1 other with 72,657 books, 514 serials, and an OPAC. 400 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ DELAWARE TECHNICAL & COMMUNITY COLLEGE, STANTON/WILMINGTON CAMPUS C-5

400 Stanton-Christiana Rd.
Newark, DE 19713
Tel: (302)454-3900
Admissions: (302)571-5366
Fax: (302)577-2548
Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Delaware Technical and Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1968. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5290 per student. Total enrollment: 7,473. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 1,965 applied, 74% were admitted. Full-time: 2,767 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 4,706 students, 68% women, 32% men. Students come from 13 states and territories, 45 other countries, 8% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 23% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 49% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, dental hygiene, engineering technology programs. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $10. State resident tuition: $1956 full-time, $81.50 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4890 full-time, $203.75 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $204 full-time, $6 per credit hour part-time, $21 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. 60,066 books, 3,345 microform titles, 793 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $196,688. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ DELAWARE TECHNICAL & COMMUNITY COLLEGE, TERRY CAMPUS I-7

100 Campus Dr.
Dover, DE 19904-1383
Tel: (302)857-1000
Admissions: (302)857-1020
Fax: (302)857-1296
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu/terry/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Delaware Technical and Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1972. Setting: 70-acre small town campus with easy access to Philadelphia. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6658 per student. Total enrollment: 2,569. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 691 applied, 80% were admitted. Full-time: 875 students, 67% women, 33% men. Part-time: 1,694 students, 72% women, 28% men. Students come from 10 states and territories, 10 other countries, 3% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 24% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 57% 25 or older, 10% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $10. State resident tuition: $1956 full-time, $81.50 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4890 full-time, $203.75 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $204 full-time, $6 per credit hour part-time, $21 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Social organizations: 15 open to all. Most popular organizations: Students of Kolor, Human Services Organization, Phi Theta Kappa, Alpha Beta Gamma. Campus security: late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. 9,663 books, 245 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $307,239. 125 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Delaware State University.

■ GOLDEY-BEACOM COLLEGE B-6

4701 Limestone Rd.
Wilmington, DE 19808-1999
Tel: (302)998-8814
Free: 800-833-4877
Fax: (302)996-5408
Web Site: http://goldey.gbc.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1886. Setting: 27-acre suburban campus with easy access to Philadelphia. Endowment: $1.7 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2546 per student. Total enrollment: 1,324. 408 applied, 78% were admitted. 67% from top half of their high school class. Students come from 28 states and territories, 50% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 24% black, 10% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 43% 25 or older, 16% live on campus. Retention: 82% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT. Required for some: 1 recommendation, interview, DTLS, DTMS. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 8/15.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. Tuition: $13,430 full-time. Mandatory fees: $306 full-time. College room only: $4240.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 20 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 10% of eligible men and 10% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Marketing/Management Association, Circle K International, Data Processing Management Association, GBC singers. Major annual events: Follies, Miss GBC Pageant, Spirit Day. Student services: health clinic. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. Option: coed housing available. J. Wilbur Hirons Library with 29,700 books, 817 serials, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $120,352. 136 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Known as the"Chemical Capital of the World," Wilmington (pop. 71,529) lies on the west bank of the Delaware River in northern Delaware. Railroads and airlines serve the area. Almost 300 industries are located in the area. A great variety of items are shipped from Wilmington, including such products as automobiles, airplanes, steel, clothing, hosiery, machinery, paper and paper products. Points of interest include Holy Trinity Church (Old Swedes), Wilmington Institute, Free Library, Brandywine Park, Fort Christian State Park, Delaware Art Center, Hagley Museum, Old Town Hall, and the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum. Nearby are Longwood Gardens and the Brandywine Museum.

■ UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE C-5

Newark, DE 19716
Tel: (302)831-2000
Admissions: (302)831-8123
Fax: (302)831-6905
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.udel.edu/

Description:

State-related, university, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1743. Setting: 1,000-acre small town campus with easy access to Philadelphia and Baltimore. Total enrollment: 20,373. Faculty: 1,370 (1,126 full-time, 244 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 21,617 applied, 47% were admitted. 37% from top 10% of their high school class, 76% from top quarter, 96% from top half. Full-time: 14,899 students, 58% women, 42% men. Part-time: 2,040 students, 55% women, 45% men. Students come from 52 states and territories, 100 other countries, 59% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 6% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 5% 25 or older, 45% live on campus, 3% transferred in. Retention: 89% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; social sciences; education. Core. Calendar: 4-1-4. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early decision, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: SAT Subject Tests. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 1/15, 11/1 for early decision. Notification: 3/15, 12/15 for early decision. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $60. State resident tuition: $6614 full-time, $276 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $16,770 full-time, $699 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $704 full-time, $25 per term part-time. College room and board: $6824. College room only: $3924. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 200 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 13% of eligible men and 13% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Undergraduate Student Congress, Resident Student Association, Black Student Union, HOLA (Hispanic Student Association). Major annual events: homecoming, Greek Weekend, Step Show. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. College housing designed to accommodate 7,115 students; 7,207 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, women-only housing available. Hugh Morris Library plus 4 others with 2.6 million books, 3.4 million microform titles, 12,476 serials, 18,047 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $14.8 million. 908 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The campus is located in Newark, Delaware, a city of 24,000, which is situated halfway between Philadelphia and Baltimore on I-95. The location is ideal for students who want the advantages of a small community and easy access to the educational, cultural, and social opportunities offered in nearby metropolitan area.

■ WESLEY COLLEGE I-7

120 North State St.
Dover, DE 19901-3875
Tel: (302)736-2300
Free: 800-937-5398
Admissions: (302)736-2400
Fax: (302)736-2301
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wesley.edu/

Description:

Independent United Methodist, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1873. Setting: 40-acre small town campus. Endowment: $4.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1517 per student. Total enrollment: 2,282. Faculty: 137 (63 full-time, 74 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 2,175 applied, 60% were admitted. 17% from top 10% of their high school class, 42% from top quarter, 68% from top half. Full-time: 1,745 students, 55% women, 45% men. Part-time: 371 students, 44% women, 56% men. Students come from 13 states and territories, 5 other countries, 75% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 26% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 6% 25 or older, 65% live on campus, 3% transferred in. Retention: 88% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; psychology. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.2 high school GPA, 1 recommendation. Recommended: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, 11/15 for early decision. Notification: 12/1 for early decision.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $21,560 includes full-time tuition ($14,600) and college room and board ($6960). Full-time tuition varies according to class time. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 20 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 3% of eligible men and 3% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Activity Board, Student Government Association, National Coeducation Community Service Organization. Major annual events: homecoming, Families' Day, reunion. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, controlled dormitory access. 846 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Robert H. Parker Library with 102,528 books, 178,073 microform titles, 270 serials, 940 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $352,849. 225 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ WILMINGTON COLLEGE C-6

320 North DuPont Hwy.
New Castle, DE 19720-6491
Tel: (302)328-9401; 877-967-5464
Admissions: (302)328-9407
Fax: (302)328-5902
Web Site: http://www.wilmcoll.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1967. Setting: 17-acre suburban campus with easy access to Philadelphia. Endowment: $12.2 million. Total enrollment: 7,511. Faculty: 642 (90 full-time, 552 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. 746 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 2,148 students, 65% women, 35% men. Part-time: 2,422 students, 67% women, 33% men. Students come from 12 states and territories, 29 other countries, 13% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 15% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 54% 25 or older, 11% transferred in. Retention: 69% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; social sciences; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: recommendations, interview. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Tuition: $7620 full-time, $254 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $50 full-time, $25 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, degree level, and location. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, degree level, and location.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Major annual event: Commencement. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Robert C. and Dorothy M. Peoples Library plus 1 other with 98,713 books, 99,418 microform titles, 425 serials, 3,070 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $657,504. 516 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

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Delaware

Delaware

DELAWARE COLLEGE OF ART AND DESIGN

600 North Market St.
Wilmington, DE 19801
Tel: (302)622-8000
Fax: (302)622-8870
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dcad.edu/
President/CEO: James P. Lecky
Admissions: Lynda Schmid
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Corcoran College of Art and Design % Accepted: 58 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Tuition: $14,070 full-time, $595 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $200 per term part-time. College room only: $5490. Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 148, PT 46 Faculty: FT 5, PT 15 Student-Faculty Ratio: 5:1 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 50 Library Holdings: 8,000 Regional Accreditation: Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 68 semester hours, Associates

DELAWARE STATE UNIVERSITY

1200 North DuPont Hwy.
Dover, DE 19901-2277
Tel: (302)857-6290
Free: 800-845-2544
Admissions: (302)857-6103
Fax: (302)857-6352
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.desu.edu/
President/CEO: Allen L. Sessoms
Registrar: Cornelia Caballero
Admissions: Lawita Cheatham
Financial Aid: Carylin C. Brinkley
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Delaware Higher Education Commission Scores: 60% SAT V 400+; 55% SAT M 400+; 17% ACT 18-23; 2% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 63 Admission Plans: Preferred Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: April 01 Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. State resident tuition: $5480 full-time, $213 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $11,704 full-time, $472 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $370 full-time, $105 per term part-time. College room and board: $8298. College room only: $5502. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,946, PT 494, Grad 282 Faculty: FT 182 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 79 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 46 Library Holdings: 204,127 Regional Accreditation: Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 121 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACN, CSWE, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Bowling W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

DELAWARE TECHNICAL & COMMUNITY COLLEGE, JACK F. OWENS CAMPUS

PO Box 610
Georgetown, DE 19947
Tel: (302)856-5400
Fax: (302)856-9461
Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Ileana M. Smith
Registrar: Walton Johnson
Admissions: Claire McDonald
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Delaware Technical and Community College System % Accepted: 73 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Preferred Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma or equivalent not required. For nursing program: High school diploma required; GED not accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $10. State resident tuition: $1956 full-time, $81.50 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4890 full-time, $203.75 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $204 full-time, $6 per credit hour part-time, $21 per term part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,600, PT 2,336 Faculty: FT 103, PT 177 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Library Holdings: 72,657 Regional Accreditation: Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 70 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: AOTA, APTA, ACBSP, CARC, JRCERT, NAACLS, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Softball W

DELAWARE TECHNICAL & COMMUNITY COLLEGE, STANTON/WILMINGTON CAMPUS

400 Stanton-Christiana Rd.
Newark, DE 19713
Tel: (302)454-3900
Admissions: (302)571-5366
Fax: (302)577-2548
Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu/
President/CEO: Lawrence H. Miller
Registrar: Evelyn M. Barnes
Admissions: Rebecca Bailey
Financial Aid: Larry DiGregorio
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Delaware Technical and Community College System % Accepted: 74 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Preferred Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $10. State resident tuition: $1956 full-time, $81.50 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4890 full-time, $203.75 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $204 full-time, $6 per credit hour part-time, $21 per term part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,767, PT 4,706 Faculty: FT 162, PT 363 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Library Holdings: 60,066 Regional Accreditation: Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 70 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ABET, AAMAE, ADA, AOTA, APTA, ACBSP, CARC, JRCEDMS, JRCERT, JRCNMT, NAACLS, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M; Soccer M; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball M & W

DELAWARE TECHNICAL & COMMUNITY COLLEGE, TERRY CAMPUS

100 Campus Dr.
Dover, DE 19904-1383
Tel: (302)857-1000
Admissions: (302)857-1020
Fax: (302)857-1296
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu/terry/
President/CEO: Dr. Marguerite M. Johnson
Registrar: Nauleen Perry
Admissions: Maria Harris
Financial Aid: Jennifer Grunden
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Delaware Technical and Community College System % Accepted: 80 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Preferred Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma or equivalent not required. For nursing program: High school diploma required; GED not accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $10. State resident tuition: $1956 full-time, $81.50 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4890 full-time, $203.75 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $204 full-time, $6 per credit hour part-time, $21 per term part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 875, PT 1,694 Faculty: FT 64, PT 120 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Library Holdings: 9,663 Regional Accreditation: Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 70 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACBSP, JRCEMT, NLN

GOLDEY-BEACOM COLLEGE

4701 Limestone Rd.
Wilmington, DE 19808-1999
Tel: (302)998-8814
Free: 800-833-4877
Fax: (302)996-5408
Web Site: http://goldey.gbc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Mohammad Ilyas
Registrar: Jane H. Lysle
Admissions: Stacey Schwartz
Financial Aid: Jane H. Lysle
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 86% SAT V 400+; 75% SAT M 400 + Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $30. Tuition: $13,430 full-time. Mandatory fees: $306 full-time. College room only: $4240. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,028, PT 21, Grad 275 Faculty: FT 25, PT 24 Student-Faculty Ratio: 28:1 Exams: Other, SAT I % Receiving Financial Aid: 49 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 16 Library Holdings: 29,700 Regional Accreditation: Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 66 credits, Associates; 133 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ACBSP Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Field Hockey W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE

Newark, DE 19716
Tel: (302)831-2000
Admissions: (302)831-8123
Fax: (302)831-6905
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.udel.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. David P. Roselle
Registrar: Joseph V. DiMartile
Admissions: Lou Hirsh
Financial Aid: Johnie A. Burton
Type: University Sex: Coed Scores: 99% SAT V 400+; 99% SAT M 400+; 23% ACT 18-23; 59% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 47 Admission Plans: Preferred Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: January 15 Application Fee: $60.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $60. State resident tuition: $6614 full-time, $276 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $16,770 full-time, $699 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $704 full-time, $25 per term part-time. College room and board: $6824. College room only: $3924. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: 4-1-4, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 14,899, PT 2,040, Grad 3,434 Faculty: FT 1,126, PT 244 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT, SAT II % Receiving Financial Aid: 38 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 45 Library Holdings: 2,623,554 Regional Accreditation: Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 120 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ADtA, APTA, APA, JRCEPAT, NAACLS, NASM, NASPAA, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Bowling M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Field Hockey W; Football M; Golf M; Ice Hockey M; Lacrosse M & W; Rugby W; Sailing M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

WESLEY COLLEGE

120 North State St.
Dover, DE 19901-3875
Tel: (302)736-2300
Free: 800-937-5398
Admissions: (302)736-2400
Fax: (302)736-2301
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wesley.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Scott D. Miller
Registrar: Peter Medwick
Admissions: Arthur Jacobs
Financial Aid: James Marks
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: United Methodist Scores: 96% SAT V 400+; 95% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 60 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $21,560 includes full-time tuition ($14,600) and college room and board ($6960). Full-time tuition varies according to class time. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,745, PT 371, Grad 166 Faculty: FT 63, PT 74 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 % Receiving Financial Aid: 88 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 65 Library Holdings: 102,528 Regional Accreditation: Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates; 124 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Field Hockey W; Football M; Golf M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W

WILMINGTON COLLEGE

320 North DuPont Hwy.
New Castle, DE 19720-6491
Tel: (302)328-9401; 877-967-5464
Admissions: (302)328-9407
Fax: (302)328-5902
Web Site: http://www.wilmcoll.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Audrey K. Doberstein
Registrar: Erin DiMarco
Admissions: Christopher Ferguson
Financial Aid: Lynn Iocono
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Tuition: $7620 full-time, $254 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $50 full-time, $25 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, degree level, and location. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, degree level, and location. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,148, PT 2,422, Grad 2,941 Faculty: FT 90, PT 552 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 % Receiving Financial Aid: 40 Library Holdings: 98,713 Regional Accreditation: Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 120 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACN, ACA, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Softball W; Volleyball W

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Delaware

Delaware

DELAWARE COLLEGE OF ART AND DESIGN

Animation, Interactive Technology, Video Graphics and Special Effects, A

Fine/Studio Arts, A

Graphic Design, A

Illustration, A

Interior Design, A

Photography, A

DELAWARE STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Agricultural and Horticultural Plant Breeding, B

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Agriculture, B

Agronomy and Crop Science, B

Airline/Commercial/Professional Pilot and Flight Crew, B

Animal Sciences, B

Apparel and Textiles, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Arts Management, B

Aviation/Airway Management and Operations, B

Banking and Financial Support Services, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

BioTechnology, B

Broadcast Journalism, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, BM

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Civil Engineering, B

Community Health Services/Liaison/Counseling, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Science, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, B

E-Commerce/Electronic Commerce, B

Education, M

Education/Teaching of Individuals in Early Childhood Special Education Programs, B

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering Physics, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Sciences, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Fashion Merchandising, B

Finance, B

Foods, Nutrition, and Wellness Studies, B

Forestry, B

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

History, B

Hospitality Administration/Management, B

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Journalism, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, BM

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Mechanical Engineering, B

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Musical Instrument Fabrication and Repair, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, BM

Physics Teacher Education, B

Political Science and Government, B

Poultry Science, B

Pre-Engineering, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Radio and Television, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BM

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Work, BM

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Systems Engineering, B

Tourism and Travel Services Management, B

Trade and Industrial Teacher Education, B

Voice and Opera, B

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, B

DELAWARE TECHNICAL & COMMUNITY COLLEGE, JACK F. OWENS CAMPUS

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Building/Construction Finishing, Management, and Inspection, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Chemical Engineering, A

Child Development, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Consumer Merchandising/Retailing Management, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Engineering, A

Engineering Technology, A

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, A

Health and Medical Laboratory Technologies, A

Heavy Equipment Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Hospitality Administration/Management, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Journalism, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

DELAWARE TECHNICAL & COMMUNITY COLLEGE, STANTON/WILMINGTON CAMPUS

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Banking and Financial Support Services, A

Biomedical Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Chemical Engineering, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Corrections, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Diagnostic Medical Sonography/Sonographer and Ultrasound Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Engineering, A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

Food Technology and Processing, A

Gerontology, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Instrumentation Technology/Technician, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, A

Management Information Systems and Services, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Nuclear Medical Technology/Technologist, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Occupational Safety and Health Technology/Technician, A

Occupational Therapist Assistant, A

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Sign Language Interpretation and Translation, A

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, A

Transportation and Materials Moving, A

DELAWARE TECHNICAL & COMMUNITY COLLEGE, TERRY CAMPUS

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Aeronautics/Aviation/Aerospace Science and Technology, A

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Aviation/Airway Management and Operations, A

Avionics Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Building/Construction Finishing, Management, and Inspection, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Corrections, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Electromechanical Technology/Electromechanical Engineering Technology, A

Engineering Technology, A

Human Services, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Survey Technology/Surveying, A

GOLDEY-BEACOM COLLEGE

Accounting, AB

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Finance, B

Finance and Banking, M

Human Resources Management and Services, M

Information Science/Studies, AB

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

Management, M

Management Information Systems and Services, BM

Marketing, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE

Accounting, BM

African-American/Black Studies, B

Agribusiness, B

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Agricultural Economics, BM

Agricultural Sciences, MD

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Agricultural/Biological Engineering and Bioengineering, B

Agriculture, AB

Agronomy and Crop Science, B

Agronomy and Soil Sciences, MD

American/United States Studies/Civilization, M

Animal Sciences, BMD

Anthropology, B

Applied Art, B

Applied Mathematics, MD

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, BMD

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Astronomy, BMD

Astrophysics, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, D

Bilingual and Multilingual Education, B

Biochemistry, BMD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology Technician/BioTechnology Laboratory Technician, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

BioTechnology, BMD

Botany/Plant Biology, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Business Education, M

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Cell Biology and Anatomy, MD

Chemical Engineering, BMD

Chemistry, BMD

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Child and Family Studies, MD

Child Development, B

Civil Engineering, BMD

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Psychology, D

Cognitive Sciences, D

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Community Organization and Advocacy, B

Comparative Literature, B

Composition, M

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Engineering, B

Computer Science, BMD

Consumer Economics, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Criminology, MD

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Design and Applied Arts, M

Developmental and Child Psychology, B

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

East Asian Studies, B

Ecology, BMD

Economics, BMDO

Education, BMD

Educational Leadership and Administration, MD

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MD

English, MDO

English as a Second Language, M

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Entomology, BMD

Entrepreneurship/Entrepreneurial Studies, M

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, BMD

Environmental Policy, M

Environmental Policy and Resource Management, MD

Environmental Studies, B

Environmental/Environmental Health Engineering, B

Evolutionary Biology, MD

Exercise and Sports Science, M

Family and Community Services, B

Family and Consumer Economics and Related Services, B

Fashion Merchandising, B

Fashion/Apparel Design, B

Film/Cinema Studies, B

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Food Science, B

Food Science and Technology, MD

Foods, Nutrition, and Wellness Studies, B

Foreign Language Teacher Education, BM

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

French Language and Literature, B

Genetics, MD

Geography, BMD

Geology/Earth Science, BMD

Geophysics and Seismology, B

Geotechnical Engineering, MD

German Language and Literature, B

Gerontological Nursing, MO

Health and Physical Education, B

Health Promotion, M

Health Teacher Education, B

Higher Education/Higher Education Administration, M

Historic Preservation and Conservation, BM

History, BMD

History Teacher Education, B

HIV/AIDS Nursing, MO

Horticultural Science, BM

Hospitality Administration/Management, M

Hospitality and Recreation Marketing Operations, B

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, B

Human Development, MD

Human Development and Family Studies, B

Information Science/Studies, MD

International Affairs, MD

International Relations and Affairs, B

Italian Language and Literature, B

Journalism, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Kinesiology and Movement Studies, MD

Latin American Studies, B

Latin Language and Literature, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Liberal Studies, M

Linguistics, BMD

Management Information Systems and Services, M

Management of Technology, M

Marine Affairs, MD

Marine Sciences, MD

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Materials Engineering, MD

Materials Sciences, MD

Maternal/Child Health and Neonatal Nurse/Nursing, MO

Mathematics, BMD

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Microbiology, MD

Molecular Biology, MD

Multilingual and Multicultural Education, M

Museology/Museum Studies, O

Music, BM

Music Teacher Education, BM

Music Theory and Composition, B

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, B

Neuroscience, BD

Non-Profit/Public/Organizational Management, M

Nursing, MO

Nursing - Adult, MO

Nursing - Advanced Practice, MO

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nursing Administration, MO

Nursing Science, B

Nutritional Sciences, BM

Ocean Engineering, MD

Oceanography, Chemical and Physical, MD

Oncology Nursing, MO

Operations Management and Supervision, B

Operations Research, MD

Ornamental Horticulture, B

Paleontology, B

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Pediatric Nurse/Nursing, MO

Performance, M

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Therapy/Therapist, D

Physics, BMD

Physics Teacher Education, B

Physiology, MD

Piano and Organ, B

Plant Protection and Integrated Pest Management, B

Plant Sciences, MD

Political Science and Government, BMD

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychiatric/Mental Health Nurse/Nursing, MO

Psychology, BD

Public Administration, M

Public Policy Analysis, MD

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Russian Language and Literature, B

School Psychology, M

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Psychology, D

Sociology, BMD

Soil Science and Agronomy, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Statistics, M

Structural Engineering, MD

Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language/ESL Language Instructor, B

Technical and Business Writing, B

Technical Theatre/Theatre Design and Technology, B

Theater, M

Transportation and Highway Engineering, MD

Urban Studies/Affairs, MD

Voice and Opera, B

Water Resources Engineering, MD

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, B

Women's Health Nursing, MO

WESLEY COLLEGE

Accounting, B

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Education, BM

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, BM

History, B

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

WILMINGTON COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Airframe Mechanics and Aircraft Maintenance Technology/Technician, B

Aviation/Airway Management and Operations, B

Avionics Maintenance Technology/Technician, B

Behavioral Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Communication and Media Studies, B

Community Psychology, M

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Criminology, M

Design and Visual Communications, AB

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, AB

Education, M

Education/Teaching of the Gifted and Talented, M

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Educational Leadership and Administration, MD

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

Finance, B

General Studies, AB

Gerontology, M

Health Services Administration, M

Human Resources Management and Services, M

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, B

Information Technology, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Law and Legal Studies, B

Logistics and Materials Management, M

Management, M

Management Information Systems and Services, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Advanced Practice, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Psychology, BM

Public Administration, M

Reading Teacher Education, M

School Psychology, M

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, M

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Vocational and Technical Education, M

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Delaware

DELAWARE

STATE EDUCATION OFFICE

Dr. Lewis Atkinson, Associate Secretary
Vocational Education and School Climate
State Department of Education
401 Federal St.
P.O. Box 1402
Dover, DE 19903-1402
(302)739-4681

STATE REGULATORY INFORMATION

Private business and trade schools are regulated under Title 14, Chapter 85 of the Delaware Code. All such private schools which prepare students for a vocation or for potential wage earning purposes are required to become approved by the State Board of Education. The law covers not only such schools operating in and from Delaware, but out-of-state schools soliciting students in the State. Correspondence schools are included. Approval is effective by calendar year. Surety bonding is required. Agents representing such schools must also be approved.
Occupational license fees are required of persons engaged in specific professions defined in Title 24 of the Delaware Code. Persons teaching courses in these professions may be required to obtain instructors licenses before engaging in such instruction. For example, the Board of Cosmetology requires instructors teaching cosmetology schools to have the required instructor's license.
Delaware does not have an agency which regulates private secondary, elementary and pre-elementary schools; however, such schools have annual reporting requirements, as set out in Title 14, Chapter 27 of the Delaware Code. Private colleges and universities incorporating in Delaware must be approved by the State Board of Education, pursuant to Title 8, Section 125 and Title 14, Section 122 of the Delaware Code.

DOVER

Delaware Technical and Community College, Terry Campus

100 Campus, Dover, DE 19904-1383. Two-Year College. Founded 1967. Contact: Dr. Wilma Mishoe, Dean of Student Services, (302)857-1000, (302)857-1020, Fax: (302)857-1097, Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu; Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu/info/. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $82 per credit, in-state, $978 per semester; $204 per credit, out-of-state, $2,445 per semester. Enrollment: men 1,373, women 1,897. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ABET; ADA; FAA; NLNAC; ACBSP; MSA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated; Accounting, General; Administrative Assistant; Banking; Biomedical Electronics; Business; Business Administration; Business, General Office; Civil Engineering Technology; Clerical, General; Computer Information Science; Construction Management; Criminal Justice; Dental Hygiene; Drafting, Architectural; Drug & Alcohol Counseling; Early Childhood Education; Electro-Mechanical Technology; Electronics Technology; Engineering Technology, Architectural; Engineering Technology, Computer; Engineering Technology, Mechanical; Geriatric Care; Human Services; Manufacturing Technology; Marketing Management; Mechanical Drafting; Medical Assistant; Microcomputers; Nursing, Practical; Nursing, R.N.; Office Administration; Secretarial, Executive; Surveying; Visual Communications

Dover Beauty Academy and Barber College

1487 S. Governor's Ave., Dover, DE 19901. Cosmetology. Founded 1972. Contact: Linda Medford, (302)734-9853, Fax: (302)734-2770, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $5,075. Enrollment: men 2, women 28. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Beauty; Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Manicurist (200 Hr)

H & R Block Tax Course (Dover)

2137 S. Dupont Hwy., Dover, DE 19901. Business. Founded 1967. Contact: David Walls, Dir., (302)697-2786, 800-HRB-LOCK, Fax: (302)697-1980, Web Site: http://www.hrblock.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Housing not available. Term: Other. Enrollment: men 18, women 12. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Curriculum: Income Tax Preparation (11 Wk)

Wesley College

120 N. State St., Dover, DE 19901. Other. Founded 1873. Contact: Arthur Jacobs, Dir. of Admissions, (302)736-2364, (302)736-2300, 800-937-5398, Fax: (302)736-2382, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.wesley.edu; Kristen Griffiths, Dir. of Nontraditional Enrollments. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $15,379; $1,000 books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 2,037. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: MSA; NCATE; NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Medical Technology (2 Yr); Merchandising, Retail; Nursing, Vocational; Paralegal; Secretarial, General

GEORGETOWN

Delaware Technical and Community College, Owens Campus

Rte. 18, PO Box 610, Georgetown, DE 19947. Two-Year College. Founded 1967. Contact: Rhonda H. Tuman, Career Services, (302)856-5400, Fax: (302)856-5428, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu; Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu/info/. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $82 per credit, in-state, $978 per semester; $204 per credit, out-of-state, $2,445 per semester. Enrollment: Total 3,782. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: MSA; AOTA; APTA; JRCERT; NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agricultural Science; Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration; Architectural Technology; Automotive Technology; Business Administration; Clerical, General; Communications Technology; Computer Information Science; Criminal Justice; Early Childhood Education; Electronic Engineering Technology; Emergency Medical Technology; Engineering Technology; Environmental Technology; Health Occupations; Human Services; Landscaping; Management; Medical Assistant; Medical Laboratory Technology; Medical Transcription; Microcomputers; Nursing, Vocational; Occupational Therapy Assistant; Office Technology; Physical Therapy Technology; Poultry Science; Radiologic Technology; Respiratory Therapy; Stenography, General; Word Processing

LEWES

Beebe School of Nursing

424 Savannah Rd., Lewes, DE 19958. Nursing. Founded 1921. Contact: Constance E. Bushey, RN, Dir., (302)645-3251, Web Site: http://www.beebemed.org/bbnursing/html/indexb.htm; Sandra J. Brown, Admin.Sec.. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,330-$3,220 per year. Enrollment: Total 61. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Nursing, R.N. (68 Wk)

NEW CASTLE

FBO AV Center

120 Old Chuchman's Rd., New Castle, DE 19720-3116. Flight and Ground. Founded 1976. Contact: Debb Juraska, Dir., (302)328-9695, Fax: (302)328-5990, Web Site: http://www.fboavcenter.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $23,500 professional pilot program. Enrollment: men 160, women 17. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: FAA; ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Aircraft Flight Instruction, Airline Transport Pilot (6-8 Mo); Aircraft Flight Instruction, Airplane Rating (6-8 Mo); Aircraft Flight Instruction, Commercial Flying (6-8 Mo); Aircraft Flight Instruction, Instrument Flying (6-8 Mo); Medical Insurance Specialist (6 Mo)

NEWARK

Careers USA

1450 Capitol Trail, Newark, DE 19711-5700. Business. Founded 1986. Contact: Rosa Catalano, Regional Dir., (302)737-3600, 888-CAR-EERS, Fax: (302)737-3606, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.careersusa.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 75, women 125. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Airline & Travel Careers (9 Mo); Legal Assistant (9 Mo); Microcomputers (9 Mo); Paralegal (6 Mo); Secretarial, General (9 Mo); Secretarial, Legal (9 Mo); Secretarial, Medical (9 Mo); Travel & Tourism (6 Mo); Word Processing (3 Mo)

Delaware Technical and Community College, Stanton Campus

400 Stanton-Christiana Rd., Newark, DE 19713. Two-Year College. Founded 1967.(302)888-5288, (302)454-3954, Fax: (302)368-6620, Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu; Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu/info/. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $82 per credit, in-state, $978 per semester; $204 per credit, out-of-state, $2,445 per semester. Enrollment: Total 7,408. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ABET; ADA; CAAHEP; NLNAC; MSA; JRCERT; AOTA; APTA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Banking (2 Yr); Biological Technology (2 Yr); Chemical Technology (2 Yr); Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Computer Aided Design (2 Yr); Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Computer Networking (2 Yr); Construction Management (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Culinary Arts (2 Yr); Customer Service (2 Yr); Deaf Education (2 Yr); Dental Hygiene (2 Yr); Drug & Alcohol Counseling (2 Yr); Early Childhood Education (2 Yr); Electronic Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Architectural (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Mechanical (2 Yr); Environmental Technology (2 Yr); Food Service & Management (2 Yr); Hotel & Restaurant Management (2 Yr); Human Services (2 Yr); Industrial Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Laser Technology (1 Yr); Machinist, General (1 Yr); Marketing Management (2 Yr); Medical Assistant (2 Yr); Medical Transcription (1 Yr); Nuclear Medical Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Occupational Therapy Assistant (2 Yr); Office Technology (2 Yr); Physical Therapy Aide (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (2 Yr)

Hair Academy

1013 S. College Ave., Newark, DE 19713. Barber. Founded 1962. Contact: Dan Bartoli, (302)738-6251, Fax: (302)737-3305. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $4,700. Enrollment: men 8, women 11. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Barbering; Hair Styling

Horizon Helicopters, Inc.

2035 Sunset Lake Rd., Newark, DE 19702. Flight and Ground. Founded 1985. Contact: Judy Griffith, VP, (302)368-5135, Fax: (302)368-4438, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.horizonhelicopters.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $355 per hour flight time, groundschool included. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: FAA. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Aircraft Flight Instruction, Helicopter Rating (40 Hr)

Kinnder School of Grooming

2728 Frazer Rd., Newark, DE 19702. Trade and Technical. Founded 1983. Contact: Jackie Taylor, Dir., (302)834-3206, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Week. Tuition: $3,000 (includes tools and books). Degrees awarded: Diploma. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Curriculum: Pet Grooming (12 Wk)

Schilling-Douglas School of Hair Design

70 Amstel Ave., Newark, DE 19711. Cosmetology. Founded 1977. Contact: Victor David, Dir. of Operations, (302)737-5100, Fax: (302)737-4141, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.schillingdouglas.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $10,000 cosmetology; $3,210 instructor; $1,150 nail tech; $3,865 refresher. Enrollment: Total 117. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (6 Wk); Cosmetology Refresher (500 Hr); Manicurist (125 Hr)

SEAFORD

H & R Block Tax Course (Seaford)

PO Box 684, Seaford, DE 19973-0684. Business. Founded 1967.(302)629-6284, (302)629-9840, 800-HRB-LOCK, Web Site: http://www.hrblock.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $250. Enrollment: Total 20. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Income Tax Preparation (11 Wk)

WILMINGTON

Barbizon School of Delaware

17B Trolley Sq., Wilmington, DE 19806. Other. Founded 1939. Contact: Joan Elder, Dir., (302)658-6666, Fax: (302)658-6658, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.barbizonmodeling.com; Web Site: http://www.barbizonmodeling.com/ contact. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Curriculum: Acting; Modeling & Personal Improvement

Dawn Training Centre

3700 Lancaster Pike Suite 105, Wilmington, DE 19805. Contact: Hollis Anglin, President, (302)633-9075, Web Site: http://www.dawntrainingcentre.edu. Private. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $7,895. Enrollment: Total 163. Degrees awarded: Certificate.

Delaware College of Art And Design

600 N. Market St., Wilmington, DE 19801-3007. Art. Contact: James P. Lecky, Dir., (302)622-8000, Fax: (302)622-8870, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.dcad.edu; Lynda Schmid, Dir. of Admissions, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.dcad.edu/ADM/req_info/. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $12,800 per year; $535 per credit part time. Enrollment: Total 176. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: MSA. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Animation; Graphic Design; Illustration; Interior Design; Photography

Delaware Technical and Community College Radiologic

333 Shipley St., Wilmington, DE 19801. Allied Medical. Founded 1968. Contact: David Ludema, Department Chair, (302)571-5300, (302)855-5934, Fax: (302)834-3206, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.dtcc.edu; Chad Wheatley, Radiologic Tech. Counselor, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,160 per year (in-state). Enrollment: Total 32. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (6 Sem)

Harrison Career Institute-Wilmington

631 W. Newport Pke, Graystone Plz., Wilmington, DE 19804. Trade and Technical, Allied Medical. Contact: Dana Backhaus, Dir., (302)999-7827, 877-HCI-5700, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://hci.edu; Web Site: http://hci.edu/info.html. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $10,500; $446 - $991 books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 197. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cardio - Pulmonary Technology (900 Hr); Medical Administrative Assistant (904 Hr); Medical Assistant (748 Hr); Pharmacy Technician (900 Hr); Renal Technology (900 Hr)

New Castle County Board of Realtors Inc

3615 Miller Rd, Wilmington, DE 19802. Business. Contact: Ellen C Peden, (302)762-4800. Private. Curriculum: Real Estate Sales License

New Castle County Vocational-Technical School District

1417 Newport Rd., Wilmington, DE 19804. Trade and Technical. Founded 1969. Contact: Debbie Dolde, Admissions Coord., (302)995-8000, 800-800-7438, Fax: (302)995-8038, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.nccvotech.com. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies; none for day school. Enrollment: Total 3,000. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration; Appliance Repair; Auto Body & Fender Repair; Auto Mechanics; Aviation Maintenance Technology; Baking; Blue Print Reading; Building & Grounds Management; Cabinet & Mill Work; Carpentry; Custodial Training; Data Processing; Diesel Technology; Drafting & Design Technology; Drapery Making; Electrical Technology; Electricity, Industrial; Electronics, Digital; Floristry; Horticulture; Instrumentation Technology; Machine Shop; Marine & Small Engine Repair; Plumbing; Power Plant Mechanics; Sheet Metal; Small Engine Repair; Television Servicing, Maintenance & Repair; Travel Agents; Typing; Welding Technology

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Delaware

Delaware

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environmental Protection

6 Population

7 Ethnic Groups

8 Languages

9 Religions

10 Transportation

11 History

12 State Government

13 Political Parties

14 Local Government

15 Judicial System

16 Migration

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Energy and Power

27 Commerce

28 Public Finance

29 Taxation

30 Health

31 Housing

32 Education

33 Arts

34 Libraries and Museums

35 Communications

36 Press

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

38 Sports

39 Famous Delawareans

40 Bibliography

State of Delaware

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Named for Thomas West, Baron De La Warr, colonial governor of Virginia; the name was first applied to the bay.

NICKNAME : The First State; the Diamond State.

CAPITAL: Dover.

ENTERED UNION: 7 December 1787 (1st).

OFFICIAL SEAL: The coat of arms surrounded by the words “Great Seal of the State of Delaware 1793, 1847, 1907.” The three dates represent the years in which the seal was revised.

FLAG: Colonial blue with the coat of arms on a buff-colored diamond; below the diamond is the date of statehood.

COAT OF ARMS: A farmer and a rifleman flank a shield that bears symbols of the state’s agricultural resources—a sheaf of wheat, an ear of corn, and a cow. Above is a ship in full sail; below, a banner with the state motto.

MOTTO: Liberty and Independence.

SONG: “Our Delaware.”

COLORS: Colonial blue and buff.

FLOWER: Peach blossom.

TREE: American holly.

BIRD: Blue hen chicken.

FISH: Sea trout.

INSECT: Ladybug.

ROCK OR STONE: Sillimanite.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Martin Luther King Jr. Day, 3rd Monday in January; Presidents’ Day, 3rd Monday in February; Good Friday, March or April; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans’ Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Day After Thanksgiving; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

Located on the eastern seaboard of the United States, Delaware ranks 49th in size among the 50 states. The state’s total area is 2,044 square miles (5,295 square kilometers), of which land takes up 1,932 square miles (5,005 square kilometers) and inland water 112 square miles (290 square kilometers). Delaware extends 35 miles (56 kilometers) east-west. Its maximum north-south extension is 96 miles (154 kilometers). Delaware’s boundary length is 200 miles (322 kilometers), including a general coastline of 28 miles (45 kilometers).

2 Topography

Delaware lies entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain except for its northern tip, which is part of the Piedmont Plateau. The state’s highest elevation is 448 feet (137 meters) on Ebright Road near Centerville. The rolling hills and pastures of the north give way to marshy regions in the south (notably Cypress Swamp), with sandy beaches along the coast. Delaware’s mean elevation, 60 feet (18 meters), is the lowest in the United States. The Nanticoke, Choptank, and Pocomoke rivers flow westward into Chesapeake Bay. All others rivers flow into Delaware Bay. There are dozens of inland freshwater lakes and ponds.

3 Climate

Delaware’s climate is temperate and humid. The average annual temperature in Wilmington ranges from 24°f (-4°c) in January to 86°f (30°c) in July. Both the record low and high temperatures for the state were established at Millsboro: -17°f (-27°c) on 17 January 1893 and 110°f (43°c) on 21 July 1930. The average annual precipitation is 42.8 inches (108.7 centimeters). The average annual snowfall is about 21 inches (53 centimeters).

4 Plants and Animals

Common trees include black walnut, hickory, sweetgum, and tulip poplar. Shadbush and sassafras are found chiefly in southern Delaware. In 2006, four plant species were listed as threatened or endangered. Mammals native to the state include the white-tailed deer, muskrat, and common cottontail. The quail, robin, and cardinal

Delaware Population Profile

Total population estimate in 2006:853,476
Population change, 2000–06:8.9%
Hispanic or Latino†:6.1%
Population by race 
One race:98.5%
White:73.6%
Black or African American:19.9%
American Indian /Alaska Native:0.3%
Asian:2.7%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander:0.0%
Some other race:2.0%
Two or more races:1.5%

Population by Age Group

Major Cities by Population
City Population % change 2000–05
Notes: †A person of Hispanic or Latino origin may be of any race. NA indicates that data are not available.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey and Population Estimates. www.census.gov/ (accessed March 2007).
Wilmington72,7860.2
Dover34,2886.7
Newark30,0605.3
Middletown9,12148.0
Smyrna7,41330.5
Milford7,2017.0
Seaford6,9974.4
Elsmere5,722-1.3
Georgetown4,9115.8
New Castle4,836-0.5

are native birds. Canadian geese are common waterfowl. As of 2006, there were 13 animal species considered threatened or endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Among these are the bald eagle, puma, five species of sea turtle, three species of whale, and the Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel.

5 Environmental Protection

The traffic of oil tankers into the Delaware Bay represents an environmental hazard. The Coastal Zone Act of 1971 restricts industrial development, oil drilling, and tanker movement along Delaware’s coastline, but in 1979 the act was amended to allow offshore oil drilling and development.

In 1982, Delaware enacted a bottle law requiring deposits on most soda and beer bottles. Deposits for aluminum cans were made mandatory in 1984. In that year, Delaware became the first state to administer the national hazardous waste program at the state level. The state’s municipal governments have constructed three municipal land fills to handle the solid waste produced by the state’s 670,000 residents. In 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency’s database listed 64 hazardous waste sites in the states, 14 of which were on the National Priorities List in 2006.

State environmental protection agencies include the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Coastal Zone Industrial Control Board, and Council on Soil and Water Conservation.

6 Population

In 2006, Delaware ranked 45th in population in the nation with an estimated total of 853,476 residents. In 2004, the population density was 425.4 persons per square mile (164.2 persons per square kilometer). The population projection for 2025 is 990,694. The median age in 2004 was 37.5. As of 2005, about 13% of all residents were 65 years old or older, while about 24% were 18 years old or younger. The largest cities in 2005 were Wilmington, with an estimated population of 72,786; and Dover, the capital, with a population of 34,288.

7 Ethnic Groups

In the 2000 census, black Americans constituted Delaware’s largest racial minority, with 150,666 people, or 19% of the population. Approximately 37,277 residents, or 5% of the total population, were of Hispanic origin. In 2006, estimates indicated that 19.9% of the population was black and 6.1% of the population was of Hispanic origin.

In 2000, a total of 44,898 residents, or 5.7% of the population, were foreign born. The United Kingdom, Germany, India, Italy, and Canada were the leading places of origin.

8 Languages

English in Delaware is basically North Midland, with Philadelphia features in Wilmington and the northern portion. In the north, one wants off a bus, lowers curtains rather than blinds, and says /krik/ for creek. As of 2000, about 662,845 Delawareans (90.5% of the population five years old and older) speak only English at home.

Delaware Population by Race

Census 2000 was the first national census in which the instructions to respondents said, “Mark one or more races.” This table shows the number of people who are of one, two, or three or more races. For those claiming two races, the number of people belonging to the various categories is listed. The U.S. government conducts a census of the population every ten years.

 Number Percent
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000: Redistricting Data. Press release issued by the Redistricting Data Office. Washington, D.C., March, 2001. A dash (—) indicates that the percent is less than 0.1.
Total population783,600100.0
One race770,56798.3
Two races12,1311.5
White and Black or African American3,1450.4
White and American Indian/Alaska Native1,6050.2
White and Asian1,6450.2
White and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander78
White and some other race2,3720.3
Black or African American and American Indian/Alaska Native8900.1
Black or African American and Asian338
Black or African American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander82
Black or African American and some other race1,2820.2
American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian72
American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander5
American Indian/Alaska Native and some other race176
Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander75
Asian and some other race325
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander and some other race41
Three or more races9020.1

Other languages spoken at home (and number of speakers) include Spanish (34,690), and French (4,041).

9 Religions

The Great Awakening, America’s first religious revival, began on 30 October 1739 at Lewes with the arrival of George Whitefield, an Anglican preacher involved in the movement that would later become the Methodist Church. The African Methodist Episcopal Church was also founded by slaves and ex-slaves from Delaware. Subsequent immigration brought Lutherans from Germany; Roman Catholics from Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Poland; and Jews from Germany, Poland, and Russia.

As of 2000, there were 151,740 Catholics in the state. The United Methodist Church had 59,471 adherents. Episcopalians numbered 12,993 and the Presbyterian Church USA claimed 14,880 adherents. There were about 13,500 adherents to Judaism. About 59.4% of the population was not counted as members of any religious organization.

10 Transportation

The New Castle and Frenchtown Railroad was built in 1832. The state’s first passenger line, the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Railroad, opened six years later. As of 2003, there were 247 rail miles (397 kilometers) of track. As of 2006, Amtrak served Wilmington via the

Northeast Corridor main line that connected Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, DC. The Delaware Authority for Regional Transit (DART) provides state-subsidized bus service.

In 2004, the state had 6,044 miles (9,731 kilometers) of public highways, roads, and streets. In the same year, there were 716,000 registered vehicles and 533,943 licensed drivers. Delaware’s first modern highway, running about 100 miles (160 kilometers) from Wilmington to the southern border, was financed by industrialist T. Coleman du Pont between 1911 and 1924. The twin spans of the Delaware Memorial Bridge connect Delaware highways to those in New Jersey. The Delaware Turnpike section of the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway links the bridge system with Maryland. The Lewes–Cape May Ferry provides auto and passenger service between southern Delaware and New Jersey.

In 2004, New Castle and Wilmington were chief ports. The Delaware River is traveled by oil tankers delivering to the east coast. Delaware had 99 miles (159 kilometers) of navigable inland waterways in 2004.

In 2005, Delaware had 49 airfields (33 airport, 15 heliports, 1 seaplane base), of which Greater Wilmington Airport was the largest and busiest.

11 History

At the time of the first European contact, the Leni-Lenape people occupied northern Delaware, while several tribes, including the Nanticoke and Assateague, inhabited southern Delaware. Permanent settlements were made by the Swedes in 1638 at Wilmington and by the Dutch in 1651 at New Castle. The Dutch conquered the Swedes in 1655, and were in turn conquered in 1664 by the English, who placed Delaware under the control of William Penn.

In the War for Independence, Delaware troops fought so well that they gained the nickname “Blue Hen’s Chicken,” after a famous breed of now-extinct fighting gamecocks.

On 7 December 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the federal Constitution. Although Delaware had not abolished slavery, it remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War. However, white Delawareans manipulated registration laws to deny blacks voting rights until 1890. Delaware refused ratification of the three “Civil War” constitutional amendments (abolition of slavery, equal protection, voting rights for black men) until 1901.

The key event in the state’s early economic history was the completion of a railroad between Philadelphia and Baltimore through Wilmington in 1838. Foreign immigration contributed to the state’s growth, largely from the British Isles and Germany in the mid-19th century and from Italy, Poland, and Russia in the early 20th century. In the early 1900’s, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., founded near Wilmington in 1802 as a gunpowder manufacturer, made the city famous as a center for the chemical industry.

During the 1950s, Delaware’s population grew by an unprecedented 40%. Although many neighborhood schools became racially integrated during the 1950s, massive busing was instituted by court order in 1978 to achieve a racial balance in schools throughout northern Delaware. This court order was lifted in 1995.

The 1980s ushered in a period of dramatic economic improvement. Some of Delaware’s prosperity came from a 1981 state law that raised interest rate limits and lowered taxes for large financial institutions. More than 30 banks established themselves in Delaware, and the state also succeeded in attracting foreign companies. Two industrial parks were built in Sussex, Delaware’s southernmost county, and a third complex in the center of the state.

The state also succeeded in using its simplified incorporation procedures to attract US and foreign companies. By the mid-1990s, the state was the registered home of roughly half the Fortune 500 companies; however, for many their presence in the state was strictly on paper.

Although business has grown in Delaware, urban and rural poverty are still present. Delaware’s teenage pregnancy rate is one of the highest in the country, while its welfare benefits are lower than any other mid-Atlantic state with the exception of West Virginia. Ruth Ann Minner was elected as Delaware’s first woman governor in 2000, assuming the office in 2001. Minner was reelected in 2004. In her 2007 State of the State address, she targeted issues such as pollution, industrial cleanup, the economy, and education.

In 2002, Delaware passed a law banning smoking in most indoor public places; it was among the first states in the nation to enact a smoking ban.

12 State Government

Delaware has had four constitutions, the last of which, in force since 1897, had been amended 138 times by January 2005.

Delaware’s legislative branch is the general assembly, consisting of a 21-member senate and a 41-member house of representatives. Senators are elected for four years, and representatives for two. Delaware’s major elected executives include the governor and lieutenant governor (elected separately), treasurer, comptroller, and attorney general. All serve four-year terms. The governor may be elected only once and must be 30 years old, have been a US resident for 12 years and a state resident for six before taking office.

Delaware Governors: 1775—2007

Democratic Republican – Dem-Rep
1775–1777John McKinly 
1777Thomas McKean 
1777–1778George Read 
1778–1782Caesar Rodney 
1782–1783John Dickinson 
1783John Cook 
1783–1786Nickolas Van Dyke 
1786–1789Thomas Collins 
1789Jehu Davis 
1789–1796Joshua ClaytonFederalist
1796–1797Gunning Bedford, Sr.Federalist
1797–1801Daniel RogersFederalist
1801Richard BassettFederalist
1801–1802James SykesFederalist
1802–1805David HallDem-Rep
1805–1808Nathaniel MitchellFederalist
1808–1811George TruittFederalist
1811–1814Joseph HasletDem-Rep
1814–1817Daniel RodneyFederalist
1817–1820John ClarkFederalist
1820–1821Jacob StoutFederalist
1821–1822John CollinsDem-Rep
1822–1823Caleb RodneyDem-Rep
1823Joseph HasletDem-Rep
1823–1824Charles ThomasDem-Rep
1824–1827Samuel PaynterFederalist
1827–1830Charles PolkFederalist
1830–1833David HazzardAnti–Republican
1833–1836Caleb Prew BennettJackson Democrat
1836–1837Charles PolkFederalist
1837–1840Cornelius Parsons ComegysWhig
1841–1845William B. CooperWhig
1845–1846Thomas StocktonWhig
1846Joseph MaullWhig
1846–1847William TempleWhig
1847–1851William TharpDemocrat
1851–1855William Henry Harrison RossDemocrat
1855–1859Peter Foster CauseyWhig
1859–1863William BurtonDemocrat
1863–1865William CannonUnionist
1865–1871Gove SaulsburyDemocrat
1871–1875James PonderDemocrat
1875–1879John P. CochranDemocrat
1879–1883John Wood HallDemocrat
1883–1887Charles Clark StockleyDemocrat
1887–1891Benjamin Thomas BriggsDemocrat
1891–1895Robert John ReynoldsDemocrat
1895Joshua Hopkins MarvelRepublican
1895–1897William T. WatsonDemocrat
1897–1901Ebe Walter TunnellDemocrat
1901–1905John HunnRepublican
1905–1909Preston LeaRepublican
1909–1913Simeon Selby PennewillRepublican
1913–1917Charles R. MillerRepublican
1917–1921John Gillis Townsend, Jr.Republican
1921–1925William Du Hamel DenneyRepublican
1925–1929Robert P. RobinsonRepublican
1929–1937Clayton Douglass BuckRepublican
1937–1941Richard Cann McMullenDemocrat
1941–1949Walter W. BaconRepublican
1949–1953Elbert Nostrand CarvelDemocrat
1953–1960James Caleb BoggsRepublican
1960–1961David Penrose BucksonRepublican
1961–1965Elbert Nostrand CarvelDemocrat
1965–1969Charles Laymen Terry, Jr.Democrat
1969–1973Russell Wilbur PetersonRepublican
1973–1977Sherman Willard TribbittDemocrat
1977–1985Pierre Samuel du Pont IVRepublican
1985–1992Michael Newbald CastleRepublican
1993Dale Edward WolfRepublican
1993–2001Thomas Richard CarperDemocrat
2001–Ruth Ann MinnerDemocrat

In 2005, the governor’s salary was $132,000 and legislators earned $36,500 per year.

13 Political Parties

Since the 1930s, the two major parties have been relatively evenly matched. As of 2004, there were 554,000 registered voters; 42% were Democratic, 36% Republican, and 23% unaffiliated or members of other parties.

In the November 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry won 53.3% of the vote while the incumbent president Republican George W. Bush won 45.8%. The state has three electoral votes in the presidential election. Democrat Ruth Ann Minner won election to the governor’s office in 2000, becoming the first female governor in the state’s history. She was reelected in 2004. Democrat Thomas Carper was reelected US senator in 2006, and Democratic Senator Joseph Biden was reelected in 2002. Republican Michael Castle won reelection in 2006 to remain Delaware’s sole US representative.

Following the 2006 elections, Republicans controlled the state house (23–18), and Democrats controlled the state senate (13–8). There were 21 women serving in the state legislature following the 2006 elections, or 33.9%.

14 Local Government

Delaware is divided into three counties. In New Castle, voters elect a county executive and a county council; in Sussex, the members of the elective county council choose a county administrator. Kent operates under an elected levy court. Most of Delaware’s 57 municipalities elect a mayor and council. In 2005, Delaware had 19 public school districts and 260 special districts. Because of the state’s small size, local government in Delaware tends to be weaker than that in other states. Here the state operates many programs that elsewhere are found at the local level.

15 Judicial System

Delaware’s highest court is the supreme court, composed of a chief justice and four associate justices. Other state courts include the court of chancery and the superior court. The court of chancery handles all corporate cases and is one of the busiest of such courts in the United States due to Delaware’s high concentration of incorporated businesses. In 2004, Delaware had a total violent crime rate of 568.4 per 100,000. As of December 2004, there were 6,297 inmates

Delaware Presidential Vote by Political Parties, 1948–2004

YEAR DELAWARE WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN
* Won US presidential election.
**Independent Ross Perot received 59,213 votes in 1992 and 28,719 votes in 1996.
1948Dewey (R)67,81369,588
1952*Eisenhower (R)83,31590,059
1956*Eisenhower (R)79,42198,057
1960*Kennedy (D)99,59096,373
1964*Johnson (D)122,70478,078
1968*Nixon (R)89,19496,714
1972*Nixon (R)92,283140,357
1976*Carter (D)122,596109,831
1980*Reagan (R)105,700111,185
1984*Reagan (R)101,656152,190
1988*Bush (R)108,647139,639
1992***Clinton (D)126,054102,313
1996***Clinton (D)140,35599,062
2000Gore (D)180,068137,288
2004Kerry (D)200,152171,660

held in state and federal prisons. Delaware has a death penalty, with lethal injection being the method of execution. As of 2006, Delaware had executed 14 persons since 1976. Delaware was the last state to abolish the whipping post. The whipping post was used for the last time in 1952 but not formally abolished until 1972.

16 Migration

Delaware has attracted immigrants from a variety of foreign countries, including Sweden, Finland, the Netherlands, England, Scotland, Ireland, Italy, Poland, and Russia. The 1960s and 1970s saw the migration of Puerto Ricans to Wilmington. In the period 2000–05, net international migration was 11,226 and net internal migration was 27,912 for a net gain of 39,138 people.

17 Economy

Since the 1930s, and particularly since the mid-1970s, Delaware has been one of the nation’s most prosperous states. Although manufacturing—primarily the chemical and automotive industries—has historically been the major contributor to the state’s economy, its contribution to gross state product shrunk to 12.9% in 2001. Tourism plays a major role in the state’s economy, as do finance, insurance, and real estate. Financial services grew 43% from 1997 to 2001. Many businesses have moved to Delaware due to its relatively low-cost business environment.

In 2004, a total of 3,270 new companies were formed while 3,362 businesses ceased operation.

18 Income

In 2005, the gross state product (GSP) was estimated at $54 billion. In 2004, Delaware ranked 11th among the 50 states and the District of Columbia with a per capita (per person) income of $35,728, above the national average of $33,050. In 2000, the median household income was $50,154, compared to the national average of $42,148. In 2001, the median income for a family of four was $73,301, compared to the national average of $63,278. The three-year average median household income for 2002–04, was $50,152 compared to the national average of $44,473. For the same period, 8.5% of the population lived below the federal poverty level, compared to the national average of 12.4%.

19 Industry

Wilmington is called the “Chemical Capital of the World,” largely because of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., the chemical industry giant. Important manufactured products, in addition to chemicals and transportation equipment, include food processing, plastics and rubber products, and paper manufacturing.

20 Labor

In April 2006, the civilian labor force in Delaware numbered 444,700, with approximately 16,400 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.7%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. In 2006, 6.6% of the labor force was employed in construction; 18% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 10.3% in financial activities; 14.3% in professional and business services; 12.5% in education and health services; 9.5% in leisure and hospitality services, and 13.8% in government. Data for manufacturing was unavailable.

In 2005, some 46,000 of Delaware’s 386,000 employed wage and salary workers were members of unions. This represented 11.8% of those so employed. The national average is 12%.

21 Agriculture

Though small by national standards, Delaware’s agriculture is efficient and productive. In 2005, Delaware’s farm marketings were at $895 million. Tobacco was a leading crop in the early colonial era but was soon succeeded by corn and wheat. Peaches were a mainstay during the mid-19th century, until the orchards were devastated by “the yellows,” a tree disease. The major field crops are corn, soybeans, barley, wheat, melons, potatoes, mushrooms, lima beans, and green peas. Production in 2004 included corn for grain, 23.2 million bushels; soybeans, 8.7 million bushels; wheat, 2.7 million bushels; and barley, 29 million bushels.

22 Domesticated Animals

In 2003, an estimated 8,300 milk cows produced 136 million pounds of milk (61.8 million kilograms). Also during 2003 an estimated 1.5 billion pounds (680 million kilograms) of broilers (young chickens) were produced and valued at an estimated $542.6 million. Broilers account for the majority of Delaware’s farm receipts. In 2005, Delaware had 23,000 cattle and calves.

23 Fishing

Fishing, once an important industry in Delaware, has declined in recent decades. The total commercial landings in 2004 brought 4.3 million pounds (1.9 million kilograms), worth $5.4 million. Clams, plentiful until the mid-1970s, are in short supply because of overharvesting. In 2001, the commercial fishing fleet had 184 vessels. Delaware issued 20,544 sport fishing licenses in 2004.

24 Forestry

In 2004, Delaware had approximately 383,000 acres (155,000 hectares) of forestland, of which approximately 92% was classified as private forestland. Nonindustrial private landowners owned 85% of Delaware’s forests while approximately 8% was publicly owned, and 7% was owned by the forest industry.

Southern Delaware contains many loblolly pine forests as well as the northernmost stand of bald cypress. Northern Delaware contains more hardwoods, such as oak and yellow poplar. Other common species are gum, maple, and American holly, which is Delaware’s state tree. Delaware has approximately 32,000 acres (12,950 hectares) of state forests, which are managed on a multiple use basis and are open to the public.

25 Mining

The value of nonfuel mineral production in Delaware in 2004 was about $21.9 million, according to estimated data compiled by the US Geological Survey. Construction sand and gravel are the leading nonfuel minerals produced. Other significant nonfuel minerals included magnesium compounds produced for use in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing. In 2004, Delaware ranked fourth nationally in production of magnesium compounds and was one of only five states that produced them in the United States. They are extracted from seawater close to the mouth of the Delaware Bay near Lewes and, with aluminum hydroxides, are used in the manufacture of antacid products.

26 Energy and Power

In 2003, production of electric power reached 7.3 billion kilowatt hours. Most of the power is supplied by coal- and oil-fired plants. Delaware has no nuclear reactors, nor does it have any fossil fuel resources. In 2000, Delaware’s total per capita energy consumption was 386 million Btu (97.3 million kilocalories), ranking it 17th among the states.

27 Commerce

In 2002, annual sales from the wholesale trade in Delaware totaled over $117.2 billion, while retail establishments had sales of almost $10.9 billion. The leading retailers included food and beverage stores and clothing and clothing accessory stores. In 2005, over $2.5 billion worth of products made in the state were exported.

28 Public Finance

Delaware’s annual state budget is prepared by the state budget director and submitted by the governor to the general assembly for amendment and approval. State revenues for 2004 were $5.6 billion and expenditures were $5.3 billion. The largest general expenditures were for education ($1.7 billion), public welfare ($1 billion), and government administration ($394 million). At the close of fiscal 2004, the outstanding debt of Delaware state and local governments was more than $4.1 billion, or $5,009.78 per capita.

29 Taxation

Delaware is the country’s corporate tax haven. If a corporation has its headquarters in Delaware, the state does not impose taxes on the company’s subsidiaries that are located in other states. Financial institutions are attracted to Delaware by its absence of usury limits. The fees paid by hundreds of thousands such companies allow Delaware to be one of five states with no general sales tax. There is also no state property tax.

Delaware’s individual income tax is a six-bracket progressive schedule ranging from 2.2% to 5.95%. The corporate income tax is a flat tax of 8.7%. Though there is no general sales tax, selective sales taxes (excises) are imposed on gasoline, and other motor fuels, cigarettes and other tobacco products, alcoholic beverages, amusements, insurance premiums, pari-mutuels, public utilities, and other selected items.

In 2005, state tax collections totaled $2.7 billion, or $3,229 per capita, compared to the national average of $2,192 per person. Collections included 32.4% from individual income taxes, 14.6% from selective sales taxes, 9.1% from corporate income taxes, and 43.9% from other taxes.

In 2005, the infant mortality rate was 7.4 per 1,000 live births. The overall death rate in 2003 was 8.6 per 1,000 residents. As of 2002, death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) included heart disease, 237.6; cancer, 200.8; cerebrovascular diseases, 50.2; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 43.3; and diabetes, 26.6. In 2004, about 24.3% of residents were smokers. The death rate for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported at 8.7 per 100,000. In 2004, the reported acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases rate was at about 18.9 per 100,000.

In 2003, Delaware had six community hospitals had 2,000 beds. The average expense of for hospital care was $1,508 per inpatient day. There were 272 physicians per 100,000 residents in 2004 and 914 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there were a total of 377 dentists in the state. In 2004, at least 13% of the population was uninsured.

31 Housing

In 2004, there were approximately 367,448 housing units in Delaware, of which 310,676 were occupied; 72.9% were owner-occupied. About 55.4% of all units were single-family, detached homes. It was estimated that about 6,646 units lacked telephone service, 1,674 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 2,334 lacked complete kitchen facilities. Most homes were heated by gas or electricity. The average household size was 2.59 people.

In 2004, there were 7,900 new privately owned housing units authorized for construction. The median home value was $171,589. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $1,191 while renters paid a median of $743 per month.

32 Education

Approximately 86.5% of adult Delawareans were high school graduates in 2004. About 26.9% had obtained a bachelor’s degree or higher.

Total enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools was estimated at 116,000 in fall 2003. Enrollment in private schools in fall 2003 was 25,576.

As of fall 2002, there were 49,228 students enrolled in institutions of higher education. In 2005, Delaware had 10 degree-granting institutions. Delaware has two public four-year institutions: the University of Delaware (Newark) and Delaware State College (Dover). Alternatives to these institutions include Widener University and the Delaware Technical and Community College, which has four campuses. There are three independent colleges: Goldey-Beacom College (Wilmington), Wesley College (Dover), and Wilmington College.

33 Arts

The Delaware Division of the Arts (DDOA) is a branch of the Delaware Department of State, which administers arts-related grants and programs. The Delaware State Arts Council serves as the advisory board for the DDOA. The Delaware Humanities Forum, an independent, non-profit organization was established in 1973 to sponsor programs and distribute grants to organizations promoting the understanding and appreciation of the humanities.

In 2005, Delaware arts organizations received six grants totaling $671,400 from the National Endowment for the Arts. The same year, the National endowment for the Humanities awarded three grants totaling 4500,470 for state programs.

Wilmington has a local symphony orchestra, opera society, and drama league. The Playhouse, located in the Du Pont Building in Wilmington, shows first-run Broadway plays. The restored Grand Opera House in Wilmington, Delaware’s Center for the Performing Arts, is the home of the Delaware Symphony and the Delaware Opera Guild as well as host to performances of popular music and ballet.

34 Libraries and Museums

Delaware had 37 public library systems in 2001, with 1,468,000 books and other materials and a circulation of 4,543,000. The University of Delaware’s Hugh M. Morris Library (Newark) is the largest academic library in the state. The Delaware Library Information connects all types of libraries through a statewide computer/telecommunication system. Notable among the state’s 27 museums are the Hagley Museum, the Delaware History Museum, the Winterthur Museum, and the Delaware Art Museum, all in Wilmington. The Historical Society of Delaware maintains a museum in the Old Town Hall in Wilmington. The Delaware State Museum is in Dover.

35 Communications

In 2004, about 96% of Delaware’s housing units had telephones. The same year, there were 593,452 wireless phone subscribers. The state had 5 AM and 9 FM major radio stations and one public television station based in Seaford in 2005. Philadelphia and Baltimore commercial television stations are within range. In 2003, 59.5% of all households had a computer and 53.2% had Internet access. A total of 19,351 Internet domain names were registered in Delaware by 2000.

36 Press

The Wilmington Morning News and the Wilmington Evening Journal merged to form the News Journal in 1989. As of 2005, the News Journal had a daily (afternoon) circulation of 115,641 (139,647 on Sunday). In the state’s capital is the Delaware State News with a daily circulation of 16,297 and Sunday circulation of 23,964 as of 2005. Statewide, there were two morning, one evening, and two Sunday papers in 2005. Smaller publications include the Dover Post and the Delaware Coast Press. Magazines include Delaware Today.

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

In 2001, there were about 12 million visitors to the state. About 36% were day-trip travelers from surrounding states. Shopping (with no sales tax) and the state’s beaches are the most popular attractions.

Rehoboth Beach on the Atlantic Coast bills itself as the “Nation’s Summer Capital” because of the many federal officials and foreign diplomats who summer there. The Delaware Kite Festival at Cape Henlopen State Park (east of Lewes) is held every year on Good Friday. Fishing, clamming, crabbing, boating, and swimming are the main recreational attractions.

38 Sports

Delaware has two major horse-racing tracks: Harrington, which has harness racing, and Dover Downs, which also has a track for auto racing. The MBNA Platinum 500 stock car race is held in June and the MBNA.com 400 is run in September. Thoroughbred races are held at Delaware Park in Wilmington. Wilmington has a minor league baseball team, the Blue Rocks, in the Carolina League. Additionally, the Fightin’ Blue Hens of the University of Delaware have teams in a large number of men’s and women’s sports.

39 Famous Delawareans

Three Delawareans have served as US secretary of state: Louis McLane (1786–1857), John M. Clayton (1796–1856), and Thomas F. Bayard (1828–1898). Two Delawareans have been judges on the Permanent Court of International Justice at The Hague: George Gray (1840–1925) and John Bassett Moore (1860–1947). John Dickinson (b.Maryland, 1732–1808), the “Penman of the Revolution,” and Caesar Rodney (1728–1784), wartime chief executive of Delaware, were notable figures of the Revolutionary era. George Read (b.Maryland, 1733–1798) and Thomas McKean (b.Pennsylvania, 1734–1817) were, with Rodney, signers for Delaware of the Declaration of Independence.

Eleuthère I. du Pont (b.France, 1771–1834) founded the company that bears his name. Delaware authors include Henry Seidel Canby (1878–1961), critic; and novelist Anne Parrish (b.Colorado, 1888–1957). Dr. Henry J. Heimlich (b.1920), developer of the anti-choking “Heimlich maneuver,” is also from Delaware. Actors from Delaware include Judge Reinhold (b.1958) and Valerie Bertinelli (b. 1960).

40 Bibliography

BOOKS

Blashfield, Jean F. Delaware. New York: Children’s Press, 2000.

Bristow, M. J. State Songs of America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Brown, Jonatha A. Delaware. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens, 2007.

Kule, Elaine A. Delaware Facts and Symbols. Rev. ed. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2003.

Murray, Julie. Delaware. Edina, MN: Abdo Publishing, 2006.

Schuman, Michael. Delaware. New York: Benchmark Books, 2000.

Whitehurst, Susan. The Colony of Delaware. New York: PowerKids Press, 2000.

WEB SITES

Delaware Tourism Office. Visit Delaware. www.visitdelaware.com/index.htm (accessed March 1, 2007).

State of Delaware. The Official Website for the First State. www.delaware.gov (accessed March 1, 2007).

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Delaware

Delaware

Name

Delaware (pronounced del-UH-wair ). The Delaware call themselves Lenape (pronounced len-AH-pay) ), meaning “the people.” They are also called Lenni Lenape (also spelled Lenápe or Lenapi), meaning “the true people.” Because they were often the peacekeepers for the Algonquian tribes, the others called them “grandfather. It was not until the 1600s that the tribe was first called the Delaware. That name came from the Europeans, who named the river running through Lenape territory after Lord de la Warr (1577–1618), the English governor of Jamestown. Since that time the Lenape have been called Delaware by the U.S. government, and most tribes eventually adopted that as their official name. To avoid confusion, the tribe will be referred to as the Delaware throughout this entry.”

Location

Originally the tribe lived along the Delaware River in the mid-Atlantic area, including New Jersey, Delaware, New York, and eastern Pennsylvania. They were constantly pushed west—first to Ohio, then to Indiana, Missouri, Kansas, and finally to Oklahoma. Small groups also fled to Ontario, Canada. Several tribes who claim Delaware heritage, but have not yet received federal recognition, live in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Kansas, and Wisconsin. Today most Delaware can be found in Oklahoma and Ontario.

Population

In 1600 there may have been 11,000 to 20,000 Delaware. By the 1700s that estimate had dropped to 4,000. In 1910 the U.S. Census (count of the population) recorded 2,000 Delaware people. The 2000 U.S. Census showed 8,419 people identified themselves as Delaware only, while 17,707 claimed some Delaware heritage. Of those who said they were Delaware only, 2,384 lived in Oklahoma. Statistics from First Nations of Canada indicated a Delaware population of 2,250 in 2007.

Language family

Algonquian.

Origins and group affiliations

The three main traditional groupings of Lenape (Delaware) are Munsee, Unami, and Unalactigo. The tribe was also closely related to the Nanticoke. The Delaware traded with most New England tribes, especially the Wampanoag and the Mahicans, but fought with the Susquehannocks and the Iroquois Confederacy.

Long before Europeans reached the shores of America, the Delaware culture was thriving. Some say it has existed fifteen thousand years. The people hunted, fished, and farmed the mid-Atlantic area, which they called Lenapehaking (“Lenape land”). A peaceful and democratic tribe, they earned the nickname “the grandfathers” from other Algonquian tribes. At first they were hospitable to the white colonists, but soon found themselves cheated out of land. The Delaware, who thought land should be shared by all, did not believe in the European concept of buying and selling land. By the mid-1800s most Delaware, who had once lived freely in the territory from New York to Delaware, had been pushed from their homelands and, after several relocations, were forced onto reservations in Oklahoma.

History

Prior to European arrival

Lenapehaking stretched from the shores of the Atlantic coast to the inland rivers, and much of the land was thickly forested. Fish and game were plentiful. Villages dotted the area, ranging in size from small groups of thirty-five to large settlements of up to five thousand. Though each group had a chief, the Delaware believed in independence; thus they had no need for a central government.

Important Dates

1609: Henry Hudson encounters the Lenape (Delaware).

1629: Lewes, Delaware, is the first recorded Delaware property sold to the Dutch.

1737: The Delaware are cheated of their land by the Walking Purchase.

1760s: The Delaware move to Ohio.

1778: The Delaware sign the first formal treaty with the United States, guaranteeing their land and allowing them to be the fourteenth state; the treaty is never ratified.

1781-82: Coshocton, a major Delaware settlement, is destroyed; the Moravian Delaware are massacred at Gnaddenhutten. Many flee to Indiana or Canada.

1783: Absentee Delaware move to Missouri.

1869: The Delaware are forced to move to Oklahoma.

1977: The western Delaware receive a small settlement for land claims and are given joint ownership of trust lands with Caddo and Wichita.

1996: The Delaware Tribe of Oklahoma (Eastern Delaware) receives federal recognition.

2004: The Cherokee tribe wins court case to overturn Delaware Tribe of Oklahoma’s federal recognition.

Early fur trading

In 1609 explorer Henry Hudson (1565–1611) claimed Delaware land for the Dutch. Soon Dutch, and later Swedish, colonists settled in the mid-Atlantic states. At first relations were peaceful. The Delaware helped the colonists and learned from them. They traded beaver pelts for cooking pots, beads, guns, cloth, and alcohol. The desire for European goods, however, encouraged the Delaware to go against their traditions and overhunt and overtrap.

Trading also prompted tribal warfare. To gain a greater share of the trade, the Mohawks attacked the Mahican, and the Munsee (Delaware) came to their aid. Farther south the Susquehannocks destroyed Delaware villages and forced the people across the Delaware River. After smallpox killed many of the tribe, the Delaware could no longer resist, and the Susquehannocks demanded tribute for any furs the Delaware sold.

Dutch settlers

In 1624 the Dutch bought Manhattan Island for $24 worth of trade goods. According to some sources, the Delaware sold it to them. The tribe themselves say they were not involved in the sale; it was sold without their knowledge. The first actual record of a Dutch land purchase from the Delaware Indians was Lewes, Delaware, in 1629.

The Dutch government insisted on treating the Native Americans fairly and offering payment for any land they occupied. The Native Americans, however, did not understand the European concept of purchasing land; to them the earth could not be bought or sold any more than air could. They believed Europeans were offering gifts for sharing the land, which they were willing to do. Settlers and Native Americans lived in relative harmony for almost a decade, although many Europeans resented the Native Americans hunting and fishing on land they “owned.”

Relations with the Dutch deteriorated in 1637, however, when Governor William Kieft (1597–1647) demanded taxes of corn, furs, and wampum (polished shells strung together as a belt or sash and used as money) from the Native Americans. The Delaware, who paid tribute only to make amends for wrongs they had done or for losing a war, did not understand this European order. They knew they had treated the colonists fairly, so they ignored the requests. In 1643 soldiers sent to collect the taxes killed 120 Delaware, including children and the elderly. The tribe’s code of ethics demanded they avenge the deaths. Peaceful coexistence with the Europeans had ended.

Delaware losses

The next two decades were marked by wars, massacres, and disease which decimated the Delaware tribe. Beginning with Kieft-s War (1643–45), in which the Delaware and Dutch engaged in attacks and retaliation, the Delaware lost land and people. When a Native woman was shot for picking peaches on Dutch land, the Peach War (1655) ensued. A few years later the Esopus Wars (1659–64) erupted over Dutch attempts to take over more Native American land. At the same time many Native Americans were dying from European diseases and intertribal warfare.

By this time Swedish colonists had settled in the area. The Delaware shared their knowledge of fishing and farming with the Swedish, and from them learned to make splint baskets and to build log cabins. But in 1664 when the British captured New Netherland and renamed it New York, whites moved onto Native lands as well. They signed treaties and paid for some of the properties, but often took what they wanted without doing either.

Life in Pennsylvania

Eventually the Delaware were forced from their lands into Pennsylvania. Here they encountered William Penn (1644–1718), an English Quaker who had come to America seeking religious freedom. Penn treated them kindly. The peace treaty they both signed has often been termed the only treaty with the Native Americans that has never been broken.

When Penn died, his sons cheated the Delaware out of their land. Producing an unsigned document from 1686, Thomas Penn (1702–1775) insisted that the tribe honor it. According to this treaty the Penns were entitled to whatever land a man could walk in one day. The Delaware agreed, unaware that Penn had cleared a path through the woods and had hired three runners. This 1737 Walking Purchase netted the Penns about 1,200 square miles (3,108 square kilometers) of land. When the Delaware sachem (chief) protested during a meeting with the Pennsylvania governor and the Iroquois (see entry), he not only received no support, but he was humiliated by the Iroquois chief who demanded the Delaware leave the area.

By this time the Munsee and Delaware had almost become two separate groups. With no land of their own, most of the Munsee were forced to move to western Pennsylvania. There they encountered Moravian missionaries who worked among the tribe. (The Moravians are Protestants belonging to a religious movement that originated in Moravia, present-day Czech Republic.) Many of the people converted to Christianity. Other members of the tribe joined the Mingo and Shawnee (see entry) in a move to eastern Ohio.

Troubles in Ohio

As the British and the Iroquois forced the tribe even farther west, the Delaware settled in eastern and northwestern Ohio along the rivers. There they again engaged in the fur trade. They tried to ally themselves with whatever European group was in power—first the French, then later the British. During the American Revolution (1775-83; the American colonists’ fight for independence from England), many Delaware remained neutral, especially the Moravians, who believed in living at peace.

Then in 1782 Pennsylvania soldiers, thinking the Moravian group were responsible for several raids, killed 92 people in the peaceful settlement of Gnadenhutten. Many of the survivors fled to Canada. A year later the colonists won their independence and began their move into Delaware territory. Many Moravian Delaware migrated to Canada. They settled in Moraviantown, which would be burned down by the Americans in 1813.

The Delaware who remained in Ohio allied themselves with other tribes in the area. Following the Battle of Fallen Timbers and the Treaty of Greenville, the Delaware, along with many other tribes, signed away most of their land and moved to Indiana.

Delaware Population: 2000 Census

In 2000 U.S. Census takers asked American Indians in the United States to identify the tribes to which they belonged. Those who identified themselves as Delaware said they belonged to the tribes listed below; these numbers do not reflect the Canadian Delaware population.

DelawarePopulation in 2000
Delaware5,488
Lenni-Lenape1,481
Ramapough Mountain805
Total8,419

“2000 Census of Population and Housing. Matrix 7: American Indian and Alaskan Native summary file.” Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Data User Services Division, American FactFinder, 2004.

Westward movements

When Indiana became a state in 1816, the citizens pressured the U.S. government to remove the Native Americans. Most of the Delaware moved to Missouri. A few Delaware remained in Sandusky, Ohio; another group, the Stockbridge, stayed in Indiana until 1834, then moved to Wisconsin.

In Missouri the Delaware faced raids by the Osage (see entry). The government intervened to prevent war between the various groups as resources and hunting grounds became depleted. When a group of Ohio Delaware joined them in 1829, the tribe moved to a reservation in Kansas. The land the government gave them was also owned by the Pawnee (see entry), so conflict arose between the two tribes as well as among the Plains Indians who also hunted buffalo in the same territory.

About this time the Kansas Delaware signed a treaty ceding (giving up) land that belonged to the Absentee Delaware who had moved to Texas. In 1854 the Absentee Delaware were moved onto a reservation with the Caddo, then in 1859 they were removed to Oklahoma, where they shared a reservation in Anadarko with the Caddo and Wichita (see entries). The Delaware were considered part of the Wichita band until federal recognition permitted them to operate as a separate, self-governing nation. This recognition also entitled them to government benefits and financial assistance.

Some Moravian Munsee migrated from Canada to Kansas. Although the Delaware assisted American explorers and served in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861–65; a war between the Union [the North], who were opposed to slavery, and the Confederacy [the South], who were in favor of slavery), Kansas called for the removal of Native Americans in 1863. Most of the tribe agreed to relocate to Oklahoma; others joined the Ojibway (see entry) near Ottawa, Kansas.

Kansas Delaware join Cherokee

The Kansas Delaware now had no homeland, but they did have money from selling their property. In 1867 they signed an agreement with the Cherokee (see entry) to pay for Cherokee land in northern Oklahoma and become part of the Cherokee Nation. In 1904, though, the government ruled that the money the Delaware had paid only allowed them to use the land, not own it. In 1907 the U.S. government divided up the land, giving small parcels to each head of a household, then they sold the rest to settlers.

In 1979 the U.S. government ended the Delaware’s legal status, saying they were a part of the Cherokee Nation rather than a separate tribe. The Delaware challenged this decision, but it took until 1996 for the tribe to regain their federal recognition. But the Cherokee Nation challenged their claim, saying the Delaware had become part of their tribe when they moved onto the Oklahoma reservation and that a treaty gave the Cherokees the right to govern the Delaware. In 2004 the Cherokee won their case, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs withdrew the Delaware’s federal recognition, meaning that the tribe lost $7 million in government funding and is no longer recognized as a sovereign, or self-governing, nation (see “Current tribal issues”).

Religion

The Delaware believe that the Creator made a huge turtle, big enough to carry the world. After the turtle surfaced and the mud on its back dried, a cedar tree grew from the dirt in the center of its back. Then man was created. Where the top of the tree bent and touched the earth, woman was created. These two people became the parents of all living beings. Because the turtle and the cedar tree had a part in creation, the tribe honored them as the Creator’s helpers.

Some people believe that the Wallam Olum are the Delaware sacred writings. The Wallam Olum consists of wooden sticks with pictographs on them. They also have been called “Painted Tally,” “Red Record,” or “Red Score.” The pictures tell Delaware history and creation stories, which seem to be genuine, and the Delaware did write on birch bark or wood at that time. Much controversy has surrounded the publication of the Wallam Olum, however. It was published in 1836 by a white man, Constantine Rafinesque (1783–1840), who claimed his friend, Dr. Ward, had received the sticks from the Delaware in Indiana. Many scholars debate whether Rafinesque’s story was true, and the sticks have since disappeared so there is no way to examine them to find out.

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries missionaries arrived to preach to the Delaware. Under their influence, many were baptized. Some truly converted to Christianity; others were only being polite to the newcomers or felt coerced. One of the main groups to work among the tribe was the Moravians. A large settlement of Delaware became Moravians; many of them were massacred in 1782. A chief in the 1800s, Neshapanacumin (also called Charles Journeycake; 1817–1894), whose mother interpreted for the Methodist missionaries, became a Christian preacher.

Many Delaware accepted Christianity, but several Native prophets warned them to return to their traditional religion. One of the most influential was Neolin, known as the Delaware Prophet. In the late 1700s he traveled among the tribes in the Lake Erie area to preach the message he had received from the Great Spirit. He carried a deerskin map showing the land the people had lost to settlers, and he begged the tribes to give up white beliefs and customs, especially drinking alcohol. His message encouraged other tribes to unite with Ottawa chief Pontiac (c. 1720–1769), who had organized a Native American alliance to drive the British out of Native lands.

Language

The Algonquian language spoken by the Delaware had three dialects (varieties of a language): Munsee, Unami, and Unalactigo. Unami and Unalactigo were spoken in Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey at one time, but there are no fluent speakers left. Southern Delaware, or Nanticoke, has not been spoken since the mid-1800s. The Delaware want to revive their language, but since it is not still in use, language specialists are combining Unami with Munsee. Some Canadian elders still speak Munsee. Because this dialect is so different from the other two, most Delawares, however, could not understand it. Munsee is actually similar to Mahican.

Delaware Words

  • alëm … “dog”
  • kišux … “sun”
  • lënu … “man”
  • màxke … “red”
  • mpi … “water”
  • naxkohoman … “sings”
  • pëntamën … “hears”
  • wanishi … “thank you”
  • xkwe … “woman”

Government

Clans were an important part of Delaware life; most longhouses in a village belonged to the same clan. Each clan had two leaders: the clan chief took charge of the community life; the clan captain led the tribe in battle. Although women did not speak in public or become chiefs, they decided who would be chief. If they did not feel the chief was doing a good job, they could choose someone else to take his place.

When the Delaware lived in their original homelands, the clans operated independently. Not until they reached Ohio in the 1740s did they unify under a central government. There they formed a tribal council composed of three captains, one from each of the clans (Wolf, Turkey, and Turtle). The captains inherited their positions, but the tribe had to confirm the selection. Usually the head chief, or captain, of the tribal council came from the Turtle clan. The people chose their war captains based on their skill in battle.

In the mid-2000s an executive committee made tribal decisions. A president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and two committee members served staggered four-year terms. In addition the tribe had several government departments to deal with social services, taxes, transportation, the environment, and business.

Economy

The Delaware were hunter-gatherers, but they also farmed. After the arrival of the Europeans, they engaged in the fur trade. Not believing that land should be bought or sold, they shared their homeland with early settlers. Within a short time they lost most of their property and moved further west. Since 1867 they have shared reservations with other tribes.

Today some Delaware raise livestock and others farm. The tribe’s main sources of income, though, come from tribal government, federal funding, and tourism. The Delaware Nation operates the Gold River Bingo and Casino in Anadarko, Oklahoma, as well as a museum. The National Hall of Fame for American Indians is located nearby along with camping and water sports for tourists.

The tribe also joined the Four Tribes Consortium of Oklahoma, a group that provides job training and opportunities. The tribal government offers a vocational rehabilitation program. The Wichita and Caddo tribes share land and a company with the Delaware to promote business development in the area. In spite of these efforts many tribe members have difficulty finding employment. In 2001 the Bureau of Indian Affairs reported that unemployment among the Delaware on the Anadarko reservation was 50 percent, which meant that half of the people who wanted to work could not find jobs.

Daily life

Families

The Delaware are composed of three main clans—Turkey, Wolf, and Turtle. Children took on their mother’s clan. (A clan is a group of people related to one common ancestor.) All the women of a family lived together in the same longhouse. When a man married, he moved into his wife’s longhouse. Children belonged to the mother; their father was not considered a close relative.

Buildings

The tribe built frames for their longhouses by bending saplings into a arched shape. They tied these together with poles running lengthwise. They covered the sides of their homes with bark, and left the ends open as doors. Animal skins hung over these doorways. Because the homes were so long, many families could live in them. Families who lived opposite each other had their own compartments for sleeping, but shared a central fire, so a row of fires lined the center of the longhouse, and a smoke hole 1 foot wide ((0.3 meters wide) ran the length of the roof. Longhouses could be more than 100 feet (30.48 meters) in length, but an average 60-foot-long (18.29-meters-long) dwelling housed about twenty people from seven or eight different families.

During times of war the tribe constructed their longhouses on a hill and surrounded them with stockades (fences made of posts). Villages contained a sweathouse to purify the body and cure diseases. The most important building in each village was the Big House. Its roof symbolized the sky; the floor represented the earth. In the center a post with a face carved into it represented the staff of the Great Manitou. Door openings faced east and west. The western door stood for the afterlife because it looked toward the setting sun. The opposite door opened toward the rising sun. Between the two doors, a path represented the lifecycle from birth to death. This building was the site of the Big House ceremony (see “Festivals”).

After 1763 some Delaware paid whites to build them log cabins; others had learned to do it themselves. By the 1850s the majority of the Delaware houses in Kansas were log. The chief’s house had a stone fireplace, a staircase, and board floors. Early cabins had raised platforms for sleeping, but by the beginning of the 1900s most had furniture.

Pleiades: Bunched Up Stars

Many people see stories in the stars. The Delaware look at the constellation we call the “Big Dipper” and see a bear. The “Northern Crown” was its head. The small cluster of stars nearby, “Pleiades,” was his den. This Delaware tale explains how that group of stars ended up together in the sky.

Because so many people came to a group of holy men for assistance, the prophets changed themselves into seven stones. Still the people came, and they changed themselves into beautiful pine trees, though some appeared as cedars. [Cedars, to the Delaware, are holy trees.] But still the people came. At last the prophets changed themselves into seven stars that move around in the sky during the year. They became the Bunched Up Stars, Pleiades.

Miller, Dorcas S.. Stars of the First People. Boulder, CO: Pruett Publishing Company, 1997.

Transportation

Throughout their history the Delaware lived near water, and they gained a reputation for their boat-building abilities. They made dugout canoes by burning out the center of split tree trunks. These canoes were heavier, so the men also made smaller, lightweight kayaks or canoes from birch or elm bark. Women helped by sewing the bark. Birch bark canoes were easy to carry, but capable of transporting heavy loads.

Clothing and adornment

A man wore a breechcloth (an apronlike piece of fabric attached at the waist), while a woman wrapped a piece of deerskin around her waist. Both wore leather or snakeskin belts decorated with wampum. They wrapped long blankets around their shoulders or knotted them around their necks; these also served as bedding. In winter the blankets were made of fur. Some Delaware wore cloaks of turkey feathers. Leggings and snowshoes were useful in winter. Men wore bandolier bags that had a beaded strap that crossed their chests. (Bandolier bags are elaborately decorated shoulder bags.) Moccasins made of deer or moose skin had ankle flaps as well as thongs to tie them on.

Men wore headbands of snakeskin with a few feathers or a circle of feathers on their heads. Roaches (headpieces of dyed deer hair) were also popular. Older men wore their hair long and loose, while warriors shaved their heads, except for a scalplock, which they sometimes greased to make it stand up straight. Men plucked out their chin hairs with a hinged mussel shell. Women braided their hair in back and sometimes tucked the plaits into a square pouch decorated with wampum. Both sexes used animal grease to keep warm, to avoid bug bites and sunburn, and to keep their hair in place.

Men had pierced ears and silver nose rings. Later men and women used copper for armbands and ornaments. They decorated their clothing with shells, beads, and porcupine quills. Men and women often had animal tattoos. They painted their faces and bodies with white, red, or yellow clay or black shale. Women used red on their eyelids, on the rims of their ears, and to make a circle on each cheek. Both sexes painted the parts in their hair.

Later many Delaware adopted European dress. Men wore cotton or linen shirts with their breechcloths and leggings. Women wore blouses with large circular yokes. They covered them with small, round, silver brooches. They also decorated their clothes with ribbonwork and beads.

Food

Each fall the tribe burned sites for farming and trails for hunting game. They used circles of fire or natural barriers like rivers to channel game into a narrow area that made hunting easier. Deer were their main source of meat. They supplemented that with bear, wolf, raccoon, weasel, otter, turkey, and pigeon. Later they added moose to their diet. They boiled their meat or roasted it on sticks set next to the fire.

The tribe used nets or weirs (small fences of sticks in a stream) to catch fish. Their diet also included shellfish, which they preserved by drying it in the sun. Roots, berries, greens, and nuts came from the wild. The tribe grew corn, beans, and squash.

They preserved corn by scraping it from the cob with a deer or buffalo jawbone and sun-drying it. They also roasted green ears and shelled the kernels. Dried corn could be ground into meal, boiled in water, or pounded and cooked with liquid to make mush. Most people ate cornmeal mush daily; sometimes they mixed it with beans or fish. To make bread they wrapped ground cornmeal batter in husks and baked it in the ashes of the fire. For sweets, women added berries to the food, or people sucked on cornstalks.

Education

A woman’s brothers trained her children. Uncles were considered closer relatives than the children’s father. A man took care of his sister’s children, but not his own. Children learned from their elders. Boys were trained to hunt, and before guns were readily available, they were taught flint knapping to make arrowheads and knives out of stone. Girls learned to cook, decorate clothing with dyed porcupine quills, make pottery, and tend babies.

Young boys learned to fast (go without eating) and pray to the spirits in earth and sky. These spirits gave them power. Girls also fasted. The Delaware believed a spirit came in a vision and gave each person a special song. To gain their spirit’s help, children only needed to sing their songs.

Healing practices

Most Delaware healers were women, but sometimes a man had a vision and became a medicine person. Healers had an extensive knowledge of herbs. They selected only the best and healthiest bark, roots, and plants for cures. Because it received the morning sun, bark from the east side of the tree was deemed life-giving. Before harvesting herbs, the medicine person dug a hole on the east side of the plant, put tobacco in the ground, and said a prayer to appease the spirit of the plant.

Some healers used herbs and medicine to treat the sick. Other doctors used sweathouse rituals to cure illness. Before performing a cure, a healer might crush some herbs or leaves in running water. If the leaves sank, it meant the patient would die. If they floated, the patient would recover.

In the early 2000s the Delaware received services at the Indian Health Service Hospital in Anadarko, which provided outpatient services, dental care, and community outreach programs.

Arts

Some early Delaware crafts included stone- and bone-working, shell-tempered pottery, and porcupine quill embroidery. After the Europeans arrived they taught the tribe to make splint baskets and silver jewelry. The people made silver buckles, pins, and haircombs. By the early 1900s many of the crafts had died out. Some Canadian Munsees continued to do woodworking, basket weaving, and beadwork. They also sewed cornhusk mats.

Customs

Birth and naming

Babies were born in a special hut away from the other houses. Mothers washed their newborns in cold water, then tied them to a cradleboard. The cradleboard hung on the mother’s back, and a strap on her forehead helped support its weight. After a year when the baby grew too large for the cradleboard, the mother carried the child in a sling made of animal skin or cloth. Each boy had a tattoo of his mother’s clan on his chest.

Puberty

When a girl began menstruating she stayed in a separate hut until she had her second menses. During her stay in the hut she kept a blanket over her head and did not touch her hair or any food or dishes. She ate with a stick and drank from her hands. (All women followed these practices monthly.) Afterwards she donned a special headdress and wore wampum to show she was ready for marriage.

Marriage

Marriages might be prearranged. A man would give wampum to his future bride or her family, then the couple had a year-long engagement. Sometimes a wedding feast was held, but couples had no wedding ceremony. Most Delaware stayed with one partner, and adultery was cause for public shaming. Divorces were easy and frequently occurred; the partners only had to agree to it and walk away.

Festivals

The most important ceremony for the Delaware was Ga’mwin, meaning “Big House.” Usually a male took charge and chose three male helpers, who selected three female helpers. They called the tribe together, and following prayers the leader told them his vision; others could also tell theirs. After praying to Misinghalikun, the guardian of game, a hunting party set out to kill deer. The carcasses were hung in the Big House, or temple, and eaten during the feasting that followed each night of dancing, singing, and sharing visions. After nine days, they relit the sacred fire. On the twelfth night, women who shared their visions received venison.

In the Grease-Drinking Festival, either a bear or a hog was killed. After it was eaten, the Delaware drank some of the grease and threw some in the fire. During Doll Dances, first the men and then the women danced around the fire singing special songs, carrying a doll dressed as a woman or a man on a stick.

The Delaware also celebrated corn-planting and harvest with special celebrations. Most ceremonies were either feasts or a time for people to tell about their visions. Singing and dancing often played a part in most ceremonies. After the Christian influence, many of the rituals changed and became more sedate.

War etiquette

Men preferred fighting at night and liked to use deception to defeat their enemies. Before they began a battle, they isolated women and children on an island or in a swamp so they could not be taken as prisoners of war. Warriors painted their faces and wore red turkey feathers in their headbands or they tied foxtails or wolves’ tails upright on their heads.

The Delaware scalped those they killed in battle. When they captured other tribes, they either tortured and executed them or adopted them to replace slain relatives. If a Delaware warrior was taken prisoner and tortured, he would sing until he died.

Death rituals

Burial occurred a few days after death. The Delaware usually dug pit-graves and buried the body in a sitting position. They placed tools, food, and wampum beside the corpse and covered it with dirt and stones. A fence enclosed the grave; a post pictured the dead man’s deeds. Sometimes they used a cemetery; other times they chose an isolated place to bury the body. Every year the family visited the spot to tend it.

While in mourning, relatives painted their faces black. Husbands and wives mourned for a year. If her spouse died, a woman might show her grief by crawling around the grave every day while she wept. Women also burned their hair on the graves of children or war victims. No one mentioned the dead person’s name again. A man who lost his wife paid her parents when he wanted to remarry.

The Delaware believed the souls of the dead went west or south, where hunting would be good. Although they believed in an afterlife, most Delaware (even those who converted to Christianity) did not believe in heaven and hell.

By the 1800s many Delaware had adopted some European burial customs. They spent the night at a wake. (A wake is a watch over the body the night before burial.) In the morning they fired guns to the east. They used coffins and placed a post to mark a man’s grave and a cross to mark a woman’s. A feast followed the burial. Four days after that (and for the next four years), they made a special meal for someone who was younger than the deceased, but of the same gender.

Current tribal issues

Along with many other smaller Delaware tribes, the Delaware Tribe of Indians in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, is engaged in a struggle for federal recognition. In 1996 they were federally recognized, but lost this status in 2004 after they lost a court case to the Cherokee. The Cherokee insisted that the Delawares had given up their identity and become members of the Cherokee Nation. While it is true that the Delaware paid the Cherokee for land and asked to be a part of the nation more than one hundred years ago, the Delaware believe they have kept their own identity as a tribe. Loss of federal recognition means they are no longer eligible for government benefits and funding, nor are they able to function as a separate nation.

The Delaware Nation is working on programs to help the tribe. They have begun an economic development program to improve roads, establish new businesses, build housing for seniors, write grants for additional funding, develop casinos, and provide assistance for entrepreneurs. They are also working to protect their heritage by gathering remains and artifacts, teaching language and crafts classes, and maintaining the Delaware Nation Museum and Library. In addition they plan to open a research facility to study diabetes, lupus, and arthritis—diseases that affect many Native Americans.

Notable people

Tamanend or Tammany (c. 1628–1698), a chief of the Delaware when they lived in the Delaware Valley, was known as a peacemaker. He signed a treaty with William Penn (see “History”). At a meeting of Delaware and the leaders of the Pennsylvania colony, he declared that his people and the colonists would “live in peace as long as the waters run in the rivers and creeks and as long as the stars and moon endure.” His words are recorded on statue of him that stands in Philadelphia.

Shingas, a war leader in the Turkey clan, was called “king” by the Americans who dealt with him. He was known as a fierce fighter and led many raids against the colonists in Pennsylvania and Virginia. When his village was destroyed, he and his people moved farther west into Ohio. His brother, Tamaqua, counseled him to make peace. Called “The Beaver” or “King Beaver,” Tamaqua soon gained greater power and influence than his brother.

Lewis Ketchum, late chief of the Delaware Tribe of Indians in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, began Red Man Pipe and Supply Company in 1977 with a small business loan. Over the years he opened many stores and bought other companies to build a multi-million dollar business. In the mid-2000s the Ketchum family sponsored scholarships in his honor at Oklahoma State University.

Adams, Richard C. A Delaware Indian Legend and the Story of Their Troubles. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, LLC, 2006.

Bial, Raymond. The Delaware. New York: Benchmark Books, 2006.

Dalton, Anne. The Lenape of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Delaware, Wisconsin, Oklahoma, and Ontario. New York: PowerKids Press, 2005.

Gibson, Karen Bush. New Netherland: The Dutch Settle the Hudson Valley. Elkton, IN: Mitchell Lane Publishers, 2006.

Gipson, Lawrence Henry. The Moravian Indian Mission on White River: Diaries and Letters, May 5, 1799, to November 12, 1806. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Bureau, 1938.

Kraft, Herbert C. The Lenape-Delaware Indian Heritage, 10,000 BC to AD 2000. Union, NJ: Lenapebooks, 2001.

Levine, Michelle. The Delaware. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications, 2006.

McCutchen, David. The Red Record: The Wallum Olum. Garden City Park, New York: Avery Publishing Group, Inc., 1993.

Myers, Ed., Albert. William Penn’s Own Account of the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians. Moorestown, NJ: Middle Atlantic Press, 1970.

Schutt, Amy C. Peoples of the River Valleys: The Odyssey of the Delaware Indians. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

Tantaquidgeon, Gladys. Folk Medicine of the Delaware and Related Algonkian Indians. Harrisburg, PA: The Pennsylvania Historical Museum Commission, 1977.

“The Delaware.” Minnesota State University Mankato. (accessed on July 2, 2007).

DelawareIndian.com. (accessed on July 2, 2007).

“Delaware Indians.” Ohio Historical Society. (accessed on July 2, 2007).

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Delaware Tribe of Indians. (accessed on July 2, 2007).

“Lenape Culture and History.” Native American Language Net: Preserving and Promoting Indigenous American Indian Languages. (accessed on July 2, 2007).

“Native American Varieties of Moccasins: Lenape.” NativeTech: Native American Technology and Art. (accessed on July 2, 2007).

George Cornell, Ph.D.; Associate Professor, History and American Studies, Michigan State University; Director, Native American Institute

Laurie Edwards

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Delaware

Delaware

Delaware, the first state admitted to the Union (December 7, 1787) and the nation's second-smallest, is located on the eastern seaboard in the mid-Atlantic region. Of the state's 2,044 square miles (5,295 square kilometers), 1,932 square miles (5,005 square kilometers) are land. Delaware is bordered by Maryland , Pennsylvania , New Jersey , and the Atlantic Ocean. Its capital is Dover.

The first permanent settlements in the area were a Swedish trading post, established in 1638 (at present-day Wilmington) by a group of Swedes, Dutch, and Finns under the leadership of a Dutchman, and a Dutch fort in 1651 (at New Castle). The Dutch took over the Swedish colony in 1655 but were forced out by the English nine years later. At that time, Delaware was under the control of English philosopher and colonialist William Penn (1644–1718).

In 1838, a railroad running between Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore, Maryland, through Wilmington was completed. The state's population increased as immigrants—mostly from the British Isles, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Russia—made their way to the tiny state.

Delaware's total population was just under 784,000 in the early twenty-first century, with residents being predominantly white (73.6 percent). Although over 59 percent claimed no religious affiliation, the largest religious group was Catholic, with 151,740 adherents. The per-person income was $35,728, $2,000 above the national average, making Delaware eleventh out of fifty states and Washington, D.C.

Chemical manufacturing is the state's main industry, with Wilmington known as the chemical capital of the world. Other industries include food processing, plastics and rubber products, and paper manufacturing. The state is not all industry, however, with a strong agricultural output of corn, soybeans, barley, wheat, and other crops. Fishing, once a major contributor to the economy, has declined since the late twentieth century because of overharvesting.

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Delaware

DELAWARE

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Delaware

Delaware

Liberty and independence.

At a Glance

Name: The name Delaware comes from the Delaware River and Bay, which were named for Sir Thomas West, Baron De La Warr, the first governor of Virginia.

Nicknames: First State, Diamond State

Capital: Dover

Size: 2,396 sq. mi.

Population: 783,600

Statehood: Delaware became the first state on December 7, 1787.

Electoral votes: 3 (2004)

U.S. Representatives: 1 (until 2003)

State tree: American holly

State flower: peach blossom

State insect: ladybug

Highest point: Ebright Azimuth, 448 ft.

The Place

Delaware is the second-smallest state and is located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the country. Delaware's coastline is 28 miles long. The state is situated close to many of the nation's largest cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, and the nation's capital, Washington, D.C. Delaware shares the DelMarVa Peninsula with Maryland and Virginia.

Most of the state is low, flat, coastal terrain. The northern area of the state, part of the Piedmont region, is covered with rolling hills and valleys. Much of Delaware is excellent agricultural land. A 30,000-acre swamp runs along Delaware's southern boundary.

The Delaware River is the state's largest river. Lakes and streams are important to Delaware's transportation and economy. Stone, sand, gravel, and clay are the state's most important mineral resources. About a third of Delaware is thickly forested. Delaware's climate is generally humid with hot summers and mild winters, although temperatures along the coastline are more stable and temperate.

Delaware: Facts and Firsts

  1. Delaware is known as the First State because it was the first to ratify (approve) the U.S. Constitution, on December 7, 1787.
  2. Nylon was invented in the Du Pont factories in Seaford.
  3. The first beauty pageant in the United States, which later became the Miss America Pageant, was held at Rehoboth Beach in 1880. Inventor Thomas A. Edison was one of the three judges.
  4. Swedish and Finnish settlers built the country's first log cabins along the Delaware River.
  5. Delaware was an important stop along the Underground Railroad. Delaware resident Thomas Garrett reportedly helped more than 2,000 fugitive slaves escape to safety.
  6. The Thousand Acre Marsh is northern Delaware's largest freshwater tidal wetland. Analysis of a fossilized pollen sequence from the mucky bottomland determined the swamp's age at 10,000 to 12,000 years old.
  7. Barratt's Chapel was built in 1780 and was one of Delaware's first churches. The chapel is known as the Cradle of Methodism and is the oldest Methodist house of worship still standing in the United States.

The Past

Many different peoples have occupied Delaware throughout its history. For centuries, the area was the home to several Algonquian tribes, including the Delaware and Nanticoke. Europeans first reached Delaware in 1631 when the Dutch settled near the city of Lewes. During the next 50 years, Delaware fell under Swedish, Dutch, and then English control. In 1664, England took control of the area, then gave it to William Penn, the founder of the colony of Pennsylvania, in 1682. Although Delaware was known as Pennsylvania's Three Lower Counties, it was relatively independent from the main colony, and fought as a separate state in the American Revolution.

Delaware: State Smart

Old Swedes Church, in Wilmington, is the oldest church in the United States still in its original form. It was built as a Swedish Lutheran Church in 1699.

In 1802, Delaware's industrial future was sealed when E.I. Du Pont opened the first Du Pont factory, a gunpowder mill at Wilmington. In 1935, Wallace Carothers of the DuPont Company invented nylon. Since then, Delaware has become increasingly industrialized and many companies and industries locate in the state because it has low taxes.

The Present

Delaware is home to more than 200,000 different businesses because it is so corporation friendly. Many chemical-producing corporations are located in Delaware. The Du Pont Company is the largest of these and employs the most people.

Other Delaware companies manufacture vulcanized fiber, textiles, paper, medical supplies, metal products, machinery, machine tools, and automobiles. In the city of Wilmington, banking is an important industry.

Delaware's good soil makes it competitive agriculturally. Chicken raising is Delaware's principal type of animal farming. Fishing and dairy farming are also common.

Delaware farms produce a variety of crops, including corn, soybeans, potatoes, and hay.

Born in Delaware

  1. Robert Montgomery Bird , playwright
  2. Henry S. Canby , editor and author
  3. Annie Jump Cannon , astronomer
  4. Oliver Evans , inventor
  5. Henry Heimlich , surgeon and inventor
  6. Pierre S. Du Pont , chemist and industrialist
  7. Howard Pyle , artist and author
  8. Caesar Rodney , patriot, signer of Declaration of Independence
  9. Elizabeth Shue , actress

Each year, thousands of people visit Delaware's historic homes, some of which were built before the American Revolution. The Delaware coastline is also a popular vacation spot. Water-sport and fishing enthusiasts enjoy the state's many scenic lakes and rivers.

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Delaware

DELAWARE

By the start of the French and Indian War in 1754, Delaware had already been an English colony for ninety years. It was not included in the Albany Plan of Union, which was proposed by some American colonists the same year. However, the colony did participate in the First and Second Continental Congresses. Delaware approved the Declaration of Independence on 2 July 1776. In August and September of that year, Delaware wrote its own constitution. During the Revolutionary War, Delaware was the site of one minor battle. On 3 September 1777, Delaware militia attacked English soldiers marching to Philadelphia at the Battle of Cooch's Bridge.

After independence, Delaware ratified the Articles of Confederation in 1779 and became the first state to ratify the federal Constitution, doing so on 7 December 1787. Between 1790 and 1830, Delaware's population grew by nearly 30 percent. In 1790, the total population was 59,096. In succeeding decennial censuses, the total state population increased from 64,273 in 1800 to 72,674 in 1810 to 72,749 in 1820 to 76,748 in 1830. Though a slave state, Delaware's free black population increased from 3,899 to 15,855 in the forty years between 1790 and 1830, while the number of slaves decreased from 8,887 to 3,292 over the same duration. The latter trend is partially explained by the state constitution's prohibition on importing slaves into the state and by the presence of active abolition societies, which were first established in Dover and Wilmington in 1788.

Native Americans inhabited the Delaware area for hundreds of years before European migration. Although there was some presence of the Nanticoke tribe, the largest American Indian population included members of the Lenape group, later renamed the Delaware by European settlers. Delaware Indians in fact comprised three groups, the Munsee, the Unalachtigo, and the Unami. William Penn signed a treaty of friendship with the Delaware confederation in 1682. Later, however, other tribes and the English forced the relocation of most Delaware Indians to areas west of the Mississippi River.

The growth of political parties in Delaware was shaped by the personalities of leaders, contentious issues of the era, and by the development of national parties. Prior to the founding of the Democratic Party, Delaware strongly backed Federalist candidates. Between 1789 and 1828, Delaware voters elected ten Federalist and three Democratic Republican governors. At the presidential level, state electors endorsed Federalist candidates in every election until 1820, when James Monroe outpolled John Quincy Adams.

See alsoAmerican Indians: Middle Atlantic; Politics: Political Parties .

bibliography

Christensen, Gardell Dano, and Eugenia Burney. Colonial Delaware. Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson, 1974.

Hancock, Harold Bell. Delaware 200 Years Ago: 1780–1800. Wilmington, Del.: Middle Atlantic Press, 1987.

Hoffecker, Carole E. Delaware, the First State. Wilmington, Del.: Middle Atlantic Press, 1988.

Munroe, John A. Delaware Becomes a State. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1987.

Samuel B. Hoff

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Delaware

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Delaware

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Delaware

Delaware

DELAWARE. The Delaware, or Lenape, Indians were a strategically significant Indian nation that, during the middle of the eighteenth century, inhabited a region constituting the western part of modern-day Pennsylvania and most of modern-day Ohio. Many communities of Delawares allied with the United States during the American Revolution, while others maintained neutrality, and some sided with the British. The Delaware were signatories to the first Indian treaty signed under the Continental Congress (1778), and also were victims of one of the bloodiest massacres of American Indian civilians by American troops, at Gnadenhutten, Ohio (1782).

At the time of significant and sustained European contact in the seventeenth century, the Delaware inhabited the entire Delaware River Valley, in the modern-day states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. The Delaware inhabited villages of a few hundred people each, and their population at contact has been estimated to be between 8,000 and 12,000 people. While having a shared culture, the Delaware spoke two different languages, Munsee and Unami.

As white settlement in the Jerseys and Pennsylvania expanded, the Delaware were pushed westward in the Susquehanna Valley, and eventually settled west of the Alleghenies. Cordial relations between the Delaware and the government of Pennsylvania soured during the eighteenth century, beginning with the controversial Walking Purchase of 1737, which ceded Indian lands along the Delaware River to white settlers, with the extent of the land ceded to be measured as the distance a man could walk in a day and a half. Relations further deteriorated with the anti-Indian violence of the Paxton Boys Riots (1764), which resulted in the massacre of a Conestoga Indian village. Pennsylvania was also the base of operations of the Church of the United Brethren, or Moravian Church, a German pietist sect. The Moravians were active in proselytizing among the Delawares, and took in hundreds of converts during the middle decades of the eighteenth century. The Moravian Delawares, also often known as the Moravian Indians, adopted European modes of subsistence and culture, and lived in separate villages, apart from other Delawares and Anglo-Americans.

By the start of the American Revolution, most Delawares, both Moravian and non-Moravian, had relocated into the trans-Allegheny region, living in modern-day western Pennsylvania and Ohio. It was in this region and this time period that the Delawares came together in new villages, increasing their political power. Four important chiefs guided the Delawares—Captain Pipe, the head of the Wolf clan; Captain Johnny, head of the Turkey clan; and Netawatwees, or Newcomer, head of the Turtle clan. Newcomer died in 1776, and his grandson Gelelemend, or Killbuck, became head of the Turtle clan in his place. Another leader, named White Eyes held the position of war chief in the Turtle clan. Like many other Indian nations of the eastern woodlands, Delaware political organization was diffuse, with chiefs exerting power through persuasion rather than through command.

As was the case with the Iroquois, both the Americans and the British initially pushed for the Delaware to remain neutral during the early phases of the American Revolution. The Continental Congress created three Indian departments on 12 July 1775, and the Delaware fell under the control of the Middle Department. Indian trader and land speculator George Morgan was appointed chief Indian commissioner of the Middle Department. Morgan organized several treaty conferences at Pittsburgh (1776, 1777, 1778), in which the Delaware were participants. Morgan's diplomacy, in concert with the efforts of Moravian missionaries David Zeisberger and John Heckewelder, kept most Delawares sympathetic with the American cause, in contrast with most of the Indians of the Great Lakes basin and Ohio Valley, who sided with the British. The Delaware signed a formal treaty of alliance with the United States at Fort Pitt on 17 September 1778. The treaty was the first formal treaty the United States government made with an Indian nation. Article VI of the Treaty held out the possibility of the Delaware eventually forming a state and being admitted as an equal member to American union, with membership in the Continental Congress. This provision, obviously, was never acted on by Congress.

The alliance between the United States and the Delawares proved fragile, and eventually collapsed. While Killbuck and White Eyes were strongly devoted to the American cause, the other Delaware leaders were not. Most Delawares wanted to remain neutral and disapproved of the Fort Pitt treaty, because they felt it tied them too strongly to the United States. Worried that too many Delawares were leaning toward the British side, Colonel Daniel Brodhead, then the commander at Fort Pitt, led an attack against the main Delaware neutralist settlement at Coshocton in 1780. Complicating matters was the fact that, while the American military leadership in the Middle Department was committed to maintaining some sort of alliance with the Delawares, the American settlers in the region were not.

Settler communities consistently initiated violence against their (mostly Delaware) Indian neighbors. White Eyes was murdered by American settlers. In the spring of 1782, Pennsylvania settlers attacked Killbuck's settlement near Pittsburgh, and also attacked and destroyed the Moravian Delaware village of Gnadenhutten, murdering almost a hundred of the villagers. Like many other Indians during the American Revolution, the Delawares emerged from the war divided, weakened, and generally suspicious of the new United States. The Delaware participated in the pan-Indian resistance movement of the 1790s, which culminated in the Treaty of Greenville. Between the 1810s and 1830s, most Delawares were removed to reservations west of the Mississippi River.

SEE ALSO Gnadenhutten Massacre, Ohio; Indians in the Colonial Wars and the American Revolution.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calloway, Colin G. The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Goddard, Ives. "Delaware." Handbook of the North American Indians. Edited by Bruce Trigger. Vol. 15: Northeast, William C. Sturtevant, general editor. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1978.

Hinderaker, Eric. Elusive Empires: Constructing Colonialism in the Ohio Valley, 1673–1800. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Prucha, Francis Paul. American Indian Treaties: The History of a Political Anomaly. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

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Delaware

Delaware

Cooch's Bridge Battlefield
John Dickinson Plantation
Dover
The Nanticoke Museum
New Castle
Wilmington

The little state of Delaware produced a disproportionate number of men who loomed large in the Revolution: the important political theorist John Dickinson; Caesar and Thomas Rodney; and "the American Diomed," Robert Kirkwood, killed in action as a sixty-two-year-old captain after the Revolution, "the thirty-third time he had risked his life for his country" (wrote "Light Horse Harry" Lee in his Memoirs). Only the Dickinson House survives in modern Delaware as a landmark associated with the lives of these men. Their names are honored in other states: the town of Rodney in Jefferson County, Missouri, where Thomas acquired land after the Revolution; and the Kirkwood subdivision of Camden, South Carolina, one of the many places where Captain Kirkwood distinguished himself as a leader of the "Blue Hen Chickens."

The single regiment of Delaware Continentals was one of the smartest-looking and best-equipped units to take the field at the start of the Revolution, and its men turned out also to be probably the best fighters. The nickname comes from a legendary brood of Delaware gamecocks. There was almost no fighting on Delaware soil (only at Cooch's Bridge), but the Delaware Continentals fought with conspicuous gallantry and irreplaceable losses from the first major battle in New York (Long Island) to the last major battle in the South (Eutaw Springs), missing few in between. Their memorials are therefore almost everywhere except in Delaware itself.

A primary source of information is the Historical Society of Delaware, founded in 1864, which is located at 505 Market Street at the intersection of Sixth and Market Streets, Wilmington, Del. 19801. It maintains the Delaware History Museum, a research library, and three historic sites. Phone: (302) 655-7161. Another source is the state tourism office at 99 Kings Highway, in Dover. It is accessible via the internet at www.visitdelaware.net, or by phone at (302) 739-4271. Additionally, the Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs and the Delaware State Museum, which administers the Delaware State Visitors Center, has a reliable assortment of brochures and guidebooks to help the curious find their way through a state that is directly, over the last thirty years, recovering its Revolutionary War past. The visitors' center is at 406 Federal Street, Dover, Del. 19901. Website: www.destatemuseums.org; phone: (302) 739-4266.

Cooch's Bridge Battlefield

Cooch's Bridge Battlefield. After failing to oppose the British landing at Head of Elk (see under maryland), American forces then fought an unsuccessful delaying action that started on Iron Hill and passed by the place now known as Cooch's Bridge. The latter is about a mile south of Newark on Old Baltimore Turnpike. The Cooch House, briefly used by Cornwallis, survives in today's Cooch's Bridge, and is occupied by the Cooch family. A large granite marker on the highway at the entrance to the property points out that the fighting took place in this vicinity, the only Revolutionary War battle in Delaware and (allegedly) the first in which the Stars and Stripes were carried.

The Cooch House is in an excellent state of repair, the large brown structure standing on well-tended grounds about 100 yards from the highway. It is the private home of a direct descendent of Colonel Cooch. In 2005 plans to renovate the site, the bridge, the gristmill, and the encompassing 200-acre grounds are underway. The battlefield is presently marked by four cannon from the War of 1812 loaned from the Brooklyn Navy Yard.

John Dickinson Plantation

John Dickinson Plantation, 340 Kitts Kummock Road, near Dover. Phone: (302) 739-3277. Threatened with destruction in 1952, the home of John Dickinson, "Penman of the Revolution," was saved by the National Society of Colonial Dames of America. The state matched the latter organization's donation of $25,000, and the property has been restored with state funds and private gifts. It is maintained by the state's Department of Historic and Cultural Affairs.

One authority has said that in the literature of the American Revolution the position of John Dickinson was comparable to that of George Washington in military affairs, Benjamin Franklin in diplomacy, and Robert Morris in finance. Born in Maryland in 1732, Dickinson was raised in this house built by his father in 1740. He studied law in Philadelphia before spending another three years at the Middle Temple in London. During the Stamp Act controversy he did most of the work in drafting the "Declaration of Rights and Grievances" (1765), and later, the "Petition to the King" (1771). Meanwhile, he presented constitutional objections to the Townshend Acts in fourteen essays in the Pennsylvania Chronicle (1767–1768) that became famous as "The Farmer's Letters." In pamphlet form they were titled "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies." Dickinson argued that Parliament had authority only to regulate colonial trade but not to tax them for revenue.

During the Revolution he was active in Congress as leader of the conservative faction. He was one of only two congressmen who immediately took the field for military duty when the fighting started, although he had voted against the Declaration of Independence. John Dickinson continued his strenuous public career until his death in 1808.

The house built by his father burned in 1804, with little surviving except the brick walls. Dickinson rebuilt it as a tenant house. The structure consists of two stories, a gable roof replacing the original hip roof, and a small kitchen wing added after 1804. The present reconstruction, based on Dickinson's records of 1804 to 1806, has been open to the public since 1956. The National Survey calls it "one of the most interesting architectural examples of the plantation house of the region" and comments that with its setting of cultivated fields it looks much as it did originally. A garden near the house has also been restored. Though the slave quarters are no longer extant, the plantation tour does include information about the Dickinsons' slaveholding and attitude toward manumission. More information on the generally avoided topic of slavery during the War for Independence can be gleaned at the Afro-American Historical Society of Delaware, 512 East Fourth Street, Wilmington, Del.; phone: (302) 571-9300.

The Dickinson House is reached by driving 6 miles south from Dover on U.S. 113 and 0.5 mile east on Kitts Hummock Road.

Dover

Dover. The state capital since 1777, Dover was established in 1683. The Delaware State Museum manages eight museums, each addressing different aspects of the state's history. Information on these museums is accessible through the previously referenced contact at the beginning of this entry. Of particular note is the State House Museum, located on the green in Dover and open Tuesday through Saturday, 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., and Sunday 1:30 to 4:30 p.m. The Georgian-style building has been restored to its 1792 appearance. The museum has a great deal of information about Delaware in the Revolution and early republic, as well as a special exhibit on slavery and free blacks in the eighteenth century.

The Nanticoke Museum

The Nanticoke Museum preserves the history of the Nanticoke, the original inhabitants of the Delmarva Peninsula. In 1742 the Delaware government accused them of conspiracy and denied them the right to choose a chief. They eventually requested and obtained permission to join the Iroquois, and followed most of that people into exile in Canada at the end of the Revolution. A small remnant of the Nanticoke people hung on in a community on Angola Neck, finally gaining official recognition in 1922. Their museum is north of Millsboro on Del. Route 24 and open Tuesday to Thursday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., and Saturday, noon to 4 p.m. Phone: (302) 945-7022.

New Castle

New Castle, Delaware River. The historic section of the city survives as an exceptionally picturesque area containing several structures of great architectural importance and spanning a long period of Dutch, Swedish, and English occupation. New Castle was founded in 1651 by Peter Stuyvesant and was the seat of Dutch government on the South (Delaware) River. A large section of the village green (marketplace) laid out by Stuyvesant has been preserved in the heart of the historic district. After being held briefly by the Swedes the town was seized by the British (1664) and given to William Penn in 1682. A marker at Delaware Street and the Strand indicates the place where Penn first set foot on American soil. The National Survey identifies the following surviving eighteenth-century structures as being of special importance: the Old Court House (also known as the State House), the Amstel House, Immanuel Episcopal Church (1703), the Gunning-Bedford House, and the Presbyterian Church, all dating from before 1730. The Amstel House serves as one of the three museums and the headquarters for the New Castle Historical Society, 2 East Fourth Street. Phone: (302) 322-2794. Its website, www.newcastlehistory.org, provides a virtual tour and interesting facts about some of these buildings.

The Old Court House on 211 Delaware Street was built in 1732 to house the colonial assembly, which met here until 1777. It was here that an acrimonious sesssion debated and finally approved the Declaration of Independence. Guided tours address Delaware's early history; Tuesday to Saturday, 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Sunday 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Phone: (302) 323-5319.

Wilmington

Wilmington. A port city whose harbor is formed by the mouths of Brandywine and Christina Creeks about a mile from the Delaware River, this place was settled by the Swedes in 1638. Holy Trinity, or Old Swedes Church, dates from 1698, and is "probably the oldest church in the United States which has been in continuous use" ("Wilmington," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed.). The old First Presbyterian Meeting House was built in 1740 and is located at Tenth and Market Streets; the Wilmington Friends' School (1748) at 101 School Road in North Wilmington; and Old Town Hall (1798) at 500 Block Market Street. In a 1976 response to the historic buildings falling victim to urban decay, the city moved five houses listed on the National Register of Historic Places to the 500 block of Market Street. They are: the Cook-Simms House (1778); the Coxe House (1801); the Jacobs House (1748); and the Jacob and Obidiah Dingee Houses (1771) and (1773). This area is named Wilmington Square, and all of the homes can be viewed from the outside. Other tour arrangements can be made by calling Wilmington Square at (302) 655-7161.

In colonial times Wilmington was famous for its flour mills, and water-powered mills of many types were located along the Brandywine. E. I. du Pont began building his powder industry 3 miles north of the city in 1802.

The Patriot army was concentrated around Wilmington before the Battle of the Brandywine. The city was occupied by the British several months later when the Delaware River forts finally were reduced, but few landmarks associated with the Revolutionary War have survived the economic development of the region. The other side of the coin is nearby New Castle.

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