Mozambique

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MOZAMBIQUE

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT
TOPOGRAPHY
CLIMATE
FLORA AND FAUNA
ENVIRONMENT
POPULATION
MIGRATION
ETHNIC GROUPS
LANGUAGES
RELIGIONS
TRANSPORTATION
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL PARTIES
LOCAL GOVERNMENT
JUDICIAL SYSTEM
ARMED FORCES
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
ECONOMY
INCOME
LABOR
AGRICULTURE
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
FISHING
FORESTRY
MINING
ENERGY AND POWER
INDUSTRY
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DOMESTIC TRADE
FOREIGN TRADE
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
BANKING AND SECURITIES
INSURANCE
PUBLIC FINANCE
TAXATION
CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
HEALTH
HOUSING
EDUCATION
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS
MEDIA
ORGANIZATIONS
TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION
FAMOUS MOZAMBICANS
DEPENDENCIES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Republic of Mozambique

República Popular de Moçambique

CAPITAL: Maputo (formerly Lourenço Marques)

FLAG: The flag consists of broad stripes of green, black, and yellow, separated by narrow bands of white. Extending from the hoist is a red triangle; centered on the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star upon which is a white book over which are crossed the black silhouettes of a hoe and an AK47 rifle.

ANTHEM: Begins "Viva viva FRELIMO."

MONETARY UNIT: The Mozambique escudo (me), linked until 1977 with the Portuguese escudo, was in June 1980 renamed the metical (mt); it is a paper currency of 100 centavos. There are coins of ½, 1, 2½, 5, 10, and 20 meticais, and notes of 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 meticais. mt1=$0.00005 (or $1 =mt19,445) as of 2005.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is in use.

HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Heroes' Day, 3 February; Women's Day, 7 April; Workers' Day, 1 May; Independence Day, 25 June; Victory Day, 7 September; Day of Revolution, 25 September; Christmas, 25 December.

TIME: 2 pm = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Located on the southeastern coast of Africa, opposite the island of Madagascar, Mozambique (Moçambique), formerly known as Portuguese East Africa, has an area of 801,590 sq km (309,496 sq mi), of which land constitutes 784,090 sq km (302,738 sq mi) and inland water 17,500 sq km (6,757 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Mozambique is slightly less than twice the size of the state of California. The country extends 2,016 km (1,253 mi) nnessw and 772 km (480 mi) esewnw. It is bordered by Tanzania on the n, the Indian Ocean (Mozambique Channel) on the e, the Republic of South Africa on the s, Swaziland, South Africa, and Zimbabwe on the w, and Zambia and Malawi on the nw, with a total boundary length of 7,041 km (4,375 mi), of which 2,470 km (1,535 mi) is coastline.

TOPOGRAPHY

Mozambique is 44% coastal lowlands, rising toward the west to a plateau 150 to 610 m (5002,000 ft) above sea level and on the western border to a higher plateau, 550 to 910 m (1,8003,000 ft), with mountains reaching a height of nearly 2,440 m (8,000 ft). The highest mountains are Namuli (2,419 m/7,936 ft) in Zambézia Province and Binga (2,436 m/7,992 ft) in Manica Province on the Zimbabwean border. The most important rivers are the Zambezi (flowing southeast across the center of Mozambique into the Indian Ocean), the Limpopo in the south, the Save (Sabi) in the center, and the Lugenda in the north. The most important lake is the navigable Lake Malawi (Lake Niassa); Lake Cahora Bassa was formed by the impoundment of the Cahora Bassa Dam. In the river valleys and deltas, the soil is rich and fertile, but southern and central Mozambique have poor and sandy soil, and parts of the interior are dry.

CLIMATE

Two main seasons, one wet and one dry, divide the climatic year. The wet season, from November through March, has monthly averages 2729°c (8184°f), with cooler temperatures in the interior uplands. The dry season lasts from April to October and has June and July temperatures averaging 1820°c (6468°f). The average annual rainfall is greatest (about 142 cm/56 in) over the western hills and the central areas, and lowest (30 cm/12 in) in the southwest.

A severe drought began to affect the central region of the country in 2001. As of 2005, the UN World Food Programme was still offering assistance to those who were most in need in the provinces of Maputo, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Sodala, and Tete, but the program was underfunded and there were an estimated 500,000 people still in need of assistance. Much of the same region suffered a flood in 2000 which affected 300,000 people.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Thick forest covers the wet regions, where there are fertile soils, but the drier interior, which has sandy or rocky soils, supports only a thin savanna vegetation. Extensive stands of hardwood, such as ebony, flourish throughout the country. Mozambique has elephants, buffalo, wildebeests, zebras, palapalas, hippopotamuses, lions, crocodiles, nyalas, and other southern African game species. As of 2002, there were at least 179 species of mammals, 144 species of birds, and over 5,600 species of plants throughout the country.

ENVIRONMENT

The civil war combined with natural disasters from flooding and drought have created a life-threatening situation for the nation's people. According to a 1992 UN report, humans were the most endangered species in Mozambique. Other significant environmental problems include the loss of 70% of the nation's forests. The nation lost 7.7% of its forest and woodland between 1983 and 1993 alone. Mozambique has since launched reforestation projects, mostly involving the planting of conifers and eucalyptus.

The purity of the nation's water supply is also a significant issue. Surface and coastal waters have been affected by pollution. Mozambique has 99 cu km of renewable water resources. About 89% of the annual withdrawal is used in farming and 2% for industrial purposes. Only 76% of the nation's city dwellers and 24% of the rural population have access to improved water sources.

In 2003, about 8.4% of the total land area was protected, including the Marromeu Complex, a Ramsar wetland site. According to a 2006 report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the number of threatened species included 12 types of mammals, 23 species of birds, 5 types of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 21 species of fish, 4 types of mollusks, 1 species of other invertebrates, and 46 species of plants. Endangered species in Mozambique include the green sea, hawksbill, olive ridley, and leatherback turtles.

POPULATION

The population of Mozambique in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 19,420,000, which placed it at number 54 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 3% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 44% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 94 males for every 100 females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 20052010 was expected to be 2.2%, a rate the government viewed as too high as it struggled to reduce poverty. The projected population for the year 2025 was 27,556,000. The population density was 24 per sq km (63 per sq mi), with about 60% of the population living in the central and southern coastal provinces.

The UN estimated that 32% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 4.22%. The capital city, Maputo (formerly Lourenço Marques), had a population of 1,221,000 in that year, while Beira had an estimated population of 500,000; Nampula, 314,965; and Nacala, 182,500.

The prevalence of HIV/AIDS has had a significant impact on the population of Mozambique. The UN estimated that 13% of adults between the ages of 1549 were living with HIV/AIDS in 2001. The AIDS epidemic causes higher death and infant mortality rates, and lowers life expectancy.

MIGRATION

Between April 1974 and the end of 1976, an estimated 235,000 of the 250,000 Portuguese in Mozambique fled the country. Famine and war produced another exodus in the 1980s, but this time of blacks. An October 1992 peace agreement left 4.5 million internally displaced and 1.5 million refugees abroad. Of the latter, at the end of 1992, some 1,058,500 were in Malawi; about 200,000 in South Africa, 136,600 in Zimbabwe, 75,200 in Tanzania, 48,100 in Swaziland, and 26,300 in Zambia. By May 1993 about 750,000 people in both categories had returned home. Mozambique traditionally supplies seasonal farm workers to South Africa farmers.

In October 1992, the 16-year civil war ended with a peace treaty. Between 1992 and 1996, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) completed the largest repatriation project it has ever conducted in Africa. Over 1.3 million refugees returned to Mozambique from Malawi; 241,000 returned from Zimbabwe; 23,000 returned from South Africa, and 32,000 returned from Tanzania.

In 2000 there were 366,000 migrants living in Mozambique, including a small number of refugees. In 2004, there were 623 refugees and 4,892 asylum seekers. In that same year 151 Mozambicans applied for asylum in South Africa. In 2005, the net migration rate was an estimated zero, a significant change from 10.7 per 1,000 in 1990. The government views the migration levels as satisfactory.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Nearly the total population (99.66%) is made up of indigenous tribal groups, including the Shangaan, Chokwe, Manyika, Sena, and Makua. Overall, there are 10 major ethnic clusters. The largest, residing north of the Zambezi, is the Makua-Lomwé group, representing about 37% of the total population. The Yao (Ajawa) live in Niassa Province. The Makonde live mainly along the Rovuma River. Other northern groups are the Nguni (who also live in the far south) and the Maravi. South of the Zambezi, the main group is the Tsonga (about 23%), who have figured prominently as Mozambican mine laborers in South Africa. The Chopi are coastal people of Inhambane Province. The Shona or Karanga (about 9%) dwell in the central region. Also living in Mozambique are EuroAfricans, accounting for about 0.2% of the population; Europeans, make up 0.06%; and Indians, constitute 0.08%.

LANGUAGES

Portuguese remains the official language. It is spoken as a first language by only about 8.8% of the population and as a second language by about 27%. Different African ethnic groups speak their respective languages and dialects. The most prominent of these are Emakhuwa, spoken by about 26.1% of the population; Xichangana, by 11.3% of the population; Elomwe, by 7.6%; Cisena, 6.8%; and Echuwabo, 5.8%.

RELIGIONS

Reports from the National Institute of Statistics state that half of the population does not claim adherence to any religion or creed. However, local scholars claim that most of the population follows traditional indigenous customs and beliefs either exclusively or in conjunction with other religious traditions. Veneration of ancestors plays an important role in traditional customs as do curandeiros, the traditional healers or spiritualists who are consulted for healing, luck, and solutions to problems.

Of the eight million or so who claim religious affiliation, about 24% are Roman Catholic, 22% are Protestant, and 20% are Muslim (though some Muslim leaders claim a much larger percentage of adherents). The strongest Muslim communities are located in the northern provinces and along the coastal strip. Central provinces are predominantly Catholic and the southern regions have the most Protestants. There are also small groups of Jews, Hindus, and Baha'is across the country.

There are over 500 distinct denominations registered with the Department of Religious Affairs of the Ministry of Justice. Registration is required by law and an organization must have at least 500 members in good standing to be registered. However, unregistered groups have been allowed to worship without restrictions. The largest of the African Independent Churches in the country is the Zion Christian Church. Other Christian denominations include Anglican, Greek Orthodox, Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Congregational, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Nazarene, Jehovah's Witnesses and other Pentecostal, evangelical, and apostolic organizations. The evangelical Christians are reported as the fastest growing religious groups in the country. Among Muslims, only Sunni and Ismaili communities are registered.

The People's Republic of Mozambique is a secular state. The government guarantees every citizen full freedom of conscience and the right to practice a religion or not. Though church schools and hospitals were nationalized after independence, reports indicate that many of these institutions have been returned to their respective religious organizations. There is a council of bishops, including Catholic and Anglican members, that meets with the president on a fairly regular basis to talk about current issues. The Inter-Religious Forum is an interfaith organization that offers social and disaster relief; members include those from the Christian Council of Mozambique, the Greek Orthodox Church, Muslims, Jews, and Bahai's. No religious holidays are officially observed, though individuals are generally allowed days off for their own religious observances.

TRANSPORTATION

Transport networks are of major importance to the economy. Mozambique's landlocked neighborsMalawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Swazilandalong with South Africa are the main users of the Mozambican transport system.

The railways are the best-developed sector, with three good rail links between major Mozambican ports and neighboring countries. By independence in 1975, almost the entire railway system was owned by the state and passed into the hands of the newly independent government. The route system is 3,123 km (1,943 mi) long, all of it narrow gauge, with the single largest user being South Africa. There are six routes that make up the majority of the country's railroads: the Nacala Corridor, connecting Nacala to Malawi (300 km/186 mi); the Sena Corridor, linking Beira, via Dondo, to the coalfields at Moatize (513 km/319 mi) and to Malawi (370 km/230 mi); the Beira Corridor, connecting Beira to Zimbabwe (315 km/196 mi); the Limpopo Corridor, linking Maputo with Zimbabwe (534 km/332 mi); the Resano Garcia line, connecting Maputo to South Africa (88 km/55 mi); and the Goba line, linking Maputo to Swaziland (68 km/42 mi).

The road network in 2002 totals an estimated 30,400 km (18,890 mi), of which 5,685 km (3,533 mi) are paved, but few roads are suitable for trucks and passenger cars. In 2003, there were 58,110 vehicles, including 29,530 passenger cars and 28,580 commercial vehicles.

Maputo, by far the leading port, has an excellent multipurpose harbor, with exceptional loading, unloading, and storage facilities. It is a major outlet for South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, and the eastern DROC. Other ports include Beira, Nacala, and Inhambane, which was reopened in 1980 after a 20-year closure. The Mozambican merchant fleet consisted of two cargo ships of 1,000 GRT or more, totaling 4,125 in 2005. As of 2004, Mozambique had 580 km (360 mi) of navigable waterways consisting of the Zambezi River to Tete and along Cahora Lake.

In 2004, there were an estimated 158 airports, 22 of which had paved runways as of 2005. Mozambique Air Lines (Linhas Aéreas de MoçambiqueLAM), the state airline, operates both international and domestic services. In 2003, about 281,000 passengers were carried on domestic and international flights. The National Enterprise of Transport and Aerial Labor (Empresa Nacional de Transporte e Trabalho AéreoTTA) also provides domestic service. Maputo and Beira have international airports.

HISTORY

Mozambique's earliest inhabitants were hunter-gatherers, often referred to as Bushmen. The land was occupied by Bantu peoples by about ad 1000. In the following centuries, trade developed with Arabs who came across the Indian Ocean to Sofala. The first Europeans in the area were the Portuguese, who began to settle and trade on the coast early in the 16th century. During the 17th century, the Portuguese competed with Arabs for the trade in slaves, gold, and ivory, and set up agricultural plantations and estates. The owners of these estates, the prazeiros, were Portuguese or of mixed African and Portuguese blood (mestiços); many had their own private armies. Mozambique was ruled as part of Goa until 1752, when it was given its own administration.

Until the late 1800s, Portuguese penetration was restricted to the coast and the Zambezi Valley. The African peoples strongly resisted further expansion, but they were ultimately subdued. By the end of the 19th century, the Portuguese had made boundary agreements with their colonial rivals, the United Kingdom and Germany, and had suppressed much of the African resistance. Authority was given to trading companies such as Mozambique Co., which forced local people to pay taxes and work on the plantations. After the Portuguese revolution of 1926, the government of Portugal took a more direct interest in Mozambique. The trading companies' influence declined, and Mozambique in 1951 became an overseas province of Portugal.

As in other Portuguese territories, African resistance to Portuguese rule grew stronger as the British and French colonies in Africa began to win their independence. Gradually, various liberation movements were formed. On 25 June 1962, these groups united to form the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) and elected Eduardo C. Mondlane as its first president. The armed struggle began on 25 September 1964, when FRELIMO guerrillas trained in Algeria went into action for the first time in Cabo Delgado. By 1965, fighting had spread to Niassa, and by 1968, FRELIMO was able to open fronts in the Tete region. By that time, it claimed to control one-fifth of the country. In response, the Portuguese committed more and more troops, military supplies, and military aid funds to the territory. On 3 February 1969, Mondlane was assassinated in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; the acting leader of FRELIMO, Samora Machel, became president of the organization in December 1970.

The turning point in the struggle for independence came with the Portuguese revolution of 25 April 1974. Negotiations between Portuguese and FRELIMO representatives led to the conclusion of an independence agreement in Zambia in September. Mozambique became officially independent at midnight on 2425 June 1975, and the People's Republic of Mozambique was proclaimed in ceremonies on 25 June. Machel, who had returned to Mozambique on 24 May after 13 years in exile, became the nation's first president. He quickly affirmed Mozambique's support of the liberation movement in Rhodesia, and guerrilla activity along the Rhodesian border increased. On 3 March 1976, Mozambique closed its border with Rhodesia, severed rail and communications links, and nationalized Rhodesian-owned property. Because the transit fees paid by Rhodesia had been a major source of foreign exchange revenue, the action aggravated Mozambique's economic ills. During this period, Rhodesian forces conducted land and air raids into Mozambique to punish black nationalist guerrillas based there. These raids ended, and the border was reopened in 1980, following the agreement that transformed Rhodesia into Zimbabwe. However, South African airmen bombed Maputo in 1981 and 1983 in retaliation for Mozambique's granting refuge to members of the African National Congress (ANC), a South African black nationalist group.

The Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO), created in 1976, allegedly by Portuguese settler and business interests with white Rhodesian (Central Intelligence Organization) backing, conducted extensive guerrilla operations in Mozambique during the 1980s. With an armed strength estimated as high as 12,000, RENAMO blew up bridges and cut rail and road links and pipelines. After the loss of its Rhodesian support, RENAMO received substantial aid from South Africa and also had bases in Malawi. Voluntary support for RENAMO within Mozambique was difficult to ascertain, but there was known to be considerable disaffection with the government because of food shortages and resistance by peasants to being resettled onto communal farms. In addition to these political problems, Mozambique experienced widespread floods in 197778 and recurrent drought periodically from 1979, especially in 1992.

On 16 March 1984, Mozambique and South Africa signed a nonaggression pact at Nkomati whereby Mozambique agreed to keep the ANC from using Mozambican territory for guerrilla attacks on South Africa, while South Africa agreed to stop supporting RENAMO. Nevertheless, South Africa continued to aid RENAMO, and as a result, in 1985 Mozambique pulled out of the commission that monitored the nonaggression pact. On 19 October 1986, President Machel and 33 others were killed when their Soviet-built jetliner crashed inside South Africa while returning to Maputo. Mozambican officials accused South Africa of employing a radio beacon to lure the craft off course to its destruction, but an international commission found that the crash was caused by negligence on the part of the Soviet crew. On 3 November 1986, FRELIMO's Central Committee elected Foreign Minister Joaquim A. Chissano president. In 1987, despite the jetliner crash and despite Mozambican claims that RENAMO and South Africa were responsible for the massacre of 386 people in a village near Inhambane, Mozambique and South Africa revived their nonaggression pact. Fighting intensified and hundreds of thousands of Mozambicans fled to Malawi and Zimbabwe.

In 1990, there was movement toward resolving the civil war. There were serious signs in the late 1980s that FRELIMO was moderating its views. At its 1989 Congress, FRELIMO formally abandoned its commitment to the primacy of Marxism-Leninism. The first peace talks in 13 years were scheduled for Blantyre, Malawi, but they broke down just before they were to open. In August, government and rebel leaders concluded three days of talks in Rome. That same month, Chissano announced that FRELIMO had agreed to allow opposition parties to compete openly and legally. Finally in November, government and RENAMO agreed to appoint the Italian government and the Catholic Church as mediators in peace talks.

It took until 4 October 1992 to sign a peace treaty ending the war, but sporadic fighting and new RENAMO demands slowed down the implementation process. Chissano and Afonso Dhlakama, RENAMO's leader, signed an agreement that called for the withdrawal of Zimbabwean and Malawian troops that had assisted government forces guarding transport routes and the regrouping of both government and RENAMO soldiers at assembly points. It called for the formation of a new national army composed of half government and half RENAMO troops. A joint commission of government and RENAMO, along with a small UN monitoring force, and other joint commissioners, the police, and intelligence services were to oversee the agreement's implementation. In addition, multiparty elections were to be held within a year.

Delays troubled the process practically from the start. RENAMO was slow to appoint its representatives to the joint commissions. The UN operation (UNOMOZ) was formally approved in December 1992, but no troops arrived until March 1993, and it was midyear before 6,000 troops were deployed. RENAMO failed to implement the provision for demobilization and all of the provisions regarding freedom of movement and political organization in areas it controlled. New RENAMO demands were put forward almost monthly, and despite direct meetings between Dhlakama and Chissano and an October 1993 visit by UN Sec. Gen. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, the delays continued.

Political party activity picked up as efforts to resolve the civil war continued. By the end of 1996, 22 parties were active. In March 1993, government presented a draft electoral law to opposition parties, but not until late July was a meeting convened to discuss it. The opposition parties demanded a two-thirds majority on the National Electoral Commission. After Boutros-Ghali's visit, a compromise (10 out of 21 for the opposition parties) was agreed to. Delays also marked the effort to confine armed forces in designated areas.

Elections first scheduled for 1993 were conducted on 2729 October 1994. On the presidential ballot, Chissano won 53.3% of the vote to Dhlakama's 33.7%. The remainder was split among 10 other contenders. On the legislative ballot, FRELIMO took 44% of the popular vote to RENAMO's 37.7%. FRELIMO had 129 seats and RENAMO, 112. The Democratic Union took nine seats. Dhlakama disputed the fairness of the vote, and the UN observers agreed that it had been less than ideal, but insisted that the announced results were sufficiently accurate. More than 2,000 international observers agreed. Chissano formed the new government on 23 December, with the entire cabinet made up of FRELIMO MPs. Early in 1996, the Chissano government announced that it would postpone municipal elections slated for later that year until 1997. In presidential and parliamentary elections held in December 1999, Chissano defeated Dhlakama by 52.29% to 47.71% while his party took 133 seats against 117 for RENAMO in the parliamentary contest.

The next elections were held on 1 December 2004. In these elections Armando Guebuza, the new FRELIMO candidate, won 63.7% of the votes and the RENAMO candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, got 31.7%. In the parliamentary elections FRELIMO won 62% (1.8 million) of the votes, RENAMO 29.7% (905,000 votes) and 18 minor parties shared the remaining 8%. Under the proportional system, FRELIMO won 160 of the parliamentary seats and RENAMO won 90. The election results were contested by RENAMO and were widely criticized by international observes such as the European Union Election Observation Mission to Mozambique. Nevertheless, although the elections had shortcomings, it was agreed that the shortcomings did not affect the final result in the presidential election which was decisively in favor of FRELIMO. The new FRELIMO president, Armando Guebuza was sworn in as president of the republic on 2 February 2005 without the blessing of Dhlakama and RENAMO. Dhlakama was absent at the inauguration. In spite of the protests over the elections, RENAMO agreed to participate in the parliament and the Council of State. The next presidential and assembly of the republic elections were scheduled for December 2009.

With the return of normalcy to the war-torn country, Mozambique attempted to address the huge problem of the repatriation of the millions of refugees. By 1996, 1.6 million had returned. In 1997, Mozambique had become relatively stable, but remained mired in poverty. International investment, following structural adjustment programs initiated by the World Bank, poured in as the country engaged in a wholesale privatization of formerly state-owned enterprises on a scale unmatched anywhere in the world. In mid-2003, Mozambique was set to benefit from an $11.8 million disbursement from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), following a positive review of its economic performance under the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). Over 70% of the population reportedly lives in poverty, and an estimated 13% of adults between 1549 years old are infected with HIV. Food insecurity also remained an issue for some 600,000 people affected by cyclical droughts and flooding.

GOVERNMENT

The constitution of the People's Republic of Mozambique became effective at midnight on 2425 June 1975. Under the constitution and its revision enacted during 197778, Mozambique was a republic in which FRELIMO was the sole legal party. The president was the chief of state; the president of FRELIMO had to be the president of the republic. He acted on the advice of the Council of State Ministers, which he appointed and over which he presided. He also appointed provincial governors. The position of prime minister was created in a 1986 constitutional revision. The National People's Assembly, with 226 members, was the supreme organ of the state. Elections to the Assembly were held in 1977 and 1986, with the candidates chosen from a single FRELIMO slate.

A revised constitution with a multiparty system of government came into force on 30 November 1990. The name of the country was changed from the People's Republic to the Republic of Mozambique. Governmental institutions remain otherwise unchanged. According to the 1990 constitution, the president is to be elected by universal adult suffrage for a five-year term and might be reelected on only two consecutive occasions. The Assembly of the Republic replaced the People's Assembly. Its 250 deputies are to be elected for five-year terms.

POLITICAL PARTIES

The Mozambique Liberation Front (Frente de Libertação de MoçambiqueFRELIMO), the sole legal political party until 1991, was founded in 1962 by the merger of three existing nationalist parties. Formation of FRELIMO did not mean complete political unity. Splinter groups or organizations began to appear in Cairo, Nairobi, and elsewhere, but none of these splinter organizations ever received the support of the OAU, which gave offcial recognition only to FRELIMO.

In August 1973, five anti-FRELIMO groups formed the National Coalition Party (Partido de Coligação NacionalPCN). The PCN program called for a referendum on the country's future and the restoration of peace and multiracialism. The organized opposition from the Portuguese community took the form of the Independent Front for the Continuation of Western Rule (Frente Independente de Continuidade OcidentalFICO, or "I stay"). FICO called for Portugal to continue the war against FRELIMO. In fact, however, the Portuguese government chose to recognize FRELIMO. After the formation of a provisional FRELIMO government in September 1974, the PCN was dissolved and its leaders detained.

Two years after independence, in 1977, FRELIMO was transformed from a liberation movement into a Marxist-Leninist vanguard party dedicated to the creation of a Socialist state. FRELIMO formally downgraded its ideological commitment at its July 1989 congress. Proposals to broaden party membership and decision making were also adopted. The new constitution in force in November 1990 legalized a multiparty system. Since then, activity has been vigorous. FRELIMO and RENAMO (created in 1976 as a dissident armed force) have been most popular, the latter especially in the central regions. The Mozambican National Union (UNAMO) registered early, and there are several smaller parties, including the Democratic Party of Mozambique (PADEMO) and the Mozambique National Movement (MONAMO). They were gearing up for multiparty presidential and legislative elections in October 1994.

The elections were held on 27 October 1994, and FRELIMO took 129 seats, RENAMO, 112, and the Democratic Union, 9. FRELIMO head Chissano won the presidential election with 53% of the vote to RENAMO's Dhlakama's 33%, with the rest split among 10 candidates.

By 1996, Mozambique had nearly two dozen political parties officially registered with the state. In addition to FRELIMO and RENAMO, the Democratic Union, a coalition of three smaller parties, was founded in 1994. UNAMO, a splinter from RENAMO, ran a strong presidential race, and the Liberal Democrats won almost 2% of the votes in the legislative elections.

In the presidential elections held in December 1999, Dhlakama lost again to Chissano, but gained 14 points over 1994. In the legislative polls RENAMO's 38.81% was only a slight improvement over 37.7% in 1994. This translated to 133 parliamentary seats against 117 for RENAMO in the 250-seat assembly. In September 2000, Renamo-UE member Raul Domingos was expelled from the party, but he continues to hold his parliamentary seat as an independent. In mid-2002 FRELIMO announced that Armando Guebuza would be its candidate in the 2004 elections following Chissano's announcement earlier that he would not stand for a third term.

Chissano and Dhlakama met a number of times over 20012002 to discuss RENAMO's claim that the 1999 elections were rigged. RENAMO threatened to form a separate government in its strongholdthe six central and northern provinces. Barring this radical move, RENAMO leaders have demanded that Chissano name the governors of these provinces from among RENAMO's ranks. But Chissano refused to take such action on constitutional grounds. RENAMO's electoral alliance with 10 small partiesthe RENAMO-Electoral Unionsaid that its own parallel count gave Dhlakama 52% in the presidential race and the coalition 50% in the 1999 legislative polls.

Mozambique is dominated by two political parties (FRELIMO and RENAMO) so much so that it is extremely difficult for anybody to achieve electoral success under the banner of any other party. However, there is a plethora of smaller parties. In the elections held in December 2004, 18 smaller parties, along side FRELIMO and RENAMO, contested in the elections. But expectedly FRELIMO and RENAMO shared 92% of the vote while the other 18 parties got only 8% of the vote. In these elections FRELIMO got 160 parliamentary seats while RENAMO received 90 seats. The new presidential candidate for RENAMO, Armando Guebuza, won 63.7% of the votes while RENAMO's candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, received 31.7% of the votes in 2004.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

All of Mozambique outside the capital is organized into 10 provinces, subdivided into 112 districts, 12 municipalities, and 894 localities; the capital city of Maputo is considered an 11th province. Each provincial government is presided over by a governor, who is the representative of the president of the republic and is responsible to FRELIMO and the national government for his activities. Each province also has a provincial assembly, which legislates on matters exclusively bearing on that province. District, municipal, and local assemblies were established in 1977; local elections were held in that year and in 1986. Some 20,230 deputies for 894 local assemblies were elected by adult suffrage at age 18 from candidates chosen by local units of FRELIMO or, in their absence, by other local groups. Deputies of the provincial, district, and municipal assemblies were elected by the local bodies.

Elections were held in 1998 and were scheduled again for October 2003. RENAMO boycotted the first local polling in 1998, accusing the government of fraud. That resulted in a turnout of just 14.4% and a landslide victory for FRELIMO. In the November 2003 local assembly elections turnout was generally low, about 30% of the voters but far better than the turnout in the 1998 elections. The ruling FRELIMO party won in the greater majority of the 33 municipalities. Among the reasons cited for the low turnout in the 2003 local elections and the apathy of voters were an overall lack of trust in political parties, and the perception among voters that their votes would not bring about any changes in the government. Nevertheless, European Union observers declared the local polling free and fair, but warned that a low voter turnout was a matter of concern ahead of the 2004 presidential and assembly vote.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

The legal system is based on Portuguese civil law and customary law. The formal justice system is bifurcated into a civil/criminal system under auspices of the Ministry of Justice and a military justice system under joint supervision of the Ministries of Defense and Justice. At the apex is the Supreme Court, which hears appeals from both systems. The provincial and district courts are below the Supreme Court. There are also special courts such as administrative courts, customs courts, fiscal courts, maritime, and labor courts. Local customary courts, part of the civil/criminal system, handle estate, divorce, and other social and family issues.

Since abolition of the Revolutionary Military Tribunal and establishment of the Supreme Court in 1988, those accused of crimes against the state are tried in civilian courts under standard criminal procedural rules.

The 1990 constitution declares the establishment of an independent judiciary, with judges nominated by other jurists instead of designated by administrative appointment. It is the president, however, who continues to appoint the justices of the Supreme Court.

In nonmilitary courts, all criminal defendants enjoy presumptions of innocence, have the right to legal counsel, and the right of appeal; however, the judicial system suffers from lack of qualified judicial personnel and financial resources.

ARMED FORCES

The armed forces in 2005 numbered an estimated 11,200 active personnel. The Army had an estimated 9,000 to 10,000 personnel and was equipped with over 60 main battle tanks, in addition to 166 artillery pieces and other equipment. The Navy had 200 personnel for duty on Lake Malawi. Air Force personnel numbered 1,000; Air Force equipment included a small number of MiG-21 fighters and four attack helicopters. Mozambique had observers in three UN missions in the region. In 2005, the defense budget totaled $116 million.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Mozambique was admitted to the United Nations (UN) on 16 September 1975 and takes part in ECA and several nonregional specialized agencies, such as the FAO, ILO, IMF, the World Bank, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, and the WHO. The country also belongs to the WTO, the ACP Group, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), the African Development Bank, G-77, and the African Union. Mozambique plays a leading role in the Southern African Development Community (SADC).

Mozambique is a member of the Nonaligned Movement. The country has supported UN operations and missions in East Timor (est. 2002), Burundi (est. 2004), and the DROC (est. 1999). In environmental cooperation, Mozambique is part of the Basel Convention, the Convention on Biological Diversity, CITES, the Kyoto Protocol, the Montréal Protocol, and the UN Conventions on the Law of the Sea, Climate Change and Desertification.

ECONOMY

Mozambique, with its agricultural economy and considerable mineral reserves, is a highly indebted, poverty-stricken country. Civil war, ineffective socialist economic policies, and severe droughts plagued Mozambique's economy throughout the 1980s, leaving it heavily dependent on foreign aid. As of 2003, the government had received $8 billion in foreign aid since 1986, representing 17% of GDP. Lack of security outside of major cities and the inability of relief organizations to find safe corridors for the transport of relief supplies only further depressed economic activity. Recent shifts in economic policy toward a market economy and a resolution of the civil war have laid the foundation for an economic recovery helping the economy to grow on average by 4.7% yearly between 1988 and 1998. In 2001, it stood at 13.0% but declined to 7.7% in 2003 and 7.0% in 2005. Main exports are prawns, cashew nuts, and cotton.

The poorly trained workforce and other factors constrain growth. The use of outdated data collection systems, geared more to a state-managed economy, means that the increasing vitality of the private sector tends to go unmeasured. The return of rain after the worst drought on record in 1992 and continuing peace meant that many Mozambicans were able to farm their lands again, making them less dependent on food aid. The 1992 peace accords, which halted the 16-year civil war, brought much needed relief from military activities.

In 2000, some of the worst flooding in the history of the country had killed and displaced many citizens, deterring economic well-being. Approximately 80% of the population is employed in agriculture, mostly on a small-scale, subsistence level. Longer term prospects for growth are encouraging, but highly dependent on good weather and a stable political situation. The country experienced double-digit GDP growth in the late 1990s. A value added tax was introduced in 1999, improving the government's capacity to collect revenue, the country witnessed inflows of capital in the early 2000s, and the exchange rate was stable. Although inflation was low, interest rates were high in 2002. The financial sector has been liberalized, and trade is following along that path. The government's privatization program has been one of the most successful in Africa. In 2000, Mozambique received debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative run by the World Bank and the IMF.

INCOME

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005 Mozambique's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $25.6 billion. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The per capita GDP was estimated at $1,300. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 7%. The average inflation rate in 2005 was 7.8%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 24.2% of GDP, industry 41.2%, and services 34.6%.

According to the World Bank, in 2003 remittances from citizens working abroad totaled $69 million or about $4 per capita and accounted for approximately 1.6% of GDP. Foreign aid receipts amounted to $1,033 million or about $55 per capita and accounted for approximately 25.1% of the gross national income (GNI).

The World Bank reports that in 2003 household consumption in Mozambique totaled $3.340 billion or about $178 per capita based on a GDP of $4.3 billion, measured in current dollars rather than PPP. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the period 1990 to 2003 household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 2.6%. It was estimated that in 2001 about 70% of the population had incomes below the poverty line.

LABOR

In 2000 (the latest year for which data was available), Mozambique's workforce was estimated at 9.2 million. As of 1997 (the latest year for which data was available), agriculture accounted for an estimated 81% of the labor force, with industry and commerce accounting for 6%, and services 13%. Unemployment that same year was estimated at 21%.

The law provides for workers to organize and join unions, although less than 1% of the workforce are union members. The vast majority of those unionized are in larger urban areas where industries are located. There is a constitutional right to strike, with the exception of government employees, police, military personnel, and employees of other essential services. There are two labor federations. The law protects the right of workers to engage in collective bargaining, and prohibits antiunion discrimination.

The minimum working age is 15 but many children work on family farms or in the informal urban economy. The minimum wage for industrial employment was set at $30 per month in 2002. The agricultural minimum is $20 per month. Neither of these minimums provide a living wage, and most workers earn more or engage in additional labor or family farming to supplement their earnings. The legal workweek is 44 hours. The government has enacted health and environmental laws to protect workers, but these provisions are ineffectually enforced.

AGRICULTURE

During the 1980s and early 1990s, Mozambique's agricultural sector was barely functional due to a combination of manmade and natural causes. The prolonged drought of 1981 to 1984 was followed by the floods and cyclone of 1984. By 1986, a famine emerged from renewed drought and civil war. Drought continued into 1987, followed by floods and locusts in 1988. Normal rainfall came in 1990, only to be followed by renewed drought in 1991 and 1992. In some regions food production declined by 80%, and in 1992 the food deficit reached a record 1.3 million tons. Normal rains returned in 1993, but the ongoing food relief requirement, exclusive of war refugees, was put at 1 million tons in 1994. Good rains and harvests helped the Mozambican economy grow by 5% in 1995 and 1996. By 1999, agricultural production was 5.5% higher than during 198991. By 200204, crop production was up 4.6% from 19992001.

Only about 5.8% of Mozambique is under cultivation at any one time, and more than two-thirds of the land is not exploited in any way. Nevertheless, agricultural pursuits support over 80% of the population and provided about 26% of the GDP in 2003. Since independence, there has been a serious decline in agricultural production, attributed to the collapse of rural transport and marketing systems when Portuguese farmers and traders left the country. In the 1980s, state farms received the bulk of agricultural investment, but the yields were poor.

Mozambique's major cash crops are cashew nuts, cotton, copra, sugar, tea, and cassava, and its major food crops are corn and sorghum. Crop production in 2004 included cassava, 6,150,000 tons; sugarcane, 400,000 tons; coconuts, 265,000 tons; sorghum, 314,000 tons; peanuts, 127,000 tons; corn, 1,248,000 tons; bananas, 90,000 tons; oranges, 14,000 tons; grapefruits, 13,000 tons; cashew nuts, 58,000 tons; rice, 201,000 tons; cotton fiber, 25,000 tons; sunflowers, 11,000 tons; cottonseed, 24,000 tons; and tobacco, 12,000 tons. Mozambique is a net importer of food; in 2004, the trade deficit in agricultural products was $218.6 million.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Animal husbandry is an underdeveloped sector in the Mozambican economy. A lack of credit, deadly epizootic diseases, and other diseases carried by the tsetse fly make a commercially viable animal husbandry industry almost impracticable for the African traditional farmers, who predominate in this sector. In 2005 there were an estimated 1,320,000 head of cattle, 392,000 goats, 180,000 hogs, and 125,000 sheep. The number of chickens was estimated at 28 million; ducks, 670,000. Beef and veal production was estimated at 38,100 tons; poultry meat, 36,300 tons; cows' milk, 60,400 tons; and hen eggs, 14,000 tons. Mozambique must import substantial quantities of meat and livestock products.

FISHING

In 2003, commercial fishery production was 89,696 tons, of which lobsters and prawns were primarily for export. The potential catch is estimated at 500,000 tons of fish and 14,000 tons of prawns. South African trawlers are allowed to fish in Mozambican waters in return for providing a portion of their catch to Mozambique. In 2003, exports of shrimp and other seafood were valued at $86.9 million. The European Union and Japan have each entered into agreements designed to help develop the fishing industry.

FORESTRY

Wood production is from natural forests and is almost entirely consumed by the local rural populations for fuel and construction. Forests constitute an estimated 30.6 million hectares (75.6 million acres). The timber industry is centered along the Beira Railroad and in Zambézia Province, where sawn and construction timber are produced for the nearby South African market. The timber cut was approximately 18 million cu m (635 million cu ft) of roundwood in 2004, with about 93% burned as fuel. Sawn wood production was 28,000 tons in 2004.

MINING

Mozambique's rich mineral deposits remained largely undeveloped. With the end of the civil war, efforts have been under way to revive the economy, with the minerals sector playing an important role. In 1999, mining accounted for less than 1% of GDP. In 2003, Mozambique produced bauxite, beryl, marine salt, cement, gravel and crushed rock, marble (block and slab) limestone, sands and tantalite. Zambézia, Nampula, and Tete provinces had large deposits of columbite, tantalite, beryl, semiprecious stones, feldspar, kaolin, and coal. Manica Province produced copper and bauxite. Also known to occur were deposits of diatomite, fluorspar, guano, gypsum, iron ore, limestone, manganese, mica, nepheline syenite, perlite, phosphate rock (resources of 274 million tons), rare earths, silica sand, precious and ornamental stones (agate, amethyst, aquamarine, emerald, garnet, jasper, morganite, rose quartz, tigereye, and tourmaline), and titanium. Resources of heavy-mineral sands totaled 14 billion tons containing 300 million tons of ilmenite, as well as zircon and rutile.

Production of bauxite was in 2003 totaled 11,793 metric tons, up from 9,119 metric tons in 2002. Marble, production in 2003 totaled 452 cu m of block, down from 453 cu m in 2002, while slab output in 2003 totaled 10,227 sq m, up from 9,980 sq m in 2002. Gold was also produced in 2003, all by artisanal miners. Official production of gold in 2003 totaled 63 kg, up from 17 kg in 2002. Limestone, gravel and crushed rock, marine salt, sands and granite were also produced in 2003. Mozambique's only graphite mine closed in 1999, because of a tax dispute. Mozambique's gross domestic product (GDP) is estimated to have grown by 7.1% in 2003, according to the International Monetary Fund.

ENERGY AND POWER

Mozambique, as of 1 January 2005, had neither proven reserves of crude oil nor refining capacity, but it did have reserves of natural gas and coal.

As of 1 January 2005, Mozambique had natural gas reserves of 4.5 trillion cu ft. In 2003, natural gas output and consumption each came to 2.12 billion cu ft. Recoverable coal reserves have been placed at 234 million short tons, but additional reserves in the country's Moatize mines in the northwestern part of the country have been estimated at 2.4 billion short tons.

Mozambique is totally reliant upon imports of refined petroleum products. In 2004, imports and demand for refined oil each averaged 11,000 barrels per day.

Mozambique's electric power sector is heavily based upon hydroelectric generation. As of 1 January 2003, installed capacity was put at 2.392 million kW, with hydropower accounting for 91% of capacity, with the remaining capacity based on conventional thermal fuels. Electric power output in 2003 totaled 15.14 billion kWh, with consumption that year at 10.46 billion kWh.

INDUSTRY

Manufacturing is centered mostly in food processing and beverages. Food, beverages, and tobacco processing account for 62% of all manufacturing. Industry is concentrated around the larger cities of Maputo, Matola, Beira, and Nampula. Mozambique's industrial sector is primarily centered on the processing of locally produced raw materials, such as sugar, cashews, tea, and wheat. Brewing and textile production emerged in the 1980s, along with cement, fertilizer, and agricultural implement manufacturing. Other industries make glass, soaps, oils, ceramics, paper, tires, railway equipment, radios, bicycles, and matches. Major investments in aluminum processing, steel production, mineral extraction, fertilizer, and sugar production have been planned.

Economic reforms of the early 1990s promoted private ownership of industry and brought about a significant decline in the number of parastatals; from 1990 to 2000, over 1,200 smaller businesses had been divested, and 37 large enterprises had been privatized. Only 11 large state-owned companies remained, including the national airline, telephone, electricity, insurance, oil and gas exploration, port and rail, airports, water supply, and fuel distribution companies. Government policy now supports the development of private enterprise fully.

The construction sector showed strong growth in the early 2000s, as projects to rebuild roads, bridges, schools, clinics, and other basic infrastructure were underway. There are considerable natural gas reserves, both onshore and offshore, but they have yet to be fully developed. Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique are planning to establish a 10,000 barrels per day joint fuel refinery in Mozambique, funded by Iran. In addition, the economy is set to benefit from a second-generation of comparatively smaller megaprojects, such as the Moma titanium mine in Nampula province scheduled to start production in late 2006.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Eduardo Mondlane University in Maputo, founded in 1962, has faculties of agricultural sciences, biology, engineering, mathematics, medicine, veterinary science, and sciences. Maputo also has the National Directorate of Geology, the Cotton Research Institute, the National Institute of Health, and the Meteorological Service. In 198797, science and engineering students accounted for 42% of college and university enrollments. In 2002, Mozambique's high technology exports totaled $2 million, or 3% of its' manufactured exports.

DOMESTIC TRADE

The cities of Maputo, Beira, and Nampula are the main centers of commercial life, where it is estimated that 50% of all imported products are consumed. Maputo and Beira are trading centers and ports of entry. There is not a well-established distribution system for local or imported goods. Many local manufactures will sell or distribute their products on their own. Larger retailers will import high columns of goods and sell the excess to other smaller retailers. National distribution of regional products has been hindered by a poor transportation system. However, as of 2005, trading and distribution were still the primary business activities. A 17% value-added

Country Exports Imports Balance
World 703.1 1,063.4 -360.3
Areas nes 420.4 232.9 187.5
South Africa 107.6 428.5 -320.9
Zimbabwe 37.1 9.0 28.1
Japan 29.2 6.9 22.3
Portugal 28.2 90.1 -61.9
Spain 26.9 20.4 6.5
Malawi 10.3 10.3
Netherlands 7.1 9.4 -2.3
United States 6.8 19.2 -12.4
China, Hong Kong SAR 5.2 5.2
() data not available or not significant.

tax applies to most goods. Credit cards are not widely accepted.

Business hours are 8:30 am to noon and 2 to 5 pm, Mondays through Fridays, 8 am to 12 noon on Saturdays.

FOREIGN TRADE

There is a considerable amount of unofficial trade along the borders as well as unreported fish exports to Asia. In April 1997, Mozambique began a three-year contract with Crown Agents, a private British company, to take responsibility for the regulation of foreign trade in order to reduce smuggling and corruption.

Traditionally, shrimp accounted for the largest portion of Mozambique's export revenues (26%). Other exports included electric current (23%), fruits and nuts (15%), cotton (7.3%), and sugar (2.1%). However, in 2004 the major exports ranked by importance were aluminum, which earned $915 million, electricity ($102 million), shrimps ($91 million), tobacco ($40.9 million), and sugar ($38.2 million).

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

Mozambique has traditionally had a balance-of-payments deficit and relies heavily on imported consumer and capital goods. Imports have risen steadily since 1987, substantially increasing the current account deficit. In recent years, the merchandise import-export ratio has been as low as 1:4. Mozambique is taking steps to improve its trade balance, however, by increasing the production of locally manufactured and agricultural goods. By the early 2000s, exports had risen over 40% since 1996. A faster rise in export earnings has been hampered in part by bankruptcies in the cashew processing industry, and poor prices for the sale of electricity generated by the Cahora Bassa hydroelectric dam (resulting from contracts negotiated by the colonial government over 20 years). But as of the early 2000s, prospects for an increase in exports appeared positive.

In 1999, Mozambique qualified for $3.7 billion in debt service relief under the IMF/World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. (The amount was subsequently augmented to $4.3 billion.) This debt relief improved the country's balance of payments. Prior to the HIPC approval, Mozambique owed $8.3 billion in foreign debt. HIPC reduced the eligible debts held by participating creditors by 90%, or close to $3 billion.

The Economist Intelligence Unit reported that in 2005 the purchasing power parity of Mozambique's exports was $1.782 billion while imports totaled $2.24 billion resulting in a trade deficit of $458 million.

BANKING AND SECURITIES

The Mozambican branch of the defunct Portuguese National Overseas Bank was nationalized without compensation. By a decree of 23 May 1975, it was reconstituted as the Bank of Mozambique (Banco de MoçambiqueBM). Functioning as a central bank, it served as the government's banker and financial adviser, and as controller of monetary and credit policies. It was also an issuing bank, a commercial bank, and the state treasury; the bank managed Mozambique's external assets and acted as an intermediary in all international monetary transactions.

In 1978, the government nationalized four of the five remaining commercial banks (the Banco Standard Totta de Moçambique remained private). In that year, a second state bank, the People's Investment Bank, was created and given responsibility for supervising a building society, the Mozambique Credit Institute (the industrial bank), and the National Development Bank.

After 1992, the government's economic reform program began to tackle the financial sector. Foreign banks were allowed to invest in Mozambican financial institutions, in 1994 interest rates were deregulated, and in 1995 the commercial activities of the central bank were assumed by a newly created institution, the Banco Comercial de Moçambique (BCM). By 1997, the government had privatized the BCM and the BPD (Banco Popular de Desenvolvimento). These banks were joined by Banco Português do Atlántico (BPA), Banco de Fomento e Exterior (BFE), and Banco Internacional de Moçambique (BIM), whose main shareholder is the Banco Comercial Português (BCP).

In 2001, along with the central Bank of Mozambique, there were eight banks operating in Mozambique, including the dominant BCM (owned by Banco Portugues Mello), BIM (owned by Banco Commercial Portugues), BPD (renamed Banco Austral after its sale to Southern Berhad Bank of Malaysia), Banco Standard Totta (55% owned by Banco Totta and Acores of Portugal, and 40% owned by Standard Bank of South Africa), Equator Bank (owned by Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank), Banco de Fomento do Exterior (branch of a Portuguese bank), Uniao Comercial de Bancos (a Mauritian bank), and Nedbank (South African).

The International Monetary Fund reports that in 2001, currency and demand depositsan aggregate commonly known as M1were equal to $486.2 million. In that same year, M2an aggregate equal to M1 plus savings deposits, small time deposits,

Current Account -515.6
   Balance on goods -347.9
     Imports -1,228.2
     Exports 880.2
   Balance on services -244.3
   Balance on income -165.7
   Current transfers 242.4
Capital Account 270.7
Financial Account 372.8
   Direct investment abroad
   Direct investment in Mozambique 336.7
   Portfolio investment assets 5.0
   Portfolio investment liabilities
   Financial derivatives
   Other investment assets -77.1
   Other investment liabilities 108.2
Net Errors and Omissions -92.6
Reserves and Related Items -35.3
() data not available or not significant.

and money market mutual fundswas $1.1 billion. The money market rate, the rate at which financial institutions lend to one another in the short term, was 33.64%. The discount rate, the interest rate at which the central bank lends to financial institutions in the short term, was 9.95%.

INSURANCE

In 1977, all insurance companies were nationalized and Empresa Moçambicana de Seguros was established as the sole state insurance enterprise. This company continued functioning through 1999.

PUBLIC FINANCE

The government's role in the economy has diminished during the past decade as the country has recovered from civil war. Preparations for privatization of many state-run industries and utilities had begun as of 2002, and the tax code has been revised.

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that Mozambique's central government took in revenues of approximately $1 billion and had expenditures of $1.9 billion. Revenues minus expenditures totaled approximately -$899 million. Total external debt was $966 million.

TAXATION

Under Portuguese rule, taxation and tax collection were full of inequities and corruption at all levels of government. In 1978, after independence, much higher and more progressive taxes were introduced. These included an income tax on wages, salaries, and other benefits. As of 2005, Mozambique had a standard corporate tax rate of 32%. However, income derived from the breeding and agricultural sectors was subject to a 10% rate for the period 2003 through 2010. Capital gains and branch offices are taxed at the corporate rate. Dividends, interest and royalties are subject to a 20% withholding tax. A value-added tax (VAT) with a standard rate of 17% (as of 2005) is charged on most goods and services. Exemptions from VAT include basic foodstuffs, medicines and pharmaceuticals, books and journals, bicycles, agricultural inputs and fishing implements, waste disposal, burial and cremation services.

CUSTOMS AND DUTIES

Both import and export licenses are required for all goods. The average nominal customs tariff rate was reduced from 18% to around 10% in 1996, and remained in effect as of 2005, although duties on imported goods ranged from 030%, depending upon whether it is a primary, intermediate, or consumer good. Mozambique does not use import quotas. The country chaired the Southern African Development Community (SADC) from 1990 to 2000, and houses its Communications Commission (SATCC) in Maputo.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT

The liberalizing of Mozambique's economy began with the initiation of its economic recovery plan (ERP) in January 1987. Included in the program were measures to stimulate the private sector, an effort reinforced in 1990 by further legislation. In June 1993, the investment code was reformed to put foreign and local investors on an equal footing with respect to fiscal and customs regulations. The parastatal sector has been progressively privatized, with only 11 large state-owned industries left in 1999. As the bulk of state-owned enterprises has already been privatized, there are currently no plans for additional major sales.

Certain tax incentives are available to encourage direct foreign investment, including a 5080% reduction in taxes. The flow of capital is liberal. Regulations issued in 1999 established an Industrial Free Zone Council, which approved the first free zone enterprise in Maputo, MOZAL, an aluminum smelter. Companies in the free zone must engage in nontraditional industry and export at least 85% of production.

In 1998, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow to Mozambique totaled about $235 million, up 365% from 1997. FDI inflows peaked at $382 million in 1999 then fell to $139 billion in 2000. In the period 1998 to 2000, Mozambique's share of world FDI inflows was almost twice its share of world GDP, a considerable improvement on its performance 1988 to 1990, when its share of FDI flows was only 30% of its share of world GDP. In 2001, FDI inflow was a near-record $225 million. However, the country's FDI inflows declined from $225 million in 2001 to $155.3 million in 2002.

The leading sectors for foreign investment in Mozambique have been industry, agribusiness and fishing, finance, and tourism. The driving force behind the country's FDI inflows had been the mining and some processing industries. Put together, they had drawn global TNCs giants into the economy. In recent years, these TNCs have not invested in any major projects. Many projects in the pipeline have not been operationalized.

FDI outflows are yet to reach a significant volume. Inward FDI stock had been dramatic in its growth, rising from just $42 million in 1990 to over $1.5 billion in 2002. Outward FDI stock showed a similar pattern, but the volume was less than $1 million at the end of 2002. Portugal, Mauritius and Italy provided about 78% of the total FDI inflows to the country in 1999. Portugal is a key investor in Mozambique, contributing an average of 41% of the inward FDI flows in 1998 and 1999. Other, major foreign investors include South Africa, Great Britain, Hong Kong, and the Netherlands.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The government of Mozambique has abandoned its postindependence preference for a socialist organization of society, which it had tried to effect through the creation of cooperatives, state farms, and industries. In cooperation with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Mozambique was reforming its economy and preparing for a post-civil war period of economic growth. Progress has been slow, however, as parastatals continue to control the telecommunications, electric power, transportation, and fuel sectors of the economy. Growth sectors include agriculture and related processing industries, transportation, and mining.

In 1999, Mozambique's eligible debts were reduced by 90% by the IMF, World Bank, the Paris Club, and other multilateral lending agencies under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. The country also hoped for 100% debt relief from the United States and gained complete debt cancellation from the United Kingdom. Debt stood at $8.3 billion before 1999 and $5.7 billion after reforms. A variety of infrastructure development projects have been carried out, including a road and railway from Maputo to Johannesburg.

The Economist Intelligence Unit forecasts that the economic expansion Mozambique experienced between 20002005 will continue for the next few years boosted by overall macroeconomic stability, policy reforms and continuing strong donor support against a background of broad-based expansion across most sectors of the economy, including agriculture, transportation, and tourism sectors. Over 1,200 state-owned enterprises were privatized, most of them small. In 2003, Mozambique was operating under a three-year $76 million Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) Arrangement with the IMF. Floods in 2000 and food shortages in 2002 curtailed economic development. However, the outlook for the agricultural season in Mozambique for 2005/06 was more positive, with normal to above-normal rains forecast for the country. As a result, the government expects cereal production to grow by 6% in 2005/06, rebounding strongly from a 5% drop in production during the 2004/05 growing season.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Foreign aid is used in assisting Mozambican Labor and Social Welfare Ministries with building infrastructure to benefit the most disadvantaged groups in the country including disabled and abandoned children. The country is upgrading employment and professional training centers.

Despite government rhetoric and constitutional provisions mandating equal rights for both sexes, legal and social discrimination against women is pervasive. Women may not work outside of the home without the husband's permission. Inheritance rights, furthermore, strongly favor men over women. Tradition and custom lead many families to withdraw their daughters from school at an early age. Sexual harassment in the workplace is prevalent. Domestic violence against women, including beating and spousal rape, is widespread. Women believe that their husbands have the right to beat them. Child prostitution persists, and there is continuing abuse and exploitation of street children in urban areas.

Human rights abuses have been in decline, but there is evidence of systemic police brutality. Prison conditions are poor and, in some cases, life threatening.

HEALTH

Almost all health care services are provided by the government's National Health Service. The army maintains its own health posts and two hospitals. Traditional healers continue to play a significant role. All medical products must be registered with the Ministry of Health and, due to currency constraints, Mozambique is entirely dependent on bilateral and multilateral donors for its drug needs. Only 39% of the population had access to health care services. Total health care expenditure was estimated at 3.5% of GDP.

In 2004, there were an estimated 2 physicians, 21 nurses, 1 dentist, and 2 pharmacists per 100,000 people. The shortage of medical supplies and trained personnel has remained severe throughout Mozambique. Immunization rates were as follows: tuberculosis, 84%; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 61%; polio, 61%; and measles, 70%. The government pays no vaccination costs.

As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 36.4 and 25.1 per 1,000 people. Only 6% of married women ages 1549 years used contraception as of 1999. Of all births in 199396, 20% were underweight. In 2005 the infant mortality rate was estimated at 130.79 per 1,000, one of the highest in the world. The maternal mortality rate in 198995 skyrocketed to 1,500 per 100,000 live births; as of 1998, the rate was 1,100.

Since 1982, South African destabilization of Mozambique has caused children's health to suffer. War has lead to the closure of 48% of the primary care network. The war has displaced over three million people and accounted for an estimated 500,000 childhood deaths between 198188. In addition, there were approximately 1.1 million civil war-related deaths between 1981 and 1992. Estimated average life expectancy was only 40.32 years in 2005.

Mozambique has a very serious AIDS problem. The HIV/AIDS prevalence was 12.20 per 100 adults in 2003. As of 2004, there were approximately 1,300,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in the country. There were an estimated 110,000 deaths from AIDS in 2003.

HOUSING

In 1997, there were about 3,540,700 housing units nationwide to serve about 3,634,581 households. The average household had 4.3 people. At last estimate, more than 60% of housing units were constructed of woven straw, about 15% of cane and wood sticks, and nearly 10% of bricks and concrete. Approximately 65% of all households used well water, nearly 20% river and spring water, almost 10% piped outdoor water, and less than 5% piped indoor water. Nearly 96% were without electricity, and over half had no toilet facilities.

EDUCATION

The education system in Mozambique has slowly been rebuilt after the civil war, which destroyed at least 50% of primary schools. In 1990, private schooling was reintroduced. Education is compulsory for seven years, but in practice, most students do not study for the full compulsory period. Primary school covers these first seven years. This is followed by five years of general secondary education or five years of technical school. The academic year runs from August to June.

Primary school enrollment in 2003 was estimated at about 55% of age-eligible students. The same year, secondary school enrollment was about 12% of age-eligible students. It is estimated that about 52.4% of all students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about 67:1 in 2003; the ratio for secondary school was about 27:1.

Eduardo Mondlane University is established at Maputo. The objective of the government is to promote the spread of education at all levels through democratization guided by the state. In 2003, about 1% of the tertiary age population were enrolled in some type of higher education program. The adult literacy rate for 2004 was estimated at about 46.5%, with 62.3% for men and 31.4% for women.

As of 2003, public expenditure on education was estimated at 2.4% of GDP, or 12.3% of total government expenditures.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

The National Library of Mozambique, founded in 1961, contains 110,000 volumes. There is a small public library system. The principal museums in Maputo are the Museum of Natural History, founded in 1911, specializing in natural history and ethnography; the Freire de Andrade Museum (minerals); and the Military History Museum. Beira and Nampula have general museums; Manica has a natural history museum; and Isla da Inhaca, near Maputo, has a museum of marine biology. The National Museum of Ethnology is in Nampula.

MEDIA

Postal and telecommunications services are government-operated. In the larger cities, telephones are automatic. In 2003, there were an estimated five mainline telephones for every 1,000 people; about 12,700 people were on a waiting list for telephone service installation. The same year, there were approximately 23 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people.

Radio Moçambique, the official radio service, broadcasts in Portuguese, English, Afrikaans, and local languages. TV Mozambique is the government-owned television service. Several private stations are operational, including about 40 community radio and television stations that are partially subsidized by the government and UNESCO. As of 2001, there were 12 AM and 17 FM radio stations (about 14 were privately owned) and 1 national television station. In 2003, there were an estimated 44 radios and 14 television sets for every 1,000 people. The same year, there were 4.5 personal computers for every 1,000 people and 3 of every 1,000 people had access to the Internet. There was one secure Internet servers in the country in 2004.

In 2002, major daily newspapers included Notícias (circulation 33,000), and Diario do Moçambique (16,000). Both papers are representative of the ruling party, as is the weekly publication Domingo (25,000). There are a number of smaller independent publications.

The constitution, the 1991 Press Law, and the 1992 Rome Peace Accords provide for free expression, including free speech and a free press; however, though some improvements were reported, the government has restricted some press freedoms.

ORGANIZATIONS

The Mozambique Chamber of Commerce, founded in 1980, is located in Maputo. Only a small percentage of the nation's workers belong to unions. There is a national teacher's union.

FRELIMO has emphasized mass organizations, such as the Organization of Mozambican Women and the Organization of Mozambican Youth. Scouting programs and active chapters of the YMCA/YWCA are available for youth. There are also several sports associations promoting competitions for amateur athletes.

There are national chapters of the Red Cross Society, Habitat for Humanity, the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, UNICEF, and Caritas.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

Prior to independence, tourism, mostly from South Africa and the former Rhodesia, was a very important activity. However, concern for security in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s due to the political situation left the tourist industry at a mere fraction of its previous levels. Civil stability and economic prospects have improved and tourism has been steadily growing in Maputo, although it is still limited in other areas.

The coastal town of Pemba offers the third-largest natural bay in the world with white sand beaches and coral reefs that can be easily reached by most swimmers. Diving and water sports are popular in this town. The northern half of Mozambique Island, which has a number of old churches and mosques, has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

All foreign nationals need visas, which must be obtained prior to traveling. Yellow fever immunizations are required if traveling from an infected country.

Approximately 726,100 tourists visited Mozambique in 2003. Hotel rooms numbered 6,899 with 13,601 beds and an occupancy rate of 14%.Visitors stayed in Mozambique an average of two nights.

In 2004, the US Department of State estimated the cost of staying in Mozambique at $242.

FAMOUS MOZAMBICANS

Eduardo C. Mondlane (192069) was the first president of FRELIMO. His successor, and later the first president of independent Mozambique, was Samora Moïsés Machel (193386). Joaquim Alberto Chissano (b.1939), foreign minister since independence, succeeded Machel as president in 1986; he served until 2005 and was succeeded by Armando Guebuza (b.1943).

DEPENDENCIES

Mozambique has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Azevedo, Mario. Historical Dictionary of Mozambique. [computer file] Boulder, Colo.: netLibrary, Inc., 2000.

Azevedo, Mario, Emmanuel Nnadozie, and Tome Mbuia Joao. Historical Dictionary of Mozambique. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2003.

Chingono, Mark F. The State, Violence and Development: The Political Economy of War in Mozambique, 19751992. Aldershot, England: Avebury, 1996.

Ciment, James. Angola and Mozambique: Postcolonial Wars in Southern Africa. New York: Facts on File, 1997.

Else, David. Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia. Oakland, Calif. Lonely Planet, 1997.

Hall, Margaret. Confronting Leviathan: Mozambique Since Independence. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1997.

Harmon, Daniel E. Southeast Africa: 1880 to the Present: Reclaiming a Region of Natural Wealth. Philadelphia, Penn.: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002.

Landau, Luis. Rebuilding the Mozambique Economy: Assessment of a Development Partnership. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1998.

McElrath, Karen (ed.). HIV and AIDS: A Global View. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Newitt, M. D. D. A History of Mozambique. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

Rotberg, Robert I. Ending Autocracy, Enabling Democracy: The Tribulations of Southern Africa, 19602000. Cambridge, Mass.: World Peace Foundation, 2002.

Waterhouse, Rachel. Mozambique: Rising from the Ashes. Oxford: Oxfam, 1996.

Zeilig, Leo and David Seddon. A Political and Economic Dictionary of Africa. Philadelphia: Routledge/Taylor and Francis, 2005.

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MOZAMBIQUE

Republic of Mozambique
República de Moçambique

COUNTRY OVERVIEW

LOCATION AND SIZE.

Located in southeast Africa, Mozambique has a total area of 801,590 square kilometers (309,493 square miles)an expanse which is slightly less than twice the size of the state of California. The coastline of the country, which spans 2,470 kilometers (1,535 miles) along the entire eastern frontier, borders the Mozambique Channel and the Indian Ocean. To the north of Mozambique lies Tanzania, to the northwest Malawi and Zambia, to the west Zimbabwe, and to the southwest South Africa and Swaziland. Maputo, the capital of Mozambique, is situated at the pointy southern tip of the country's territory, not far from the South African and Swaziland border.

POPULATION.

From 1975 to 1998, the population of Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 2.6 percent, increasing substantially from approximately 10.5 to 18.9 million. With a current annual growth rate of 1.7 percent, the population should reach 25.2 million by 2015. In order to restrain this growth, the government announced a population control policy in 1997. Among other things, the plan seeks to disseminate information on different forms of birth control. One of the major impediments, however, is that most people in rural areas must have large families in order to have more workers to till the family plots. According to a 1997 census, approximately 70.8 percent of the population live in rural areas, where poverty is rampant and birth control limited.

The current birth rate in Mozambique is 37.99 births per 1,000 persons, while the death rate is 23.29 deaths per 1,000 persons (2000 est.). The high death rate reflects, in part, a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The Health Minister Aurelio Zihao, for example, estimated that approximately 250,000 Mozambicans died as a result of AIDS in 1999, though most of these deaths were not registered as HIV/AIDS related. Zihao states that the major causes behind the HIV/AIDS epidemic are poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and the low status of women. The educational campaign sponsored by the Health Ministry targets vulnerable groups, such as soldiers, long-distance truck drivers, students, poorly educated women, street children, migrant mineworkers and their wives, and prostitutes. The government at large has been criticized for not taking an active role in the HIV/AIDS campaign.

With 43 percent of the population aged 14 years and younger, 54 percent aged between 15 and 64 years, and only 3 percent aged 65 years and over, the population of Mozambique is relatively young. A young population may offer opportunities in terms of an expanding labor force and thus a potentially expanding economy. If economic decline accompanies labor force growth, however, the results will be higher unemployment and exacerbated poverty.

Approximately 99.66 percent of the Mozambican population belong to one of the many indigenous (local) ethnic groups, such as the Shangaan, Chokwe, Manyika, Sena, and Makua. Europeans comprise a marginal 0.06 percent of the population, while Euro-Africans and Indians respectively account for 0.2 percent and 0.08 percent. In terms of religion, 50 percent of Mozambicans are adherents of indigenous religious systems, 30 percent are Christians, and 20 percent are Muslims. The official language of Mozambique is Portuguese, though most Mozambicans express themselves primarily in one of the numerous local languages that are spoken.

OVERVIEW OF ECONOMY

Although the Portuguese participated in the trading networks of southeastern Africa as early as the 16th century, they did not establish hegemonic (total) colonial dominance over the territory that now comprises Mozambique until the early 20th century. By the mid-1920s, the Portuguese succeeded in creating a highly exploitative and coercive settler economy, in which Africans were forced to work on the fertile lands taken over by Portuguese settlers. African peasants mainly produced cash crops designated for sale in the markets of the colonial metropole (the center, i.e. Portugal). Major cash crops included cotton, cashews, and rice. The little industrial development that did occur throughout the 1950s and early 1960s was based primarily on British and South African capital.

In 1975, a coup in Portugal led to the overthrow of the fascist dictatorship that governed the nation, and thus an end to the colonial wars that raged in the various Portuguese African colonies since the early 1960s. Mozambique became an independent nation and the Frente de Libertacao de Mocambique (FRELIMO), the socialist guerrilla organization that had fought the colonial war against Portugal, assumed power. Over the next several years, FRELIMO pursued numerous socialist policies, including nationalization of land and large industries, centralized planning, and heavy funding for the educational and health sectors. At the same time, the government encouraged the large network of cantinas (tiny shops), which were owned by Portuguese settlers, to remain in the hands of the private sector . The exodus (mass departure) of the Portuguese following independence facilitated the takeover of the cantinas by Mozambicans. Unfortunately, the exodus, which totaled 250,000 Portuguese, also led to a huge loss of professionals, productive machinery, and skilled workers.

By the early 1980s, Mozambique became what Joseph Hanlonauthor of Peace Without Profit: How the IMF Blocks Rebuilding in Mozambique called a "Cold War battlefield." The term refers to the situation in which socialist Mozambique was forced to fight a lengthy civil war against a counterinsurgency movement of opportunistic Mozambicans named RENAMO, funded and directed by the neighboring capitalist economies of South Africa and Zimbabwe. (The cold war was defined by animosity between capitalist and socialist world powers, and though there was never an outright military conflict between the former and the latter, each respectively funded counterinsurgency movements against governments they disfavored.) The racist governments of South Africa and Zimbabwe feared that a successfully ruled African socialist system might send a message of revolution and self-rule to blacks in contemporaneous white-ruled African countries, such as their own. Under the socialist paranoia of the Reagan administration, the United States also provided support to RENAMO, which sustained a brutal civil war against FRELIMO until a Peace Accord was signed in October 1992.

According to Hans Abrahamsson and Anders Nilsson, authors of Mozambique The Troubled Transition: From Socialist Construction to Free Market Capitalism, RENAMO's methods of recruiting soldiers consisted mainly of coercing peasants to join their forces through threats, torture, and killing. RENAMO's war against the government led to the death of more than 1 million Mozambicans, not to mention a total loss of the economic and social gains that had been achieved in the late 1970s. In 1989, UNICEF estimated that the country's GDP was only half of what it would have been without the war.

The political pressure of the ideologically charged civil war, in conjunction with the excruciating need for aid and funds to finance imports, compelled FRELIMO to negotiate its first structural adjustment package (SAP) with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1986 (commonly referred to as the Bretton Woods Institutions or International Financial InstitutionsIFIs). The series of SAPs that followed thereafter, required privatization of major industries, less government spending, deregulation of the economy, and trade liberalization . The SAPs, therefore, have essentially focused on the implementation of an unfettered free market economy.

Today, the economy of Mozambique continues to be dominated by agriculture. Major exports include prawns, cotton, cashew nuts, sugar, citrus, copra and coconuts, and timber. Export partners, in turn, include Spain, South Africa, Portugal, the United States, Japan, Malawi, India, and Zimbabwe. Imports, such as farm equipment and transport equipment, are capital goods that are worth more than agricultural products, hence Mozambique's large trade deficit . The country also imports food, clothing, and petroleum products. Import partners include South Africa, Zimbabwe, Saudi Arabia, Portugal, the United States, Japan, and India. In the past several years, the value of imports outweighed the value of exports by 5 to 1 or morea factor that obliges Mozambique to depend heavily on foreign aid and loans by foreign commercial banks and the Bretton Woods Institutions (BWIs). In 1995 alone, Mozambique received $1.115 billion in aid. In 1999, the total external debt stood at $4.8 billion. Fortunately, in the same year significant economic recovery did occur, as the real GDP growth rate reached 10 percent.

POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND TAXATION

The legislative branch of the Mozambican government consists of a unicameral Assembly of the Republic, whose members are elected by popular vote to serve 5-year terms. The executive branch includes an elected cabinet and both a president, elected by popular vote to serve a 5-year term, and a prime minister, appointed by the president. Judges of the Supreme Court are also appointed by the president.

Since independence, Mozambique has been governed exclusively by FRELIMO. The ruling party formally abandoned its Marxist ideological orientation in 1989 and a new constitution in 1990 provided for multi-party elections and a free market economy. RENAMO entered the political life of the nation as a legitimate political party following the UN-negotiated peace accord in 1992. Despite its ignominious (shameful) political origins, RENAMO has been able to draw upon strong internal dissatisfactions with FRELIMO, caused by extreme poverty and unemployment, to garner a considerable amount of support from the local population. Since the establishment of the peace accords and subsequent development of RENAMO from a military force into a political party, there is little ideological difference between the 2 major parties, with both adhering to a free market and pluralistic orientation. In the most recent elections of 1999, FRELIMO won 133 of the 250 seats in the Assembly. In the same elections, RENAMO formed a coalition with several smaller parties, each of which did not respectively receive the 5 percent of the popular vote needed to win parliamentary seats by themselves, thereby acquiring the 117 remaining Assembly seats. Since 1986, the FRELIMO leader Joaquim Alberto Chissano has presided as president. Presidential elections are scheduled to be held in 2004.

The vast majority of government revenue comes from taxation. In 1999, for example, tax revenue accounted for a total of 92.4 percent of government income14.0 percent derived from taxes on income and profits, 58.6 percent from taxes on goods and services, and 16.9 percent from taxes on international trade ( tariffs ). Businesses in Mozambique are taxed at rates of 35 percent, 40 percent, or 45 percent on annual net profits, depending upon their size. In terms of income tax , there are 4 tax brackets in Mozambique. All those that make less than Mt600,000 are exempted from taxation, persons who make between Mt600,001 and Mt2,400,000 are taxed at 10 percent, those that make between Mt2,400,001 and Mt9,600,000 are taxed at 15 percent, and all those that make more than Mt9,600,001 are taxed at 20 percent. All goods and services with a few exceptions, such as medical services and drugs, are taxed at a rate of 17 percent. Although the income taxation system is progressive, the high taxation on goods and services is retrogressive as it affects the poor much more than the rich, who can afford to pay such fees. Moreover, in addition to the general taxes on goods and services, there are also certain excise taxes levied on specific products, such as alcohol and fuel. Excise taxes are set at 20 percent, 35 percent, 50 percent, and 75 percent, depending upon the particular product.

INFRASTRUCTURE, POWER, AND COMMUNICATIONS

Infrastructure in Mozambique is generally poor and inadequate, especially in the many areas heavily affected by the war. The country has approximately 30,400 kilometers of highways, 5,685 kilometers of which are paved. Large sections of the remaining 24,175 kilometers of highway are virtually impassable during the rainy season. The World Bank is currently implementing an $850 million program to rebuild the road network, along with the coastal port system.

In addition to the road network, there is a total of 3,131 kilometers of railway, as well as 170 airports, although only 22 have paved runways (est. 1996). Major rail lines connect to South Africa, Malawi, and Zimbabwe. The latter 2 countries are dependent upon railway links with Mozambique since they are landlocked and must access Mozambican ports to send exports and receive imports.

Communications
Country Newspapers Radios TV Sets a Cable subscribers a Mobile Phones a Fax Machines a Personal Computers a Internet Hosts b Internet Users b
1996 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999
Mozambique 3 40 5 N/A 0 N/A 1.6 0.09 15
United States 215 2,146 847 244.3 256 78.4 458.6 1,508.77 74,100
South Africa 32 317 125 N/A 56 3.5 47.4 33.36 1,820
Tanzania 4 279 21 0.0 1 N/A 1.6 0.05 25
aData are from International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report 1999 and are per 1,000 people.
bData are from the Internet Software Consortium (http://www.isc.org) and are per 10,000 people.
SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000.

Recently, the Caminhos de Ferro de Mocambique (CFM), a government parastatal that formerly had monopolistic control of all ports and the railway, announced a private management concession to be awarded for management of the central railroad system. The system includes a link from Beira to Zimbabwe and the Sena line. The latter, which is critical to the development of the Zambezi River as it facilitates the export of cooking coal from Moatize in Tete Province, is in complete disrepair. As much as $500 million may be needed to reconstruct the Sena line.

There are a total of 6 ports and harbors in Mozambique, with the largest being the port of Beira. The port came under the control of the Dutch company Cornelder in 1999 following a joint venture concession with the CFM, and has undergone considerable reparation in recent years. Unfortunately, the port has suffered a decline in business activity due to the failing Zimbabwean economy. Moreover, the selling of ports and other means of production and infrastructure to foreign companies means that large portions of profits will be exported out of the country. At the same time, however, the country is in a bind because it does not have the money to pay for reparations and renovations itself (hence the privatization of the Sena line). Additionally, as Joseph Hanlon emphasizes in his book Peace Without Profit, there is also a considerable amount of pressure being exerted upon Mozambique to privatize by the IFIs.

Mozambicans consume a total of 1.018 billion kWh of electricity, 385 million kWh of which are imported from abroad. A full 75 percent of internal electricity production comes from hydro, while the remaining 25 percent is derived from fossil fuel. Located exclusively in the major cities, there is no electricity in the smaller towns and villages. The parastatal Electricidade de Mocambique (EDM) maintains a monopoly on the management of the backbone of the national grid. The EDM, which also controls the water supply system, however, has recently awarded a concession for the private management of the water supply system in 5 major cities. Privatization of the water supply can lead to decreased accessibility, as there is no governmental guarantee of fair pricing. As such, if rates to access water increase, the poor will have to cut their water intake.

Privatization has also characterized recent developments in the telecommunication sector, which has traditionally been monopolized by the government-owned national telephone company (TDM). The introduction of legislation legalizing the privatization of the telecommunication sector in 1999 led to the transformation of the TDM into a public enterprise with 100 percent of the shares owned by government. The government is currently selecting a strategic private investor to whom it can sell a 30 percent share, with the most likely candidate being the Portuguese firm Telecom. In 1999, there were only 4.0 telephone mainlines per 1,000 people, a dismal contrast to the United States where there were 640 mainlines per 1,000 people in 1996.

ECONOMIC SECTORS

Like most African countries, the economy of Mozambique was decisively shaped in the colonial period. As Allen Isaacmanauthor of Cotton is the Mother of Poverty: Peasants, Work, and Rural Struggle in Colonial Mozambique, 1938-1961 states, the Portuguese relationship with Mozambique was determined by its need for a large labor force to produce raw materials. Consequently, Portuguese colonial policies coerced peasants into exporting agricultural products to the mother country, while preventing them from developing their own forms of manufacturing and industry. Today, the Mozambican economy remains structurally locked into the position of agricultural exporter, with the manufacturing sector holding a limited, albeit increasingly important, economic role. With increased urbanization, the service sector has become the most important contributor to GDP, though the vast majority of Mozambicans continue to labor in the agricultural sector of the economy.

AGRICULTURE

In 1998, the agricultural sector engaged approximately 81 percent of the Mozambican labor force and contributed 34 percent of GDP. Mozambique's major agricultural products include cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava, corn, rice, tropical fruits, beef, and poultry. Agricultural exports include prawns, which are a type of shellfish similar to large shrimp, cashews, cotton, sugar, copra (a coconut product), citrus, coconuts, and timber.

As part of FRELIMO's socialist legacy, all land is owned by the state. The latter, in turn, leases parcels of land to individuals and companies for up to 50 years, with an option to renew. The system is designed to protect the small family farm sector, which provides employment for 90 percent of the agricultural population. According to the IMF Country Report Number 01/25, 98.9 percent of the rural poor in Mozambique own land, with an average of 2.5 hectares per household. Many small holder farmers can only produce enough for subsistence (survival) purposes, while others are able to produce a surplus to sell on the market. Land tenure is a highly politicized issue and it is unlikely that FRELIMO will privatize land ownership any time soon. Estate production is confined mostly to the sugar sector, though there are some large agro firms maintaining commercial operations of cotton, copra, citrus, and maize production.

Though the vast majority of Mozambicans work in the production of cash crops, prawns from the fishing industry have become the country's single most important export (1998 est.). According to the U.S. Department of State FY 2000 Country Commercial Guide, prawns, which comprise 40 percent of all export revenue, have contributed an average of $70 million per year to the economy over the past several years. Commercial fisheries involved in catching and exporting prawns usually boast large-scale operations, many of which are foreign-owned. A small amount of local unlicensed fishers also engages in selling prawns, though the government is seeking to crackdown on such illegal operations.

Until very recently, cashews were Mozambique's most important agricultural export. Indeed, throughout the colonial period, Mozambique was the world's leading cashew producer. Although cashews continue to play an essential role in the economy, with exports increasing, for example, from 33.4 thousand tons in 1994 to 58.7 thousand tons in 1998, the cashew sector has suffered severely from declining prices on the international market. International prices for agricultural products are determined by world supply and demand in a given year, factors over which Mozambican farmers have no control. In January 2001, international prices for cashews plummeted to US$2/lb., their lowest level in over a decade.

Cotton-producing farmers have also been seriously affected by declining international prices in recent years. Cotton, which is currently Mozambique's third most important agricultural export, reached a post-war peak production of 117,000 tons in the 1998 crop season. One of the major factors promoting increased cotton production was the advent of the out-grower scheme, in which large agro-industries provided small farmers with advice and productive inputs and bought their crops. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit's April 2001 Country Report, a sharp fall in international prices in 1999 led to a 52 percent decline in cotton production as many small holder producers exited the market. On the positive side, production in 2001 is estimated to rebound significantly to 80,000 tons or more, though there is no telling how stable production will remain, given the inherent instability of international agricultural pricing.

International pricing is not the only factor that affects the stability of the agricultural sector. Weather conditions are a second, albeit just as important, element determining productive output. In 2000, for example, production of cornMozambique's most important crop produced for domestic consumptionfell to 1,019,000 tons from 1,246,000 tons the year before. The productive decline related largely to devastating floods, which lasted from January to March. Conversely, debilitating droughts also frequently afflict the country, and 2 crippling droughts in the post-war period alone led to severe declines in agricultural production. Such weather imbalances lead to oscillating (fluctuating) patterns of production, which, in addition to destabilizing export revenue, severely restrict the country's ability to gain self-sufficiency in food production. Further exacerbating the problem, only 4 percent of all land in Mozambique is arable. As a result of these problems, the country must import large amounts of rice and wheat every year.

INDUSTRY

Although only 6 percent of the Mozambican labor force is engaged in the manufacturing sector, industry accounted for 18 percent of GDP in 1998. Major industries in Mozambique include food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, and tobacco. Virtually all manufacturing is located in the major urban areas of Maputo, Beira, and Nampula.

The value of the manufacturing sector as a whole has increased impressively throughout the past several years. In 1995, for instance, the sector was valued at Mt2,059,608, whereas this figure more than doubled to Mt4,584,352 in 1999. The food-processing and beverage industries have been of paramount importance to this increase, with each respectively growing in value from Mt573,660 and Mt348,064 in 1995, to Mt1,189,610 and Mt1,604,142 in 1999.

As the U.S. Department of State's Background Notes on Mozambique points out, most manufacturing industries have either recently been privatized or are currently undergoing privatization under the guidance of the SAPs. While the World Bank and the IMF argue that privatization will lead to increased efficiency since enterprises formerly-dependent upon government subsidies will have to become viable competitors, Mozambicans generally lack the credit necessary to purchase such enterprises and replace their highly outdated equipment. Consequently, foreign firms rich in capital have taken over many enterprises, though they have not always been successful in revamping productivity. Indeed, the inability to increase the productivity of many manufacturing industries prompted several multi-national companies, including the Portuguese Barbosa e Almeida, which took over parts of the glassmaking industry, to recently sell shares back to the Mozambican government. On the whole, however, the record of foreign takeovers has been more or less positive for the investors.

In 2000, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Mozambique, which is mostly in the manufacturing sector, equaled $730 million. South Africa and Portugal, respectively accounting for 63 percent and 14 percent of all FDI, are the largest foreign investors. The United States, the Netherlands, and Hong Kong are also significant investors. Major U.S. firms with a strong market presence in Mozambique include Coca-Cola and Colgate-Palmolive.

A second development that has severely affected the manufacturing sector is trade liberalization. While liberalization may offer Mozambican industries increased access to foreign markets, it may also force them to compete with more efficient foreign counterparts in the domestic economy. The so-called recent "cashew wars" exemplifies this latter possibility. The metaphorical wars centered on the elimination of tariff barriers blocking the exportation of unprocessed cashews. Such tariffs have existed in order to ensure protection for industries involved in processing cashewshigh tariffs on exportations of unprocessed cashews means that cashews will inevitably be processed before leaving the country. The World Bank, however, has argued that the cashew-processing industry is inefficient and that it must face competition from abroad. As part of its SAP, the World Bank forced Mozambique to begin phasing out tariffs in 1996, despite the protests of the government, the World Bank's major adversary in the cashew wars. The results of the liberalization process were disastrous. According to the Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN), a United Nations humanitarian information unit, by 2000, half of the cashew-processing industry's 12,000 workers were laid off, while 10 of the largest cashew-processing factories were closed due to a lack of supplies. The cashew-processing sector, which, in 1987, accounted for 31 percent of Mozambique's export earnings and employed about 25 percent of the country's workforce, has diminished in annual productive capacity from an average of Mt200,000 during the 1980s, to a current low of Mt50,000.

Despite some natural reserves of coal and titanium, mining in Mozambique is negligible. The one exception is the massive Mozal aluminum smelter outside of Maputo, which reached a full production capacity of 250,000 tons per year in December 2000. Mozal, a subsidiary of the South African company Billiton, employs 1,000 Mozambicans and represents the country's largest economic project to date. Mozal has created beneficial spillover effects (positive links) in the Mozambican economy, mainly in the form of new port facilities needed to handle the import of alumina and export of aluminum ingots. Once more, however, the profits earned by Mozal are lining the pockets of foreigners rather than the Mozambican populace. In his book, Peace Without Profit, Joseph Hanlon maintains that many observers are referring to the escalating foreign domination of the economy as the "recolonization" of Mozambique. On February 13, 2001, workers at the Mozal smelter, angered at the superior terms offered to foreign managers, engaged in an illegal one-day strike.

SERVICES

Accounting for approximately 48 percent of GDP, the service, or tertiary sector, is the most valuable area of economic activity in the Mozambican economy. Approximately 13 percent of the labor force is engaged in the service sector (est. 1998), though this figure does not take into consideration the many people that work in the informal sector . The largest contributor to the service sector is business, which constituted 19.5 percent of GDP alone in 1999. The business class consists of a small elite, whose main activities are trading and distribution. Other important service activities include finance, tourism, transport, communication, and retail . The latter, which includes a small number of restaurants and stores in the urban centers, is dominated by small-scale street vendors, many of whom form part of the informal sector. Informal sector activities include carpentry, motor vehicle repair, tailoring, hawking , and selling various fruits, vegetables, and other commodities. Recent studies, such as those conducted by researchers of the Centro de Estudos Africanos of the University Eduardo Mondlane in Mozambique, indicate that informal activity has increased substantially as a result of SAP-related cuts to the social sector, unemployment and rising food prices. Unfortunately, the burden caused by these developments has been shouldered unequally by women, who have taken the responsibility of ensuring the survival of the family. In 1994, as much as 75 percent of all women in Maputo were forced to participate in the informal sector in order to earn their chief incomes. Such women make as little as $0.20 a day, plus food.

As a result of the destruction caused by the civil war, there is a massive lack of shops and service activities in the rural areas. Moreover, the rebuilding of the retail sector in the rural areas has been slowed by a banking sector that is reluctant to provide capital to prospective entrepreneurs with very few assets. Though there are many international donor agencies funding rural service-related income-generating projects, the pace of reconstruction remains protracted (delayed).

On the whole, tourism is a relatively marginal component of the Mozambican economy. Indeed, restaurants and hotels accounted for a meager 1.2 percent of GDP in 1999a slight increase from 1995, when they constituted 0.7 percent of GDP. At the same time, however, there is a strong potential for the development of the tourism sector, given the country's long coastline with superb beaches, the existence of several attractions of historical interest, and the great diversity of flora and wildlife.

FINANCIAL SERVICES.

There are a total of 8 banks in Mozambique, in addition to the central bank, the Bank of Mozambique. All of these banks, many of which were controlled by the government prior to mid-1990s, are now part of the private sector. The Banco Comercial de Mocambique (BCM), which has a considerable presence across the country, dominates commercial banking. The government controlled BCM until 1996, when it was sold to a consortium led by the Portuguese Banco Portugues Mello. The government still retains a 49 percent share in the BCM, though it plans on selling its shares. Despite these plans, the government was forced to authorize the issuing of $39 million in treasury bills as part of an effort to recapitalize the BCM, along with the Banco Austral, to prevent each from becoming insolvent. Both banks have large loan portfolios that have proved unrecoverable. The Banco Austral, Mozambique's second largest bank, was sold to a consortium led by Southern Berhad Bank of Malaysia in 1997, though the government retains a 40 percent share, which it also plans on selling.

With a share capital of $30 million, the Banco Internacional de Mocambique (BIM) is the third largest bank in the country. In January 2000, the Banco Comercial Portugues, the parent company of BIM, acquired Grupo Mello, the parent company of BCM. Consequently, 2 of the largest banks in Mozambique are now controlled by 1 bank in Portugal. Other important banks include the Portuguese-owned Banco Comercial e de Investimento and the Portuguese-South African Banco Standard Totta.

In addition to the network of banks, there are also several investment agencies operating in the Mozambican financial market, including the International Finance Corporation and the Commonwealth Development Corporation. Moreover, in 1999, a small stock exchange was established in Maputo with the assistance of the Lisbon stock exchange.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Like most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Mozambique's international economic transactions are based on the exportation of agricultural commodities in exchange for capital goods. Since the international terms of trade accord higher value to the latter, Mozambique routinely suffers from a balance of payments deficit, hence, in part, its constant need to borrow money from the IFIs and wealthy foreign governments. The balance of trade deficit varies widely, depending upon, among other things, the market success of agricultural export commodities in a given year (as we have seen, this, in turn, depends on both weather conditions and international commodity prices). In 1995, for instance, the deficit stood at $552.7 million, while this figure increased dramatically to $930.9 million in 1999. In 2000, the gap between the value of imports vis-á-vis exports increased even more, with the latter outnumbering the former by more than 5 to 1.

Trade (expressed in billions of US$): Mozambique
Exports Imports
1975 .198 .411
1980 .281 .800
1985 .077 .424
1990 .126 .878
1995 .168 .784
1998 N/A N/A
SOURCE: International Monetary Fund. International Financial Statistics Yearbook 1999.

Mozambique's principal exports include prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, copra, citrus, coconuts, and timber. The value of exports designated to the wealthy countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), including Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States, decreased considerably throughout the second half of the 1990s, dropping from $60.7 million in 1995, to $37.3 million in 1999. This decrease in export value, reflects, in large part, declining terms of trade and the market exit of peasant producers resulting therefrom (as was recently the case in the cotton sector). Conversely, the value of exports designated to African countries, mainly South Africa and Zimbabwe, increased somewhat during the same periodfrom $23.6 million in 1995, to $26.2 million in 1999. Increased trade between the countries of southern Africa has been facilitated by a rehabilitation of transportation infrastructure in Mozambique. With 16 percent of exports reaching the South African market, that country is Mozambique's second largest export partner, second only to Spain (17 percent).

Mozambique's chief imports include food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum, and transport equipment. The value of imports from the OECD countries has also decreased considerably, falling from $46.7 million in 1995, to $27.2 million in 1999. This precipitous decline may reflect increased trade diversion (a redirecting of trade) towards South Africa, which increased its share of imports designated to Mozambique from $25.9 million in 1995, to $57.2 million in 1999. In 2000, South Africa accounted for 55 percent of all Mozambican imports.

As part of the country's structural reforms, the Mozambican government has promoted significant trade liberalization in recent years, simplifying its tariff structures and applying an average tariff of 13.8 percent to countries accorded most-favored nation status. Mozambique's tariffs are among the lowest import duties in southern Africa. While the international financial institutions and Western governments in general tend to support trade liberalization, it may have negative effects for a country like Mozambique that depends on agricultural exports in exchange for higher value-added capital imports. If Mozambican manufacturing firms cannot compete with their foreign counterparts, reduction of trade protection measures, such as tariffs, will simply lead to the retardation of the Mozambican industrial sector. The disastrous effects of tariff reduction on the cashew-processing industry is a case in point. The results of such negative developments might be further entrenchment of the agricultural sector in the economy, and thus the prolonging of the unequal trading patterns that sustain the country's severe balance of trade deficit. In such a context, it is hardly likely that Mozambique will benefit from the pro-trade idea of specializing in exporting products it produces comparatively better than other nations, and in importing those that it does not.

Mozambique is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC)a regional trading agreement among 14 countries in southern Africa designed to lower tariff barriers between member countries. While it is difficult to justify completely free trade between wealthy and poor countries since they cannot compete from a level playing field, some argue that free trade between developing countries can be beneficial. The argument is based mainly on the idea that free trade between developing countries enables them to benefit from economies of scale in a more equitably competitive context. Still, more relatively developed countries, such as South Africa in the SADC, the most powerful economy in all of Africa, might benefit disproportionately due to their more competitive positioning.

MONEY

SAP-induced reforms in 1992 instituted a free floating exchange rate policy in Mozambique, with the value of the metical thereafter being determined by its supply and demand in international money markets. Prior to the reform, the Mozambican government followed a fixed exchange regime in which the metical was pegged to the U.S. dollar at a specific rate, subject to alterations only to rectify substantial distortions (severe imbalances between the market value of the metical against the U.S. dollar and the official value of the metical against the U.S. dollar).

Since the introduction of the free floating exchange regime, the metical has consistently depreciated vis-á-vis the U.S. dollar, meaning it takes increasingly greater quantities of meticais to equal the value of 1 U.S. dollar. In 1995, the exchange rate averaged Mt9,024.3 per US$1, with the rate depreciating to an average of Mt12,775.1 per US$1 in 1999, and an average of Mt13,392.0 per US$1 in 2000. The EIU expects that the rate will average at Mt16,225 per US$1 in 2001, and

Exchange rates: Mozambique meticais (Mt) per US$1
Jan 2001 17,331.0
2000 5,199.8
1999 12,775.1
1998 11,874.6
1997 11.543.6
1996 11,293.8
SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2001 [ONLINE].

Mt17,280 per US$1 in 2002. The substantial devaluation that occurred in 2001 reflects, in large part, a weakening economy affected by flooding and declining agricultural productivity.

While currency depreciation may be positive for the exporting sectors of the Mozambican economy, since less foreign money is needed to buy Mozambican exports which thereby renders them more attractive, it has the adverse effect of increasing the prices of imports. Imports become more expensive since more meticais are needed to purchase them. For a food-importing nation like Mozambique, increases in the prices of essential imports, such as wheat, can have negative consequences on the poorest segments of the society, who cannot afford to pay increased prices. In their zeal for export-led economic growth, however, the IFIs, which routinely apply pressure on sub-Saharan governments to continuously devalue their currencies, fail to take this negative affect into account.

POVERTY AND WEALTH

Though the vast majority of Mozambicans live in abject poverty, a small elite consisting of traders, politicians with business ties, foreign managers, and professionals working in the financial sector enjoy a life of luxury in the urban centers. This elite has benefited from the privatization and liberalization reforms associated with the SAPs, as they have largely displaced the state in the ruling positions of the economy. Unfortunately, policies such as the liberalization of the foreign exchange market, which enables business executives to easily acquire foreign currency, have increased the propensity of the elites to buy most of their commodities from sources abroad. Indeed, the Mozambican elite is particularly notorious for spending its money on the importation of luxury goods, rather than reinvesting in and supporting the local economy. As Joseph Hanlon notes, the elite travel extensively and identify more with the wealthy of western countries than they do with the Mozambican poor.

In contrast to the tremendous wealth of the small elite, the majority of Mozambicans find it difficult to provide for their basic needs. The United Nations Development

GDP per Capita (US$)
Country 1975 1980 1985 1990 1998
Mozambique N/A 166 115 144 188
United States 19,364 21,529 23,200 25,363 29,683
South Africa 4,574 4,620 4,229 4,113 3,918
Tanzania N/A N/A N/A 175 173
SOURCE: United Nations. Human Development Report 2000; Trends in human development and per capita income.
Distribution of Income or Consumption by Percentage Share: Mozambique
Lowest 10% 2.5
Lowest 20% 6.5
Second 20% 10.8
Third 20% 15.1
Fourth 20% 21.1
Highest 20% 46.5
Highest 10% 31.7
Survey year: 1996-97
Note: This information refers to expenditure shares by percentiles of the population andis ranked by per capita expenditure.
SOURCE: 2000 World Development Indicators [CD-ROM].

Program 's (UNDP) human development index (HDI) listings, which arranges countries according to their overall level of human development, ranks Mozambique 168th out of a total of 174 nations. The HDI, a composite index (one that assesses more than one variable) that measures life expectancy at birth, adult literacy rate, school enrollment ratio, and GDP per capita , is indicative of a country's general social and economic wellbeing. As such, Mozambique's HDI ranking demonstrates that the country is one of the least developed in the entire world.

Although there are no recent statistics for public expenditure on education, UNDP statistics on support for the health sector indicate that the Mozambican government has considerably reduced its already meager health expenditure. In 1990, for instance, the government spent 3.6 percent of GDP on the health sector, whereas this figure dropped to 2.1 percent in 1998. Such cuts reflect socalled austerity measures induced by the SAPs, designed to decrease government spending to "free" revenue for debt-servicing . Comparatively, the United States spent 6.5 percent of GDP on health in 1998. The vast majority of Mozambicans, for their part, spend their meager incomes on the basic necessities of life, such as food, rents, clothing, fuel, and transportation. As a result of a declining economy and a deepening of poverty, however, Mozambicans consume somewhat less food calories on a daily basis then they did thirty years ago. In 1970, the average Mozambican consumed 1,896 calories, with this figure declining to 1,832 calories in 1997. Americans, in contrast, consumed on average 2,965 calories in 1970 and 3,699 calories in 1997. This is not surprising, considering the increase in the gross national product (GNP) per capita has been grossly outweighed by mounting inflation in the past 10 years. The UNDP estimates that the annual growth rate in GNP per capita between 1990 to 1998 was 3.5 percent, while the average annual rate of inflation during the same period was 41.1 percent. Fortunately, inflation stabalized at 3.8 percent in 1998, though the GNP per capita in purchasing power parity (adjusted to compensate for the different pricing of goods and services in Mozambique in relation to the United States) the same year leveled at a paltry US$740.

WORKING CONDITIONS

In 2000, the total working population of Mozambique was estimated at 8 million. Since most Mozambicans work in the uncertain conditions of the agricultural sector, however, only 17 percent of this total earn regular wages. In terms of gender differences in the division of labor, women tend to work overwhelmingly in service-based activities, particularly in the informal sector. Furthermore, women tend to suffer from a double work-day, being forced out of economic necessity to engage in income-earning activities during the day, and then being responsible for the domestic household tasks at night.

There are 2 major trade union federations in Mozambique, collectively representing approximately 200,000 workers and 13 unions. The largest federation, the Organization of Mozambican Workers (OTM), was established following independence. The OTM was directly controlled by the government until 1994, at which time it officially declared itself free of any political party affiliation. Legislation passed in 1991 broke the OTM's legal monopoly over trade union activity. Immediately thereafter, a separate federation, the Free and Independent Union of Mozambique (SLIM), was established by 3 OTM-breakaway unions.

The Constitution permits workers to strike, with the exception of government employees, police, military personnel, and employees engaged in other essential services (which include sanitation, firefighting, air traffic control, health care, water, electricity, fuel, post office, and telecommunications). Numerous strikes have occurred over the past several years, many of which, according to the U.S. Department of State, are centered on issues related to privatization, salaries, and increases in wage levels. In accordance with the 1991 Labor Law, there are no known instances of employers seeking retribution against striking workers.

Children under the age of 16 years are prohibited from working in the wage economy. Since there is such a high adult unemployment rateestimated at 50 percentthere are few violations of this law. Children often work on family farms and in the informal sector, however, in order to financially assist their parents. The harsh reality is that if children do not engage in activities to assist their parents in generating income, the family will not have enough money to eat.

Although Mozambique has a minimum wage, which averaged at $40 per month in 2000, it is not adequate to support even a small family of 3. Consequently, most workers rely on earning additional income in the informal sector, in addition to growing corn and vegetables on small plots of land for personal consumption. The legal limitation of a workweek for workers in the non-agricultural sector is 44 hours, while employees are entitled to 1 rest day per week. Despite detailed legally defined health and safety standards, reports indicate that violations of such standards are commonplace. In 1995 alone, 524 major accidents occurred in the building, timber, and mining sectors.

COUNTRY HISTORY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

11TH CENTURY. Arab and Swahili traders settled along the coast of present-day Mozambique. The Kiswahili language developed as the most used language for trade between the newcomers and the Bantu inhabitants of the interior. Sofala became a particularly important gold and ivory exporting center.

16TH CENTURY. Following Vasco da Gama's visit to Mozambique in 1498, the Portuguese began extending their influence along the coasts of East Africa. Though they succeeded in establishing their commercial dominance on the coast of Mozambique, their presence in the interior was severely limited. Portuguese traders engaged in selling gold, ivory, and slaves.

17TH CENTURY. Several Portuguese adventurers eventually founded feudal kingdoms in the interior, where they created large estates called prazos on which Africans were forced to work. Though the prazeros the owners of the estateswere theoretically subordinate to the Portuguese crown, they ruled their kingdoms ruthlessly and autonomously.

1752. Mozambique became a separately administered Portuguese territory, under the head of a captain-general.

1820s. The Portuguese were displaced from southern Mozambique by groups of Nguni-speaking people from South Africa, though they still retained nominal colonial control.

1880s. The ignominious scramble for Africa commenced among the European powers, and Portugal's claims to Mozambique were officially recognized. The British and the Portuguese subsequently established treaties demarcating colonial zones in southern and eastern Africa.

1890-1920. Portugal forcefully established its hegemony over the entire Mozambique region in a series of wars against the African populace. Thereafter, a coercive economy was established in which Africans were forced to labor on lands taken over by whites in the production of export crops.

1950-1975. Throughout the 1950s, a nationalist anti-colonial sentiment developed, eventually crystallizing in the united-front movement called FRELIMO. The latter commenced a guerrilla war against the Portuguese in 1964, which, in conjunction with a coup d'etat in Portugal that placed an anti-colonial regime in power, enabled Mozambique to achieve independence in 1975 under the leadership of Samora Machel. A massive exodus of Portuguese settlers followed, leaving the country with a complete lack of professional expertise and productive machinery.

1975-1992. FRELIMO implemented a socialist economy based on extensive nationalization of industry, state-controlled land reform, and a heavily supported social sector. By the 1980s, Mozambique became a "Cold War battlefield" in which RENAMO, a counter-insurgency organization funded by the racist regime in South Africa, waged war against the government. After much destruction and the complete dissolution of the economy, a truce was implemented between RENAMO and FRELIMO in 1992. The former subsequently became a legitimate political party and was integrated into a newly created multi-party democratic system.

1990s. Under the leadership of Joaquim Chissano Machel's successorFRELIMO abandoned its Marxist orientation. The World Bank and the IMF, which had established limited control over Mozambique as early as 1984, fully imposed their structural adjustment programs , emphasizing mass privatization, trade liberalization, currency devaluation, foreign investment, and stabilization policies. Though a certain amount of economic growth has occurred throughout the "SAP era," there has also been an increase in poverty and a foreign take-over of the economy.

FUTURE TRENDS

The economic and political trends that have characterized Mozambican development since the peace accords of 1992 are symptomatic of the larger trends that have prevailed throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa. In the main, SAPs have failed to solve the longstanding problems of unemployment, mass poverty, balance of payments deficit, insecure informal employment, debt, inequality, and lack of access to essential social services. In many cases, these problems have actually been exacerbated by inappropriate policies, such as reckless privatization and trade liberalization. Although the country experienced a considerable rate of growth throughout the 1990s, much of this growth has disproportionately benefited a small minority of business elites, and can be attributed to the termination of the civil war and the massive increase in foreign investment. As for the latter factor, it is debatable how beneficial a role FDI will play in the development of the Mozambican economy.

Politically, the cessation of the civil war and the more or less successful integration of RENAMO into the political system represents a positive development. If the economic situation as experienced by the vast majority of the Mozambican populace continues to deteriorate, however, the sustainability of the democratic process might be jeopardized. Already, the U.S. State Department has warned that political unrest and discontent are increasing in the country. The IMF and World Bank's recently touted Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiativewhich substantially reduces the debt and debt-servicing obligations of severely poor nationsis a first step in the reformation of the largely negative role that the IFIs have played in sub-Saharan economies. It will take much more than this initiative, however, to dramatically alter the course of development of African countries. True development will not occur until free-market panaceas (cure-alls) are discarded and a more contextual development schemeone which possibly includes a strong role for the stateis promoted by the international community.

DEPENDENCIES

Mozambique has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abrahamsson, Hans, and Anders Nilsson. Mozambique, The Troubled Transition: From Socialist Construction to Free Market Capitalism. London: Zed Books, 1995.

Economist Intelligence Unit. Country Profile: Mozambique, Malawi, April 2001. London: Economist Intelligence Unit, April 2001.

Hanlon, Joseph. Peace without Profit: How the IMF Blocks Rebuilding in Mozambique. London: Villiers Publications, 1996.

Integrated Regional Information Networks (United Nations humanitarian information unit). Mozambique: Government Commits US$47 million to Reviving the Cashew Sector .<http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/Mozambique/20010706.phtml>. Accessed August 2001.

International Monetary Fund. IMF Staff Country Report, Mozambique: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix .<http://www.imf.org>. Accessed July 2001.

Isaacman, Allen. Cotton is the Mother of Poverty: Peasants, Work, and Rural Struggle in Colonial Mozambique, 1938-1961. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1996.

Khapoya, Vincent B. The African Experience. New Jersey:Prentice Hall, 1998.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Human Development Report 2000. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 2000: Mozambique .<http://wwww.CIA.gov/CIA/publications/factbook/geos/tz.html>. Accessed July 2001.

U.S. Department of State. Background Notes: Mozambique .<http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/ERC/bgnotes/af/mozambique9607.html>. Accessed July 2001.

U.S. Department of State. FY 2000 Country Commercial Guide: Mozambique .<http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/business/com_guides.html>. Accessed July 2001.

U.S. Department of State. Mozambique Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1996 .<http://www.state.gov>. Accessed July 2001.

World Bank Group. Mozambique: Competitiveness Indicators .<http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/psd/d8feca9e97dacc08852564 e40068dc2f?opendocument>. Accessed July 2001.

Neil Burron

CAPITAL:

Maputo.

MONETARY UNIT:

Mozambican metical (Mt). There are 100 centavos in 1 Mt. Coins include denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1,000, and 5,000 meticais and notes of 50, 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, and 100,000 meticais.

CHIEF EXPORTS:

Prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, copra and coconuts, and timber.

CHIEF IMPORTS:

Food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum, and transport equipment.

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT:

US$18.7 billion (purchasing power parity, 1999 est.).

BALANCE OF TRADE:

Exports: US$300 million (1999 est.). Imports: US$1.6 billion (1999 est.).

views updated

Mozambique

Basic Data
Official Country Name: Republic of Mozambique
Region: Africa
Population: 19,104,696
Language(s): Portuguese
Literacy Rate: 40.1%
Number of Primary Schools: 4,167
Compulsory Schooling: 7 years
Educational Enrollment: Primary: 1,415,428
  Secondary: 185,181
  Higher: 7,143
Educational Enrollment Rate: Primary: 60%
  Secondary: 7%
Teachers: Primary: 24,575
  Secondary: 5,615
  Higher: 915
Student-Teacher Ratio: Primary: 58:1
  Secondary: 38:1
Female Enrollment Rate: Primary: 50%
  Secondary: 5%
  Higher: 0.2%


History & Background

The Republic of Mozambique (República de Moçambique ) is situated on the southeast coast of Africa. Washed by the warm Agulhas current that comes all the way across from Western Australia along the equator, Mozambique's beaches on the Indian Ocean were long the attraction of numerous tourists who flocked there from neighboring countries. The capital, Maputo (formerly Lourenço Marques ), situated on Delgoa Bay, is the country's chief port. Probably hunters and gatherers, ancestors of the Khoisan peoples, lived in what is now Mozambique since about 4000 B.C., and Bantu-speaking people settled there before A.D. 100. Before the fourth century A.D., the southward and eastward migrations of iron-working Bantu peoples absorbed these original nomadic peoples. During the eighth century A.D., Arab merchants settled on the Mozambican coast trading in gold, ivory, and slaves. In 1497 the Portuguese navigator Vasco Da Gama landed on the coast of Mozambique, and in 1505 Portuguese settlers occupied the Muslim settlement on the Ilha de Moçambique, making it a slave-trading center and part of its maritime empire. The Portuguese brought gold from the mines on the Zimbabwe plateau to India to purchase the spices that ensured Portugal's prosperity during the sixteenth century. In 1884, when Africa was divided among various European powers, Angola on the Atlantic Ocean and Mozambique on the Indian became recognized as Portuguese colonies.

During the early years of Portuguese activity and expansion into the African interior towards the Kingdom of Munhumutapa, which assured the supply of gold and slaves, the Roman Catholic Church, too, gained access to the region. In 1561 the Jesuit missionary Gonçalo de Silveira baptised the Munhumutapa Negomo. Silveira was later accused of being a spy for the Portuguese and was killed. The Jesuits, however, continued to be missionaries and an educational presence in the area until they were expelled from Portuguese territory in 1759; the Jesuit school at Sena, the depot established on the trade route between the coast and Tete, had to be closed, thus terminating the cultural ties the prazeros (originally Portuguese recipients of land leased from the Portuguese crown who later became Africanized) had with Portugal.

During the 1780s the prazeros expanded slaving operations in Mozambique, and by 1790 approximately 9,000 slaves were being exported each yearprimarily to Brazil, but also to Yao and to Swahili traders who worked the Indian Ocean markets. This figure rose to 15,000 slaves per year during the 1820s and 1830s. The slave trade became Mozambique's most important business and resulted in the depopulation especially of the coastal areas. The slave trade drew to an end only after the publication of reports on the conditions in Mozambique by the missionary-explorer David Livingstone. A decree of total abolition was published in 1878.

Despite the abolition of slavery, Africans were forced to work long hours with very little pay for the Portuguese colonists. Often food was withheld so people were compelled to work. Cotton and other cash crops, grown for sale to the Chartered Companieswhich had been granted concessionary rights to develop land and natural resources, forced labor, and the sale of labor to other parts of Africaresulted in the retardation of development in Mozambique. The construction of the railroad linking the port of Beira with the present-day Zimbabwe, the settling of Portuguese families, and the building of schools and hospitals did not benefit the African population at all. Neither education nor health-care was available to those who were not Portuguese. A massive flight to the neighboring colonies resulted in further depopulation.

In 1891 a treaty establishing the boundaries between British and Portuguese holdings in southeast Africa was negotiated and, in 1910, the status of Mozambique changed from that of Portuguese province to Portuguese colony. In 1962 several nationalist groups united to form the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique or FRELIMO) under the leadership of Eduardo Mondlane, who was assassinated in Dar es Salaam in 1969. After 1964 FRELIMO initiated guerrilla warfare in northern Mozambique and by the early 1970s controlled much of northern and central Mozambique. In June 1975, a year after a military coup overthrew the government in Portugal, Mozambique became an independent nation. The exodus of Europeans after independence brought about a tremendous brain drain. FRELIMO established a single-party socialist state and instituted health and education reforms. Many of those who disagreed with the new direction taken in Mozambique formed the Mozambique National Resistance Movement (RENAMO or MNR). The actions of RENAMO led to a 16-year war that killed millions and destroyed 50 percent of the primary schools in the rural areas and several teacher-training centers. Since the Peace Accord signed in 1992, specific rehabilitation and restructuring programs attempt to make education more available at all levels.

Political, Social, & Cultural Bases of Education During Colonialism: During the more than 300 years of nominal and actual colonization, Mozambique was seen primarily as a source of trade with Europe and of cheap labor for the European plantations, the construction of ports and roads in Mozambique, and the mines in South Africa. During the time of Portuguese colonialism, the Bantu-speaking peoples were forced to work on European-owned land. Colonial policy, based on the egalitarian theory of assimilation, stated that if an African was fluent in Portuguese, was Christian, and had a good character, he was to be given the same status as a Portuguese citizen. Very few Africans qualified for citizenship, mainly because educational opportunities were inadequate or non-existent. In fact, the colonial powers had no interest in educating the Mozambican indigenous population beyond their usefulness to the needs identified by the authorities. Consequently, little effort was made to provide meaningful education.

There were a very limited number of schools scattered along the coast; attendance was minimal. By 1900 only 1,195 African and mulatto children attended schools. Approximately 607 of these were in missionary schools, 146 in government schools, 412 in municipal schools, and 30 in private institutions. By 1909 there were 48 primary schools for boys and 18 for girls, the great majority run by missionaries, along with some trade and agricultural schools. Reports compiled during the 1920s by the High Commissioner to Mozambique, Brito Camacho, by the African Education Commission under the auspices of the Phelps-Stokes Fund and the foreign mission societies of North America and Europe, had nothing positive to say about education in Mozambique. Education deteriorated even further when the Salazar regime came into power in Portugal in 1926 and made it almost impossible for anybody who was classified as indigenous to obtain education, instruction, and Christianity, as well as the distinction to be reclassified as civilized and thus be assimilated and given the rights of Portuguese citizenshipthe criteria for which was the almost unobtainable school certificate. This state of affairs was ironic and racist as late as 1966, when 90 percent of the African population was found to be illiterate. It was also found that 40 percent of white settlers from Portugal were illiterate.


The Salazar Era & Education: Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, the Portuguese dictator who ruled Portugal from 1932 to 1968, was intent on repressing opposition in Portugal's African colonies. Thus, the programs of state-sponsored schooling established by the Salazar regime created a schooling system available for the children of settlers. This was a duplication of the primary and secondary schooling system operating in Portugal, directed by the Ministry of National Education in Lisbon, which included within it a Department of Overseas Education. Until the 1950s enrollment was small. Between 1954 and 1956, with the influx of settlers from Portugal, enrollment increased by 30 percent, and it tripled by 1964. These schools were open only to "assimilated" Africans and, as late as 1954, only 322 Africans were enrolled in the government primary schools. By 1954, there were 71 primary schools, 12 elementary professional schools, 2 government technical schools, 1 government high school, and no government teacher training institutions in the public schooling system.

Schooling for Africans denied more access than it created and failed more students than it passed. The first stage, a three-year rudimentary education, was designed "gradually to lead the 'Indigenous' from savage life to civilization. . . ." It included subjects such as Portuguese language, arithmetic, history and geography of Portugal, design and manual work, physical education and hygiene, moral education, and choral music. The six-year primary school program, which led up to entrance to secondary school, was fraught with enormous hurdles and age restrictions, making it almost impossible for African students to succeed. Unlike in South Africa where the Roman Catholic Church was perceived as an agency of social justice and transformation, the Catholic educational missions in Mozambique were very much an instrument of the Portuguese government's strategy of nationalization. From the 1940s to the 1960s, Roman Catholic missions, which worked in close collaboration with the Portuguese government, expanded their field of operation dramatically from 296 missions in 1940 to 2,000 in 1960. In these schools Africans were taught mainly by rote, their chief focus being the Catechism. By contrast, the Protestant foreign missions, which were accused of validating African languages and culture and encouraging education for Africans in a way to give them a tendency to be "uppity," were viewed with great suspicion by those in authority and declined from 41 in 1940 to 27 in 1960.

After 1964, with the forming of FRELIMO, the launching of the armed struggle for national independence, and the change in the Portuguese economy, Salazar's colonial educational policies came under review. Primary school was made compulsory for all children between the ages of 6 and 12; secondary schools were expanded and technical schools were created. Agricultural education was stressed. General studies offered during the 1960s later became the Faculty of General Studies, which was then designated as part of the university.


FRELIMO, the Liberation Struggle, & Education: In Mozambique, as in countries such as Cuba, Nicaragua, Vietnam, and Somalia, a national mass literacy campaign was undertaken soon after the revolutionary movement began enjoying widespread popular support; in this case FRELIMO acceded to power. The incoming FRELIMO government declared that education was a right for all people and that all education should serve and defend the interests of the majority, the workers and peasantsthose who had been most disadvantaged by the discrimination and elitism of the previous centuries. Adult literacy projects were a means to mobilize the people in the liberated areas, to bring new freedom to people who had long been derided for their ignorance yet had been prevented from access to the educational system. Despite its association with the oppression of the colonizers, and because of its potential to unite diverse populations, Portuguese became the language of the liberation struggle. New knowledge and increased access to education empowered the Mozambican people to fight for their liberation.

After the beginning of the armed struggle in Cabo Delgado province in northern Mozambique in 1964, a network of "bush schools" was established and, by 1967, more than 10,000 children were enrolled in FRELIMO primary schools. In the years that followed, teachers set up schools in other provinces, carrying on FRELIMO's vision, which saw education not as the creator of a national elite, but as a means to serve the people. By 1974 more than 20,000 children were enrolled in the four-year primary school program in the various provinces. More than 300 people were enrolled in the fifth to eighth year classes and training courses for primary teachers that had been running since 1972, and more than 100 students were doing postsecondary level courses abroad on FRELIMO scholarships.

The transitional government established on September 25, 1974, set up countrywide Dynamizing Groups that were to provide literacy activities throughout the country. Literacy, defined here as the ability to read and write Portuguese, was seen as the primary means to liberate the creative initiative of the Mozambican people and empower them to attain complete independence and work towards national reconstruction. In 1975 the transitional FRELIMO government identified an illiteracy rate of about 90 percent. By the end of the 1990s, illiteracy rates were estimated at 60 percent. Unfortunately, Mozam bique's move to greater freedom and prosperity through education was beset by obstacles resulting from its geopolitical position in southern Africa; the effects of racial capitalism; the hostility of members of the international community to its socialist option; and the concerted challenge to its attempts to free the creative energies of its people through education.


Rhodesia, South Africa, RENAMO, & Education: During the war between the white regime and both the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) in Zimbabwe, the former British colony of Rhodesia, the people of Mozambique, (especially those in the Tete province, the area in northern Mozambique wedged between Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi) were drawn into the conflict. When Samora Machel's FRELIMO party came to power, he had established a government based on the principles of scientific socialism and committed himself to actively engaging in the elimination of white minority governments. The white government in Rhodesia, which once regarded the neighboring government as an ally, now saw it as an enemy, especially when Mozambique provided a haven to ZAPU and ZANLA forces and the base for guerrilla operations against the country. Zimbabwe's military strikes and hot pursuit operations into the Tete province were devastating not only for ZANU and ZANLA camps but also for the villages that were inhabited by civilian refugees seeking to escape the fighting.

The situation in Tete was compounded by South Africa's political and economical interest in the region. The giant hydroelectric complex at the Cahora Basa Dam on the Zambezi River had been constructed by a consortium largely financed and assisted by the South African government in Pretoria. The Cahora Basa scheme provided electrical power for South Africa that sold some of it back to users in southern Mozambique, especially Maputo. Supported by right-wing elements in the United States, both the Rhodesian and South African regimes supported the Mozambican National Resistance (Resistência Nacional Moçambicana, also known as RENAMO), made up of dissidents opposed to FRELIMO and Portuguese people who had fled Mozambique when FRELIMO came to power.


The Education of Refugees & Displaced People: The effects of war, terrorism, torture, and other atrocities committed in the area were horrendous, especially on education. Many fled to neighboring Zambia where they were held in refugee camps. One such refugee camp was Ukwimi. Members of the International Catholic Child Bureau worked with teachers and children in eight preschools in different villages within the Ukwimi Settlement. Both the children and the teachers had witnessed the most horrendous killings, which affected both teaching and learning. Teachers were first taught how to come to terms with their own distress and then, using the mechanisms of Mozambican culture, to devise methods to help the children cope with their memories, with the loss of family members and of their homeland, and with the pain they had seen inflicted on others or had experienced themselves. Teachers were then taught to move away from the rigid rote system they had used before and to adopt new methods of teaching, involving the children in the learning process. Primary school teachers accompanied their pupils through a similar process, with the one difference that here the teachers were Zambian nationals who first had to learn to understand the concept of stress and recognize its symptoms. In 1994 the Ukwimi refugees repatriated to Mozambique, bringing their newfound knowledge and confidence back to a country where education plays a vital role in addressing the need for reconstruction of personal lives and societal structures.

Since the 1992 Peace Accord, more than 1 million other refugees from neighboring countries have been repatriated and reintegrated into Mozambique. Of these, there are thousands of adolescents who were once functionally literate in Portuguese but have now lost the ability they once had to read and write. Thousands of other returnees were born in refugee camps and are preliterate, which means unable to read and write and too old to be integrated into the preprimary and lower primary educational mainstream.

Distance education programs sponsored by the Mozambican government, the UNDP, the World Bank, and the government of the Netherlands attempted to train unqualified primary school teachers to improve the quality of education, to cope with the influx of nationals of school age returning from exile from neighboring states, and to enable them to be part of the reconstruction of a country whose political experience had led to the devastation of the fabric of life for the majority of its people.


Modern Mozambique: Today Mozambique remains one of the world's economically poorest countries. There is mass illiteracy in a primarily agricultural economy based on farming. The high international debt by which Mozambique has to service the exorbitant interest rates imposed on foreign loans made by the international banks and the restructuring demands made by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund call for priority to be given to financial needs rather than to the immediate survival needs of the country's population; this affects the country's ability to provide essential health and education services. In the year 2000, despite devastating floods that destroyed roads and 140 school buildings in three flooded provinces, Mozambique had to pay $62 million to foreign creditors, and only $32 million of the budget was set aside for education. In a country of 16 million people where 11 million live below the poverty line and 10 million people do not have adequate drinking water, the education sector can only be revived with the recovery of the agricultural sector, as well as with investment in the country and in the infrastructure; this will provide the resources and the expertise the government needs to put into effect its will to reform the education system.

Children's rights and welfare are a priority of the Mozambican government; however, many children are in trouble. Although more than 1,000 new primary schools were opened during 1999, they were overcrowded and often parents had to bribe teachers so that their children could be given a place in school. The 1997 census estimated that 50 percent of children aged 6 through 10 are in primary school, and only a fraction of these go on to secondary school.

Girls have less access to education than boys above the primary level, and about 76 percent of females over 15 years of age are illiterate. Girls made up 42.0 percent of students in grades 1 through 5, 40.0 percent of students in grades 6 through 10, and 48.4 percent in grades 11 and 12. Outside the main cities, secondary schools are fewer and, where boarding is required for attendance, the number of female students drops significantly, especially when local residents, who blame schoolgirls for immoral behavior in the community, demand the exclusion of girls from dormitories.

An estimated 3,000 street children live in the Maputo metropolitan area, and during 1999 NGOs and the government took some steps to protect and reintegrate them into families or other supervised conditions. One NGO, the Association for Mozambican Children (ASEM), opened two alternative learning centers for more than 900 children who were not able to return to their regular schools after being expelled from their homes or because they had left school to work. ASEM was supplied with textbooks by the government. The Maputo City Social Action Coordination Office, through its program of rescuing orphans and assisting single mothers who head families of three or more persons, offered special classes in local schools to children of broken homes. Other NGO groups sponsor food, shelter, and education programs in all major cities. In May 1999 an Africa-wide conference on child soldiers was held in Maputo. The "Maputo Declaration" called for an end to the use of child soldiers, for pressure to be placed on nations in violation, and for the reintegration of child soldiers into civil society.


Language Policy: No one indigenous African linguistic group in Mozambique ever gained control over the whole territory. This process was cut short by the double colonization imposed by the Portuguese and the English. Furthermore, the forms of colonialism were such that as there was no widespread education for African people, no one European language became predominant. Criticism of the Portuguese included a denunciation of their inability to use Mozambique's indigenous languages. However, in the early 1960s FRELIMO decided to adopt Portuguese as the language that would unite nationalist freedom fighters with different language backgrounds in the national independence struggle. This decision was made as there are at least four major Bantu languages, possibly eight, spoken in Mozambique. The four major languages are Makua, Tsonga, Nyanja-Sena, and Shona; the four minor languages are Makonde, Yao, Copi, and Gitonga. Kiswahili, Shangaan (or Tsonga), Zulu, and Swazi are also spoken. People in neighboring countries share all these languages. In order to unite a country with such a linguistically diverse population, Portuguese, which is the mother-tongue of only 3 percent of the nations citizens, has today been declared the official language of the Peoples' Republic of Mozambique and is thus the medium of communication in administration, religion, and education. It is also the language of literacy that was used even during the period of armed struggle (1964-1974) for national independence when FRELIMO spearheaded adult literacy activities. Thus, in Mozambique, literacy is equated not with the ability to read in the mother tongue, but to be in command of Portuguese and English, the language of the former colonial powers, and the languages of communication with the outside world. In many multilingual countries the mother tongue or a local vernacular are the medium of instruction during the first school years, and there is a shift to the national or official language only in later years.

In Mozambique, however, Portuguese is the exclusive medium of instruction from first grade onwards and is also a subject in primary and secondary education. English is a compulsory subject at the secondary level, and English for Academic Purposes is also a compulsory subject in the first two years of most courses administered by the Department of English of the Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM). The Bantu languages are taught only at the UEM. Since 1993 the National Institute for Education Development has been carrying out a bilingual project, which involves using a Bantu language as a medium of instruction in the initial years of primary schooling and gradually making the transition to Portuguese. Even though Portuguese is the national and official language, cultural policy is working towards the valorization of Mozambican indigenous languages and their increased inclusion in the educational process. This move does not, however, deny the fact that Mozambican Portuguese is becoming a language in its own right and that several Mozambican novelists and short-story writers have put Mozambique on the map of Portuguese literature, similar to what has happened to English in India or English in South Africa.


Educational SystemOverview

School age Mozambicans (ages 5 through 24 years) make up more than 50 percent of the country's total population. Although primary education is compulsory and free, the national educational system is not yet capable of absorbing all who should be attending primary education (grades one through seven). The government is making concerted efforts to rehabilitate and expand the educational infrastructures and to train staff with a view to responding to the needs and challenges in education.

About 150,000 students attend night classes, technical and professional schools, adult education programs, and private education. There are about 50,000 pupils in primary and secondary private schools (about 2 percent of the number who are studying in the public sector). Approximately 800,000 students attend Higher Education institutions, and of these about two-thirds attend the Eduardo Mondlane University in Maputo. There are 36 teaching weeks in the school calendar. The medium of instruction is Portuguese, and Portuguese is also taught as a subject. Education in Mozambique is under the jurisdiction of the National Education System (Sistema Nacional de Educação or SNE).


Preprimary & Primary Education


General Survey: Preprimary and primary education is taught in three stages: a preprimary creche, for ages 1 to 5, and Jardim Infantil, for ages 5 and 6; a lower primary level (EP1), for ages 7 to 11, from grades 1 to 5, with approximately 2,180,334 students in 1997; and a higher primary level (EP2), for ages 12 and 13, consisting of grades 6 and 7, with approximately 199,126 students in 1997. While this policy can often not be enforced due to financial and other constraints, both EP1 and EP2 are compulsory. The EP1 pupils are mainly rural; most EP2 students are semi-rural, studying mainly in district seats.

CurriculumExaminations: Eight subjects are taught in EP1 and EP2 (grades 1 through 7). Portuguese is taught for 12 hours per week in grade 1; 11 hours per week in grade 2; 10 hours per week in grades 3 and 4; 9 hours per week in grade 5; 6 hours per week in grade 6; and 5 hours per week in grade 7. Mathematics is taught for 6 hours per week in grades 1 through 5 and for 5 hours per week in grades 6 and 7. Natural sciences is taught for 2 hours per week in grades 3 and 4 and for 3 hours per week in grade 5. Biology is taught for 3 hours per week in grade 6 and for 4 hours per week in grade 7. Geography is taught for 2 hours per week in grade 5 and for 3 hours per week in grades 6 and 7. History is taught for 2 hours per week in grades 4 and 5 and for 3 hours per week in grades 6 and 7. Aesthetics and working education is taught for 2 hours per week in grade 1; 3 hours per week in grades 2 through 5; and 4 hours per week in grades 6 and 7. Physical education is taught for 2 hours per week in grades 1 through 6 and for 3 hours per week in grade 7.

At the end of EP2, students have three options: to proceed to secondary education; to proceed to an elementary technical/vocational education; or to enter basic technical/professional education from which they can move on to middle elementary technical and vocational education. At this stage students also have the option of choosing vocational schools in education.


Repeaters & Dropouts: According to the Ministry of Education, the average pupil-teacher ratio in primary education is 50:1; the dropout and repetition rates are in the region of 20 percent. The quality of education is further aggravated by overcrowded classrooms, insufficient quantities of schoolbooks and teaching materials, and the inadequate professional training of teachers. Their poor living conditions and lack of access to sources that would help them deal with the issues facing the country before they are asked to take responsibility for their students' educations are also problems. Other reasons for the high dropout rate are problems with the official language, migration of families, and poverty of families.

Although public primary education is free and compulsory, less than 50 percent of school-age children attend classes. Because of financial and other constraints, the government has been unable to enforce this policy. Even though the minimum working age is 18-years-old and children younger than 15 are not permitted to work, children not in school frequently are employed in the agricultural and casual labor sectors, increasingly in construction jobs and in the informal labor sector. Often children younger than 15 work alongside their parents or independently in seasonal harvests or commercial plantations where they are normally compensated with school supplies and books rather than money.

Secondary Education


General Survey: Secondary education (ESG) is taught in two cycles: ESG1 and ESG2. The first cycle (ESG1) lasts for 3 years and is for those aged 14 to 16, or grades 8 to 10; it had approximately 58,048 students in 1997. The second cycle (ESG2) lasts 2 years and is for those aged 17 and 18, or grades 11 and 12; it had approximately 7,037 students in 1997. There are only 82 public secondary schools nationwide, of which only 18 offer classes through grade 12. The medium of instruction is Portuguese, and both Portuguese and English are compulsory school subjects.


Curriculum-Examinations: Eleven subjects are taught in ESG1 and ESG2. Portuguese is taught for 5 hours per week in grades 8 through 10 and for 4 hours per week in grades 11 and 12. English is taught for 3 hours per week in grades 8 through 10 and for 3 to 5 hours per week in grades 11 and 12. Mathematics is taught for 5 hours per week in grades 8 through 12. Biology is taught for 3 hours per week in grades 8 through 10 and for 4 hours per week in grades 11 and 12. Physics is taught for 3 hours per week in grades 8 through 10 and for 4 hours per week in grades 11 and 12. History is taught for 2 hours per week in grades 8 through 10 and for 4 hours per week in grades 11 and 12. Geography is taught for 2 hours per week in grades 8 through 10 and for 4 hours per week in grades 11 and 12. Chemistry is taught for 3 hours per week in grades 8 and 10 and for 4 hours per week in grades 11 and 12. Drawing is taught for 2 hours per week in grades 8 through 10 and for 3 hours per week in grades 11 and 12. Physical education is taught for 2 hours per week in grades 8 through 12. French is taught for 4 hours per week in Grades 11 and 12.

At the end of ESG1 students have the following options: to enter ESG2, the pre-university, academic education cycle; to proceed to teacher training; or to proceed to the adult pre-university cycle from which they will be able to proceed to Higher Education institutions. ESG1 students attend school in provincial capitals and major provincial districts, and ESG2 students can only do their schooling in certain provincial capitals.


Higher Education


Types of Higher Education Institutions: Public & Private: Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM) is a public institution based in Maputo. Under the new Africanization policy of the Portuguese education authorities, general studies were offered from the early 1960s on. Later the faculty of general studies was designated as a university and, in 1970, a faculty of economics was added. Thus, the UEM was created in 1962 under the name Estudos Gerais. Later it was designated the University of Lourenço Marques; in 1976 it received its current name. The UEM enrolls 3,712 students, almost one-third of the nation's college students, and is provided with 23 percent of the government's education budget, along with 39 percent of the contributions to the nation's education system from outside donors.

The Pedagogical University (UP) is also a public institution based in Maputo, created in 1986. It has established branches in the cities of Beira and Nampula. The Pedagogical University is particularly involved in the pre-service training of teachers for secondary education. The Higher Institute of International Relations (ISRI) is the third public institution that was created in 1986. It, too, is based in Maputo. There are three private institutions of higher education. The first is the Higher Polytechnic University Institute (ISPU), created in 1996. It is based in Maputo and has branches in the town of Quelimane. The second private institution is the Catholic University of Mozambique (UCM), which was founded in 1997 and is located in Beira. The third private higher education institution, also in Maputo, is the Higher Institute for Science and Technology of Mozambique (ISCTEM). It was founded in 1997 and offers both full-time and part-time study up to the master's degree level. In February 2001 it opened a new campus in the center of Maputo. The Mussa Bin Bique University is to be set up in the town of Angoche in the Nampula Province in northern Mozambique, just south of Cabo Delgado, and will primarily be a cultural center for the teaching of Arabic.


Courses, Semesters, & Diplomas: Higher education encompasses the 19 to 24 years age group and is designed to take 6 years, or 12 semesters, of study. Those who have completed the adult education cycle also have access to higher education. Depending on the combination of courses taken in school, those receiving an education at Eduardo Mondlane University can be divided into three groups that take a certain combination of courses: Group A's general subjects include Portuguese, English, French, history, and geography; university courses to which access is available include linguistics, Portuguese, law, history, French, diplomacy, English, geography, psychology, pedagogy, and economics. Specific subjects for Group A are English, biology, and mathematics. Group B's general subjects include Portuguese, English, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and biology; university courses to which access is available include geology, agronomy, medicine, veterinary science, biology, chemistry/biology, and physical education. Specific subjects for Group B are geography and biology. Group C's general subjects include Portuguese, English, mathematics/physics, drawing, and chemistry; university courses to which access is available include engineering, architecture, physics and chemical sciences, mathematics, and physics. There are no specific subjects in this group.

English and Portuguese are compulsory subjects administered at the UEM. English is a compulsory subject in the first two years of most courses, administered by the Department of English. French is an optional subject (either French or English) in the social sciences course at the UEM, and it may be reintroduced at the Faculty of Arts. The Bantu languages Emakhuwa and Xichangana are taught at the UEM in linguistics (four semesters) and history (one semester) degree courses.


Nonformal Education


Adult Education: Students who are 15 years or older who have not been through the usual system of education can be accommodated in the adult literacy program (Ensiono Primáro de Adultos Alfabetização), which also has two levels. As is the case with students completing EP2, students who have completed the second level of adult literacy education may proceed to an elementary technical vocational education or to enter basic technical professional education from where they can move on to middle elementary technical and vocational education. At this stage students also have the option of choosing vocational schools in education. Or they may proceed to adult secondary education. From here they have the options offered to traditional ESG2 students.

Adult students who have completed the first two levels of adult literacy education have an option not available to traditional students. They may join the accelerated pre-university cycle (Ensino Pré-Universitário Icelerado). This form of education has its roots in the Mozambican liberation struggle when, due to the brain drain and the lack of education of the majority of the people, the maximum access to education had to be provided in the shortest possible time. Accelerated Training for Workers (Centros de Formação Acelerada para Trabalhadores or CFATs) is the Mozambican government's attempt to move beyond basic literacy training to a place where adults could advance their educational potential and as soon as possible make a contribution towards meeting the needs of the emerging nation. In the Centers, academic attainment is raised to the equivalent of grade four in primary schooling. The next step is to raise the level of academic achievement to the equivalent of grade six of primary schooling. Each step can be completed in a fraction of the time, often six months. After completing the accelerated pre-university cycle, adult students may proceed to the higher education level and to possible teacher training courses.


Distance Education: As is the case in most African countries, large land areas, long distances between cities, and the remoteness of large numbers of the population make it necessary for many people to obtain education, especially higher education, through distance education. In distance education there is, thus, not always a clear distinction between nonformal and formal education. In Mozambique the difficult state of distance education is exacerbated by the extreme poverty of the country's population, the high illiteracy rate, and the devastation caused by years of political strife, first internal and then because of being drawn into the political struggles taking place in the then Rhodesia and South Africa. In the early 1980s, the government successfully trained 1,200 unqualified primary school teachers in attempting to cope with the return of the country's nationals from neighboring states. The Ministry of Education then expanded the service to provide education to the wider community. This expansion led to the founding of the Instituto de Aperteiçoamento de Professores or IAP, which took over the responsibility for distance education from the National Institute for Development of Education (INED). INED had, until then, been responsible for introducing new teaching methodologies, including distance education. Funded by the Government of Mozambique and sponsored by the World Bank, the IAP is to provide a nationwide service and support the Ministry of Education in its efforts to collaborate with neighboring countries. It is hoped that despite language differences, regional cooperation will accelerate the development of distance education in the country, bringing in new ideas, the exchange of information, and workshops and seminars that will add to the professional skills of Mozambique's educators.

Through printed course material and through radio, IAP offers a full range of secondary school subjects and the teaching of social sciences, mathematics, and Portuguese. Other institutions involved in distance teaching are the Departamento de Ensino à Distância, which uses printed course material, radio and face-to-face tuition to raise the academic level of primary teachers and to improve their teaching skills and the Instituto de Communicaçao Social which through the medium of radio, a journal called O Campo, and television, makes nonformal education available to peasant farmers and other people living in rural areas.


Global Access: By the end of 1999, all African countries except Eritrea, Somalia, and Libya had local Internet access, with South Africa leading the number of Internet Service Providers and the number of computers connected to the Internet. There is, however, much concern that the English language does not only dominate the global information infrastructure but also that its content almost exclusively targets the needs of users in the United States and the United Kingdom. A 1999 survey of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa has shown that Africa generates only 0.4 percent of global content. If the South African contribution is excluded, the figure is merely 0.02 percent. As there are so few African content developers, there is a growing realization that African academic and research institutions and governments need to make a real effort to rectify the imbalance.

They need not only to publish the academic research done on the African continent, which is presently only available in the sponsoring institutions, but also to develop materials that will allow African and other users to access indigenous languages on the Internet. There is much valuable work being done at the Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, especially in the areas of language development and language policy, as well as in education. This is a country whose very structure has been destroyed but whose people nevertheless have, time and again, found the will to create a new reality. This new reality could benefit the global discussion in these fields and could enhance the perception in Mozambique that its highest public academic institution has the capacity to produce and publish the information and the research done by its faculty and students. Similarly, while the foreign languages (English, Portuguese, French) spoken in Africa are well-represented on the Internet, little has been undertaken to advance African indigenous languages through this medium. There is no reason why a country like Mozambique whose people speak various Bantu languages, several of which are official and national languages in neighboring countries, should not publish language materials produced in at least some of these languages. Yet, the poverty that puts education beyond the reach of most of the people of Mozambique means that access to the Internet is far beyond the feasible reality available to those who belong to the 80 percent of the world's population that has never heard a dial tone, let alone seen a computer.


Teaching Profession


Training & Qualifications: In 1975, to combat the teacher shortage caused by the leaving of qualified teachers after independence, 10 Primary School Teacher Training Centers (PSTTCs) were created, one in each province. In the course of the years, the content of the training courses was adapted to meet the developing needs of education. On leaving the Center, the new teachers are authorized to teach EP1 (grades 1 through 5). The duration of the course is three years. The Ministry of Education plans to increase the entrance level to grade 10 (from grade 7) and to shorten the time of training to 2 years. In 1978 a Teachers' Training and Education School (TTES) began to function in Maputo. Here teachers for EP2 are trained. To be qualified to teach EP2 (grades 6 and 7), a teacher needs to pass grade 10 and receive three years of training. The Teachers' Upgrading Institute (IAP) is also undertaking teacher training and in-service training, as is the Pedagogical University that specializes in pre-service training of secondary education teachers. The Ministry of Education intends to arrange the Integrated Pedagogical Zones and start in-service training programs by means of radio, lessons, and in-service materials.


Summary

As is the case in many African countries, Mozambique's economic structures have been disrupted by the effects of neo-colonialism, famine, war, irreversible environmental damage, and more recently, the impact of the AIDS virus and the devastation caused by floods in 1999. This has contributed to the dislocation of millions of people and has had an effect especially on women and children and on education. The situation has been exacerbated by the international debt which, because of exorbitant interest rates, keeps growing. Thus, despite its demonstrated commitment to education, Mozambique is forced to pay more than twice the amount to service the debt than it does on education and health care. Cancellation of the international debt, not merely a moratorium on debt repayments, is vital if Mozambique is ever to have even the slightest possibility of finding its feet educationally. Despite several hundred years of colonization and debilitating wars (both internally, and as a result of foreign interference), the FRELIMO government in Mozambique has devoted a large part of its energies to education. Despite the chaos left by five centuries of humiliation and exploitation, the Mozambican people and the Mozambican government have made tremendous efforts to build a new nation. There is an urgent need for international organizations, NGOs, and non-profit organizations to provide practical and financial support that has no strings attached with regard to imposing on Mozambique the philosophical option it chooses to educate its citizens. There is an equally urgent need for the international community to take co-responsibility for a country which, beginning from the times of the slave trade and continuing with the modern export of cash crops that (at the expense of much needed food crops) are grown for consumption in the developed world, has contributed so much to the prosperity and affluence of certain parts of the world yet has suffered so much in return.

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Karin I. Paasche

views updated

Mozambique

Compiled from the December 2006 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Republic of Mozambique

PROFILE

PEOPLE

HISTORY

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

ECONOMY

FOREIGN RELATIONS

U.S.-MOZAMBICAN RELATIONS

TRAVEL

PROFILE

Geography

Area: 799,380 sq. km.; about twice the size of California.

Cities: Capital—Maputo (pop. 1.2 million—2005 est.) Beira, Matola, Nampula, Quelimane, Tete, Nacala.

Terrain: Varies from lowlands to high plateau.

Climate: Tropical to subtropical.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective—Mozambican(s).

Population: (2005 est.) 19.4 million; 48.2% male and 51.8% female.

Population annual growth rate: (2004)—1.8%.

Ethnic groups: Makua, Tsonga, Makonde, Shangaan, Shona, Sena, Ndau, and other indigenous groups, and approximately 10,000 Europeans, 35,000 Euro-Africans, and 15,000 South Asians.

Religions: Christian 30%, Muslim 17%, indigenous African and other beliefs 45%.

Languages: Portuguese (official), various indigenous languages.

Education: Mean years of schooling (adults over 25) men 2.1, women 1.2. Primary net enrolment rate (2003)—61%. Adult illiteracy rate (2003)—53.6%.

Health: Infant mortality rate (2004)—104/1,000. Life expectancy (2004)—42 years.

Work force: (9.2 million est. 2004) Agriculture—81%; industry—6%; services—13%.

Government

Type: Multi-party democracy.

Independence: June 25, 1975.

Constitution: November 1990.

Government branches: Executive—President, Council of Ministers. Legislative—National Assembly, municipal assemblies. Judicial—Supreme Court, provincial, district, and municipal courts.

Political subdivisions: 10 provinces, 224 districts, and 33 municipalities, of which Maputo City is the largest.

Political parties: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO); Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO); numerous small parties.

Suffrage: Universal adult, 18 years and older.

Economy

GDP: (2005) $5.5 billion.

Annual economic (GDP) growth rate: (2004) 8.2%.

Per capita gross national income: (2004) $250.

Per capita gross domestic product: (2004) $276.

Natural resources: Hydroelectric power, coal, natural gas, titanium ore, tantalite, graphite, iron ore, semi-precious stones, and arable land.

Agriculture: (25.2% of GDP; annual growth 7.9%) Exports—cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers, beef and poultry. Domestically consumed food crops—corn, pigeon peas, cassava, rice, beef, pork, chicken, and goat.

Industry: (35.1% of GDP; annual growth 10%) Types—food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, and tobacco.

Services: (39.7% of GDP; annual growth 4.7%).

Trade: Imports (2004)—$1.424 billion. Import commodities: Machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs and textiles. Main suppliers: South Africa, Australia, U.S., Portugal, Japan. Exports (2004)—$1.258 billion. Export commodities: Aluminum, cashews, prawns, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber, bulk electricity, natural gas. Main markets: Belgium, South Africa, Spain, Portugal.

PEOPLE

Mozambique’s major ethnic groups encompass numerous subgroups with diverse languages, dialects, cultures, and histories. Many are linked to similar ethnic groups living in neighboring countries. The north-central provinces of Zambezia and Nampula are the most populous, with about 45% of the population. The estimated 4 million Makua are the dominant group in the northern part of the country—the Sena and Ndau are prominent in the Zambezi valley, and the Tsonga and Shangaan dominate in southern Mozambique.

Despite the influence of Islamic coastal traders and European colonizers, the people of Mozambique have largely retained an indigenous culture based on small-scale agriculture. Mozambique’s most highly developed art forms have been wood sculpture, for which the Makonde in northern Mozambique are particularly renowned, and dance. The middle and upper classes continue to be heavily influenced by the Portuguese colonial and linguistic heritage.

During the colonial era, Christian missionaries were active in Mozambique, and many foreign clergy remain in the country. According to the national census, about 20%-30% of the population is Christian, 15%-20% is Muslim, and the remainder adheres to traditional beliefs.

Under the colonial regime, educational opportunities for black Mozambicans were limited, and 93% of that population was illiterate. In fact, most of today’s political leaders were educated in missionary schools. After independence, the government placed a high priority on expanding education, which reduced the illiteracy rate to about two-thirds as primary school enrollment increased. Unfortunately, in recent years school construction and teacher training enrollments have not kept up with population increases. With post-war enrollments reaching all-time highs, the quality of education has suffered.

HISTORY

Mozambique’s first inhabitants were San hunter and gatherers, ancestors of the Khoisani peoples. Between the first and fourth centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking peoples migrated from the north through the Zambezi River valley and then gradually into the plateau and coastal areas. The Bantu were farmers and ironworkers.

When Portuguese explorers reached Mozambique in 1498, Arab-trading settlements had existed along the coast and outlying islands for several centuries. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts became regular ports of call on the new route to the east. Later, traders and prospectors penetrated the interior regions seeking gold and slaves. Although Portuguese influence gradually expanded, its power was limited and exercised through individual settlers who were granted extensive autonomy. As a result, investment lagged while Lisbon devoted itself to the more lucrative trade with India and the Far East and to the colonization of Brazil.

By the early 20th century the Portuguese had shifted the administration of much of the country to large private companies, controlled and financed mostly by the British, which established railroad lines to neighboring countries and supplied cheap—often forced—African labor to the mines and plantations of the nearby British colonies and South Africa. Because policies were designed to benefit white settlers and the Portuguese homeland, little attention was paid to Mozambique’s national integration, its economic infrastructure, or the skills of its population.

After World War II, while many European nations were granting independence to their colonies, Portugal clung to the concept that Mozambique and other Portuguese possessions were overseas provinces of the mother country, and emigration to the colonies soared. Mozambique’s Portuguese population at the time of independence was about 250,000.

The drive for Mozambican independence developed apace, and in 1962 several anti-colonial political groups formed the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), which initiated an armed campaign against Portuguese colonial rule in September 1964. After 10 years of sporadic warfare and major political changes in Portugal, Mozambique became independent on June 25, 1975.

The last 30 years of Mozambique’s history have reflected political developments elsewhere in the 20th century. Following the April 1974 coup in Lisbon, Portuguese colonialism collapsed. In Mozambique, the military decision to withdraw occurred within the context of a decade of armed anti-colonial struggle, initially led by American-educated Eduardo Mond-lane, who was assassinated in 1969. When independence was achieved in 1975, the leaders of FRELIMO’s military campaign rapidly established a one-party state allied to the Soviet bloc and outlawed rival political activity. FRELIMO eliminated political pluralism, religious educational institutions, and the role of traditional authorities.

The new government gave shelter and support to South African (ANC) and Zimbabwean (ZANU) liberation movements while the governments of first Rhodesia and later apartheid South Africa fostered and financed an armed rebel movement in central Mozambique called the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO). Civil war, sabotage from neighboring states, and economic collapse characterized the first decade of Mozambican independence. Also marking this period were the mass exodus of Portuguese nationals, weak infrastructure, nationalization, and economic mismanagement.

During most of the civil war, the government was unable to exercise effective control outside of urban areas, many of which were cut off from the capital. An estimated 1 million Mozambicans perished during the civil war, 1.7 million took refuge in neighboring states, and several million more were internally displaced. In the third FRELIMO party congress

in 1983, President Samora Machel conceded the failure of socialism and the need for major political and economic reforms. He died, along with several advisers, in a suspicious 1986 plane crash.

His successor, Joaquim Chissano, continued the reforms and began peace talks with RENAMO. The new constitution enacted in 1990 provided for a multi-party political system, market-based economy, and free elections. The civil war ended in October 1992 with the Rome General Peace Accords. Under supervision of the ONUMOZ peacekeeping force of the United Nations, peace returned to Mozambique.

By mid-1995 the more than 1.7 million Mozambican refugees who had sought asylum in neighboring Malawi, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Zambia, Tanzania, and South Africa as a result of war and drought had returned, as part of the largest repatriation witnessed in Sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, a further estimated 4 million internally displaced people returned to their areas of origin.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Mozambique is a multi-party democracy under the 1990 constitution. The executive branch comprises a president, prime minister, and Council of Ministers. There is a National Assembly and municipal assemblies. The judiciary comprises a Supreme Court and provincial, district, and municipal courts. Suffrage is universal at 18.

In 1994 the country held its first democratic elections. Joaquim Chissano was elected President with 53% of the vote, and a 250-member National Assembly was voted in with 129 FRELIMO deputies, 112 RENAMO deputies, and 9 representatives of three smaller parties that formed the Democratic Union (UD). Since its formation in 1994, the National Assembly has made progress in becoming a body increasingly more independent of the executive. By 1999, more than one-half (53%) of the legislation passed originated in the Assembly.

After some delays, in 1998 the country held its first local elections to provide for local representation and some budgetary authority at the municipal level. The principal opposition party, RENAMO, boycotted the local elections, citing flaws in the registration process. Independent slates contested the elections and won seats in municipal assemblies. Turnout was very low.

In the aftermath of the 1998 local elections, the government resolved to make more accommodations to the opposition’s procedural concerns for the second round of multiparty national elections in 1999. Working through the National Assembly, the electoral law was rewritten and passed by consensus in December 1998. Financed largely by international donors, a very successful voter registration was conducted from July to September 1999, providing voter registration cards to 85% of the potential electorate (more than 7 million voters).

The second general elections were held December 3-5, 1999, with high voter turnout. International and domestic observers agreed that the voting process was well organized and went smoothly. Both the opposition and observers subsequently cited flaws in the tabulation process that, had they not occurred, might have changed the outcome. In the end, however, international and domestic observers concluded that the close result of the vote reflected the will of the people. President Chissano won the presidency with a margin of 4% points over the RENAMO-Electoral Union coalition candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, and began his 5-year term in January 2000. FRELIMO increased its majority in the National Assembly with 133 out of 250 seats. RENAMO-UE coalition won 116 seats, one went independent, and no third parties are represented.

The opposition coalition did not accept the National Election Commission’s results of the presidential vote and filed a formal complaint to the Supreme Court. One month after the voting, the court dismissed the opposition’s challenge and validated the election results. The opposition did not file a complaint about the results of the legislative vote.

The second local elections, involving 33 municipalities with some 2.4 million registered voters, took place in November 2003. This was the first time that FRELIMO, RENAMO-UE, and independent parties competed without significant boycotts. The 24% turnout was well above the 15% turnout in the first municipal elections. FRELIMO won 28 mayoral positions and the majority in 29 municipal assemblies, while RENAMO won 5 mayoral positions and the majority in 4 municipal assemblies. The voting was conducted in an orderly fashion without violent incidents. However, the period immediately after the elections was marked by objections about voter and candidate registration and vote tabulation, as well as calls for greater transparency. In May 2004, the government approved a new general elections law that contained innovations based on the experience of the 2003 municipal elections. Presidential and National Assembly elections took place on December 1-2, 2004. FRELIMO candidate Armando Guebuza won with 64% of the popular vote. His opponent, Afonso Dhlakama of RENAMO, received 32% of the popular vote. FRELIMO won 160 seats in Parliament. A coalition of RENAMO and several small parties won the 90 remaining seats. Armando Guebuza was inaugurated as the President of Mozambique on February 2, 2005. The government has scheduled provincial elections in 2007, municipal elections in 2008, and presidential and parliamentary elections in 2009.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 2/6/2005

President: Armando GUEBUZA

Prime Minister: Luisa Dias DIOGO

Min. of Agriculture: Tomas MANDLATE

Min. of Coordination of Environmental Action: Luciano Andre DE CASTRO

Min. of Development & Planning: Aiuba CUERENEIA

Min. of Education & Culture: Aires Bonifacio ALI

Min. of Energy: Salvador NAMBURETE

Min. of Finance: Manuel CHANG

Min. of Fisheries: Cadmiel MUTHEMBA

Min. of Foreign Affairs & Cooperation: Alcinda ABREU

Min. of Health: Paulo Ivo GARRIDO

Min. of Industry & Commerce: Antonio FERNANDO

Min. of Interior: Jose PACHECO

Min. of Justice:

Min. of Labor: Helena TAIPO

Min. of Mineral Resources: Esperanca BIAS

Min. of National Defense: Tobias DAI

Min. of Public Works & Housing: Felicio ZACARIAS

Min. of Science & Technology:

Min. of State Administration: Lucas CHOMERA

Min. of Tourism: Fernando SUMBANA, Jr.

Min. of Transport & Communication: Antonio Francisco MUNGUAMBE

Min. of Veteran’s Affairs:

Min. of Women & Social Action: Virgilia MATABELE

Min. of Youth & Sports: David SIMANGO

Min. in the Presidency for Diplomatic Affairs: Francisco Caetano MADEIRA

Min. in the Presidency for Parliamentary Affairs: Isabel Manuel NKAVADEKA

Attorney General: Antonio NAMBURETE

Governor, Central Bank: Adriano Afonso MALEIANE

Ambassador to the US: Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Filipe CHIDUMO

Mozambique maintains an embassy in the United States at 1990 M Street, NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036; tel: 202-293-7146.

ECONOMY

Macroeconomic Review

Alleviating poverty. At the end of the civil war in 1992, Mozambique ranked among the poorest countries in the world. It still ranks among the least developed nations with very low socioeconomic indicators. In the last decade, however, it has experienced a notable economic recovery. Per capita GDP in 2004 was estimated at U.S. $276, a significant increase over the mid-1980s level of U.S. $120. With a high foreign debt (originally $5.7 billion at 1998 net present value) and a good track record on economic reform, Mozambique was the first African country to receive debt relief under the initial HIPC (Heavily Indebted Poor Countries) Initiative. In April 2000, Mozambique qualified for the Enhanced HIPC program as well and attained its completion point in September 2001. This led to the Paris Club members agreeing in November 2001 to substantially reduce the remaining bilateral debt. This led to the complete forgiveness of a considerable volume of bilateral debt. The United States has finished this process and forgiven Mozambique’s debt.

During their summit in Scotland in July 2005, the G8 nations agreed to significant multilateral debt relief for the world’s least developed nations. On December 21, 2005, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) formalized the complete cancellation of all Mozambican IMF debt contracted prior to January 1, 2005.

Rebounding growth. The resettlement of civil war refugees, political stability and continuing economic reforms have led to a high economic growth rate. Between 1994 and 2004 average annual GDP growth was 8.2%. Mozambique achieved this growth rate even though the devastating floods of 2000 slowed GDP growth to 2.1%. The economy bounced back and consistent GDP growth rates between 7% and 8% are expected again in 2005 and 2006, with the World Bank predicting average growth of 7% from 2004 through 2008. The Government of the Republic of Mozambique projects similar growth expansion (between 7%-10% a year over the next five years), but future strong expansion requires continued economic reforms, major foreign direct investment, and the resurrection of the agriculture, transportation and tourism sectors. Focusing on economic growth in the agricultural sector is a major challenge for the government. Although more than 80% of the population engages in small-scale agriculture, the sector suffers from inadequate infrastructure, commercial networks and investment. However a majority of Mozambique’s arable land is still uncultivated, leaving room for considerable growth.

Low inflation. The government’s tight control of spending and the money supply, combined with financial sector reform, successfully reduced inflation from 70% in 1994 to less than 5% in 1998-1999. Economic disruptions resulting from the devastating floods of 2000 caused inflation to jump to 12.7% that year. The government is still working to bring inflation down to those lower numbers. In 2003 inflation reached 13.5%; in 2004 it decreased slightly to 12.6% (consumer price index used to measure inflation rates). As of late December 2005, the exchange rate was approximately 24,000 meticais per dollar, though it had been as low as 18,000 and as high as 29,000 at different times during 2005. In summer 2006, the government introduced a “new family” of Meticais. One new Metical is worth 1,000 old Meticais. This reform knocks three zeroes off the metical exchange rate, making it easy to use with other currencies.

Extensive economic reform. Economic reform has been extensive. More than 1,200 state-owned enterprises (mostly small) have been privatized. Preparations for privatization and/or sector liberalization are underway for the remaining parastatals, including telecommunications, electricity, ports, and the railroads. The government frequently selects a strategic foreign investor when privatizing a parastatal. Additionally, customs duties have been reduced, and customs management has been streamlined and reformed. The government introduced a highly successful value-added tax in 1999 as part of its efforts to increase domestic revenues. Plans for 2005-06 include Commercial Code reform; revision of the labor law; comprehensive judicial reform; financial sector strengthening; continued civil service reform; and improved government budget, audit, and inspection capability.

Improving trade imbalance. In 2004 Mozambique exported $1.26 billion worth of goods and imported $1.4 billion. The ratio of exports to imports has increased significantly from the immediate-postwar years, when it was 1 to 4. Support programs provided by foreign donors and private financing of foreign direct investment mega-projects and their associated raw materials have largely compensated for balance-of-payment shortfalls. The medium-term outlook for exports is encouraging, as a number of recent foreign investment projects have improved the trade balance. This export growth is expected to continue. MOZAL I, a large aluminum smelter that commenced production in mid-2000, greatly expanded Mozambique’s trade volume. In April 2001, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) approved financing assistance for MOZAL II, which doubled overall production capacity. Phase two went online in April 2003, five months ahead of schedule, using primarily Mozambican workers during construction. Traditional Mozambican exports include cashews, shrimp, fish, copra, sugar, cotton, tea and citrus and exotic fruits. Most of these industries are being rehabilitated. In addition, Mozambique is less dependent upon imports for basic food and manufactured goods as the result of steady increases in local production.

SADC trade protocol. In December 1999, the Mozambican Council of Ministers approved the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Trade Protocol. The Protocol will create a free trade zone among more than 200 million consumers in the SADC region. Implementation of the Protocol began in 2002 and has an overall zero-tariff target set for 2008; however, Mozambique’s country-specific zero-tariff goal is currently 2015. Mozambique joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) on August 26, 1995.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

While allegiances dating back to the liberation struggle remain relevant, Mozambique’s foreign policy has become increasingly pragmatic. The twin pillars of Mozambique’s foreign policy are maintenance of good relations with its neighbors and maintenance and expansion of ties to development partners.

During the 1970s and early 1980s, Mozambique’s foreign policy was inextricably linked to the struggles for majority rule in Rhodesia and South Africa as well as superpower competition and the Cold War. Mozambique’s decision to enforce UN sanctions against Rhodesia and deny that country access to the sea led Ian Smith’s regime to undertake overt and covert actions to destabilize the country. Although the change of government in Zimbabwe in 1980 removed this threat, the apartheid regime in South Africa continued to finance the destabilization of Mozambique.

The 1984 Nkomati Accord, while failing in its goal of ending South African support to RENAMO, opened initial diplomatic contacts between the Mozambican and South African Governments. This process gained momentum with South Africa’s elimination of apartheid, which culminated in the establishment of full diplomatic relations in October 1993. While relations with neighboring Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania show occasional strains, Mozambique’s ties to these countries remain strong.

In the years immediately following its independence, Mozambique benefited from considerable assistance from some western countries, notably the Scandinavians. Moscow and its allies, however, became Mozambique’s primary economic, military, and political supporters and its foreign policy reflected this linkage. This began to change in 1983; in 1984 Mozambique joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Western aid quickly replaced Soviet support, with the Scandinavians, the United States, the Netherlands, and the European Union becoming increasingly important sources of development assistance. Italy also maintains a profile in Mozambique as a result of its key role during the peace process. Relations with Portugal, the former colonial power, are complex and of some importance as Portuguese investors play a visible role in Mozambique’s economy.

Mozambique is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and ranks among the moderate members of the African Bloc in the United Nations and other international organizations. Mozambique also belongs to the Organization of African Unity/African Union and the Southern African Development Community. In 1994, the government became a full member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, in part to broaden its base of international support but also to please the country’s sizeable Muslim population. Similarly, in early 1996 Mozambique joined its Anglophone neighbors in the Commonwealth. In the same year, Mozambique became a founding member and the first President of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and maintains close ties with other Luso-phone states.

U.S.-MOZAMBICAN RELATIONS

Relations between the United States and Mozambique are good and steadily improving. This state of comity, spurred by the end of the superpower confrontation on the continent, South Africa’s democratic transition, and Mozambique’s own internal changes, bodes well for continued strong ties. By 1993, U.S. aid to Mozambique was prominent, due in part to significant emergency food assistance in the wake of the 1991-93 southern African drought, but more importantly in support of the peace and reconciliation process. During the process leading up to elections in October 1994, the United States served as a significant financier and member of the most important commissions established to monitor implementation of the Rome General Peace Accords. The United States is one of the largest bilateral donors to the country and plays a leading role in donor efforts to assist Mozambique with its ongoing economic and political transitions.

The U.S. Embassy opened in Maputo on November 8, 1975, and the first American ambassador arrived in March 1976. In that same year, the United States extended a $10 million grant to the Government of Mozambique to help compensate for the economic costs of enforcing sanctions against Rhodesia. In 1977, however, largely motivated by a concern with human rights violations, the U.S. Congress prohibited the provision of development aid to Mozambique without a presidential certification that such aid would be in the foreign policy interests of the United States. Relations hit a nadir in March 1981, when the Government of Mozambique expelled four members of the U.S. Embassy staff. In response, the United States suspended plans to provide development aid and to name a new ambassador to Mozambique. Relations between the two countries languished in a climate of stagnation and mutual suspicion.

Contacts between the two countries continued in the early 1980s as part of the U.S. administration’s conflict resolution efforts in the region. In late 1983, a new U.S. ambassador arrived in Maputo, and the first Mozambican envoy to the United States arrived in Washington, signaling a thaw in the bilateral relationship. The United States subsequently responded to Mozambique’s economic reform and drift away from Moscow’s embrace by initiating an aid program in 1984. President Samora Machel paid a symbolically important official working visit to the United States in 1985, where he met President Reagan. After that meeting, a full U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) mission was established, and significant assistance for economic reform efforts began. President Chissano met with President Bush in September 2003; previously, he had met with Presidents Reagan (October 1987), Bush (March 1990), and Clinton (November 1998), and also with Secretaries of State Powell (February 2002) and Baker (July 1992). Since taking office in February 2005, President Guebuza has visited the United States on four occasions. In June 2005, President Guebuza visited Washington, DC to take part in President Bush’s mini-summit on Africa, along with the leaders of Ghana, Namibia, Botswana, and Niger. Later that month, he attended the Corporate Council on Africa (CCA) Business Summit in Baltimore. President Guebuza returned in September 2005 for the UN General Assembly in New York and in December 2005 attended the Fourth Development Cooperation Forum at the Carter Center in Atlanta.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

MAPUTO (E) Address: 193 Kenneth Kaunda; APO/FPO: P.O. Box 783. Maputo, Mozambique 2330, Maputo Place, WashDC 20521-2330; Phone: 258 2149 27 97; Fax: 258 2149 01 14; Workweek: 0730-1730 Monday-Thursday–0730-1130 Friday; Website: http://Mozambique.usembassy.gov.

AMB:Vacant
AMB OMS:Vacant
DCM/CHG:James L. Dudley
DCM OMS:Mary M. Mertz
POL:Leonel Miranda
POL/ECO:John A. Wysham
CON:Jeffrey Lodermeier
MGT:John M. Kowalski
AFSA:Kristin M. Kane
AID:Jay Knott
CLO:Delia Quick
DAO:John M. Roddy
ECO/COM:Brooke L. Williams
EEO:Mark E. Myelle
FMO:Martin B. Schwartz
GSO:William H. Quick
ICASS Chair:Kristin Kane?
IMO:Mark E. Myelle
PAO:Kristin M. Kane
PAO/ADV:Deborah Hooker
RSO:Steven M. Jones

Last Updated: 1/17/2007

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet : February 15, 2007

Country Description: Mozambique is a developing country in southern Africa which has steadily rebuilt its economy and civic institutions since ending a 16-year civil war in 1992. The country stabilized following Mozambique’s first multi-party elections in October 1994, and a new president was elected in December 2004. Despite high economic growth rates in recent years, Mozambique remains among the world’s poorest countries. Facilities for tourism in Maputo, the capital city, are steadily improving but remain limited in other areas as many of the goods and services taken for granted in other countries are not yet available.

Entry/Exit Requirements: A visa is required for entry into Mozambique. It is recommended that travelers acquire the appropriate visa prior to departing for Mozambique, although a one-entry visa can be obtained at country points of entry, including airports. Foreigners in Mozambique without a valid visa can expect to pay up to a $100 fine for each day they are in Mozambique illegally. The fine can be assessed upon departure or if caught while in Mozambique by authorities. The passports of all travelers who wish to enter Mozambique must be valid for six months upon arrival and must contain at least three clean (unstamped) visa pages each time entry is sought. The Mozambican Embassy and Consulates in South Africa charge up to five times the amount charged in the U.S. or at border crossing points for a tourist visa to Mozambique. For further information on entry requirements, contact the Embassy of Mozambique located at 1990 M Street, NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036, telephone: (202) 293-7146, email: [email protected] aol.com, website: www.embamoc-usa.org/, fax: (202) 835 0245, or the nearest Mozambican embassy or consulate. Contact the Embassy of Mozambique for the most current visa information.

Safety and Security: Overland travel after dark is extremely dangerous due to poor road conditions, lack of emergency services, and the increased potential for vehicle hijacking. Visitors should be particularly vigilant when driving on the main thoroughfares connecting Mozambique and South Africa as incidents of vehicle theft, including assault and robbery, have been reported. Official Americans serving in Mozambique are prohibited from overland travel outside Maputo city limits after dark and are encouraged to travel in convoys of two or more vehicles when outside of the city during daylight hours. Accidents involving pedestrians are increasingly common, and some reports suggest pedestrians purposely throw themselves in front of vehicles driven by foreigners in order to extort reparation payment. Due to residual landmines, overland travelers are advised to remain on well-traveled roads or seek local information before going off-road outside of Maputo and other provincial capitals.

Drivers should obey police signals to stop at checkpoints, which are common throughout Mozambique. Foreigners in Mozambique for more than 90 days are required to have an International Driver’s License or to obtain a Mozambican driver’s license.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet web site, where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

Crime: The biggest threat facing U.S. citizens visiting Mozambique is crime. Street crimes, including mugging, purse snatching and pick-pocketing are common, both in Maputo and in secondary cities. Carjacking is increasingly common in Maputo. Americans have been victims of sexual assault and armed robbery. Visitors must be vigilant when out in public areas and should not display jewelry or other expensive items. Isolated areas should be avoided. Joggers and pedestrians have frequently been mugged, even during daylight hours. Visitors should not walk at night, even in well-known tourist areas.

Despite more police patrols in areas frequented by foreigners, these areas remain dangerous because the police are poorly paid, poorly equipped and lack the professionalism that U.S. citizens are accustomed to in the United States. Demonstrations are infrequent but should be avoided when they do occur.

Many airline trips from Mozambique to the U.S., Europe, or African destinations transit Johannesburg, South Africa. Baggage pilferage is an ongoing problem at Johannesburg’s Oliver Tambo International Airport. Travelers are encouraged to secure their luggage, use an airport plastic wrapping service, and avoid placing currency, electronics, jewelry, cameras, cosmetics, running shoes, or other valuables in checked luggage. Having a complete inventory of items placed in checked baggage can aid in processing a claim if theft does occur.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Medical facilities are rudimentary, and most medical providers do not speak fluent English. Medicines are not always consistently available. There are both public and private medical facilities in the city of Maputo and most provincial capitals. All health care institutions and providers require payment at the time of service, and may even require payment before service is given. While some private clinics accept credit cards, many medical facilities do not. Doctors and hospitals outside Maputo generally expect immediate cash payment for health services. Outside of Maputo, available medical care ranges from very basic to non-existent.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Mozambique is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

The main north-south thoroughfare is passable until the city of Caia (Sofala province), where vehicle passengers must disembark and cross the Zambezi River by ferryboat. On the north side of the river, the road continues to the Northern provinces. The road network connecting provincial capitals is in fair condition, but can be riddled with potholes and other obstacles. The EN4 toll road between Maputo and South Africa is well-maintained. However, banditry along major highways continues to threaten the safety of road travelers. Periodically, the U.S. Embassy has restricted official Americans from traveling on certain roads or has imposed circumstantial restrictions on road travel. Official Americans are prohibited from traveling outside cities after dark because of the increased risk of banditry, poor road conditions in some areas, poor maintenance of many vehicles in the country (e.g., no headlights or rear lights), as well as the threat imposed by livestock that graze on roadsides. Travel outside Maputo often requires a four-wheel drive vehicle, which creates an additional security risk since these vehicles are high-theft items. Public transportation is limited. Travelers contemplating overland travel can contact the U.S. Embassy for the most current information on road travel safety.

Aviation Safety Oversight: As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Mozambique, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Mozambique’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s internet website at http://www.faa.gov.

Special Circumstances: It is against the law to destroy Mozambican currency; offenders can expect a jail sentence or fine. The limit for an undeclared amount of U.S. dollars one can take out of the country is $5,000. The limit on local currency is 500 metical, which is approximately 20 U.S. dollars. Some American travelers have reported having difficulties in cashing traveler’s checks and have relied instead on ATMs and credit cards for money withdrawals in Mozambique. Outside of the major hotels and restaurants, credit cards are not widely accepted in Mozambique. The South African rand is frequently accepted as legal tender, although this is more common in the southern part of the country than in the northern part.

Mozambican law requires that all persons carry an identity document, such as a passport, when out in public, and produce it if requested by police. Notarized copies of both the biographic page of a passport and a valid Mozambican visa are acceptable forms of identification. There are certain areas in Mozambique where pedestrian traffic is prohibited and the ban is strictly enforced. These areas include the front of the presidential offices located north of the Hotel Polana on the seaside of Avenida Julius Nyerere and the Praça dos Herois on Avenida Acordos de Lusaka near the airport, both in Maputo.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country’s laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Mozambique’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Mozambique are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children’s Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family/family_1732.html.

Registration/Embassy Location: Americans living or traveling in Mozambique are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Mozambique. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located in Maputo at 193 Avenida Kenneth Kaunda, telephone (258) 21 49 2797. The after-hours telephone number for use in emergencies is (258) 21 49 0723. The Consular Section’s fax number is (258) 21 49 0448. The Consular Section’s email address is [email protected] gov. The Embassy’s general website is http://Mozambique.USEmbassy.gov.

International Adoption : January 2007

The information below has been edited from a report of the State Department Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Overseas Citizens Services. For more information, please read the International Adoption section of this book and review current reports online at www.travel.state.gov/family.

Disclaimer: The information in this flyer relating to the legal requirements of specific foreign countries is based on public sources and our current understanding. Questions involving foreign and U.S. immigration laws and legal interpretation should be addressed respectively to qualified foreign or U.S. legal counsel.

The Government of Mozambique requires a six month integration period after a prospective child is placed in the home and before the adoption can be finalized by the court. The government officially requires post-adoption monitoring until the child reaches 21 years. This requirement may be waived. However, if it is believed that the child will be adopted and immediately taken out of Mozambique, the courts may block an intercountry adoption.

Patterns of Immigration: Recent U.S. immigrant visa statistics show that only 8 orphan visas have been issued to Mozambican orphans in the past five years.

Adoption Authorities: The adoption authority for Mozambique is the Social Services National Directorate (Direcção Nacional da Acçao Social), which falls under the Ministry of Women and Social Action. Adoption information may be requested from this office by postal mail, international courier or phone using the following contact information: Rua de Tchamba nr. 86, Direcção Nacional de Acção Social, Departamento da Crianca (Social Services National Directorate, Children’s Department, tel: +258 21 49 7901/3. Ms. Francisca Sales is the director of the Social Services National Directorate at the federal level.

Municipal authorities oversee adoptions within their respective geographic areas of jurisdiction. American citizens wishing to adopt in Maputo should contact Ana Conwana, the head of the Maputo City’s Social Service National Directorate office at (258) 21 306 846. Numbers for offices in other provinces can be obtained by contacting the national directorate at +258 21 49 7901/3.

Eligibility Requirements for Adoptive Parents: Prospective adoptive parents must have legal residency in Mozambique and must have been married for ten years prior to the initiation of the adoption process. Single people are eligible to adopt. In addition, prospective adoptive parents must undergo a home study evaluation by Mozambican social and health workers, and must be certified “approvable for adoption.” Gay and lesbian couples cannot officially be approved for adoption.

Residency Requirements: Mozambican law requires that prospective adoptive parents have legal residency in the country in order to be eligible to adopt. As such, the adoptive couple must be physically present in Mozambique for the duration of the adoption process.

Time Frame: The adoption process in Mozambique takes approximately 6 to 9 months. U.S. immigrant visa petitions for adopted minors are forwarded to the U.S. Consulate in Johannesburg for adjudication.

Adoption Agencies and Attorneys: As American citizens interested in adopting must be legal residents of Mozambique, agencies in the United States do not usually play a role in the adoption process. The U.S. Embassy maintains a list of attorneys. However, generally speaking, the services of a private attorney in Mozambique are not required for the adoption process. http://mozambique.usembassy.gov/legal_information.html.

Adoption Fees: There is a court fee of approximately $50, in addition to minor fees for forms and documents. Adoptive parents will also be responsible for acquiring official translations of both English- and Portuguese-language documents. http://mozambique.usembassy.gov/portuguese/english_translators_in_mozambique_may_2006.html.

Adoption Procedures: The first step in the adoption process is submission of a formal adoption request to the Social Services Directorate in the appropriate governing municipality. Together with the initial application, prospective parents should submit a certified true copy of their marriage certificate (translated into Portuguese), and photocopies of passports and Mozambican residency permits (known as a “DIRE”). Other supporting documents and required forms may be obtained from the Social Services office and the City Health Directorate. The Social Services Directorate will then begin a lengthy investigation of the prospective parents’ lifestyle, economic means, mental and physical health, and other details associated with a home study evaluation. During this time, the process of identifying a child for adoption—through an orphanage, for example—is also initiated.

As a final step, the Social Services Directorate will pass on the parents’ petition for adoption to the Juvenile Court (Tribunal de Menores). If the court grants the order of adoption, a certificate of approval will be issued officially endorsing the adoption. The adoptive parent may then begin the process of registration, name change, application for new identity and nationality documents, etc.

Documents Required: Prospective adoptive parents should be prepared to submit certified copies of their marriage certificate, Mozambican residency cards, passports (all with official translations, if required), along with bank statements and health certificates.

As Mozambique is not a signatory of the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption, the government does not currently require that the countries of nationality of prospective adoptive parents be members of the Convention. The “New Family Law,” which was adopted in October 2004 and took affect in 2005 eliminated the confusing and undefined distinction between a “plain” and “restrict” adoption, making all adoptions simply “adoption” or final adoptions. Other changes to adoption laws in Mozambique with respect to international adoptions are under consideration. Mozambican law does not make any distinction between intercountry adoption and domestic adoption. This may mean that those foreigners will be expected to meet the same pre and post-adoption monitoring requirements as a Mozambican family, which may become an obstacle if the court decides the child cannot be monitored outside of Mozambique.

Embassy of the Republic of Mozambique
1990 M Street, N.W.
Suite 570
Washington, D.C. 20036
Tel: (202) 293-7146/9
Email: [email protected]

U.S. Immigration Requirements: Prospective adoptive parents are strongly encouraged to consult USCIS publication M-249, The Immigration of Adopted and Prospective Adoptive Children, as well as the Department of State publication, International Adoptions. Please see the International Adoption section of this book for more details and review current reports online at travel.state. gov/family.

U.S. Embassy in Mozambique:
Consular Section
U.S. Embassy
Avenida Kenneth Kaunda 193
Maputo, Mozambique
Tel: (258) 21 49 2797
Fax: (258) 21 49 0448
[email protected]
http://Mozambique.USEmbassy.gov

Additional Information: Specific questions about adoption in [this country] may be addressed to the U.S. Embassy in [this country]. General questions regarding intercountry adoption may be addressed to the Office of Children’s Issues, U.S. Department of State, CA/OCS/CI, SA-29, 4th Floor, 2201 C Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20520-4818, toll-free Tel: 1-888-407-4747.

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Mozambique

PROFILE
PEOPLE
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
ECONOMY
FOREIGN RELATIONS
U.S.-MOZAMBICAN RELATIONS
TRAVEL

Compiled from the December 2007 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:

Republic of Mozambique

PROFILE

Geography

Area: 801,590 sq. km.; slightly less than twice the size of California.

Cities: Capital—Maputo (pop. 1.2 million—2005 est.); Beira, Matola, Nampula, Quelimane, Tete, Nacala.

Terrain: Varies from lowlands to high plateau.

Climate: Tropical to subtropical.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective-Mozambican(s).

Population: (2006 est.) 19.7 million; 48.2% male and 51.8% female.

Population annual growth rate: (2006) 1.3%.

Ethnic groups: Makua, Tsonga, Makonde, Shangaan, Shona, Sena, Ndau, and other indigenous groups, and approximately 10,000 Europeans, 35,000 Euro-Africans, and 15,000 South Asians.

Religions: Christian 40%, Muslim 20%, indigenous African and other beliefs 40% (1997 census—recent estimates give a higher Muslim percentage).

Languages: Portuguese (official), various indigenous languages.

Education: Mean years of schooling (adults over 25) men 2.1, women 1.2. Primary net enrolment rate (2003)— 61%. Adult illiteracy rate (2003)—53.6%.

Health: Infant mortality rate (2006)—129/1,000. Life expectancy (2006)—40 years.

Work force: (9.4 million est. 2006) Agriculture—81%; industry—6%; services—13% (1997 estimate).

Government

Type: Multi-party democracy.

Independence: June 25, 1975.

Constitution: November 1990.

Government branches: Executive—President, Council of Ministers. Legislative—National Assembly, municipal assemblies. Judicial—Supreme Court, provincial, district, and municipal courts.

Political subdivisions: 10 provinces, 224 districts, and 33 municipalities, of which Maputo City is the largest.

Political parties: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO); Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO); numerous small parties.

Suffrage: Universal adult, 18 years and older.

Economy

GDP: (2006) $6.4 billion.

Annual economic (GDP) growth rate: (2006) 7.9%.

Per capita GDP: (2006) $320.

Natural resources: Hydroelectric power, coal, natural gas, titanium ore, tantalite, graphite, iron ore, semi-precious stones, and arable land.

Agriculture: (21% of GDP; annual growth 7.9%) Exports—cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers, beef and poultry. Domestically consumed food crops—corn, pigeon peas, cassava, rice, beef, pork, chicken, and goat.

Industry: (31% of GDP; annual growth 10%) Types—food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, and tobacco.

Services: (39.7% of GDP; annual growth 4.7%).

Trade: Imports (2006)—$2.82 billion. Import commodities—machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs and textiles. Main suppliers—South Africa, Netherlands, Portugal. Exports (2006)—$2.43 billion. Export commodities—aluminum, cashews, prawns, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber, bulk electricity, natural gas. Main markets—Belgium, South Africa, Zimbabwe.

PEOPLE

Mozambique's major ethnic groups encompass numerous subgroups with diverse languages, dialects, cultures, and histories. Many are linked to similar ethnic groups living in neighboring countries. The north-central provinces of Zambezia and Nampula are the most populous, with about 45% of the population. The estimated 4 million Makua are the dominant group in the northern part of the country—the Sena and Ndau are prominent in the Zambezi valley, and the Tsonga and Shangaan dominate in southern Mozambique.

Despite the influence of Islamic coastal traders and European colonizers, the people of Mozambique have largely retained an indigenous culture based on small-scale agriculture. Mozambique's most highly developed art forms are wood sculpture, for which the Makonde in northern Mozambique are particularly renowned, and dance. The middle and upper classes continue to be heavily influenced by the Portuguese colonial and linguistic heritage.

During the colonial era, Christian missionaries were active in Mozambique, and many foreign clergy remain in the country. According to the national census, about 40% of the population is Christian, at least 20% is Muslim, and the remainder adheres to traditional beliefs.

Under the colonial regime, educational opportunities for black Mozambicans were limited, and 93% of that population was illiterate. In fact, most of today's political leaders were educated in missionary schools. After independence, the government placed a high priority on expanding education, which reduced the illiteracy rate to about two-thirds as primary school enrollment increased. Unfortunately, in recent years school construction and teacher training enrollments have not kept up with population increases. With post-war enrollments reaching all-time highs, the quality of education has suffered.

HISTORY

Mozambique's first inhabitants were San hunter and gatherers, ancestors of the Khoisani peoples. Between the first and fourth centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking peoples migrated from the north through the Zambezi River valley and then gradually into the plateau and coastal areas. The Bantu were farmers and ironworkers.

When Portuguese explorers reached Mozambique in 1498, Arab trading settlements had existed along the coast and outlying islands for several centuries. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts became regular ports of call on the new route to the east. Later, traders and prospectors penetrated the interior regions seeking gold and slaves. Although Portuguese influence gradually expanded, its power was limited and exercised through individual settlers who were granted extensive autonomy. As a result, investment lagged while Lisbon devoted itself to the more lucrative trade with India and the Far East and to the colonization of Brazil.

By the early 20th century the Portu- had shifted the administration of much of the country to large private companies, controlled and financed mostly by the British, which established railroad lines to neighboring countries and supplied cheap—often forced—African labor to the mines and plantations of the nearby British colonies and South Africa. Because policies were designed to benefit white settlers and the Portuguese homeland, little attention was paid to Mozambique's national integration, its economic infrastructure, or the skills of its population.

After World War II, while many Euro-ppean nations were granting independence to their colonies, Portugal clung to the concept that Mozambique and other Portuguese possessions were overseas provinces of the mother country, and emigration to the colonies soared. Mozambique’ Portuguese population at the time of independence was about 250,000. The drive for Mozambican independence developed apace, and in 1962 several anti-colonial political groups formed the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), which initiated an armed campaign against Portuguese colonial rule in September 1964. After 10 years of sporadic warfare and major political changes in Portugal, Mozambique became independent on June 25, 1975.

The last 30 years of Mozambique's history have reflected political developments elsewhere in the 20th century. Following the April 1974 coup in Lisbon, Portuguese colonialism collapsed. In Mozambique, the military decision to withdraw occurred within the context of a decade of armed anti-colonial struggle, initially led by American-educated Eduardo Mond-lane, who was assassinated in 1969. When independence was achieved in 1975, the leaders of FRELIMO's military campaign rapidly established a one-party state allied to the Soviet bloc and outlawed rival political activity. FRELIMO eliminated political pluralism, religious educational institutions, and the role of traditional authorities.

The new government gave shelter and support to South African (ANC) and Zimbabwean (ZANU) liberation movements while the governments of first Rhodesia and later apartheid South Africa fostered and financed an armed rebel movement in central Mozambique called the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO). Civil war, sabotage from neighboring states, and economic collapse characterized the first decade of Mozambican independence. Also marking this period were the mass exodus of Portuguese nationals, weak infrastructure, nationalization, and economic mismanagement. During most of the civil war, the government was unable to exercise effective control outside of urban areas, many of which were cut off from the capital. An estimated 1 million Mozambicans perished during the civil war, 1.7 million took refuge in neighboring states, and several million more were internally displaced. In the third FRELIMO party congress in 1983, President Samora Machel conceded the failure of socialism and the need for major political and economic reforms. He died, along with several advisers, in a suspicious 1986 plane crash.

His successor, Joaquim Chissano, continued the reforms and began peace talks with RENAMO. The new constitution enacted in 1990 provided for a multi-party political system, market-based economy, and free elections. The civil war ended in October 1992 with the Rome General Peace Accords. Under supervision of the ONUMOZ peacekeeping force of the United Nations, peace returned to Mozambique.

By mid-1995 the more than 1.7 million Mozambican refugees who had sought asylum in neighboring Malawi, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Zambia, Tanzania, and South Africa as a result of war and drought had returned, as part of the largest repatriation witnessed in Sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, a further estimated 4 million internally displaced people returned to their areas of origin.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Mozambique is a multi-party democracy under the 1990 constitution. The executive branch comprises a president, prime minister, and Council of Ministers. There is a National Assembly and municipal assemblies. The judiciary comprises a Supreme Court and provincial, district, and municipal courts. Suffrage is universal at 18.

In 1994 the country held its first democratic elections. Joaquim Chissano was elected President with 53% of the vote, and a 250-member National Assembly was voted in with 129 FRE-LIMO deputies, 112 RENAMO deputies, and 9 representatives of three smaller parties that formed the Democratic Union (UD). Since its formation in 1994, the National Assembly has made some progress in becoming a body increasingly more independent of the executive. By 1999, more than one-half (53%) of the legislation passed originated in the Assembly.

After some delays, in 1998 the country held its first local elections to provide for local representation and some budgetary authority at the municipal level. The principal opposition party, RENAMO, boycotted the local elections, citing flaws in the registration process. Independent slates contested the elections and won seats in municipal assemblies. Turnout was very low.

In the aftermath of the 1998 local elections, the government resolved to make more accommodations to the opposition's procedural concerns for the second round of multiparty national elections in 1999. Working through the National Assembly, the electoral law was rewritten and passed by consensus in December 1998. Financed largely by international donors, a very successful voter registration was conducted from July to September 1999, providing voter registration cards to 85% of the potential electorate (more than 7 million voters).

The second general elections were held December 3-5, 1999, with high voter turnout. International and domestic observers agreed that the voting process was well organized and went smoothly. Both the opposition and observers subsequently cited flaws in the tabulation process that, had they not occurred, might have changed the outcome. In the end, however, international and domestic observers concluded that the close result of the vote reflected the will of the people.

President Chissano won the presidency with a margin of 4% points over the RENAMO-Electoral Union coalition candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, and began his 5-year term in January 2000. FRELIMO increased its majority in the National Assembly with 133 out of 250 seats. RENAMO-UE coalition won 116 seats, one went independent, and no third parties are represented.

The opposition coalition did not accept the National Election Commission's results of the presidential vote and filed a formal complaint to the Supreme Court. One month after the voting, the court dismissed the opposition's challenge and validated the election results. The opposition did not file a complaint about the results of the legislative vote.

The second local elections, involving 33 municipalities with some 2.4 million registered voters, took place in November 2003. This was the first time that FRELIMO, RENAMO-UE, and independent parties competed without significant boycotts. The 24% turnout was well above the 15% turnout in the first municipal elections. FRELIMO won 28 mayoral positions and the majority in 29 municipal assemblies, while RENAMO won 5 mayoral positions and the majority in 4 municipal assemblies. The voting was conducted in an orderly fashion without violent incidents. However, the period immediately after the elections was marked by objections about voter and candidate registration and vote tabulation, as well as calls for greater transparency.

In May 2004, the government approved a new general elections law that contained innovations based on the experience of the 2003 municipal elections.

The third general elections occurred on December 1-2, 2004. FRELIMO candidate Armando Guebuza won with 64% of the popular vote. His opponent, Afonso Dhlakama of REN-AMO, received 32% of the popular vote. The estimated 44% turnout was well below the almost 70% turnout in the 1999 general elections. FRE-LIMO won 160 seats in Parliament. A coalition of RENAMO and several small parties won the 90 remaining seats. Armando Guebuza was inaugurated as the President of Mozambique on February 2, 2005. The government has scheduled provincial and municipal elections in 2008, and presidential and parliamentary elections in 2009.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 2/1/2008

Pres.: Armando GUEBUZA

Prime Min.: Luisa Dias DIOGO

Min. of Agriculture: Erasmo MUHATE

Min. of Coordination of Environmental Action: Luciano Andre DE CASTRO

Min. of Development & Planning: Aiuba CUERENEIA

Min. of Education & Culture: Aires Bonifacio ALI

Min. of Energy: Salvador NAMBURETE

Min. of Finance: Manuel CHANG

Min. of Fisheries: Cadmiel MUTHEMBA

Min. of Foreign Affairs & Cooperation: Alcinda ABREU

Min. of Health: Paulo Ivo GARRIDO

Min. of Industry & Commerce: Antonio FERNANDO

Min. of Interior: Jose PACHECO

Min. of Justice: Esperanza MACHAVELA

Min. of Labor: Helena TAIPO

Min. of Mineral Resources: Esperanca BIAS

Min. of National Defense: Tobias DAI

Min. of Public Works & Housing: Felicio ZACARIAS

Min. of Science & Technology:

Min. of State Admin.: Lucas CHOMERA

Min. of Tourism: Fernando SUMBANA, Jr.

Min. of Transport & Communication: Antonio Francisco MUNGUAMBE

Min. of Veteran's Affairs

Min. of Women & Social Action: Virgilia MATABELE

Min. of Youth & Sports: David SIMANGO

Min. in the Presidency for Diplomatic Affairs: Francisco Caetano MADEIRA

Min. in the Presidency for Parliamentary Affairs: Isabel Manuel NKAVADEKA

Attorney Gen.: Augusto PAULINO

Governor, Bank of Mozambique: Adriano Afonso MALEIANE

Ambassador to the US: Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Filipe CHIDUMO

Mozambique maintains an embassy in the United States at 1525 New Hampshire Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036; tel: 202-293-7146; fax: 202-835-0245.

ECONOMY

Macroeconomic Review

Alleviating poverty. At the end of the civil war in 1992, Mozambique ranked among the poorest countries in the world. It still ranks among the least developed nations with very low socioeconomic indicators. In the last decade, however, Mozambique has experienced a notable economic recovery. Per capita GDP in 2006 was estimated at U.S. $320, a significant increase over the mid-1980s level of U.S. $120. With high foreign debt and a good track record on economic reform, Mozambique was the first African nation and sixth country worldwide to qualify for debt relief under the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) initial HIPC (Heavily Indebted Poor Countries) Initiative. In April 2000, Mozambique qualified for the Enhanced HIPC program and reached its completion point in September 2001. This led to the Paris Club members agreeing in November 2001 to substantially reduce the remaining bilateral debt, resulting in the complete forgiveness of a considerable volume of bilateral debt. The United States already finished the process and has forgiven Mozambique's debt.

During their summit in Scotland in July 2005, the G8 nations agreed to significant multilateral debt relief for the world's least developed nations. On December 21, 2005, the IMF formalized the complete cancellation of all Mozambican IMF debt contracted prior to January 1, 2005, worth U.S. $153 million.

Rebounding growth. The resettlement of civil war refugees, political stability and continuing economic reforms have led to a high economic growth rate. Between 1994 and 2006, average annual GDP growth was approximately 8%. Mozambique achieved this growth rate even though the devastating floods of 2000 slowed GDP growth to 2.1%. The World Bank is predicting average growth of 7% through 2008. Future strong expansion requires continued economic reforms, major foreign direct investment, and the resurrection of the agriculture, transportation and tourism sectors. Focusing on economic growth in the agricultural sector is a major challenge for the government. Although more than 80% of the population engages in small-scale agriculture, the sector suffers from inadequate infrastructure, commercial networks and investment. However a majority of Mozambique's arable land is still uncultivated, leaving room for considerable growth.

Low inflation. The government's tight control of spending and the money supply, combined with financial sector reform, successfully reduced inflation from 70% in 1994 to less than 5% in 1998-1999. Economic disruptions resulting from the devastating floods of 2000 caused inflation to jump to 12.7% that year. The government is still working to bring inflation down to those lower numbers. In 2004 inflation was 9.1%; in 2005 it climbed to 11.2%; in 2006 it dropped back down to 9.4%. As of March 2007, the floating exchange rate was approximately 26 meticais per dollar. (Note: In July 2006 the government revised its currency, dropping three zeros. Thus a coin formerly worth 1,000 meticais was from then on worth only one metical. And thus, where a dollar previously had been worth, for example, 26,000 meticais, it was from July onward worth 26.)

Extensive economic reform. Economic reform has been extensive. More than 1,200 state-owned enterprises (mostly small) have been privatized. Preparations for privatization and/or sector liberalization are underway for the remaining parastatals, including telecommunications, electricity, ports, and the railroads. The government frequently selects a strategic foreign investor when privatizing a parastatal. Additionally, customs duties have been reduced, and customs management has been streamlined and reformed. The government introduced a value-added tax in 1999 as part of its efforts to increase domestic revenues.

Improving trade imbalance. In 2006 Mozambique exported U.S. $2.43 billion worth of goods and imported U.S. $2.82 billion worth of goods. Support programs provided by foreign donors and private financing of foreign direct investment mega-projects and their associated raw materials have largely compensated for balance-of-payment shortfalls. The medium-term outlook for exports is encouraging, as a number of recent foreign investment projects have improved the trade balance. This export growth is expected to continue. MOZAL I, a large aluminum smelter that commenced production in mid-2000, greatly expanded Mozambique's trade volume. In April 2001, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) approved financing assistance for MOZAL II, which doubled overall production capacity. Phase two went online in April 2003, five months ahead of schedule, using primarily Mozambican workers during construction. Traditional Mozambican exports include cashews, shrimp, fish, copra, sugar, cotton, tea and citrus and exotic fruits. Most of these industries are being rehabilitated. In addition, Mozambique is less dependent upon imports for basic food and manufactured goods as the result of steady increases in local production.

SADC trade protocol. In December 1999, the Mozambican Council of Ministers approved the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Trade Protocol. The Protocol will create a free trade zone among more than 200 million consumers in the SADC region. Implementation of the Protocol began in 2002 and has an overall zero-tariff target set for 2008; however, Mozambique's country-specific zero-tariff goal is currently 2015. Mozambique joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) on August 26, 1995.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

While allegiances dating back to the liberation struggle remain relevant, Mozambique's foreign policy has become increasingly pragmatic. The twin pillars of Mozambique's foreign policy are maintenance of good relations with its neighbors and maintenance and expansion of ties to development partners.

During the 1970s and early 1980s, Mozambique's foreign policy was inextricably linked to the struggles for majority rule in Rhodesia and South Africa, as well as superpower competition and the Cold War. Mozambique's decision to enforce UN sanctions against Rhodesia and deny that country access to the sea led Ian Smith's regime to undertake overt and covert actions to destabilize the country, including sponsoring the rebel group RENAMO. After the change of government in Zimbabwe in 1980, the apartheid regime in South Africa continued to finance the destabilization of Mozambique.

The 1984 Nkomati Accord, while failing in its goal of ending South African support to RENAMO, opened initial diplomatic contacts between the Mozambican and South African Governments. This process gained momentum with South Africa's elimination of apartheid, which culminated in the establishment of full diplomatic relations in October 1993. While relations with neighboring Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania show occasional strains, Mozambique's ties to these countries remain strong.

In the years immediately following its independence, Mozambique benefited from considerable assistance from some western countries, notably the Scandinavians. Moscow and its allies, however, became Mozambique's primary economic, military, and political supporters and its foreign policy reflected this linkage. This began to change in 1983; in 1984 Mozambique joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Western aid quickly replaced Soviet support, with the Scandinavians, the United States, the Netherlands, and the European Union becoming increasingly important sources of development assistance. Italy also maintains a profile in Mozambique as a result of its key role during the peace process. Relations with Portugal, the former colonial power, are complex and of some importance as Portuguese investors play a visible role in Mozambique's economy.

Mozambique is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and ranks among the moderate members of the African Bloc in the United Nations and other international organizations. Mozambique also belongs to the Organization of African Unity/African Union and the Southern African Development Community. In 1994, the government became a full member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, in part to broaden its base of international support but also to please the country's sizeable Muslim population. Similarly, in early 1996 Mozambique joined its Anglophone neighbors in the Commonwealth. In the same year, Mozambique became a founding member and the first President of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and maintains close ties with other Luso-phone states.

U.S.-MOZAMBICAN RELATIONS

Relations between the United States and Mozambique are good and steadily improving. By 1993, U.S. aid to Mozambique was prominent, due in part to significant emergency food assistance in the wake of the 1991-93 southern African drought, but more importantly in support of the peace and reconciliation process. During the process leading up to elections in October 1994, the United States served as a significant financier and member of the most important commissions established to monitor implementation of the Rome General Peace Accords. The United States is the largest bilateral donor to the country and plays a leading role in donor efforts to assist Mozambique.

The U.S. Embassy opened in Maputo on November 8, 1975, and the first American ambassador arrived in March 1976. In that same year, the United States extended a $10 million grant to the Government of Mozambique to help compensate for the economic costs of enforcing sanctions against Rhodesia. In 1977, however, largely motivated by a concern with human rights violations, the U.S. Congress prohibited the provision of development aid to Mozambique without a presidential certification that such aid would be in the foreign policy interests of the United States. Relations hit a nadir in March 1981, when the Government of Mozambique expelled four members of the U.S. Embassy staff. In response, the United States suspended plans to provide development aid and to name a new ambassador to Mozambique. Relations between the two countries languished in a climate of stagnation and mutual suspicion.

Contacts between the two countries continued in the early 1980s as part of the U.S. administration's conflict resolution efforts in the region. In late 1983, a new U.S. ambassador arrived in Maputo, and the first Mozambican envoy to the United States arrived in Washington, signaling a thaw in the bilateral relationship. The United States subsequently responded to Mozambique's economic reform and drift away from Moscow's embrace by initiating an aid program in 1984. President Samora Machel paid a symbolically important official working visit to the United States in 1985, where he met President Reagan. After that meeting, a full U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) mission was established, and significant assistance for economic reform efforts began. President Chissano met with President Bush in September 2003; previously, he had met with Presidents Reagan (October 1987), Bush (March 1990), and Clinton (November 1998), and also with Secretaries of State Powell (February 2002) and Baker (July 1992). Since taking office in February 2005, President Guebuza has visited the United States on five occasions. In June 2005, President Guebuza visited Washington, DC to take part in President Bush's mini-summit on Africa, along with the leaders of Ghana, Namibia, Botswana, and Niger. Later that month, he attended the Corporate Council on Africa (CCA) Business Summit in Baltimore. President Guebuza returned in September 2005 for the UN General Assembly in New York and in December 2005 attended the Fourth Development Cooperation Forum at the Carter Center in Atlanta. In 2006 he visited New York for the UN General Assembly, and in 2007 he visited Washington, DC for the signing of Mozambique's Millennium Challenge Corporation compact.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Last Updated: 2/19/2008

MAPUTO (E) 193 Kenneth Kaunda, APO/FPO 2330 Maputo Place, WashDC 20521-2330, 258 2149 27 97, Fax 258 2149 01 14, Workweek: 0730-1730 Monday-Thursday-0730-1130 Friday, Website: http://Mozambique.usembassy.gov.

DCM OMS:Mary Ann Kilkuskie
AMB OMS:Vacant
CDC:Lisa Nelson
DCM/CHG:Todd C. Chapman
DPO/PAO:Kristin Kane
ECO/COM:Robert Doughten
FM:Randy Naylor
MGT:Jeremey Neitzke
PAO/ADV:Deborah Hooker
POL ECO:Matthew P. Roth
AMB:Vacant
CON:Sarah Horton
PAO:Kristin M. Kane
GSO:William H. Quick
RSO:Steven M. Jones
AID:Todd Amani
CLO:Jonelle Jones
DAO:John M. Roddy
EEO:Mary K. Walz
FMO:Debra Tracey
IMO:Nicholas R. Wingert
POL:Leonel Miranda

Security Information

The security situation in Mozambique requires caution. Street crime and carjackings in urban areas occur frequently. Road travel can be hazardous and should not be undertaken after daylight hours. The abundance of weapons remaining from the country's civil war and police who are poorly trained, equipped, and motivated contribute to a serious crime situation.

Additionally, several hundred thousand mines were planted throughout Mozambique during the last three decades of conflict. Although mine clearing operations are underway, surface travel off main highways should be approached with caution.

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet

January 14, 2008

Country Description: Mozambique is a developing country in southern Africa which has steadily rebuilt its economy and civic institutions since ending a 16-year civil war in 1992. The country stabilized following Mozambique's first multi-party elections in October 1994, and a new president was elected in December 2004. Despite high economic growth rates in recent years, Mozambique remains among the world's poorest countries. Facilities for tourism in Maputo, the capital city, are steadily improving but remain limited in other areas as many of the goods and services taken for granted in other countries are not yet available. The official language is Portuguese, although English is spoken in many tourist areas, and in some rural areas only local languages are widely spoken.

Entry Requirements: A visa is required for entry into Mozambique. It is recommended that travelers acquire the appropriate visa prior to departing for Mozambique, although a one-entry visa can be obtained at country points of entry, including airports. Foreigners in Mozambique without a valid visa can expect to pay a substantial fine for each day they are in Mozambique illegally. The fine can be assessed upon departure or if caught while in Mozambique by authorities. The passports of all travelers who wish to enter Mozambique must be valid for six months upon arrival and must contain at least three clean (unstamped) visa pages each time entry is sought. The Mozambican Embassy and Consulates in South Africa charge up to five times the amount charged in the U.S. or at border crossing points for a tourist visa to Mozambique. In September 2007 the Mozambican Interior and Health.

Ministries decreed that all travelers entering Mozambique, having previously visited a country where yellow fever is present, must present a valid certification of vaccination against yellow fever. We recommend all travelers be vaccinated to avoid complications at the border. Any passenger who cannot present such a certificate at his or her point of entry will be vaccinated at a cost of $50 US dollars or the equivalent in meticais.

For further information on entry requirements, contact the Embassy of Mozambique located at 1525 New Hampshire Ave NW, Washington, DC 20036, telephone: (202) 293-7146, email: [email protected], fax: (202) 835 0245, or the nearest Mozambican embassy or consulate. Visit the Embassy of Mozambique web site at http://www.embamoc-usa.org/ for the most current visa information.

Safety and Security: Overland travel after dark is extremely dangerous due to poor road conditions, lack of emergency services, and the increased potential for vehicle hijacking. Visitors should be particularly vigilant when driving on the main thoroughfares connecting Mozambique and South Africa as incidents of vehicle theft, including assault and robbery, have been reported. Official Americans serving in Mozambique are prohibited from overland travel outside Maputo city limits after dark and are encouraged to travel in convoys of two or more vehicles when outside of the city during daylight hours. Accidents involving pedestrians are increasingly common, and some reports suggest pedestrians purposely throw themselves in front of vehicles driven by foreigners in order to extort reparation payment. Due to residual landmines, overland travelers are advised to remain on well-traveled roads or seek local information before going off-road out-side of Maputo and other provincial capitals.

Drivers should obey police signals to stop at checkpoints, which are common throughout Mozambique. Foreigners in Mozambique for more than 90 days are required to have an International Driver's License or to obtain a Mozambican driver's license.

Although demonstrations do occur in Mozambique, they are infrequent and there have been no recent demonstrations against U.S. interests. If any demonstrations do occur, they should be avoided.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers out-side the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.

Crime: Although the vast majority of visitors complete their travels in Mozambique without incident, the most serious threat facing U.S. citizens visiting Mozambique is crime. Street crimes, including mugging, purse snatching and pick-pocketing are common, both in Maputo and in secondary cities. Carjacking is increasingly common in Maputo. Visitors must be vigilant when out in public areas and should not display jewelry or other expensive items. Isolated areas should be avoided. Joggers and pedestrians have frequently been mugged, even during daylight hours. Visitors should take caution when walking at night, even in well-known tourist areas.

Mozambican police are not at the standard U.S. citizens are accustomed to in the United States and visitors should not expect the same level of police service.

Many airline trips from Mozambique to the U.S., Europe, or African destinations transit Johannesburg, South Africa. Baggage pilferage is an ongoing problem at Johannesburg's Oliver Tambo International Airport. Travelers are encouraged to secure their luggage, use an airport plastic wrapping service, and avoid placing currency, electronics, jewelry, cameras, cosmetics, running shoes, or other valuables in checked luggage. Having a complete inventory of items placed in checked baggage can aid in processing a claim if theft does occur.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Medical facilities are rudimentary, and most medical providers do not speak fluent English. Medicines are not always consistently available. There are both public and private medical facilities in the city of Maputo and most provincial capitals. All health care institutions and providers require payment at the time of service, and may even require payment before service is given. While some private clinics accept credit cards, many medical facilities do not. Doctors and hospitals outside Maputo generally expect immediate cash payment for health services. Outside of Maputo, available medical care ranges from very basic to non-existent.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Mozambique is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

The main north-south thoroughfare is passable until the city of Caia (Sofala province), where vehicle passengers must disembark and cross the Zambezi River by ferryboat. On the north side of the river, the road continues to the Northern provinces. The road network connecting provincial capitals is in fair condition, but can be riddled with potholes and other obstacles.

The EN4 toll road between Maputo and South Africa is well-maintained. Official Americans are prohibited from traveling outside cities after dark because of the increased risk of banditry, poor road conditions in some areas, poor maintenance of many vehicles in the country (e.g., no headlights or rear lights), as well as the threat imposed by livestock that graze on roadsides. Travel outside Maputo often requires a four-wheel drive vehicle, which creates an additional security risk since these vehicles are high-theft items. Public transportation is limited and often has poor safety standards.

Aviation Safety Oversight: As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Mozambique, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Mozambique's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov.

Special Circumstances: Mozambican law requires that all persons carry an identity document, such as a passport, when out in public, and produce it if requested by police. Notarized copies of both the biographic page of a passport and a valid Mozambican visa are acceptable forms of identification, although police will occasionally demand original documents. There are certain areas in Mozambique where pedestrian traffic is prohibited and the ban is strictly enforced. These areas include the front of the presidential offices located north of the Hotel Polana on the seaside of Avenida Julius Nyerere and the Praça dos Herois on Avenida Acordos de Lusaka near the airport, both in Maputo.

It is against the law to destroy Mozambican currency; offenders can expect a jail sentence or fine. The limit for an undeclared amount of U.S. dollars one can take out of the country is $5,000. The limit on local currency is 500 metical, which is approximately 20 U.S. dollars. Some American travelers have reported having difficulties cashing traveler's checks and have relied instead on ATMs and credit cards for money withdrawals in Mozambique. Outside of the major hotels and restaurants, credit cards are not widely accepted in Mozambique. The South African rand and U.S. dollar are sometimes accepted as legal tender, although this is more common in the southern part of the country or in tourist areas; all transactions must have a local currency (metical) payment option.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Mozambique laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Mozambique are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Registration and Embassy Locations: Americans living or traveling in Mozambique are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Mozambique. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located in Maputo at 193 Avenida Kenneth Kaunda, telephone (258) 21 49 2797. The after-hours telephone number for use in emergencies is (258) 21 49 0723. The Consular Section's fax number is (258) 21 49 0448. The Consular Section's e-mail address is [email protected] The Embassy's web site is http://mozambique.usembassy.gov.

International Adoption

January 2007

The information in this section has been edited from a report of the State Department Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Overseas Citizens Services. For more information, please read the International Adoption section of this book and review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Disclaimer: The information in this flyer relating to the legal requirements of specific foreign countries is based on public sources and current understanding. Questions involving foreign and U.S. immigration laws and legal interpretation should be addressed respectively to qualified foreign or U.S. legal counsel.

Please Note: Prospective adoptive parents (prospective adoptive parents) must be legal residents of Mozambique and be present in the country for the duration of the adoption process. Married prospective adoptive parents must have been married for ten years prior to the initiation of the adoption process.

The Government of Mozambique requires a six month integration period after a prospective child is placed in the home and before the adoption can be finalized by the court. The government officially requires post-adoption monitoring until the child reaches 21 years. This requirement may be waived. However, if it is believed that the child will be adopted and immediately taken out of Mozambique, the courts may block an intercountry adoption.

Patterns of Immigration: Recent U.S. immigrant visa statistics show that only 8 orphan visas have been issued to Mozambican orphans in the past five years.

Adoption Authority: The adoption authority for Mozambique is the Social Services National Directorate (Direcção Nacional da Acçao Social), which falls under the Ministry of Women and Social Action. Adoption information may be requested from this office by postal mail, international courier or phone using the following contact information: Rua de Tchamba nr. 86, Direcção Nacional de Acção Social, Departamento da Crianca (Social Services National Directorate, Children's Department, tel: +258 21 49 7901/3. Ms. Francisca Sales is the director of the Social Services National Directorate at the federal level. Municipal authorities oversee adoptions within their respective geographic areas of jurisdiction. American citizens wishing to adopt in Maputo should contact Ana Conwana, the head of the Maputo City's Social Service National Directorate office at (258) 21 306 846. Numbers for offices in other provinces can be obtained by contacting the national directorate at +258 21 49 7901/3.

Eligibility Requirements for Adoptive Parents: Prospective adoptive parents must have legal residency in Mozambique and must have been married for ten years prior to the initiation of the adoption process. Single people are eligible to adopt. In addition, prospective adoptive parents must undergo a home study evaluation by Mozambican social and health workers, and must be certified “approvable for adoption.” Gay and lesbian couples cannot officially be approved for adoption.

Residency Requirements: Mozambican law requires that prospective adoptive parents have legal residency in the country in order to be eligible to adopt. As such, the adoptive couple must be physically present in Mozambique for the duration of the adoption process.

Time Frame: The adoption process in Mozambique takes approximately 6 to 9 months. U.S. immigrant visa petitions for adopted minors are forwarded to the U.S. Consulate in Johannesburg for adjudication.

Adoption Agencies and Attorneys: As American citizens interested in adopting must be legal residents of Mozambique, agencies in the United States do not usually play a role in the adoption process. The U.S. Embassy maintains a list of attorneys. However, generally speaking, the services of a private attorney in Mozambique are not required for the adoption process. http://mozambique.usembassy.gov/legal_information.html.

Adoption Fees: There is a court fee of approximately $50, in addition to minor fees for forms and documents. Adoptive parents will also be responsible for acquiring official translations of both English-and Portuguese-language documents. http://mozambique.usembassy.gov.

Adoption Procedures: The first step in the adoption process is submission of a formal adoption request to the Social Services Directorate in the appropriate governing municipality. Together with the initial application, prospective parents should submit a certified true copy of their marriage certificate (translated into Portuguese), and photocopies of passports and Mozambican residency permits (known as a “DIRE”). Other supporting documents and required forms may be obtained from the Social Services office and the City Health Directorate.

The Social Services Directorate will then begin a lengthy investigation of the prospective parents’ lifestyle, economic means, mental and physical health, and other details associated with a home study evaluation. During this time, the process of identifying a child for adoption—through an orphanage, for example—is also initiated.

As a final step, the Social Services Directorate will pass on the parents’ petition for adoption to the Juvenile Court (Tribunal de Menores). If the court grants the order of adoption, a certificate of approval will be issued officially endorsing the adoption. The adoptive parent may then begin the process of registration, name change, application for new identity and nationality documents, etc.

Required Documents: Prospective adoptive parents should be prepared to submit certified copies of their marriage certificate, Mozambican residency cards, passports (all with official translations, if required), along with bank statements and health certificates.

Please see the International Adoption section of this book for more details and review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Embassy of the Republic of Mozambique
1990 M Street, N.W.
Suite 570
Washington, D.C. 20036
Tel: (202) 293-7146/9
Email: [email protected]

U.S. Immigration Requirements: Prospective adoptive parents are strongly encouraged to consult USCIS publication M-249, The Immigration of Adopted and Prospective Adoptive Children, as well as the Department of State publication, International Adoptions. Please see the International Adoption section of this book for more details and review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/family.

U.S. Embassy
Avenida Kenneth Kaunda 193
Maputo, Mozambique
Tel: (258) 21 49 2797
Fax: (258) 21 49 0448
[email protected]
http://Mozambique.USEmbassy.gov

Additional Information: Specific questions about adoption in may be addressed to the U.S. Embassy. General questions regarding intercountry adoption may be addressed to the Office of Children's Issues, U.S. Department of State, CA/OCS/CI, SA-29, 4th Floor, 2201 C Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20520-4818, toll-free Tel: 1-888-407-4747.

views updated

MOZAMBIQUE

Official Name:
Republic of Mozambique


PROFILE

Geography

Area:

799,380 sq. km.; about twice the size of California.

Cities:

Capital—Maputo (pop. 1.2 million – 2005 est.) Beira, Matola, Nampula, Quelimane, Tete, Nacala.

Terrain:

Varies from lowlands to high plateau.

Climate:

Tropical to subtropical.

People

Nationality:

Noun and adjective—Mozambican(s).

Population (2005 est.):

19.4 million; 48.2% male and 51.8% female. Population annual growth rate (2004)—1.8%.

Ethnic groups:

Makua, Tsonga, Makonde, Shangaan, Shona, Sena, Ndau, and other indigenous groups, and approximately 10,000 Europeans, 35,000 Euro-Africans, and 15,000 South Asians.

Religion:

Christian 30%, Muslim 17%, indigenous African and other beliefs 45%.

Language:

Portuguese (official), various indigenous languages.

Education:

Mean years of schooling (adults over 25): men 2.1, women 1.2. Primary net enrolment rate (2003)—61%. Adult illiteracy rate (2003)—53.6%.

Health:

Infant mortality rate (2004)—104/1,000. Life expectancy (2004)—42 years.

Work force (9.2 million est. 2004):

Agriculture—81%; Industry—6%; Services—13%.

Government

Type:

Multi-party democracy.

Independence:

June 25, 1975.

Constitution:

November 1990.

Branches:

Executive—President, Council of Ministers. Legislative—National Assembly, municipal assemblies. Judicial—Supreme Court, provincial, district, and municipal courts.

Administrative subdivisions:

10 provinces, 224 districts, and 33 municipalities, of which Maputo City is the largest.

Political parties:

Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO); Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO); numerous small parties.

Suffrage:

Universal adult, 18 years and older.

Economy

GDP (2005):

$5.5 billion.

Annual economic (GDP) growth rate (2004):

8.2%.

Per capita gross national income (2004):

$250.

Per capita gross domestic product (2004):

$276

Natural resources:

Hdroelectric power, coal, natural gas, titanium ore, tantalite, graphite, iron ore, semi-precious stones, and arable land.

Agriculture (25.2% of GDP; annual growth 7.9%):

Exports—cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers, beef and poultry. Domestically consumed food crops—corn, pigeon peas, cassava, rice, beef, pork, chicken, and goat.

Industry (35.1% of GDP; annual growth 10%):

Types—food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, and tobacco.

Trade:

Imports (2004)—$1.424 billion. Import commodities: Machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs and textiles. Main suppliers: South Africa, Australia, US, Portugal, Japan Exports (2004)—$1.258 billion. Export commodities: Aluminum, cashews, prawns, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber, bulk electricity, natural gas. Main markets: Belgium, South Africa, Spain, Portugal


PEOPLE

Mozambique's major ethnic groups encompass numerous subgroups with diverse languages, dialects, cultures, and histories. Many are linked to similar ethnic groups living in neighboring countries. The north-central provinces of Zambezia and Nampula are the most populous, with about 45% of the population. The estimated 4 million Makua are the dominant group in the northern part of the country—the Sena and Ndau are prominent in the Zambezi valley, and the Tsonga and Shangaan dominate in southern Mozambique.

Despite the influence of Islamic coastal traders and European colonizers, the people of Mozambique have largely retained an indigenous culture based on small-scale agriculture. Mozambique's most highly developed art forms have been wood sculpture, for which the Makonde in northern Mozambique are particularly renowned, and dance. The middle and upper classes continue to be heavily influenced by the Portuguese colonial and linguistic heritage.

During the colonial era, Christian missionaries were active in Mozambique, and many foreign clergy remain in the country. According to the national census, about 20%-30% of the population is Christian, 15%-20% is Muslim, and the remainder adheres to traditional beliefs.

Under the colonial regime, educational opportunities for black Mozambicans were limited, and 93% of that population was illiterate. In fact, most of today's political leaders were educated in missionary schools. After independence, the government placed a high priority on expanding education, which reduced the illiteracy rate to about two-thirds as primary school enrollment increased. Unfortunately, in recent years school construction and teacher training enrollments have not kept up with population increases. With post-war enrollments reaching all-time highs, the quality of education has suffered.


HISTORY

Mozambique's first inhabitants were San hunter and gatherers, ancestors of the Khoisani peoples. Between the first and fourth centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking peoples migrated from the north through the Zambezi River valley and then gradually into the plateau and coastal areas. The Bantu were farmers and ironworkers.

When Portuguese explorers reached Mozambique in 1498, Arab-trading settlements had existed along the coast and outlying islands for several centuries. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts became regular ports of call on the new route to the east. Later, traders and prospectors penetrated the interior regions seeking gold and slaves. Although Portuguese influence gradually expanded, its power was limited and exercised through individual settlers who were granted extensive autonomy. As a result, investment lagged while Lisbon devoted itself to the more lucrative trade with India and the Far East and to the colonization of Brazil.

By the early 20th century the Portuguese had shifted the administration of much of the country to large private companies, controlled and financed mostly by the British, which established railroad lines to neighboring countries and supplied cheap—often forced—African labor to the mines and plantations of the nearby British colonies and South Africa. Because policies were designed to benefit white settlers and the Portuguese homeland, little attention was paid to Mozambique's national integration, its economic infrastructure, or the skills of its population.

After World War II, while many European nations were granting independence to their colonies, Portugal clung to the concept that Mozambique and other Portuguese possessions were overseas provinces of the mother country, and emigration to the colonies soared. Mozambique's Portuguese population at the time of independence was about 250,000. The drive for Mozambican independence developed apace, and in 1962 several anti-colonial political groups formed the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), which initiated an armed campaign against Portuguese colonial rule in September 1964. After 10 years of sporadic warfare and major political changes in Portugal, Mozambique became independent on June 25, 1975.

The last 30 years of Mozambique's history have reflected political developments elsewhere in the 20th century. Following the April 1974 coup in Lisbon, Portuguese colonialism collapsed. In Mozambique, the military decision to withdraw occurred within the context of a decade of armed anti-colonial struggle, initially led by American-educated Eduardo Mondlane, who was assassinated in 1969. When independence was achieved in 1975, the leaders of FRELIMO's military campaign rapidly established a one-party state allied to the Soviet bloc and outlawed rival political activity. FRELIMO eliminated political pluralism, religious educational institutions, and the role of traditional authorities.

The new government gave shelter and support to South African (ANC) and Zimbabwean (ZANU) liberation movements while the governments of first Rhodesia and later apartheid South Africa fostered and financed an armed rebel movement in central Mozambique called the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO). Civil war, sabotage from neighboring states, and economic collapse characterized the first decade of Mozambican independence. Also marking this period were the mass exodus of Portuguese nationals, weak infrastructure, nationalization, and economic mismanagement. During most of the civil war, the government was unable to exercise effective control outside of urban areas, many of which were cut off from the capital. An estimated 1 million Mozambicans perished during the civil war, 1.7 million took refuge in neighboring states, and several million more were internally displaced. In the third FRELIMO party congress in 1983, President Samora Machel conceded the failure of socialism and the need for major political and economic reforms. He died, along with several advisers, in a suspicious 1986 plane crash.

His successor, Joaquim Chissano, continued the reforms and began peace talks with RENAMO. The new constitution enacted in 1990 provided for a multi-party political system, market-based economy, and free elections. The civil war ended in October 1992 with the Rome General Peace Accords. Under supervision of the ONUMOZ peacekeeping force of the United Nations, peace returned to Mozambique.

By mid-1995 the more than 1.7 million Mozambican refugees who had sought asylum in neighboring Malawi, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Zambia, Tanzania, and South Africa as a result of war and drought had returned, as part of the largest repatriation witnessed in Sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, a further estimated 4 million internally displaced people returned to their areas of origin.


GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Mozambique is a multi-party democracy under the 1990 constitution. The executive branch comprises a president, prime minister, and Council of Ministers. There is a National Assembly and municipal assemblies. The judiciary comprises a Supreme Court and provincial, district, and municipal courts. Suffrage is universal at 18.

In 1994 the country held its first democratic elections. Joaquim Chissano was elected President with 53% of the vote, and a 250-member National Assembly was voted in with 129 FRELIMO deputies, 112 RENAMO deputies, and 9 representatives of three smaller parties that formed the Democratic Union (UD). Since its formation in 1994, the National Assembly has made progress in becoming a body increasingly more independent of the executive. By 1999, more than one-half (53%) of the legislation passed originated in the Assembly.

After some delays, in 1998 the country held its first local elections to provide for local representation and some budgetary authority at the municipal level. The principal opposition party, RENAMO, boycotted the local elections, citing flaws in the registration process. Independent slates contested the elections and won seats in municipal assemblies. Turnout was very low.

In the aftermath of the 1998 local elections, the government resolved to make more accommodations to the opposition's procedural concerns for the second round of multiparty national elections in 1999. Working through the National Assembly, the electoral law was rewritten and passed by consensus in December 1998. Financed largely by international donors, a very successful voter registration was conducted from July to September 1999, providing voter registration cards to 85% of the potential electorate (more than 7 million voters).

The second general elections were held December 3-5, 1999, with high voter turnout. International and domestic observers agreed that the voting process was well organized and went smoothly. Both the opposition and observers subsequently cited flaws in the tabulation process that, had they not occurred, might have changed the outcome. In the end, however, international and domestic observers concluded that the close result of the vote reflected the will of the people.

President Chissano won the presidency with a margin of 4% points over the RENAMO-Electoral Union coalition candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, and began his 5-year term in January 2000. FRELIMO increased its majority in the National Assembly with 133 out of 250 seats. RENAMOUE coalition won 116 seats, one went independent, and no third parties are represented.

The opposition coalition did not accept the National Election Commission's results of the presidential vote and filed a formal complaint to the Supreme Court. One month after the voting, the court dismissed the opposition's challenge and validated the election results. The opposition did not file a complaint about the results of the legislative vote.

The second local elections, involving 33 municipalities with some 2.4 million registered voters, took place in November 2003. This was the first time that FRELIMO, RENAMO-UE, and independent parties competed without significant boycotts. The 24% turnout was well above the 15% turnout in the first municipal elections. FRELIMO won 28 mayoral positions and the majority in 29 municipal assemblies, while RENAMO won 5 mayoral positions and the majority in 4 municipal assemblies. The voting was conducted in an orderly fashion without violent incidents. However, the period immediately after the elections was marked by objections about voter and candidate registration and vote tabulation, as well as calls for greater transparency.

In May 2004, the government approved a new general elections law that contained innovations based on the experience of the 2003 municipal elections.

Presidential and National Assembly elections took place on December 1-2, 2004. FRELIMO candidate Armando Guebuza won with 64% of the popular vote. His opponent, Afonso Dhlakama of RENAMO, received 32% of the popular vote. FRELIMO won 160 seats in Parliament. A coalition of RENAMO and several small parties won the 90 remaining seats. Armando Guebuza was inaugurated as the President of Mozambique on February 2, 2005.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 2/6/2005

President: Armando GUEBUZA
Prime Minister: Luisa Dias DIOGO
Min. of Agriculture: Tomas MANDLATE
Min. of Coordination of Environmental Action: Luciano Andre DE CASTRO
Min. of Development & Planning: Aiubaa CUERENEIA
Min. of Education & Culture: Aires Bonifacio ALI
Min. of Energy: Salvador NAMBURETE
Min. of Finance: Manuel CHANG
Min. of Fisheries: Cadmiel MUTHEMBA
Min. of Foreign Affairs & Cooperation: Alcinda ABREU
Min. of Health: Paulo Ivo GARRIDO
Min. of Industry & Commerce: Antonio FERNANDO
Min. of Interior: Jose PACHECO
Min. of Justice:
Min. of Labor: Helena TAIPO
Min. of Mineral Resources: Esperanca BIAS
Min. of National Defense: Tobias DAI
Min. of Public Works & Housing: Felicio ZACARIAS
Min. of Science & Technology:
Min. of State Administration: Lucas CHOMERA
Min. of Tourism: Fernando SUMBANA, Jr.
Min. of Transport & Communication: Antonio Francisco MUNGUAMBE
Min. of Veteran's Affairs:
Min. of Women & Social Action: Virgilia MATABELE
Min. of Youth & Sports: David SIMANGO
Min. in the Presidency for Diplomatic Affairs: Francisco Caetano MADEIRA
Min. in the Presidency for Parliamentary Affairs: Isabel Manuel NKAVADEKA
Attorney General: Antonio NAMBURETE
Governor, Central Bank: Adriano Afonso MALEIANE
Ambassador to the US: Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA
Permanent Representative to the UN, NewYork: Filipe CHIDUMO

Mozambique maintains an embassy in the United States at 1990 M Street, NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036; tel: 202-293-7146.


ECONOMY

Macroeconomic Review

Alleviating poverty. At the end of the civil war in 1992, Mozambique ranked among the poorest countries in the world. It still ranks among the least developed nations with very low socioeconomic indicators. In the last decade, however, it has experienced a notable economic recovery. Per capita GDP in 2004 was estimated at 276 USD, a significant increase over the mid-1980s level of 120 USD. With a high foreign debt (originally $5.7 billion at 1998 net present value) and a good track record on economic reform, Mozambique was the first African country to receive debt relief under the initial HIPC (Heavily Indebted Poor Countries) Initiative. In April 2000, Mozambique qualified for the Enhanced HIPC program as well and attained its completion point in September 2001. This led to the Paris Club members agreeing in November 2001 to substantially reduce the remaining bilateral debt. This led to the complete forgiveness of a considerable volume of bilateral debt. The United States has finished this process and forgiven Mozambique's debt.

During their summit in Scotland in July 2005, the G8 nations agreed to significant multilateral debt relief for the world's least developed nations. On December 21, 2005, the IMF formalized the complete cancellation of all Mozambican IMF debt contracted prior to January 1, 2005.

Rebounding growth

The resettlement of civil war refugees, political stability and continuing economic reforms have led to a high economic growth rate. Between 1994 and 2004 average annual GDP growth was 8.2%. Mozambique achieved this growth rate even though the devastating floods of 2000 slowed GDP growth to 2.1%. The economy bounced back and consistent GDP growth rates between 7% and 8% are expected again in 2005 and 2006, with the World Bank predicting average growth of 7% from 2004 through 2008. The GRM projects similar growth expansion (between 7%-10% a year over the next five years), but future strong expansion requires continued economic reforms, major foreign direct investment, and the resurrection of the agriculture, transportation and tourism sectors. Focusing on economic growth in the agricultural sector is a major challenge for the GRM. Although more than 80% of the population engages in small-scale agriculture, the sector suffers from inadequate infrastructure, commercial networks and investment. However a majority of Mozambique's arable land is still uncultivated, leaving room for considerable growth.

Low inflation

The government's tight control of spending and the money supply, combined with financial sector reform, successfully reduced inflation from 70% in 1994 to less than 5% in 1998-1999. Economic disruptions resulting from the devastating floods of 2000 caused inflation to jump to 12.7% that year. The government is still working to bring inflation down to those lower numbers. In 2003 inflation reached 13.5%; in 2004 it decreased slightly to 12.6% (consumer price index used to measure inflation rates). As of late December 2005, the exchange rate was approximately 24,000 meticais per dollar, though it had been as low as 18,000 and as high as 29,000 at different times during 2005. Beginning January 1, 2006, the GRM will start issuing a "new family" of Meticais. The exchange rate value will remain the same, however one new Metical will be worth 1,000 old Meticais. This reform is an attempt to simplify the rather complicated currency, where prices often run in the millions of Meticais due to denomination size.

Extensive economic reform

Economic reform has been extensive. More than 1,200 state-owned enterprises (mostly small) have been privatized. Preparations for privatization and/or sector liberalization are underway for the remaining parastatals, including telecommunications, electricity, ports, and the railroads. The government frequently selects a strategic foreign investor when privatizing a parastatal. Additionally, customs duties have been reduced, and customs management has been streamlined and reformed. The government introduced a highly successful value-added tax in 1999 as part of its efforts to increase domestic revenues. Plans for 2005-06 include Commercial Code reform; revision of the labor law; comprehensive judicial reform; financial sector strengthening; continued civil service reform; and improved government budget, audit, and inspection capability.

Improving trade imbalance

In 2004 Mozambique exported $1.26 billion worth of goods and imported $1.4 billion. The ratio of exports to imports has increased significantly from the immediate-postwar years, when it was 1 to 4. Support programs provided by foreign donors and private financing of foreign direct investment mega-projects and their associated raw materials have largely compensated for balance-of-payment shortfalls. The mediumterm outlook for exports is encouraging, as a number of recent foreign investment projects have improved the trade balance. This export growth is expected to continue. MOZAL I, a large aluminum smelter that commenced production in mid-2000, greatly expanded Mozambique's trade volume. In April 2001, the IFC approved financing assistance for MOZAL II, which doubled overall production capacity. Phase two went online in April 2003, five months ahead of schedule, using primarily Mozambican workers during construction. Traditional Mozambican exports include cashews, shrimp, fish, copra, sugar, cotton, tea and citrus and exotic fruits. Most of these industries are being rehabilitated. In addition, Mozambique is less dependent upon imports for basic food and manufactured goods as the result of steady increases in local production.

SADC trade protocol

In December 1999, the Mozambican Council of Ministers approved the southern African Development Community (SADC) Trade Protocol. The Protocol will create a free trade zone among more than 200 million consumers in the SADC region. Implementation of the Protocol began in 2002 and has an overall zero-tariff target set for 2008, however Mozambique's country-specific zero-tariff goal is currently 2015. Mozambique joined the WTO on August 26, 1995.


FOREIGN RELATIONS

While allegiances dating back to the liberation struggle remain relevant, Mozambique's foreign policy has become increasingly pragmatic. The twin pillars of Mozambique's foreign policy are maintenance of good relations with its neighbors and maintenance and expansion of ties to development partners.

During the 1970s and early 1980s, Mozambique's foreign policy was inextricably linked to the struggles for majority rule in Rhodesia and South Africa as well as superpower competition and the Cold War. Mozambique's decision to enforce UN sanctions against Rhodesia and deny that country access to the sea led Ian Smith's regime to undertake overt and covert actions to destabilize the country. Although the change of government in Zimbabwe in 1980 removed this threat, the apartheid regime in South Africa continued to finance the destabilization of Mozambique.

The 1984 Nkomati Accord, while failing in its goal of ending South African support to RENAMO, opened initial diplomatic contacts between the Mozambican and South African governments. This process gained momentum with South Africa's elimination of apartheid, which culminated in the establishment of full diplomatic relations in October 1993. While relations with neighboring Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania show occasional strains, Mozambique's ties to these countries remain strong.

In the years immediately following its independence, Mozambique benefited from considerable assistance from some western countries, notably the Scandinavians. Moscow and its allies, however, became Mozambique's primary economic, military, and political supporters and its foreign policy reflected this linkage. This began to change in 1983; in 1984 Mozambique joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Western aid quickly replaced Soviet support, with the Scandinavians, the United States, the Netherlands, and the European Union becoming increasingly important sources of development assistance. Italy also maintains a profile in Mozambique as a result of its key role during the peace process. Relations with Portugal, the former colonial power, are complex and of some importance as Portuguese investors play a visible role in Mozambique's economy.

Mozambique is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and ranks among the moderate members of the African Bloc in the United Nations and other international organizations. Mozambique also belongs to the Organization of African Unity/African Union and the Southern African Development Community. In 1994, the Government became a full member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, in part to broaden its base of international support but also to please the country's sizeable Muslim population. Similarly, in early 1996 Mozambique joined its Anglophone neighbors in the Commonwealth. In the same year, Mozambique became a founding member and the first President of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and maintains close ties with other Luso-phone states.


U.S.-MOZAMBICAN RELATIONS

Relations between the United States and Mozambique are good and steadily improving. This state of comity, spurred by the end of the superpower confrontation on the continent, South Africa's democratic transition, and Mozambique's own internal changes, bodes well for continued strong ties. By 1993, U.S. aid to Mozambique was prominent, due in part to significant emergency food assistance in the wake of the 1991-93 southern African drought, but more importantly in support of the peace and reconciliation process. During the process leading up to elections in October 1994, the United State s served as a significant financier and member of the most important commissions established to monitor implementation of the Rome General Peace Accords. The United States is one of the largest bilateral donors to the country and plays a leading role in donor efforts to assist Mozambique with its ongoing economic and political transitions.

The U.S. Embassy opened in Maputo on November 8, 1975, and the first American ambassador arrived in March 1976. In that same year, the United States extended a $10 million grant to the Government of Mozambique to help compensate for the economic costs of enforcing sanctions against Rhodesia. In 1977, however, largely motivated by a concern with human rights violations, the U.S. Congress prohibited the provision of development aid to Mozambique without a presidential certification that such aid would be in the foreign policy interests of the United States. Relations hit a nadir in March 1981, when the Government of Mozambique expelled four members of the U.S. Embassy staff. In response, the United States suspended plans to provide development aid and to name a new ambassador to Mozambique. Relations between the two countries languished in a climate of stagnation and mutual suspicion.

Contacts between the two countries continued in the early 1980s as part of the U.S. administration's conflict resolution efforts in the region. In late 1983, a new U.S. ambassador arrived in Maputo, and the first Mozambican envoy to the United States arrived in Washington, signaling a thaw in the bilateral relationship. The United States subsequently responded to Mozambique's economic reform and drift away from Moscow's embrace by initiating an aid program in 1984. President Samora Machel paid a symbolically important official working visit to the United States in 1985, where he met President Reagan. After that meeting, a full USAID mission was established, and significant assistance for economic reform efforts began. President Chissano met with President Bush in September 2003; previously, he had met with Presidents Reagan (October 1987), Bush (March 1990), and Clinton (November 1998), and also with Secretaries of State Powell (February 2002) and Baker (July 1992). Since taking office in February 2005, President Guebuza has visited the United States on four occasions. In June 2005, President Guebuza visited Washington DC to take part in President Bush's mini-summit on Africa, along with the leaders of Ghana, Namibia, Botswana and Niger. Later that month, he attended the Corporate Council on Africa (CCA) Business Summit in Baltimore. President Guebuza returned in September 2005 for the UNGA in New York and in December 2005 attended the Fourth Development Cooperation Forum at the Carter Center in Atlanta.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

MAPUTO (E) Address: 193 Kenneth Kaunda; APO/FPO: P.O. Box 783. Maputo, Mozambique 2330, Maputo Place, WashDC 20521-2330; Phone: 258 2149 27 97; Fax: 258 2149 01 14; Workweek: 0730-1730 Monday-Thursday-0730-1130 Friday.

AMB:Helen R. Meagher La Lime
AMB OMS:Mary M. Mertz
DCM:James L. Dudley
DCM OMS:Sanya L. Hunsucker
POL:Cynthia A. Brown
POL/ECO:John A. Wysham
CON:Jeffrey Lodermeir
MGT:John M. Kowalski
AFSA:Gregory L. Garland
AID:Jay Knott
CLO:Donald J. Heroux
DAO:Daniel M. Jones
ECO/COM:Brooke L. Williams
EEO:Mark E. Myelle
FMO:Martin B. Schwartz
GSO:Malia V. Heroux
ICASS Chair:Donna Stauffer
IMO:Mark E. Myelle
PAO:Gregory L. Garland
PAO/ADV:David J. Stephenson
RSO:Karen A. Lass
Last Updated: 11/1/2005

SECURITY INFORMATION

The security situation in Mozambique requires caution. Street crime and carjackings in urban areas occur frequently. Road travel can be hazardous and should not be undertaken after daylight hours. The abundance of weapons remaining from the country's civil war and police who are poorly trained, equipped, and motivated contribute to a serious crime situation.

Additionally, several hundred thousand mines were planted throughout Mozambique during the last three decades of conflict, and while mine clearing operations are currently underway, surface travel off main highways should be approached with caution.


TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet

January 6, 2006

Country Description:

Mozambique, a developing country in southern Africa, has steadily rebuilt its economy and civic institutions since ending a 16-year civil war in 1992. The country stabilized following Mozambique's first multi-party elections in October 1994, and a new president was elected in December 2004. Despite high economic growth rates in recent years, Mozambique remains among the world's poorest countries. Facilities for tourism in Maputo, the capital city, are steadily improving but remain limited in other areas, as most of the goods and services taken for granted in other countries are not yet available.

Entry/Exit Requirements:

A visa is required for entry into Mozambique. It is recommended that travelers acquire the appropriate visa prior to departing for Mozambique. The passports of all travelers who wish to enter Mozambique must be valid for six months and must contain at least one clean (unstamped) visa page each time entry is sought. Travelers transiting through other countries should be aware of the need for additional clean pages that may be required. For further information on entry requirements, contact the Embassy of Mozambique, 1990 M Street, N. W., Suite 570, Washington, D. C. 20036, telephone (202) 293-7146, or the nearest Mozambican embassy or consulate. Visit the Embassy of Mozambique's web site at, http://www.embamocusa.org/ for the most current visa information.

Safety and Security:

Overland travel after dark is extremely dangerous due to poor road conditions, lack of emergency services, and the increased potential for vehicle hijacking. Visitors should be particularly vigilant when driving on the main thoroughfares connecting Mozambique and South Africa, as incidents of vehicle theft, including assault and robbery, have been reported. Official Americans serving in Mozambique are prohibited from overland travel outside Maputo city limits after dark and are strongly encouraged to travel in convoys of two or more vehicles when outside of the city during daylight hours. Police checkpoints are common and police officers frequently harass foreigners. Due to residual landmines, overland travelers are advised to remain on well-traveled roads or seek local information before going off-road outside of Maputo and other provincial capitals.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site at http://travel.state.gov where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Crime:

The biggest threat facing U.S. citizens visiting Mozambique is violent crime. Street crimes, including muggings, purse snatching, and pick-pocketing are common, both in Maputo and secondary cities. Over the past year there has been a significant increase in attacks against foreigners. Americans have been victims of sexual assault and armed robbery. Visitors must be vigilant when out in public areas and should not display jewelry or other expensive items. Isolated areas should be avoided. Joggers and pedestrians have frequently been mugged, even during daylight hours. Visitors should not walk at night, even in well-known tourist areas. The area in downtown Maputo along Avenue Julius Nyerere between Eduardo Mondlane Avenue and Ahmed Sekou Toure Avenue was the site of three reported assaults against expatriates in November and December of 2005. Due to security concerns in the immediate area, the U.S. Embassy in Mozambique has recommended that until the security situation improves, Hotel Avenida not be used as a prime choice of accommodation for official visitors.

Despite more police patrols in areas frequented by foreigners, these areas remain dangerous because the police are poorly paid, poorly equipped and lack the professionalism that U.S. citizens are accustomed to in the United States. Mozambican law requires that all persons carry an identity document, such as a passport, when out in public and produce it if requested by police. A notarized copy of the biographic page and the Mozambican visa are acceptable. There are certain areas in the city of Maputo where pedestrian traffic is prohibited (e.g., in front of the presidential offices located north of the Hotel Polana on the sea side of Avenida Julius Nyerere). Demonstrations are infrequent but should be avoided when they do occur.

Information for Victims of Crime:

The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Medical Facilities and Health Information:

Medical facilities are rudimentary, and most medical providers do not speak English. Medicines are not always consistently available. There are both public and private medical facilities in the city of Maputo. All health care institutions and providers require payment at the time of service, and may even require payment before service is given. While some private clinics accept credit cards, many medical facilities do not. Doctors and hospitals outside Maputo generally expect immediate cash payment for health services. Outside of Maputo, available medical care ranges from very basic to non-existent.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance:

The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions:

While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Mozambique is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

The main north-south thoroughfare is passable until the city of Caia (Sofala province), where vehicle passengers must disembark and cross the Zambezi River by ferryboat. On the other side of the river, the road continues to the northern provinces. The road network connecting provincial capitals is in fair condition, but can be riddled with potholes and other obstacles during the rainy season.

A new toll road has improved travel between Maputo and South Africa. However, banditry along major highways continues to threaten the safety of road travelers. Periodically, the U.S. Embassy has restricted embassy personnel from traveling on certain roads or has imposed certain restrictions on road travel. Embassy personnel are prohibited from traveling outside cities after dark because of the increased risk of banditry, poor road conditions in some areas, the poor maintenance of many vehicles in the country (e.g. no headlights or rear lights), as well as the threat imposed by livestock that graze on roadsides. Travel outside Maputo often requires a four-wheel drive vehicle, which creates an additional security risk since these vehicles are high-theft items. Public transportation is extremely limited. Travelers contemplating overland travel may wish to contact the U.S. Embassy for the most current information on road travel safety.

Aviation Safety Oversight:

As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Mozambique, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Mozambique's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

Due to safety concerns, employees of the U.S. Embassy in Maputo are currently not allowed to use local air carrier "Air Corridor."

Special Circumstances:

Crrency can be converted only at locations authorized by the Mozambican government. It is against the law to destroy Mozambican currency; offenders can expect jail sentences and fines. The limit for undeclared amount of U.S. dollars one can take out of the country is $5,000. The limit on local currency (the metical) is 500,000, which is approximately 20 U.S. dollars. Some American travelers have reported having difficulties in cashing travelers checks and have relied instead on ATMs and credit cards for money withdrawals in Maputo. Outside of the major hotels and restaurants, credit cards are not widely accepted in Mozambique. Many merchants prefer to be paid in U.S. dollars. The South African rand is frequently accepted as legal tender, although this is more common in the southern part of the country than in the northern part.

Criminal Penalties:

While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Mozambique's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Mozambique are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues:

For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://www.travel.state.gov/family/family_1732.html.

Registration/Embassy Location:

Americans living or traveling in Mozambique are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website, https://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Mozambique. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located in Maputo at 193 Avenida Kenneth Kaunda, telephone (258-1) 49-27-97. The after-hours telephone number for use in emergencies is (258-1) 49-07-23. The Consular Section's fax number is (258-1) 49-04-48. The Consular Section's e-mail address is [email protected] The Embassy's general website is http://www.usembassymaputo.gov.mz/.

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Mozambique

Culture Name

Mozambican

Orientation

Identification. Arab traders who made their way down the East African coast mingled with African peoples, creating a hybrid culture and language called Swahili. This culture still predominates in several East African countries and exerts a strong influence in northern Mozambique. The name "Mozambique" is thought to come from the Swahili Musa al Big, the name of an ancient Arab sheikh, ("chief") who lived on the northern Ilha de Moçambique.

Location and Geography. Mozambique is on the southeastern coast of Africa, bordering Tanzania, Malawi, and Zambia to the north; Zimbabwe to the west; South Africa and Swaziland to the south; and the Mozambique Channel to the east. The capital, Maputo, is in the south, near the coast. The area of the country is 308,642 square miles (799,509 square kilometers). The terrain ranges from rain forests and swamps to mountains, grasslands, sand dunes, and beaches. The Zambezi River is an important natural resource, supplying power through the Cahora Bassa dam, one of Africa's largest hydroelectric projects. The Zambezi flows west to east and cuts the country into northern and southern regions that diverge, to some extent, in terms of culture and history as well as climate.

There are two main seasons: the wet season from November through March and the dry season from April through October. Drought is common, particularly in the south. However, the country also has experienced devastating floods, most recently in 1999. Mozambique a great diversity of animal life, including zebras, water buffalo, elephants, giraffes, lions, hippopotami, and crocodiles. The country has established national parks and game reserves where these animals are protected.

Demography. The estimated population in 1998 was 18,641,469. This figure represents a twofold increase since 1970. Mozambique once had the highest growth rate in southern Africa, but the rate of increase declined significantly from the mid-1970s through the 1990s as civil war caused losses from both death and emigration. There are about 1.1 million Mozambicans in Malawi and Zimbabwe. More than two-fifths of the population is under the age of fifteen.

The population is divided among roughly sixty different ethnic groups, including nine major ones. The largest group is the Makua-Lomwe in the north, who account for about half the population. Farther north are the Makonde near the coast and the Yao near Lake Malawi. Southern tribes include the Tsonga, the Karanga, the Chopi, the Shona, and the Nguni. Roughly 3 percent of the population is European, Indian, Chinese, Pakistani, or mestizo (mixed African and European). These people are concentrated in the coastal cities and usually work as doctors, teachers, shopkeepers, or industrial laborers.

Linguistic Affiliation. The official language is Portuguese, a legacy of the country's colonizers. When Mozambique gained independence in 1975, Frelimo wanted to evict the colonial language but was not successful in finding a replacement. No other language is spoken by a majority. In the north, the Bantu languages of Yao and Makua predominate; in the Zambezi Valley, it is Nyanja is the dominant languages; and in the south, Tsonga is spoken. Along the northern coast, many people speak Swahili. Portuguese is the language of education and government but is rarely spoken outside the cities. Because six of the neighboring countries are former British colonies, English is used occasionally, particularly in Maputo, in dealings with businesspeople and tourists from South Africa.

Symbolism. The flag consists of horizontal bands of green, black, and yellow with a red triangle at the left border. In the center is a yellow star overlaid with a book, symbolizing education; a hoe, symbolizing agriculture; and a rifle, which stands for defense and vigilance.

History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. The earliest inhabitants were small groups of hunters and gatherers such as the Khoi and the San. These groups were part of what is known as the Bushmen. These nomadic people eventually moved out or intermarried with Bantu-speaking tribes that came to the area around the third century c.e. In the eighth century, Arab traders began establishing trading posts along the coast. By the fourteenth century, those settlements had developed into independent city-states and were the main political and commercial centers in the area.

The Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama was the first European to reach current-day Mozambique. When he arrived in 1498, the Maravi kingdom of the Mwene Matapa was in control of the central Zambezi Basin. Da Gama first landed in the Muslim island town of Moçambique, and by 1510 the Portuguese controlled trading from Sofala in present-day Mozambique north to Mogadishu in what is now Somalia. In 1515, they began to expand their explorations into the interior with the intention of further controlling trade and taking control of gold mines. They subdued the inhabitants and over the next century claimed rights to vast areas of land and to the people who lived there, whom they forced to work on their farms and in their gold mines. The Mwene Matapa recognized Portuguese rule in 1629. The Portuguese called the area Terra da Boa Gente ("Country of the Good People").

Portuguese rule was challenged by local landlords (prazeiros ), who wanted power for themselves, and by fighting among the African tribes they were trying to subdue. In the late seventeenth century, the Rozwi kingdom defeated the Mwene Matapa and forced the Portuguese south of the Zambezi River. Portuguese supremacy continued to wane until the end of the eighteenth century, when Portuguese seized control of the port at Delagoa Bay in the south, later named Lourenço Marcos (today Maputo, the capital). In 1752, the first colonial governor was appointed. Slavery existed in the area before the Portuguese came, but they introduced the concept of exporting slaves, and by 1790 nine thousand people were being shipped out each year. The slave trade took the healthiest young people, sapping many cultures of their vitality and growth. In the early 1800s, when the British began to pass laws against the slave trade in West Africa, this opened new opportunities for it to grow along the eastern coast of the continent. Even after the Portuguese outlawed slavery in 1878, it went on for many years.

The Zulu presented another challenge to Portuguese rule. Under the leadership of the warrior Shaka, the Zulu tribe expanded its domain by attacking villages throughout southern Africa. The Zulu also battled the Portuguese, capturing the fort at Lourenço Marcos in 1833.

European colonizers in nearby territories refused to recognize the Portuguese claim to Mozambique. The British in particular contested several areas in the south of the colony and actively ruled the areas to which they laid claim. In 1875, this dispute erupted into a major conflict that was settled in Portugal's favor.

A conference was held in 18851886 in Berlin in an attempt to divide the African continent peacefully among the European colonizers. Portugal claimed a territory that stretched from Angola on the west coast to Mozambique in the east. The British did not agree to this, and boundary wars were fought until Portugal relinquished Mashonaland, part of current-day Zimbabwe, in 1891. The Portuguese also had to subdue the African inhabitants of their colony, which was particularly difficult in the interior Zambezi region and the north.

In the late 1800s, Portugal chartered private companies to oversee inland territories, superseding the power of the local landlords. In 1907, in an attempt to consolidate and enforce its power and to combat local corruption, Portugal moved the administration of Mozambique from Lisbon to offices in the colony itself.

During World War I, Portugal conscripted thousands of Mozambican men to fight for the Allies; this resulted in a violent uprising in 1917. More than 130,000 Mozambicans died in the war.

With the establishment of the Colonial Act in 1930, Mozambique's limited autonomy was replaced by a more centralized Portuguese administration. In 1951, Portugal declared the colony an overseas province. Throughout the 1950s, the Portuguese government attempted to increase the white population. This, combined with atrocious treatment of the African population led to a steady migration out of Mozambique to the neighboring countries.

In the 1960s, Mozambique was swept up in the pan-African movement toward independence. The secret police suppressed the actions of the political organizers, who were forced to work in nearby African nations. In 1962, exiled leaders in Tanzania established Frelimo, the Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (the Mozambican Liberation Front). Frelimo, lead by Eduardo Mondlane, was strongest militarily in the north, from where it drew most of its guerrilla fighters. Fighting between Frelimo and Portuguese troops broke out in 1964, after which Portugal sent more than seventy thousand troops to subdue the uprising. However, it was a costly war, and when Portuguese army officers revolted in the mid-1970s, the colonial government collapsed. Mozambique gained independence on 25 June 1975. With the beginning of the independence movement, many Portuguese fled the country, and the white population fell from 200,000 to 30,000 in 1977.

Frelimo was declared the new ruler and established a government based on Marxist-Leninist ideology. However, conflict within Frelimo's leadership, both political and ethnic, was widespread. That conflict had already led to violence, including the assassination of Mondlane in the late 1960s. Frelimo also faced external opposition, most notably from the rebel group called Renamo the (Mozambican National Resistance). The ongoing civil war that resulted disrupted Mozambique's economy, caused tens of thousands of deaths, and forced large numbers of people out of their homes and villages.

In the late 1980s, Frelimo, under pressure from the International Monetary Fund, renounced its Marxist stance in order to receive foreign aid. In 1990, a new constitution was introduced that allowed for a multiparty democracy. On 4 October 1992, the civil war officially ended when a peace accord was signed by Frelimo and Renamo leaders.

National Identity. The country is divided along both ethnic and linguistic lines. Mozambicans often identify primarily with a tribe and/or linguistic group. However, the independence movement that began in the 1960s was a unifying force, causing these disparate elements to join together in resisting the Portuguese. Ironically, some of the main unifying factors in the country have been remnants of the colonial system, including the Portuguese language and the Roman Catholic religion. This is most evident in the central Zambezi Valley, where Portuguese influence was strongest.

Ethnic Relations. Despite ethnic and linguistic differences, there is little conflict among the various groups. The greatest cultural disparities are those which divide the north of the country from the south. The groups north of the Zambezi follow a system of matrilineal descent. Many of them are seminomadic, moving every few years to more fertile soil. Because they are far from the capital and other urban centers, these northern groups show less influence from the Portuguese. South of the river, in the Zambezi Valley, the people adopted Portuguese dress, language, and religion to a larger extent.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

All the main cities are located on the coast. Maputo was constructed on a European model and has wide streets, public gardens, and paved sidewalks inlaid with mosaic tiles. The city has two parts: the older residential area on a cliff overlooking the harbor and the newer industrial area below, where the factories, port facilities, and most office buildings are located. In the 1950s, the Portuguese architect Amancio d'Alpoim Guedes designed many of the city's office and apartment buildings, which combine shapes and symbols from traditional African art with a modern sensibility.

Most of the cities took in a large number of refugees from the countryside during the civil war. To cope with that sudden population increase, shantytowns were erected along the outskirts. Poor sanitation in those settlements led to the spread of disease. Government planners have been attempting to combat this problem by building low-cost apartments, but they have been unable to keep up with the growing population.

Beira, the second largest city, is primarily a port. Located several hundred miles north of Maputo, on the coast, it is the center of the commercial fishing industry and a center of trade with Malawi and Zimbabwe. Like Maputo, it took in a large number of refugees during the civil war. It is also a Portuguese-style colonial city.

Nampula in the north is the third largest city and was established in the late 1960s when the Portuguese drained a swamp and built it. The city grew even more rapidly than expected, partly as a result of its location along the commercial railway between Malawi and the port of Nacala. However, despite its harbor and modern facilities, Nampula has declined in importance because of the deterioration of the railroad line that leads from the city to the interior and to Malawi.

The oldest surviving settlement is Moçambique Island in the north. The Arab architecture of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, including coral-block mosques and houses, is still standing. Fort Saint Sebastian, a huge stone fort built by the Portuguese in 1507, is another physical testament to the island's history. The fort has been preserved as a museum. The town continues to thrive with large Asian and Muslim populations.

The country also has the remains of several ancient cities, including Nhacangara near the border with Zimbabwe. This site has a stone fortress with paths and tunnels, and traces of terraces on the nearby hills indicate earlier settlement. Archaeologists speculate that the country has many more long-uninhabited cities that have not been discovered. However, research into them has been impeded by the civil war.

Much historic colonial architecture was destroyed in the civil war. Renamo's strategy was to destroy every building that Frelimo erected. That destruction extended to include even small structures in the countryside, until the whole country was virtually destroyed.

Despite the rapid growth of the cities, nine-tenths of the population is rural. Traditional village houses are round huts made of poles held together with mud, and thatched roofs made of palm leaves. However, most homes built today are made of cement blocks and have tin roofs. Each village erects a boma around its perimeter. This is a fence with sharpened posts, that provides protection against attacks by lions and other wild animals. The fields lie outside the boma. Villages are centered on a cattle pen called a kraal, or a community building.

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. Most of the crops originally cultivated in the region have been supplanted by European imports. The exception is millet, a grain that sometimes is made into beer. The diet of rural residents is based on the cassava root, which is called mandioca in Portuguese. Its importance is testified to by its name, which translates as "the all-sufficient." This malleable food source can be baked, dried in the sun, or mashed with water to form a porridge. In its most common form, it is ground into a coarse flour along with corn and then mixed with cassava leaves and water. The resulting dough is served in calabashes. Corn is the other staple food; both corn and cassava were introduced from the Americas by the Portuguese. Cashews, pineapple, and peanuts, which are other important foods, found their way to Mozambique in the same way.

Along the coast, the cuisine is more varied and Portuguese-influenced than it is in inland areas. The diet there includes more fruit and rice as well as seafood dishes such as macaza (grilled shellfish kabobs), bacalhão (dried salted cod) and chocos (squid cooked in its own ink). Food is seasoned with peppers, onions, and coconut. Palm wine (shema ) is a popular drink.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Food is a part of many celebrations. It is customary to serve a meal at parties, rituals, and other social gatherings. For the poor (who are the vast majority of the population), while ceremonial occasions often entail large feasts, the food served is the same as what is eaten everyday.

Basic Economy. The gross national product has nearly no growth rate and is one of the lowest in the world. Although only 5 percent of the land is arable, 80 percent of the people work in agriculture. The farming techniques are primitive, involving few tools and work animals. After independence, many farms were organized on the basis of Chinese and Cuban models; however, with the changes imposed by the International Monetary Fund in the late 1980s, a system of decentralization and private ownership was introduced. The main crops cultivated are corn, cassava, coconuts, peanuts, cotton, sugar, and cashews. However, the nation cannot meet its food needs, particularly for corn, and must import large quantities of food. Mozambique's currency is the metical.

Land Tenure and Property. There is no tradition of private land ownership. Land belongs to the community rather than to any individual. When the country won independence, the socialist Frelimo government took over ownership of all the land from the Portuguese and encouraged villagers to farm collectively, according to their traditions.

Commercial Activities. The main goods produced for sale within the country are agricultural. Farmers grow corn, cassava, peanuts, bananas, and citrus fruits for their own consumption. Some of these products are sold at local markets, and some are transported to the capital and other cities for sale there.

Major Industries. Agriculture is by far the largest industry. Fishing along the coast (particularly shrimp) accounts for one-third of the country's exports. The rivers also provide fish, and there are several fisheries that produce mackerel, anchovies, and prawns. Mining and manufacturing account for one-fifth of the gross domestic product. The principal products are coal, beryllium, limestone, and salt. There are also deposits of tantalite, iron ore, uranium, copper, gold, and diamonds. The country also manufactures textiles, plastics, beverages, food, cement, glass, and asbestos.

Trade. The main exports are shrimp, cashews, cotton, sugar, and timber, which go primarily to Spain, the United States, Japan, and Portugal. Imports of food, machinery, petroleum, and consumer goods come from South Africa, the United States, Portugal, and Italy. The country has an unfavorable trade balance, although it is alleviated somewhat by remittances sent by Mozambicans working in South Africa.

Division of Labor. The workforce is divided primarily along geographic lines. The majority of the population is rural, and these people are farmers. In cities, there are more skilled workers as well as street vendors and a small white-collar workforce. Professionals such as teachers, lawyers, and government officials constitute a small percentage of the population and generally come from a small number of middle-class or wealthy families.

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. During the time of Portuguese rule, the prazeiros, (Portuguese landowners) formed the wealthiest and most powerful class. Below them were the mestizos, those of mixed African and Portuguese descent; and at the bottom were Africans, who constituted the vast majority of the population. Despite the internal diversity of the population, which is composed of various cultural and linguistic groups, ethnicity has never been a major factor in social status. Since independence, most Portuguese have left the country. Today, with the exception of the tiny ruling elite, nearly everyone in the country is poor.

Symbols of Social Stratification. The way people dress reflects the confluence of different cultures as well as the individual's economic standing. In the cities, men wear Western-style suits to go to work. Women wear Western-style dresses made from fabric with brightly colored African patterns. Throughout the country men have, for the most part, replaced the traditional loincloth with T-shirts and dashikis. Women in rural areas, however, generally have kept their traditional garb of long strips of fabric that are wrapped around the body, under the arms, and over one shoulder. They also have retained the traditional head scarf or turban. Young people almost exclusively wear Western clothing, except for the extremely indigent. Despite the European and American influence on fashion, some styles, such as blue jeans and short skirts, have not been adopted. Dress also can be a marker of ethnic identity. Muslims in the north wear traditional long white robes and head coverings; Asian men wear white two-piece cotton suits, whereas Asian women dress in black or colored silk dresses. Language also can be an indicator of socioeconomic standing. Portuguese is learned in school and is therefore the language of the privileged elite; it is almost entirely unheard outside the cities.

Political Life

Government. The constitution adopted in 1990 declared Mozambique a multiparty democratic republic. The 250 members of the unicameral Assembly of the Republic are elected by universal suffrage. The president is both chief of state and head of the government and is elected for a five-year term, with a maximum limit of three terms.

Leadership and Political Officials. While Mozambique is officially a multiparty democracy, the government is still dominated by the two main parties, Frelimo and Renamo. The third party, which did not win any seats in the legislature in the 1999 elections, is called the Democratic Union. Frelimo, the ruling political party from independence through the end of the civil war, suffered from infighting among its leaders. Both Frelimo and Renamo took their leaders from workers in the independence movement. While there are varying levels of education among politicians, almost all have studied abroad in Portugal or other European countries.

Social Problems and Control. Crime is a growing problem, particularly in the cities, which have been flooded with poor unemployed men from the countryside seeking work. The justice system was fashioned after the Portuguese model. However, without enough qualified judges and lawyers, this system could not function well, so Frelimo modified it. Because prison facilities could not accommodate the large number of criminals, the government established rehabilitation camps (usually farms) for minor offenders and alcoholics (Frelimo considered alcoholism a crime). Frelimo also set up vigilante groups of citizens to turn in alcoholics and anti-government individuals. One of the most pressing problems is human rights violations on the part of law enforcement agents, and the mistreatment of criminals and suspects.

Military Activity. Under Frelimo, the police force was nationally controlled, with local divisions in each town. Frelimo also put in place the National Service of Popular Security, an arm of the police force that deals with terrorism and sabotage. When peace accords were signed in 1992, Frelimo had an estimated seventy thousand troops and Renamo had twenty thousand. Those fighters were compelled to turn in their weapons, and a new national force, the Mozambican Defense Force, was established, including fifteen thousand men from each party.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

Social welfare comes primarily from within the family, which cares independently for its own elderly or ailing member. Other aid comes from international charitable organizations.

Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations

Since the peace treaties were signed, the United Nations has played a large role in the peacekeeping process. It stationed almost eight thousand people who were responsible for supervising the dismantling and rebuilding of the armies, over the 1994 elections to ensure that they were fair and democratic, and helped return almost two million refugees to their homes. As part of the last project, the United Nations aided in the reconstruction of water systems, roads, schools, and clinics. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) also helped with the repatriation process. One of the biggest problems is the presence of land mines left over from the civil war. It is estimated that up to two million were buried. The United Nations collaborated with USAID and a Norwegian group to help find and defuse them.

The refugee situation has created another crisis in the form of legions of abandoned street children, particularly in Maputo, where they number an estimated half a million. Many volunteer aid organizations work with orphans and abandoned children to care for them and educate them to be self-sufficient. Among these groups are Save the Children and the Institute for International Cooperation and Development (IICD). The World Food Program buys grain grown in areas of the country where production exceeds use and redistributes it in other areas.

Gender Roles and Statuses

Division of Labor by Gender. The constitution guarantees all citizens the right to work, but women often face obstacles when they seek nontraditional employment. Women have historically been responsible for all domestic tasks. In the towns and cities, they generally are confined to the home, whereas in rural areas, they play an important role in the agricultural labor force. The Organizaçao de Mulheres de Mozambique (Organization of Mozambican Women, or OMM), which works to promote women's rights, has implemented programs to teach women to sew and crochet and sell the products they produce for cash.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. According to the constitution, men and women have equal rights. However, both traditional and colonial attitudes keep women in a somewhat subordinate position. Even within the ranks of Frelimo, which declared itself a proponent of women's rights, women have not attained positions of power.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Marriage. Polygamy is traditionally practiced and until recently was quite common. In 1981, Frelimo instituted a law designed in conjunction with OMM that established monogamous marriage, and by which both spouses share ownership of property and decisions about where to live. The law also entitled women to a means of maintenance and specified the responsibilities of fathers in financially supporting their children. Marriage celebrations involve feasting, music, and dancing.

Domestic Unit. The traditional family includes several generations living together under one roof. However, in many areas, this family structure has been dismantled by the civil war, which took many lives, compelled many men to emigrate from rural areas to the cities or to neighboring countries, and left large numbers of children orphaned or abandoned.

Inheritance. Tribes north of the Zambezi River follow a matrilineal model of inheritance. They trace their ancestry through the mother's side, and at marriage the man becomes part of the woman's family. In the south, the model is patrilineal.

Kin Groups. South of the Zambezi River, tribes follow a patrilineal descent; to the north, kin ties are established through the mother's line.

Socialization

Infant Care. Young children rarely are separated from their mothers. It is customary for women to tie their babies to their backs with a strip of cloth and take them along when they work in the fields.

Child Rearing and Education. Children are treated with affection but are expected to defer to their elders and often begin to work at a young age. After the civil war, as many as half a million children were left without families. Many of these children wander Maputo and other cities and stay alive by stealing or selling small items on the street. Relief organizations have alleviated the problem somewhat by caring for and educating children, and reuniting families.

Because of the Portuguese legacy of suppressing education in colonies, Mozambique was estimated to have a literacy rate of only 10 percent when it gained independence in 1975. The first postindependence government made raising this number a priority and instituted compulsory education for children between the ages of six and twelve. This program was largely disrupted by the civil war. When the war ended in 1995, the literacy rate was 40 percent and only 60 percent of primary-school-age children were in school. Only 7 percent of children were enrolled at the secondary level. Since the peace treaties were signed, these numbers have begun increasing, but the destruction of many school buildings and a lack of trained and educated teachers have left the country with a problem that will not be soon eradicated.

Higher Education. There are three institutes of higher education that enrolled a total of seven thousand students in 1995. Eduardo Mondlane in Maputo is the only university.

Etiquette

Greetings are lengthy and involve inquiring into the health of each other's family. People generally stand close together and are physically affectionate.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. The native religion is animism. Arab traders brought Islam to the area, and the Portuguese brought Christianity. Historically, the introduction of Christianity by both Catholic and Protestant missionaries was a mixed blessing. While their teachings conflicted with the traditional way of life, they offered Mozambicans access to health care and an education, as the colonial Portuguese government did not provide those things.

Today the constitution ensures religious freedom and separation of church and state. However, when Frelimo took power, it expressed hostility toward Roman Catholicism, viewing it as a Portuguese tool of oppression. Twenty to 30 percent of the population is Christian, and 10 percent follows Islam; Islam is most prevalent near the northern coast. Many people who adhere to Christianity or Islam still practice traditional religion. About twothirds of the population follows animist rituals and customs. The traditional belief system places a high importance on a connection with one's ancestors as well as with the spirit world.

Religious Practitioners. The animism practiced in Mozambique includes sorcerers, wise men and women, and witch doctors or traditional healers, who are capable of communicating with spirits and act as go-betweens for the rest of the people. The healers are well versed in the medicinal uses of local plants as well as spiritual healing.

Rituals and Holy Places. Many animist rituals involve music and dance. For example, Makonde men perform a dance that involves large masks called mapicos. The masks are carved in secret, and represent demons; women are not allowed to touch them. The dance, which is performed to the accompaniment of drums and wind instruments, enacts a repeated attack on villagers by the demons and is a ritual that lasts for many hours.

Medicine and Health Care

When independence was won in 1975, the government created a free, nationalized health care system, at the same time banning private practice; this resulted in an exodus by the majority of the country's doctors. The government's goal was to improve health through preventive medicine, employing nurses to give vaccinations and educate the population about sanitation and other basic health care measures. Many of the clinics it established, however, were destroyed in the civil war. Since the war ended, it has invested a large amount of money in rebuilding those clinics and has done away with the law prohibiting private practice in an effort to increase the number of doctors. A shortage of supplies and trained personnel was exacerbated by the destruction caused by the civil war. The main health threats are sleeping sickness, transmitted by the tsetse fly, and malaria. Life expectancy is forty-seven years for men and fifty years for women. The infant mortality rate is 130 per thousand, the highest in the world.

Many people rely on traditional herbal medicines and healing methods under the guidance of village healers, in combination with what little health care and medicine the government provides.

AIDS is a growing problem. In Maputo and the other urban centers, the infection rate is about 10 percent. Outside the cities, the rate is 17 percent for low-risk groups and 27 percent for high-risk groups. While these numbers are lower than those in some surrounding countries, AIDS is a major concern and a threat to the nation's future.

Secular Celebrations

The major holidays are New Year's Day on 1 January, Heroes' Day on 3 February, Women's Day on 7 April, Workers' Day on 1 May, Independence Day on 25 June, the Anniversary of the End of Armed Struggle on 7 September, the Anniversary of the Opening of Armed Struggle on 25 September, and Family Day on 25 December.

The Arts and Humanities

Support for the Arts. There is a national performing arts company called the Nambu Productions as well as a national dance company, both of which perform contemporary productions based on traditional forms. The Frelimo government also established a National Institute of Culture that collects and preserves traditional music, crafts, stories, and myths.

Literature. Literary production has been limited because of poverty and a low literacy rate. There is a strong oral tradition of storytelling, and many of the country's contemporary writers draw on that tradition. Literary writing has historically been tied to resistance to Portuguese colonialism and for this reason was largely censored before independence. Writers such as Luis Bernardo Honwana were imprisoned for their work. Honwana is also a documentary filmmaker but is best known for the book We Killed Mangy-Dog, which combines personal and cultural autobiography. Virtually all the poets and writers use the colonial Portuguese language as their medium. The poet Jose Craveirinha sees Portuguese, particularly with the infusion of local African words, as an important part of the nation's cultural heritage and is a proponent of retaining it as the national language. Because of a lack of education and other disadvantages, women have been underrepresented in the literary realm. One exception is Noemia De Sousa, who is known as the mother of Mozambican writers. When she began writing in the 1950s and 1960s, she was the only mestiça writing in Portuguese in Africa. She takes on the subject of African women and their work and has become a voice for the women of her country.

Graphic Arts. Mozambique is known for the traditional sculpture and wood carving produced by the Makonde people in the north. Using hardwoods (primarily mahogany, ebony, and ironwood), the Makonde fashion masks and sculptures known as "family trees," large depictions of various figures that tell stories of generations. Mozambique also has produced several well known contemporary artists, including Malangatana Goenha Valente, whose large canvases depict conflict between colonial culture and native culture. Two contemporary sculptors are Nkatunga and Chissano.

Performance Arts. The country has a long musical tradition. Song serves several purposes, including religious expression, the relating of current events, and making fun of neighbors. It is customary for musicians to make their own instruments.Drums have wooden bases covered with stretched animal skins. Wind instruments known as lupembe, used by the Makonde tribe, are made from animal horns, wood, or gourds. The marimba, a kind of xylophone that has been adopted in Western music, originated in Mozambique, where it is popular with the Chopi in the south. Chopi musicians also use the mbira, strips of metal attached to a hollow box and plucked with the fingers. The musical style is similar to West Indian calypso and reggae. A contemporary form of music called marrabenta has developed in the cities and draws on traditional complex rhythms.

There are elaborate, well-developed traditions of dance throughout the country. Dances often have religious significance. The Chopi perform a hunting dance in which they dress in lion skins and monkey tails, carry spears and swords, and act out battles. Makua men in the north dance on two-foot-tall stilts, hopping around the village for hours, bedecked in colorful outfits and masks. On Moçambique Island, a form of dance practiced by women combines complex steps and rope jumping.

Storytelling is another traditional art form. The national culture is rich in tales, proverbs, myths, and jokes that have been passed down from generation to generation.

The State of the Physical and Social Sciences

Facilities for the physical and social sciences are virtually nonexistent. However, Maputo has a Museum of Natural History that specializes in natural history and ethnography as well as the Freire de Andrade Museum for minerals and the History Museum for military affairs. The town of Ilha da Inhaca is home to a marine biology museum.

Bibliography

Armon, Jeremy, and Dylan Hendrikson, eds. Mozambican Peace Process in Perspective, 1998.

Bowen, Merle L. State against the Peasantry: Rural Struggles in Colonial and Postcolonial Mozambique, 2000.

Chan, Stephen, and Moises Venancio. War and Peace in Mozambique, 1988.

Ciment, James. Angola and Mozambique: Postcolonial War in Southern Africa, 1997.

Earle, Deborah, ed. From Conflict to Peace in a Changing World: Social Reconstruction in Times of Transition, 1998.

Ferraz, Bernardo, and Barry Muslow. Sustainable Development in Mozambique, 2000.

Hall, Margaret. Confronting Leviathan: Mozambique Since Independence, 1997.

James, R. S. Mozambique, 1988.

Jouanneau, Daniel. Mozambique, 1995.

Landau, Luis. Rebuilding the Mozambique Economy: Assessment of a Development Partnership, 1998.

Lopes, Armando Jorge. Language Policy: Principles and Problems, 1997.

Newit, Mayn. A History of Mozambique, 1995.

Nordstrom, Carolyn. A Different Kind of War Story, 1997.

Reidy, Mary, ed. Mozambique, 1995.

Eleanor Stanford

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MOZAMBIQUE

Compiled from the February 2005 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Republic of Mozambique


PROFILE

Geography

Area: 799,380 sq. km.; about twice the size of California.

Cities: Capital—Maputo (pop. 1,100,000 est.) Beira, Matola, Nampula, Quelimane, Tete, Nacala.

Terrain: Varies from lowlands to high plateau.

Climate: Tropical to subtropical.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective—Mozambican(s).

Population: (2003 est.) 18.5 million; 48.2% male and 51.8% female.

Annual population growth rate: (2002) 1.9%.

Ethnic groups: Makua, Tsonga, Makonde, Shangaan, Shona, Sena, Ndau, and other indigenous groups, and approximately 10,000 Europeans, 35,000 Euro-Africans, and 15,000 South Asians.

Religions: Christian 30%, Muslim 17%, indigenous African and other beliefs 45%.

Languages: Portuguese (official), various indigenous languages.

Education: Mean years of schooling (adults over 25) men 2.1, women 1.2. Primary school attendance (1999)—32.6%. Adult literacy (2002)—45.5%.

Health: Infant mortality rate—124/1,000. Life expectancy (2002)—41.1 years.

Work force: (10.7 million est. 1997) Agriculture—88%; industry and commerce—8.5%; public sector—3%.

Government

Type: Multi-party democracy.

Independence: June 25, 1975.

Constitution: November 1990.

Branches: Executive—President, Council of Ministers. LegislativeNational Assembly, municipal assemblies. Judicial—Supreme Court, provincial, district, and municipal courts.

Administrative subdivisions: 10 provinces, 224 districts, and 33 municipalities, of which Maputo City is the largest.

Political parties: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO); Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO); numerous small parties.

Suffrage: Universal adult, 18 years and older.

Economy

GDP: (2000) $3.9 billion.

Annual economic (GDP) growth rate: (2003) 7%.

Per capita income: (2002.) $210.

Natural resources: Coal, natural gas, titanium ore, tantalite, graphite, iron ore, semi-precious stones, and arable land.

Agriculture: (23.3% of GDP) Exports—cashews, corn, cotton, sugar, sorghum, copra, tea, citrus fruit, bananas, and tobacco. Domestically consumed food crops—corn, pigeon peas, cassava, rice, beef, pork, chicken, and goat.

Industry: (31% of GDP) Types—aluminum, consumer goods, light machinery, garments, food processing, and beverages.

Trade: Imports (2003)—$1.24 billion: mineral products, merchandise and nonspecific products, machinery equipment and electrical machinery. Major suppliers (in declining order)—South Africa, Australia, United States. Exports (2003)—$910 million: metal and products, mineral products, live animals and products. Major markets (in declining order)—Belgium, South Africa, Spain.


PEOPLE

Mozambique's major ethnic groups encompass numerous subgroups with diverse languages, dialects, cultures, and histories. Many are linked to similar ethnic groups living in neighboring countries. The north-central provinces of Zambezia and Nampula are the most populous, with about 45% of the population. The estimated 4 million Makua are the dominant group in the northern part of the country—the Sena and Ndau are prominent in the Zambezi valley, and the Tsonga and Shangaan dominate in southern Mozambique.

Despite the influence of Islamic coastal traders and European colonizers, the people of Mozambique have largely retained an indigenous culture based on small-scale agriculture. Mozambique's most highly developed art forms have been wood sculpture, for which the Makonde in northern Mozambique are particularly renowned, and dance. The middle and upper classes continue to be heavily influenced by the Portuguese colonial and linguistic heritage.

During the colonial era, Christian missionaries were active in Mozambique, and many foreign clergy remain in the country. According to the national census, about 20%-30% of the population is Christian, 15%-20% is Muslim, and the remainder adheres to traditional beliefs.

Under the colonial regime, educational opportunities for black Mozambicans were limited, and 93% of that population was illiterate. In fact, most of today's political leaders were educated in missionary schools. After independence, the government placed a high priority on expanding education, which reduced the illiteracy rate to about two-thirds as primary school enrollment increased. Unfortunately, in recent years school construction and teacher training enrollments have not kept up with population increases. With post-war enrollments reaching all-time highs, the quality of education has suffered.


HISTORY

Mozambique's first inhabitants were San hunter and gatherers, ancestors of the Khoisani peoples. Between the first and fourth centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking peoples migrated from the north through the Zambezi River valley and then gradually into the plateau and coastal areas. The Bantu were farmers and ironworkers.

When Portuguese explorers reached Mozambique in 1498, Arab-trading settlements had existed along the coast and outlying islands for several centuries. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts became regular ports of call on the new route to the east. Later, traders and prospectors penetrated the interior regions seeking gold and slaves. Although Portuguese influence gradually expanded, its power was limited and exercised through individual settlers who were granted extensive autonomy. As a result, investment lagged while Lisbon devoted itself to the more lucrative trade with India and the Far East and to the colonization of Brazil.

By the early 20th century the Portuguese had shifted the administration of much of the country to large private companies, controlled and financed mostly by the British, which established railroad lines to neighboring countries and supplied cheap—often forced—African labor to the mines and plantations of the nearby British colonies and South Africa. Because policies were designed to benefit white settlers and the Portuguese homeland, little attention was paid to Mozambique's national integration, its economic infrastructure, or the skills of its population.

After World War II, while many European nations were granting independence to their colonies, Portugal clung to the concept that Mozambique and other Portuguese possessions were overseas provinces of the mother country, and emigration to the colonies soared. Mozambique's Portuguese population at the time of independence was about 250,000. The drive for Mozambican independence developed apace, and in 1962 several anti-colonial political groups formed the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), which initiated an armed campaign against Portuguese colonial rule in September 1964. After 10 years of sporadic warfare and major political changes in Portugal, Mozambique became independent on June 25, 1975.

The last 30 years of Mozambique's history have reflected political developments elsewhere in the 20th century. Following the April 1974 coup in Lisbon, Portuguese colonialism collapsed. In Mozambique, the military decision to withdraw occurred within the context of a decade of armed anti-colonial struggle, initially led by American-educated Eduardo Mond-lane, who was assassinated in 1969. When independence was achieved in 1975, the leaders of FRELIMO's military campaign rapidly established a one-party state allied to the Soviet bloc and outlawed rival political activity. FRELIMO eliminated political pluralism, religious educational institutions, and the role of traditional authorities.

The new government gave shelter and support to South African (ANC) and Zimbabwean (ZANU) liberation movements while the governments of first Rhodesia and later apartheid South Africa fostered and financed an armed rebel movement in central Mozambique called the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO). Civil war, sabotage from neighboring states, and economic collapse characterized the first decade of Mozambican independence. Also marking this period were the mass exodus of Portuguese nationals, weak infrastructure, nationalization, and economic mismanagement.

During most of the civil war, the government was unable to exercise effective control outside of urban areas, many of which were cut off from the capital. An estimated 1 million Mozambicans perished during the civil war, 1.7 million took refuge in neighboring states, and several million more were internally displaced. In the third FRELIMO party congress in 1983, President Samora Machel conceded the failure of socialism and the need for major political and economic reforms. He died, along with several advisers, in a suspicious 1986 plane crash.

His successor, Joaquim Chissano, continued the reforms and began peace talks with RENAMO. The new constitution enacted in 1990 provided for a multi-party political system, market-based economy, and free elections. The civil war ended in October 1992 with the Rome General Peace Accords. Under supervision of the

ONUMOZ peacekeeping force of the United Nations, peace returned to Mozambique.

By mid-1995 the more than 1.7 million Mozambican refugees who had sought asylum in neighboring Malawi, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Zambia, Tanzania, and South Africa as a result of war and drought had returned, as part of the largest repatriation witnessed in Sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, a further estimated 4 million internally displaced returned to their areas of origin.


GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Mozambique is a multi-party democracy under the 1990 constitution. The executive branch comprises a president, prime minister, and Council of Ministers. There is a National Assembly and municipal assemblies. The judiciary comprises a Supreme Court and provincial, district, and municipal courts. Suffrage is universal at 18.

In 1994 the country held its first democratic elections. Joaquim Chissano was elected President with 53% of the vote, and a 250-member National Assembly was voted in with 129 FRELIMO deputies, 112 RENAMO deputies, and 9 representatives of three smaller parties that formed the Democratic Union (UD). Since its formation in 1994, the National Assembly has made progress in becoming a body increasingly more independent of the executive. By 1999, more than one-half (53%) of the legislation passed originated in the Assembly.

After some delays, in 1998 the country held its first local elections to provide for local representation and some budgetary authority at the municipal level. The principal opposition party, RENAMO, boycotted the local elections, citing flaws in the registration process. Independent slates contested the elections and won seats in municipal assemblies. Turnout was very low.

In the aftermath of the 1998 local elections, the government resolved to make more accommodations to the opposition's procedural concerns for the second round of multiparty national elections in 1999. Working through the National Assembly, the electoral law was rewritten and passed by consensus in December 1998. Financed largely by international donors, a very successful voter registration was conducted from July to September 1999, providing voter registration cards to 85% of the potential electorate (more than 7 million voters).

The second general elections were held December 3-5, 1999, with high voter turnout. International and domestic observers agreed that the voting process was well organized and went smoothly. Both the opposition and observers subsequently cited flaws in the tabulation process that, had they not occurred, might have changed the outcome. In the end, however, international and domestic observers concluded that the close result of the vote reflected the will of the people.

President Chissano won the presidency with a margin of 4% points over the RENAMO-Electoral Union coalition candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, and began his 5-year term in January 2000. FRELIMO increased its majority in the National Assembly with 133 out of 250 seats. RENAMO-UE coalition won 116 seats, one went independent, and no third parties are represented.

The opposition coalition did not accept the National Election Commission's results of the presidential vote and filed a formal complaint to the Supreme Court. One month after the voting, the court dismissed the opposition's challenge and validated the election results. The opposition did not file a complaint about the results of the legislative vote.

The second local elections, involving 33 municipalities with some 2.4 million registered voters, took place in November 2003. This was the first time that FRELIMO, RENAMO-UE, and independent parties competed without significant boycotts. The 24% turnout was well above the 15% turnout in the first municipal elections. FRELIMO won 28 mayoral positions and the majority in 29 municipal assemblies, while RENAMO won 5 mayoral positions and the majority in 4 municipal assemblies. The voting was conducted in an orderly fashion without violent incidents. However, the period immediately after the elections was marked by objections about voter and candidate registration and vote tabulation, as well as calls for greater transparency.

In May 2004, the government approved a new general elections law that contained innovations based on the experience of the 2003 municipal elections.

Presidential and National Assembly elections took place on December 1-2, 2004. FRELIMO candidate Armando Guebuza won with 64% of the popular vote. His opponent, Afonso Dhlakama of RENAMO, received 32% of the popular vote. FRELIMO won 160 seats in Parliament. A coalition of RENAMO and several small parties won the 90 remaining seats. Armando Guebuza was inaugurated as the President of Mozambique on February 2, 2005.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 2/6/05

President: Armando GUEBUZA
Prime Minister: Luisa Dias DIOGO
Min. of Agriculture: Tomas MANDLATE
Min. of Coordination of Environmental Action: Luciano Andre DE CASTRO
Min. of Development & Planning: Aiuba CUERENEIA
Min. of Education & Culture: Aires Bonifacio ALI
Min. of Energy: Salvador NAMBURETE
Min. of Finance: Manuel CHANG
Min. of Fisheries: Cadmiel MUTHEMBA
Min. of Foreign Affairs & Cooperation: Alcinda ABREU
Min. of Health: Paulo Ivo GARRIDO
Min. of Industry & Commerce: Antonio FERNANDO
Min. of Interior: Jose PACHECO
Min. of Justice:
Min. of Labor: Helena TAIPO
Min. of Mineral Resources: Esperanca BIAS
Min. of National Defense: Tobias DAI
Min. of Public Works & Housing: Felicio ZACARIAS
Min. of Science & Technology:
Min. of State Administration: Lucas CHOMERA
Min. of Tourism: Fernando SUMBANA , Jr.
Min. of Transport & Communication: Antonio Francisco MUNGUAMBE
Min. of Veteran's Affairs:
Min. of Women & Social Action: Virgilia MATABELE
Min. of Youth & Sports: David SIMANGO
Min. in the Presidency for Diplomatic Affairs: Francisco Caetano MADEIRA
Min. in the Presidency for Parliamentary Affairs: Isabel Manuel NKAVADEKA
Attorney General: Antonio NAMBURETE
Governor, Central Bank: Adriano Afonso MALEIANE
Ambassador to the US: Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Filipe CHIDUMO

Mozambique maintains an embassy in the United States at 1990 M Street, NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036; tel: 202-293-7146.


ECONOMY

Macroeconomic Review

Alleviating poverty. At the end of the civil war in 1992, Mozambique ranked among the poorest countries in the world. It still ranks among the least developed nations with very low socioeconomic indicators. In the last decade, however, it has experienced a notable economic recovery. Per capita GDP in 2000 was estimated at $222; in the mid-1980s, it was $120. With a high foreign debt (originally $5.7 billion at 1998 net present value) and a good track record on economic reform, Mozambique was the first African country to receive debt relief under the initial HIPC (Heavily Indebted Poor Countries) Initiative. In April 2000, Mozambique qualified for the Enhanced HIPC program as well and attained its completion point in September 2001. This led to the Paris Club members agreeing in November 2001 to substantially reduce the remaining bilateral debt. This led to the complete forgiveness of a considerable volume of bilateral debt. The United States has finished this process and forgiven Mozambique's debt.

Rebounding growth. The resettlement of war refugees and successful economic reform have led to a high growth rate the average growth rate from 1993 to 1999 was 6.7%; from 1997 to 1999, it averaged more than 10% per year. The devastating floods of early 2000 slowed GDP growth to a 2.1%. A full recovery was achieved with growth of 14.8% in 2001. In 2003, the growth rate was 7%. The government projects the economy to continue to expand between 7%-10% a year for the next 5 years, although rapid expansion in the future hinges on several major foreign investment projects, continued economic reform, and the revival of the agriculture, transportation, and tourism sectors. More than 75% of the population engages in small scale agriculture, which still suffers from inadequate infrastructure, commercial networks, and investment. Yet 88% of Mozambique's arable land is still uncultivated; focusing economic growth in this sector is a major challenge for the government.

Low inflation. The government's tight control of spending and the money supply, combined with financial sector reform, successfully reduced inflation from 70% in 1994 to less than 5% from 1998-99. Economic disruptions stemming from the devastating floods of 2000 caused inflation to jump to 12.7% that year, and it was 13% in 2003. The value of Mozambique's currency, the Metical, lost nearly 50% of its value against the dollar since December 2000, although in late 2001 it began to stabilize. Since then, it has held steady at about MZM 24,000 to U.S.$1.

Extensive economic reform. Economic reform has been extensive. More than 1,200 state-owned enterprises (mostly small) have been privatized. Preparations for privatization and/or sector liberalization are underway for the remaining parastatals, including telecommunications, electricity, ports, and the railroads. The government frequently selects a strategic foreign investor when privatizing a parastatal. Additionally, customs duties have been reduced, and customs management has been streamlined and reformed. The government introduced a highly successful value-added tax in 1999 as part of its efforts to increase domestic revenues. Plans for 2003-04 include Commercial Code reform; comprehensive judicial reform; financial sector strengthening; continued civil service reform; and improved government budget, audit, and inspection capability.

Improving trade imbalance. Imports remain almost 40% greater than exports, but this is a significant improvement over the 4:1 ratio of the immediate post-war years. In 2003, imports were $1.24 billion and exports were $910 million. Support programs provided by foreign donors and private financing of foreign direct investment mega-projects and their associated raw materials, have largely compensated for balance-of payments shortfalls. The mediumterm outlook for exports is encouraging, since a number of foreign investment projects should lead to substantial export growth and a better trade balance. MOZAL, a large aluminum smelter that commenced production in mid-2000, has greatly expanded the nation's trade volume. Traditional Mozambican exports include cashews, shrimp, fish, copra, sugar, cotton, tea, and citrus fruits. Most of these industries are being rehabilitated. As well, Mozambique is less dependent on imports for basic food and manufactured goods because of steady increases in local production.

SADC trade protocol. In December 1999, the Council of Ministers approved the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Trade Protocol. The Protocol will create a free trade zone among more than 200 million consumers in the SADC region. The 10-year implementation process of the SADC Trade Protocol began in 2002 with the immediate elimination of duties on a large list of "zero" rated goods. In 2003, the top tariff rate was lowered from 30% to 25%. Mozambique has also joined the WTO.


FOREIGN RELATIONS

While allegiances dating back to the liberation struggle remain relevant, Mozambique's foreign policy has become increasingly pragmatic. The twin pillars of Mozambique's foreign policy are maintenance of good relations with its neighbors and maintenance and expansion of ties to development partners.

During the 1970s and early 1980s, Mozambique's foreign policy was inextricably linked to the struggles for majority rule in Rhodesia and South Africa as well as superpower competition and the Cold War. Mozambique's decision to enforce UN sanctions against Rhodesia and deny that country access to the sea led Ian Smith's regime to undertake overt and covert actions to destabilize the country. Although the change of government in Zimbabwe in 1980 removed this threat, the apartheid regime in South Africa continued to finance the destabilization of Mozambique.

The 1984 Nkomati Accord, while failing in its goal of ending South African support to RENAMO, opened initial diplomatic contacts between the Mozambican and South African governments. This process gained momentum with South Africa's elimination of apartheid, which culminated in the establishment of full diplomatic relations in October 1993. While relations with neighboring Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania show occasional strains, Mozambique's ties to these countries remain strong.

In the years immediately following its independence, Mozambique benefited from considerable assistance from some western countries, notably the Scandinavians. Moscow and its allies, however, became Mozambique's primary economic, military, and political supporters and its foreign policy reflected this linkage. This began to change in 1983; in 1984 Mozambique joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Western aid quickly replaced Soviet support, with the Scandinavians, the United States, the Netherlands, and the European Union becoming increasingly important sources of development assistance. Italy also maintains a profile in Mozambique as a result of its key role during the peace process. Relations with Portugal, the former colonial power, are complex and of some importance as Portuguese investors play a visible role in Mozambique's economy.

Mozambique is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and ranks among the moderate members of the African Bloc in the United Nations and other international organizations. Mozambique also belongs to the Organization of African Unity/African Union and the Southern African Development Community. In 1994, the Government became a full member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, in part to broaden its base of international support but also to please the country's sizeable Muslim population. Similarly, in early 1996 Mozambique joined its Anglophone neighbors in the Commonwealth. In the same year, Mozambique became a founding member and the first President of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and maintains close ties with other Luso-phone states.


U.S.-MOZAMBICAN RELATIONS

Relations between the United States and Mozambique are good and steadily improving. This state of comity, spurred by the end of the superpower confrontation on the continent, South Africa's democratic transition, and Mozambique's own internal changes, bodes well for continued strong ties. By 1993, U.S. aid to Mozambique was prominent, due in part to significant emergency food assistance in the wake of the 1991-93 southern African drought, but more importantly in support of the peace and reconciliation process. During the process leading up to elections in October 1994, the United States served as a significant financier and member of the most important commissions established to monitor implementation of the Rome General Peace Accords. The United States is one of the largest bilateral donors to the country and plays a leading role in donor efforts to assist Mozambique with its ongoing economic and political transitions.

The U.S. Embassy opened in Maputo on November 8, 1975, and the first American ambassador arrived in March 1976. In that same year, the United States extended a $10 million grant to the Government of Mozambique to help compensate for the economic costs of enforcing sanctions against Rhodesia. In 1977, however, largely motivated by a concern with human rights violations, the U.S. Congress prohibited the provision of development aid to Mozambique without a presidential certification that such aid would be in the foreign policy interests of the United States. Relations hit a nadir in March 1981, when the Government of Mozambique expelled four members of the U.S. Embassy staff. In response, the United States suspended plans to provide development aid and to name a new ambassador to Mozambique. Relations between the two countries languished in a climate of stagnation and mutual suspicion.

Contacts between the two countries continued in the early 1980s as part of the U.S. administration's conflict resolution efforts in the region. In late 1983, a new U.S. ambassador arrived in Maputo, and the first Mozambican envoy to the United States arrived in Washington, signaling a thaw in the bilateral relationship. The United States subsequently responded to Mozambique's economic reform and drift away from Moscow's embrace by initiating an aid program in 1984. President Samora Machel paid a symbolically important official working visit to the United States in 1985, where he met President Reagan. After that meeting, a full USAID mission was established, and significant assistance for economic reform efforts began. President Chissano met with President Bush in September 2003; previously, he had met with Presidents Reagan (October 1987), Bush (March 1990), and Clinton (November 1998), and also with Secretaries of State Powell (February 2002) and Baker (July 1992).

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

MAPUTO (E) Address: 193 Kenneth Kaunda; APO/FPO: Caixa Postal 783. Maputo, Mozambique 2330, Maputo Place, WashDC 20521-2330; Phone: 258-1-49 27 97; Fax: 258-1-49 01 14; Workweek: 0730-1730 Monday-Thursday-0730-1130 Friday

AMB:Helen R. Meagher La Lime
AMB OMS:Kathryn M. Coster
DCM:James L. Dudley
DCM OMS:Sanya L. Hunsucker
POL:Cynthia Brown
POL/ECO:John A. Wysham
CON:Leyla L. Ones
MGT:John M. Kowalski
AFSA:Loren Dent
AID:Jay Knott
CLO:Julie Stephenson
DAO:Michael E. Evancho
ECO:Loren N. Dent
FMO:Veronica Hons-Olivier
GSO:Malia V. Heroux
ICASS Chair:John L. Grabowski
IMO:Guadalupe Pinon
PAO:Gregory L. Garland
PAO/ADV:David J. Stephenson
RSO:Howard A. Hicks
Last Updated: 9/30/2004

Security Information

The security situation in Mozambique requires caution. Street crime and carjackings in urban areas occur frequently. Road travel can be hazardous and should not be undertaken after daylight hours. The abundance of weapons remaining from the country's civil war and police who are poorly trained, equipped, and motivated contribute to a serious crime situation.

Additionally, up to 1 million land mines were planted throughout Mozambique during the last three decades of conflict, and while mine clearing operations are currently underway, surface travel off main highways should be approached with caution.

Before visiting Mozambique, consult the Consular Information Sheet. Visit the Consular Section of the embassy after arrival for security updates and to register.


TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet

November 12, 2004

Country Description: Mozambique, a developing country in southern Africa, has steadily rebuilt its economy and civic institutions since ending a 16-year civil war in 1992. The country stabilized following Mozambique's first multi-party elections in October 1994, and a new president was elected in December 2004. Despite high economic growth rates in recent years, Mozambique remains among the world's poorest countries. Facilities for tourism in Maputo, the capital city, are steadily improving but remain limited in other areas, as most of the goods and services taken for granted in other countries are not yet available.

Entry/Exit Requirements: Visas are required for entry into Mozambique. It is recommended that travelers have visas prior to traveling. Travelers should obtain the latest information and details from the Embassy of Mozambique, 1990 M Street, N. W., Suite 570, Washington, D. C. 20036, telephone (202) 293-7146, http://www.embamoc-usa.org/. Overseas inquiries should be made at the nearest Mozambican embassy or consulate. See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Mozambique and other countries.

Safety and Security: Overland travel after dark is extremely dangerous due to poor road conditions, lack of emergency services, and the increased potential for vehicle hijacking. Visitors should be particularly vigilant when driving on the main thoroughfares connecting Mozambique and South Africa, as incidents of vehicle theft, including assault and robbery, have been reported. Official Americans serving in Mozambique are prohibited from overland travel outside Maputo city limits after dark and are strongly encouraged to travel in convoys of two or more vehicles when outside of the city during daylight hours. Police checkpoints are common and police officers frequently harass foreigners. Due to residual landmines, overland travelers are advised to remain on well-traveled roads or seek local information before going off-road outside of Maputo and other provincial capitals.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site at http://travel.state.gov where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, Travel Warnings and Public Announcements can be found. Up-to-date information of safety and security can also be obtained by calling1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-317-472-2328. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Crime: The biggest threat facing U.S. citizens visiting Mozambique is violent crime. Street crimes, including muggings, purse snatching, and pick-pocketing are common, both in Maputo and secondary cities. Over the past year, there has been a significant increase in attacks against foreigners. Americans have been victims of sexual assault and armed robbery in the past year.

Visitors must be vigilant when out in public areas and should not display jewelry or other expensive items. Isolated areas should be avoided because joggers and pedestrians frequently have been mugged, even during daylight hours. Visitors are advised not to walk at night, even in well-known tourist areas.

Despite efforts to increase police presence in areas frequented by foreigners, the police are poorly paid, poorly equipped and lack the professionalism that U.S. citizens are accustomed to in the United States. Mozambican law requires that all persons carry an identity document, such as a passport, when out in public and produce it if requested by police. A notarized copy of the biographic page and the Mozambican visa are acceptable. There are certain areas in the city of Maputo where pedestrian traffic is prohibited (e.g., in front of the presidential offices located north of the Hotel Polana on the sea side of Avenida Julius Nyerere). Demonstrations are infrequent but should be avoided.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. Posts in countries that have victims of crime assistance programs should include that information. See our information on Victims of Crime at http://travel.state.gov/crisismg.html#victims.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Medical facilities are rudimentary, and most medical providers do not speak English. Medicines are not always consistently available. There are both public and private medical facilities in the city of Maputo. All health care institutions and providers require payment at the time of service, and may even require payment before service is given. While some private clinics accept credit cards, many medical facilities do not. Doctors and hospitals outside Maputo generally expect immediate cash payment for health services. Outside of Maputo, available medical care ranges from very basic to non-existent.

Malaria is prevalent in Mozambique. Travelers to Mozambique should take malaria prophylaxis. P. falciparum malaria, the serious and sometimes fatal strain in Mozambique, is resistant to the anti-malarial drug chloroquine. Because travelers to Mozambique are at high risk for contracting malaria, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises that travelers should take one of the following antimalarial drugs: mefloquine (Lariam™), doxycycline, or atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone™). The CDC has determined that a traveler who is on an appropriate antimalarial drug has a greatly reduced chance of contracting the disease. In addition, other personal protective measures, such as the use of insect repellents, help to reduce malaria risk. Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area and up to one year after returning home should seek prompt medical attention and tell the physician their travel history and what antimalarials they have been taking.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Mozambique is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

The main north-south thoroughfare is passable until the city of Caia (Sofala province), where vehicle passengers must disembark and cross the Zambezi River by ferryboat. On the other side of the river, the road continues to the northern provinces. The road network connecting provincial capitals is in fair condition, but can be riddled with potholes and other obstacles during the rainy season.

A new toll road has improved travel between Maputo and South Africa. However, banditry along major highways continues to threaten the safety of road travelers. Periodically, the U.S. Embassy has restricted embassy personnel from traveling on certain roads or has imposed certain restrictions on road travel. Embassy personnel are prohibited from traveling outside cities after dark because of the increased risk of banditry, poor road conditions in some areas, the poor maintenance of many vehicles in the country (e.g. no headlights or rear lights), as well as the threat imposed by livestock that graze on roadsides. Travel outside Maputo often requires a four-wheel drive vehicle, which creates an additional security risk since these vehicles are high-theft items. Public transportation is extremely limited. Travelers contemplating overland travel may wish to contact the U.S. Embassy for the most current information on road travel safety.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more general information. For specific information concerning Mozambique's driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the Mozambican embassy in Washington, D.C. For international driving permits, contact AAA or the American Automobile Touring Alliance.

Visit the website of Mozambique's Ministry of Tourism for more information: http://www.Mozambique.mz/turismo/eindex.htm.

Aviation Safety Oversight: As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Mozambique, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Mozambique's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's internet web site at http://www.faa.gov/avr/iasa/index.cfm.

Due to safety concerns, employees of the U.S. Embassy in Maputo are currently not allowed to use local air carrier "Air Corridor."

Special Circumstances: Currency can be converted only at locations authorized by the Mozambican government. It is against the law to destroy Mozambican currency; offenders can expect jail sentences and fines. Some American travelers have reported having difficulties in cashing travelers checks and have relied instead on ATMs and credit cards for money withdrawals in Maputo. Outside of the major hotels and restaurants, credit cards are not widely accepted in Mozambique. Many merchants prefer to be paid in U.S. dollars. The South African rand is frequently accepted as legal tender, although this is more common in the southern part of the country than in the northern part.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offences.

Persons violating Mozambican laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Mozambique are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family/index.html.

Registration/Embassy Location: Americans living or traveling in Mozambique are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website, https://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Mozambique. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located in Maputo at 193 Avenida Kenneth Kaunda, telephone (258-1) 49-27-97. The after-hours telephone number for use in emergencies is (258-1) 49-07-23. The consular section's fax number is (258-1) 49-04-48. The consular section's e-mail address is [email protected] The Embassy's general website is http://www.usembassy-maputo.gov.mz/

views updated

MOZAMBIQUE

Compiled from the November 2003 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.


Official Name:
Republic of Mozambique


PROFILE
PEOPLE
HISTORY
POLITICAL CONDITIONS
ECONOMY
FOREIGN RELATIONS
U.S.-MOZAMBICAN RELATIONS
SECURITY INFORMATION
TRAVEL


PROFILE


Geography

Area: 799,380 sq. km.; about twice the size of California.

Major cities: Capital—Maputo (pop. 1,100,000 est.) Beira, Matola, Nampula, Quelimane, Tete, Nacala.

Terrain: Varies from lowlands to high plateau.

Climate: Tropical to subtropical.


People

Nationality: Noun and adjective—Mozambican(s).

Population: (2002) 17.6 million.

Annual population growth rate: (2002) 1.9%.

Annual economic growth rate: (GDP) (2002) 8.3%.

Ethnic groups: Makua, Tsonga, Makonde, Shangaan, Shona, Sena, Ndau, and other indigenous groups, and approximately 10,000 Europeans, 35,000 Euro-Africans, and 15,000 South Asians.

Religions: Christian 30%, Muslim 17%, indigenous African and other beliefs 45%.

Languages: Portuguese (official), various indigenous languages.

Education: Mean years of schooling (adults over 25) men 2.1, women 1.2. Primary school attendance (1999)—32.6%. Adult literacy (1999)—39.5%.

Health: (2001) Infant mortality rate—129/1,000. Life expectancy (2002)—41.1 years.

Work force: (10.7 million est. 1997) Agriculture—88%; industry and commerce—8.5%; public sector—3%.


Government

Type: Multi-party democracy.

Independence: June 25, 1975.

Constitution: November 1990.

Branches: Executive—President, Council of Ministers. Legislative—National Assembly, municipal assemblies. Judicial—Supreme Court, provincial, district, and muncipal courts.

Administrative subdivisions: 10 provinces, 224 districts, and 33 municipalities, of which Maputo City is the largest.

Political parties: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO); Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO); numerous small parties.

Suffrage: Universal adult—18 years and older.


Economy

GDP: (2001) $3.9 billion.

Per capita income: (2002.) $210.

Natural resources: Coal, natural gas, titanium ore, tantalite, graphite, iron ore, semi-precious stones, arable land.

Agriculture: (23.3% of GDP) Exports—cashews, corn, cotton, sugar, sorghum, copra, tea, citrus fruit, bananas, tobacco. Domestically consumed food crops—corn, pigeon peas, cassava, rice, beef, pork, chicken, and goat.

Industry: (31% of GDP) Types—aluminum, consumer goods, light machinery, garments, food processing, and beverages.

Trade: Imports (2002, 51.3% of GDP)—$1,217 million: equipment and machinery, combustible fuels, vehicles, spare parts, cereal grains, alumina. Major suppliers (in declining order)—Australia, South Africa, Portugal, Japan, U.S., France, China, India. Exports (2002, 27.3% of GDP)—$723 million: aluminum, shrimp, fish, cashews, cotton, fruit, sugar, and natural gas (2004). Major markets (in declining order)—South Africa, European Union, India, U.S., Japan.




PEOPLE

Mozambique's major ethnic groups encompass numerous subgroups with diverse languages, dialects, cultures, and histories. Many are linked to similar ethnic groups living in inland countries. The north-central provinces of Zambezia and Nampula are the most populous, with about 45% of the population. The estimated 4 million Makua are the dominant group in the northern part of the country— the Sena and Ndau are prominent in the Zambezi valley, and the Tsonga and Shangaan dominate in southern Mozambique.

Despite the influence of Islamic coastal traders and European colonizers, the people of Mozambique have largely retained an indigenous culture based on smallscale agriculture. Mozambique's most highly developed art forms have been wood sculpture, for which the Makonde in northern Mozambique are particularly renowned, and dance. The middle and upper classes continue to be heavily influenced by the Portuguese colonial and linguistic heritage.

During the colonial era, Christian missionaries were active in Mozambique, and many foreign clergy remain in the country. According to the national census, about 20%-30% of the population is Christian, 15%-20% is Muslim, and the remainder adheres to traditional beliefs.

Under the colonial regime, educational opportunities for black Mozambicans were limited, and 93% of that population was ill iterate. In fact, most of today's political leaders were educated in missionary schools. After independence, the government placed a high priority on expanding education, which reduced the illiteracy rate to about two-thirds as primary school enrollment increased. Unfortunately, in recent years school construction and teacher training enrollments have not kept up with population increases. With post-war enrollments reaching all-time highs, the quality of education has suffered.




HISTORY

Mozambique's first inhabitants were San hunter and gatherers, ancestors of the Khoisani peoples. Between the first and fourth centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking peoples migrated from the north through the Zambezi River valley and then gradually into the plateau and coastal areas. The Bantu were farmers and ironworkers.

When Portuguese explorers reached Mozambique in 1498, Arab-trading settlements had existed along the coast and outlying islands for several centuries. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts became regular ports of call on the new route to the east. Later, traders and prospectorspene trated the interio regions seeking gold and slaves. Although Portuguese influence gradually expanded, its power was limited and exercised through individual settlers who were granted extensive autonomy. As a result, investment lagged while Lisbon devoted itself to the more lucrative trade with India and the Far East and to the colonization of Brazil.

By the early 20th century the Portuguese had shifted the administration of much of the country to large private companies, controlled and financed mostly by the British, which established railroad lines to neighboring countries and supplied cheap—often forced—African labor to the mines and plantations of the nearby British colonies and South Africa. Because policies were designed to benefit white settlers and the Portuguese home land, little attention was paid to Mozambique's national integration, its economic infrastructure, or the skills of its population.

After World War II, while many European nations were granting independence to their colonies, Portugal clung to the concept that Mozambique and other Portuguese possessions were overseas provinces of the mother country, and emigration to the colonies soared. Mozambique's Portuguese population at the time of independence was about 250,000. The drive for Mozambican independence developed apace, and in 1962 several anti-colonial political groups formed the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), which initiated an armed campaign against Portuguese colonial rule in September 1964. After 10 years of sporadic warfare and major political changes in Portugal, Mozambique became independent on June 25, 1975. FRELIMO quickly established a one-party Marxist state and outlawed rival political activity.




POLITICAL CONDITIONS

The last 30 years of Mozambique's history have encapsulated the political developments of the entire 20th century. Following the April 1974 coup in Lisbon, Portuguese colonialism collapsed. In Mozambique, the military decision to withdraw occurred within the context of a decade of armed anti-colonial struggle, initially led by American-educated Eduardo Mondlane, who was assassinated in 1969. When independence was proclaimed in 1975, the leaders of FRELIMO's military campaign rapidly established a one-party state allied to the Soviet bloc, eliminating political pluralism, religious educational institutions, and the role of traditional authorities.

The new government gave shelter and support to South African (ANC) and Zimbabwean (ZANU) liberation movements while the governments of apartheid South Africa and Rhodesia fostered and financed an armed rebel movement in central Mozambique called the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO). Civil war, sabotage from neighboring states, and economic collapse characterized the first decade of Mozambican independence. Also marking this period were the mass exodus of Portuguese nationals, weak infrastructure, nationalization, and economic mismanagement. During most of the civil war, the government was unable to exercise effective control outside of urban areas, many of which were cut off from the capital. An estimated 1 million Mozambicans perished during the civil war, 1.7 million took refuge in neighboring states, and several million more were internally displaced. In the third FRELIMO party congress in 1983, President Samora Machel conceded the failure of socialism and the need for major political and economic reforms. He died, along with several advisers, in a suspicious plane crash.

His successor, Joaquim Chissano, continued the reforms and began peace talks with RENAMO. The new Constitution enacted in 1990 provided for a multi-party political system, market-based economy, and free elections. The civil war ended in October 1992 with the Rome General Peace Accords.

By mid-1995 the more than 1.7 million Mozambican refugees who had sought asylum in neighboring Malawi, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Zambia, Tanzania, and South Africa as a result of war and drought had returned, as part of the largest repatriation witnessed in Sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, a further estimated 4 million internally displaced returned to their areas of origin.

Under supervision of the ONUMOZ peacekeeping force of the United Nations, peace returned to Mozambique. In 1994 the country held its first democratic elections. Joaquim Chissano was elected president with 53% of the vote, and a 250-member National Assembly was voted in with 129 FRELIMO deputies, 112 RENAMO deputies, and 9 representatives of three smaller parties that formed the Democratic Union (UD). Since its formation in 1994, the National Assembly has made progress in becoming a body increasingly more independent of the executive. By 1999, more than one-half (53%) of the legislation passed originated in the Assembly.

After some delays, in 1998 the country held its first local elections to provide for local representation and some budgetary authority at the municipal level. The principal opposition party, RENAMO, boycotted the local elections, citing flaws in the registration process. Independent slates contested the elections and won seats in municipal assemblies. Turnout was very low.

In the aftermath of the 1998 local elections, the government resolved to make more accommodations to the opposition's procedural concerns for the second round of multiparty national elections in 1999. Working through the National Assembly, the electoral law was rewritten and passed by consensus in December 1998. Financed largely by international partners, a very successful voter registration was conducted from July to September 1999, providing voter registration cards to 85% of the potential electorate (more than 7 million voters).

The second general elections were held December 3-5, 1999, with high voter turn out. International and domestic observers agreed that the voting process was well organized and went smoothly. Both the opposition and observers subsequently cited flaws in the tabulation process that, had they not occurred, might have changed the outcome. In the end, however, international and domestic observers concluded that the close result of the vote reflected the will of the people.

President Chissano won the presidency with a margin of 4% points over the RENAMO-Electoral Union coalition candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, and began his 5-year term in January 2000. FRELIMO increased its majority in the National Assembly with 133 out of 250 seats. RENAMO-UE coalition won 116 seats, one went independent, and no third parties are represented.

The opposition coalition did not accept the National Election Commission's results of the presidential vote and filed a formal complaint to the Supreme Court. One month after the voting, the court dismissed the opposition's challenge and validated the election results. The opposition did not file a complaint about the results of the legislative vote.


Principal Government Officials
Last Updated: 3/19/03


President: Chissano, Joaquim Alberto

Prime Minister: Mocumbi, Pascoal Manuel

Min. of Agriculture & Rural Development: Muteia, Helder

Min. of Culture: Mkaima, Miguel

Min. of Defense: Dai, Tobias

Min. of Education: Nguenha, Alcido

Min. of Environmental Coordination: Kachamila, John

Min. of Fisheries: Muthemba, Cadmiel

Min. of Foreign Affairs & Cooperation: Simao, Leonardo

Min. of Health: Songane, Franciso

Min. of Higher Education, Science & Technology: Brito, Lidia

Min. of Industry & Commerce: Morgado, Carlos

Min. of Interior: Manhenje, Almerino

Min. of Justice: Abudo, Jose Ibraimo

Min. of Labor: Sevene, Mario

Min. of Mineral Resources & Energy: Langa, Castigo

Min. of Planning & Finance: Diogo, Luisa

Min. of Public Works & Housing: White, Robert

Min. of State Administration: Chichava, Jose

Min. of Tourism: Sumbana, Fernando

Min. of Transport & Communications: Salomao, Tomas

Min. of Women's & Social Affairs: Matable, Virginia

Min. of Veteran's Affairs: Thai, Antonio Hama

Min. of Youth & Sport: Libombo, Joel

Min. in the Presidency for Defense & Security Affairs: Manhenje, Almerino

Min. in the Presidency for Parliamentary & Diplomatic Affairs: Madeira, Francisco

Attorney General: Namburete, Antonio

Governor, Central Bank: Maleiane, Adriano Afonso

Ambassador to the US: Namashulua, Marcos Geraldo

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Chidumo, Filipe




ECONOMY


Macroeconomic Review

Alleviating poverty. At the end of the civil war in 1992, Mozambique ranked among the poorest countries in the world. It still ranks among the least developed nations with very low socioeconomic indicators. In the last decade, however, it has experienced a notable economic recovery. Per capita GDP in 2000 was estimated at $222; in the mid-1980s, it was $120. With a high foreign debt (originally $5.7 billion at 1998 net present value) and a good track record on economic reform, Mozambique was the first African country to receive debt relief under the initial HIPC (Heavily Indebted Poor Country) Initiative. In April 2000, Mozambique qualified for the Enhanced HIPC program as well and attained its completion point in September 2001. This led to the Paris Club members agreeing in November 2001 to substantially reduce the remaining bilateral debt. This will lead to the complete forgiveness of a considerable volume of bilateral debt, which is currently being negotiated between Mozambique and its partners. The United States has finished this process and forgiven Mozambique of its debt.

Rebounding growth. The resettlement of war refugees and successful economic reform have led to a high growth rate: the average growth rate from 1993 to 1999 was 6.7%; from 1997 to 1999, it averaged more than 10% per year. The devastating floods of early 2000 slowed GDP growth to a 2.1%. A full recovery was achieved with growth of 14.8% in 2001. In 2002, the growth rate was 8.3% (measured in real meticais). The government projects the economy to continue to expand between 7%-10% a year for the next 5 years, although rapid expansion in the future hinges on several major foreign investment projects, continued economic reform, and the revival of the agriculture, transportation, and tourism sectors. More than 75% of the population engages in smallscale agriculture, which still suffers from inadequate infrastructure, commercial networks, and investment. Yet 88% of Mozambique's arable land is still uncultivated; focusing economic growth in this sector is a major challenge for the government.

Low inflation. The government's tight control of spending and the money supply, combined with financial sector reform, successfully reduced inflation from 70% in 1994 to less than 5% from 1998-99. Inflation spiked in 2000, however, to a rate of 12.7% due to economic disruptions stemming from the devastating floods. Inflation began to increase in the second half of 2001, but has since returned to the 9%-11% range. The value of Mozambique's currency, the Metical, lost nearly 50% of its value against the dollar since December 2000, although in late 2001 it began to stabilize. Since then, it has held steady at about MZM 24,000 to U.S.$1.

Extensive economic reform. Economic reform has been extensive. More than 1,200 state-owned enterprises (mostly small) have been privatized. Preparations for privatization and/or sector liberalization are underway for the remaining parastatals, including telecommunications, electricity, ports, and the railroads. The government frequently selects a strategic foreign investor when privatizing a parastatal. Additionally, customs duties have been reduced, and customs management has been streamlined and reformed. The government introduced a highly successful value-added tax in 1999 as part of its efforts to increase domestic revenues. Plans for 2003-04 include Commercial Code reform; comprehensive judicial reform; financial sector strengthening; continued civil service reform; and improved government budget, audit, and inspection capability.

Improving trade imbalance. In recent years, the value of imports has surpassed that of exports by almost 2:1, an improvement over the 4:1 ratio of the immediate post-war years. In 2002 imports were $1,217 million, and exports were $723 million. Support programs provided by development partners and private financing of foreign direct investment mega-projects and their associated raw materials, have largely compensated for balance-of-payments shortfalls. The medium-term outlook for exports is encouraging, since a number of foreign investment projects should lead to substantial export growth and a better trade balance. MOZAL, a large aluminum smelter that commenced production in mid-2000, has greatly expanded the nation's trade volume. Traditional Mozambican exports include cashews, shrimp, fish, copra, sugar, cotton, tea, and citrus fruits. Most of these industries are being rehabilitated. As well, Mozambique is less dependent on imports for basic food and manufactured goods because of steady increases in local production.

SADC trade protocol. In December 1999, the Council of Ministers approved the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Trade Protocol. The Protocol will create a free trade zone among more than 200 million consumers in the SADC region. The 10-year implementation process of the SADC Trade Protocol began in 2002 with the immediate elimination of duties on a large list of "zero" rated goods. In 2003, the top tariff rate was lowered from 30% to 25%. Mozambique has also joined the WTO.




FOREIGN RELATIONS

While allegiances dating back to the liberation struggle remain relevant, Mozambique's foreign policy has become increasingly pragmatic. The twin pillars of Mozambique's foreign policy are maintenance of good relations with its neighbors and maintenance and expansion of ties to development partners.

During the 1970s and early 1980s, Mozambique's foreign policy was inextricably linked to the struggles for majority rule in Rhodesia and South Africa as well as superpower competition and the Cold War. Mozambique's decision to enforce UN sanctions against Rhodesia and deny that country access to the sea led Ian Smith's regime to undertake overt and covert actions to destabilize the country. Although the change of government in Zimbabwe in 1980 removed this threat, the apartheid regime in South Africa continued to finance the destabilization of Mozambique.

The 1984 Nkomati Accord, while failing in its goal of ending South African support to RENAMO, opened initial diplomatic contacts between the Mozambican and South African governments. This process gained momentum with South Africa's elimination of apartheid, which culminated in the establishment of full diplomatic relations in October 1993.

While relations with neighboring Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania show occasional strains, Mozambique's ties to these countries remain strong.

In the years immediately following its independence, Mozambique benefited from considerable assistance from some western countries, notably the Scandinavians. Moscow and its allies, however, became Mozambique's primary economic, military, and political supporters and its foreign policy reflected this linkage. This began to change in 1983; in 1984 Mozambique joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Western aid quickly replaced Soviet support, with the Scandinavians, the United States, the Netherlands, and the Europe an Union becoming increasingly important sources of development assistance. Italy also maintains a profile in Mozambique as a result of its key role during the peace process. Relations with Portugal, the former colonial power, are complex and of some importance as Portuguese investors play a visible role in Mozambique's economy.

Mozambique is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and ranks among the moderate members of the African Bloc in the United Nations and other international organizations. Mozambique also belongs to the Organization of African Unity/African Union and the Southern African Development Community. In 1994, the Government became a full member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, in part to broaden its base of international support but also to please the country's sizeable Muslim population. Similarly, in early 1996 Mozambique joined its Anglophone neighbors in the Commonwealth. In the same year, Mozambique became a founding member and the first President of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and maintains close ties with other Lusophone states.


U.S.-MOZAMBICAN RELATIONS

Relations between the United States and Mozambique are good and steadily improving. This state of comity, spurred by the end of the superpower confrontation on the continent, South Africa's democratic transition, and Mozambique's own internal changes, bodes well for continued strong ties. By 1993, U.S. aid to Mozambique was prominent, due in part to significant emergency food assistance in the wake of the 1991-93 southern African drought, but more importantly in support of the peace and reconciliation process. During the process leading up to elections in October 1994, the United States served as a significant financier and member of the most important commissions established to monitor implementation of the Rome General Peace Accords. The United States is one of the largest bilateral donors to the country and plays a leading role in donor efforts to assist Mozambique with its ongoing economic and political transitions.

The U.S. embassy opened in Maputo on November 8, 1975, and the first American ambassador arrived in March 1976. In that same year, the United States extended a $10 million grant to the Government of Mozambique to help compensate for the economic costs of enforcing sanctions against Rhodesia. In 1977, however, largely motivated by a concern with human rights violations, the U.S. Congress prohibited the provision of development aid to Mozambique without a presidential certification that such aid would be in the foreign policy interests of the United States. Relations hit a nadir in March 1981, when the Government of Mozambique expelled four members of the U.S. embassy staff. In response, the United States suspended plans to provide development aid and to name a new ambassador to Mozambique. Relations between the two countries languished in a climate of stagnation and mutual suspicion.

Contacts between the two countries continued in the early 1980s as part of the U.S. administration's conflict resolution efforts in the region. In late 1983, a new U.S. ambassador arrived in Maputo, and the first Mozambi can envoy to the United States arrived in Washington, signaling a thaw in the bilateral relationship. The United States subsequently responded to Mozambique's economic reform and drift away from Moscow's embrace by initiating an aid program in 1984. President Samora Machel paid a symbolically important official working visit to the United States in 1985, where he met President Reagan. After that meeting, a full USAID mission was established, and significant assistance for economic reform efforts began. President Chissano met with President Bush in September 2003; previously, he had met with Presidents Reagan (October 1987), Bush (March 1990), and Clinton (November 1998), and also with Secretaries of State Powell (February 2002) and Baker (July 1992).


Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Maputo (E), Avenida Kenneth Kaunda 193 • P.O. Box 783, Tel [258] (1) 492797, Fax 490114; Website: www.usembassy-maputo.gov.mz; AID Tel 490726, IVG 887-0000, Fax 492098.

AMB: Helen La Lime
AMB OMS: Kathryn Coster
DCM: Dennis B. Hankins
ECO/POL: David Hodge
CON: James Potts
PAO: Christopher D. McShane
MGT: Herbert L. Treger
RSO: Howard A. Hicks II
IPO: Guadalupe Pinon
RFMO: Francis Conte (res. Harare)
RMO: Charles Rosensarb (res. Gaborone)
PC: John Grabowski
AID: Jay Knott
DAO: Michael Evancho
CDC: Alfredo Vergara


Last Modified: Thursday, October 09, 2003


SECURITY INFORMATION

The security situation in Mozambique requires caution. Street crime and carjackings in urban areas occur frequently. Road travel can be hazardous and should not be undertaken after daylight hours. The abundance of weapons remaining from the country's civil war and police who are poorly trained, equipped, and motivated contribute to a serious crime situation.

Additionally, up to 1 million land mines were planted through out Mozambique during the last three decades of conflict, and while mine clearing operations are currently underway, surface travel off main highways should be approached with caution.




TRAVEL


Consular Information Sheet
February 27, 2003


Country Description: Mozambique, a developing country in southern Africa, ended a 16-year civil war in 1992. The country has remained stable following Mozambique's first multi-party elections in October 1994 and subsequent elections in December 1999. Mozambique is among the world's poorest countries. Facilities for tourism are steadily improving in Maputo, the capital city, but remain limited in other areas. Most of the goods and services taken for granted in other countries are not yet available.

Entry Requirements: A passport and visa are required. It is recommended that travelers have visas prior to traveling. Travelers arriving from a country without a Mozambican embassy or consulate can get visas at the airport or land border entry points for USD 20 or 375,000 Meticais. Those arriving from a country with a Mozambican embassy or consulate can obtain visas at the airports or land border entry points for USD 25. Mozambican authorities impose a fine of USD 100 per day for each day that travelers overstay the period of validity of their visas. These fines can be paid in local currency based on the current exchange rate. Travelers should obtain the latest information and details from the Embassy of Mozambique, 1990 M street, N. W., Suite 570, Washington, D. C. 20036, telephone (202) 293-7146. Overseas inquiries should be made at the nearest Mozambican embassy or consulate.

In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated procedures at entry/exit points. These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for the child's travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian not present. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure.

Safety and Security: Overland travel after dark is extremely dangerous due to poor road conditions, lack of emergency services, and the increased potential for vehicle hijacking. Visitors should be particularly vigilant when driving near the Mozambique-South Africa border. Official Americans serving in Mozambique are prohibited from overland travel outside Maputo's city limits after dark and are encouraged to travel in convoys of two or more vehicles when outside of the city during daylight hours. Police checkpoints are common and police officers frequently harass foreigners. Due to residual landmines, overland travelers are advised to remain on well-traveled roads or seek local information before going off-road outside of Maputo and other provincial capitals.

Crime: The biggest threat facing U.S. citizens visiting Mozambique is violent crime. Street crimes, including muggings, purse snatching, and pickpocketing, are common, both in Maputo and secondary cities. While violent crimes against foreigners remain relatively infrequent, Americans have been victims of shootings and vehicle hijackings in the past year. Visitors must be vigilant when out in public areas and should not display jewelry or other expensive items. Isolated areas, such as along the Marginal in Maputo (the area along the sea), should be avoided because joggers and pedestrians frequently have been mugged there, even during daylight hours. Visitors are advised not to walk at night.

Despite efforts to increase police presence in areas frequented by foreigners, the police are poorly paid, poorly equipped and lack the professionalism that U.S. citizens are accustomed to in the United States. Mozambican law requires that all persons carry an identity document, such as a passport, when out in public and produce it if requested by police. A notarized copy of the biographic page and the Mozambican visa are acceptable. There are certain areas in the city of Maputo where pedestrian traffic is prohibited (e.g., in front of the presidential offices located north of the Hotel Polana on the sea side of Avenida Julius Nyerere). Demonstrations or large crowds should be avoided.

The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to local police and to the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate. The pamphlets, "A Safe Trip Abroad" and "Tips for Travelers to Sub-Saharan Africa," provide useful information on personal security while traveling abroad and on travel in the region in general. Both are available by mail from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, via the Internet at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/index.html, or via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov.

Medical Facilities: Medical facilities are rudimentary, and many medicines are unavailable. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services. Maputo's Sommerschield Clinic can provide general and basic emergency services and requires cash payment in advance.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. U.S. medical insurance plans seldom cover health costs incurred outside the United States unless supplemental coverage is purchased. Further, U.S. Medicare and Medicaid programs do not provide payment for medical services outside the United States. However, many travel agents and private companies offer insurance plans that will cover health care expenses incurred overseas including emergency services such as medical evacuations.

When making a decision regarding health insurance, Americans should consider that many foreign doctors and hospitals require payment in cash prior to providing service and that a medical evacuation to the U.S. may cost well in excess of 50,000 dollars (US). Uninsured travelers who require medical care overseas often face extreme difficulties. When consulting with your insurer prior to your trip, ascertain whether payment will be made to the overseas healthcare provider or whether you will be reimbursed later for expenses you incur. Some insurance policies also include coverage for psychiatric treatment and for disposition of remains in the event of death.

Useful information on medical emergencies abroad, including overseas insurance programs, is provided in the Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs brochure, "Medical Information for Americans Traveling Abroad," available via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page or autofax: (202) 647-3000.

Other Health Information: Further information on anti-retroviral therapy against HIV/Aids, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations and other health precautions may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's international travelers hotline at 1-877-fyi-trip (877-394-8747); fax: 1-888-cdc-faxx (1-888-232-3299), or via the CDC's internet site at http://www.cdc.gov. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization's website at http://www.who.int/en.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions, which differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Mozambique is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Safety of public transportation: Poor
Urban road conditions/maintenance: Poor
Rural road conditions/maintenance: Poor
Availability of roadside assistance: Poor


Reconstruction of most roads damaged during the flooding of 2000 has been successful, and travel on the roads north of Maputo is once again possible. Additionally, a new toll road has improved travel between Maputo and South Africa. However, banditry along major highways continues to threaten the safety of road travelers. Periodically, the U.S. Embassy has restricted embassy personnel from traveling on certain roads or has imposed certain restrictions on road travel. Embassy personnel are prohibited from traveling outside cities after dark because of the increased risk of banditry, poor road conditions in some areas, the poor maintenance of many vehicles in the country (e.g. no headlights or rear lights), and the threat imposed by livestock that graze on roadsides. Travel outside Maputo often requires a four-wheel-drive vehicle, which creates an additional security risk, since these vehicles are high-theft items. Public transportation is extremely limited. Travelers contemplating overland travel may wish to contact the U.S. Embassy for the most current information on road travel safety.

For additional general information about road safety, including links to foreign government sites, see the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov/road_safety.html. For specific information concerning Mozambique's driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the Mozambican embassy in Washington, DC. For international driving permits, contact AAA or the American Automobile Touring Alliance.

Aviation Safety Oversight: As there is no direct commercial air service by local carriers at present, or economic authority to operate such service, between the U.S. and Mozambique, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administ ration (FAA) has not assessed Mozambique's civil aviation authority for compliance with international aviation safety standards.

For further information, travelers may contact the Department of Transportation within the U.S. at 1-800-322-7873, or visit the FAA internet home page at http://www.faa.gov/avr/iasa. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) separately assesses some foreign air carriers for suitability as official providers of air services. For information regarding the DOD policy on specific carriers, travelers may contact DOD at (618) 229-4801.

Currency Information: Currency can be converted only at locations authorized by the Mozambican government. It is against the law to destroy Mozambican currency; offenders can expect jail sentences and fines. Outside of the major hotels, credit cards are not widely accepted in Mozambique. Many merchants prefer to be paid in U.S. dollars or South African rand.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Mozambique's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Mozambique are strict, and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.

Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, please refer to our internet site at http://travel.state.gov/children's_issues.html or telephone 1-888-407-4747.

Registration/Embassy Location: Americans living in or visiting Mozambique are encouraged to register at the consular section of the U.S. Embassy in Mozambique and obtain updated information on travel and security within Mozambique. The U.S. Embassy is located in Maputo at 193 Avenida Kenneth Kaunda, telephone (258-1) 49-27-97. The after-hours telephone number for use in emergencies is (258-1) 49-07-23. The consular section's fax number is (258-1) 48-04-48. The consular section's e-mail address is [email protected]

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MOZAMBIQUE

Republic of Mozambique

Major City:
Maputo

Other Cities:
Beira, Moçambique, Nampula, Quelimane, Tete

EDITOR'S NOTE

This chapter was adapted from the Department of State Post Report dated April 1993. Supplemental material has been added to increase coverage of minor cities, facts have been updated, and some material has been condensed. Readers are encouraged to visit the Department of State's web site at http://travel.state.gov/ for the most recent information available on travel to this country.

INTRODUCTION

The area of what is now MOZAMBIQUE has been inhabited for 6,000 years. Historic and picturesque, it is the site of the original settlement by Portuguese explorers in their quest for a trade route to India in the 15th century. Its boundaries were determined in 1894, and it became an official colony in 1907. Eleven years of guerrilla operations finally forced negotiations with the Portuguese Government, and independence was achieved in June 1975. Until 1990, Mozambique remained a socialist, one-party state shrouded by an ongoing civil war. Its first multi-party democratic elections were held in 1994.

MAJOR CITY

Maputo

Maputo is an attractive, modern city with wide, tree-lined avenues, high-rise buildings, and one of the best harbors on the continent of Africa. It still reflects the characteristics of a former Portuguese city: pastel houses with graceful balconies, sidewalk cafes, parks, and bustling vehicular traffic.

In the outskirts, however, the visitor feels that he is truly in Africa in passing through the Caniçoa heavily populated area with self-made houses surrounded by high cane fences, outdoor markets, small cultivated plots, public water fountains, and numerous winding dirt roads.

The city of Maputo is on the western shore of Delagoa Bay, formed by the confluence of five rivers, in the extreme southern part of the country. Its climate is subtropical, with an average rainfall of 31 inches, most of that coming during the October-to-April summer. Daytime temperatures in Maputo often reach the upper 90s, and rise even higher during occasional short periods of hot north winds.

As Lourenço Marques, Maputo superseded the city of Moçambique as Portuguese East Africa's capital city in 1907. The estimated population of the Maputo area is over 3 million.

Education

Most English-speaking children of school age have been privately instructed by their parents via correspondence courses. The American International School of Mozambique offers American curriculum education from kindergarten through grade eight. Correspondence courses are available for grades nine through twelve. An International School operates in Maputo, but it is government-supervised, and the standards are low. The beginning classes, however, are improving and many people enroll their children. Some foreign diplomatic missions have their own schools, but instruction is in their particular languages, and non-nationals are discouraged from enrolling.

South African, English-language secondary schools have comparatively high scholastic standards. They differ, however, from the better American public high or preparatory schools, in that they are based on the British system. American students often find it difficult to adjust to the differences in curriculum, discipline, and general atmosphere.

Waterford-Kamhlaba School in Mbabane, Swaziland, is a multiracial, coeducational, secondary school based on the British O-level/A-level system. A number of American diplomats and missionaries in southern Africa have found the school satisfactory for their children, both scholastically and socially.

Recreation and Entertainment

The principal sports in Mozambique are fishing, boating, golf, tennis, and swimming. There are excellent beaches north of Maputo, but those in the bay area of the city are polluted. Swimming at unprotected beaches is discouraged because of sharks. No hunting is permitted anywhere in the country.

The Gorongoza Game Park, about two-and-a-half hours by car from the seaport city of Beira, is one of the most pleasant and best-stocked game reserves in Africa. Occasional tours are organized to the park. The Maputo game reserve is about a three-hour drive from the capital. It is considerably smaller and more limited in variety, but has elephants, hippos, and white rhinos. Roads in both parks are unpaved and require four-wheel-drive vehicles. Small parks with children's playgrounds can be found throughout Maputo.

The city has several movie theaters which show some American, British, French, Italian, Russian, and Indian films with Portuguese subtitles. Most films are "B" class and several years old.

There are several good restaurants, many of which specialize in the grilled prawns and piri-piri (hot spiced) chicken, which have become strong favorites of foreigners. Others feature Portuguese, Italian, and Chinese cooking. Some have orchestras, but dancing is discouraged in Maputo. Bars usually serve only beer.

The capital city's Hotel Polama is considered the most elegant in East Africa. Built in the 1920s, it retains an unmistakable style in spite of Mozambique's strained economy.

OTHER CITIES

There are several other cities in Mozambique, but most of them are small and do not usually attract English-speaking business people or travelers. Some diplomatic missions are in operation throughout the country.

BEIRA , which is capital of the Manica and Sofala districts on the southeastern coast of the country, is a principal port for central Mozambique, and for the landlocked nations of Zimbabwe and Zambia. Principal exports passing through Beira are ores, tobacco, food products, cotton, hides, and skins. Canneries and processing plants opened at Beira in the early 1980s. Because of its position on the Indian Ocean, and its broad and beautiful beaches, it has become a popular resort. Beira's metropolitan area population is close to 300,000.

The city of MOÇAMBIQUE , in the north, is on a small channel island in the Indian Ocean. It once was the capital of Portuguese East Africa. Moçambique is an important commercial center and has good harbor facilities.

NAMPULA , also in the northern part of the country, is situated on rail and road routes, and is the center of a greater area with a population of more than 200,000.

QUELIMANE is a seaport town of about 11,000 on the Quelimane River in Zambezia Province. Founded in 1544, it is one of the oldest cities in the country. It was established as a Portuguese trading station and later became a slave market during the 1800s. Sisal plantations were organized by German planters in the beginning of the 20th century. The major industry for the city is fishing, but corn, sugar, and tea are also exported. One of the world's largest coconut plantations is located here.

TETE , the capital of the western province of Tete, is situated on the Zambezi River, 50 miles from the Zimbabwe border and 270 miles northwest of Beira. The city was founded in 1531 by the Portuguese and was long a headquarters for traders, gold prospectors, and slave raiders. The climate and soils of the surrounding Angonia Highlands favor some cattle raising and the cultivation of cassava and sorghum. Today, Tete is a trade center with coal mines located nearby at Vila Moatize. There are deposits of bauxite, gold, manganese, and titanium in the area. Of note in the city is the cathedral, built in 1563. It has a population of about 105,000.

COUNTRY PROFILE

Geography and Climate

Mozambique has an area of 303,769 square miles, almost twice the size of California. It is bounded on the north by Tanzania; on the west by Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe; on the south by the Republic of South Africa and the Kingdom of Swaziland; and on the east by the Indian Ocean. Its 1,737-mile coastline stretches along the Indian Ocean from the mouth of the Rovuma River in the north to Ponta de Ouro in the south.

Topographically, Mozambique is made up mainly of flat coastal lowlands, rising in the west to a plateau 800 to 2,000 feet above sea level, and on the western border to a higher plateau (6,000 to 8,000 feet). Mountains in the north reach heights of over 8,000 feet. Africa's fourth longest river, the Zambezi, divides Mozambique in half. Many varieties of game are found in the interior, among them lion, elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, leopard, baboon, and gazelle.

The climate in the plains and along the coast is generally warm and humid; the mountainous areas tend to be cooler and drier. The hot rainy season lasts from October-November to April-May. The rest of the year is comparatively moderate, except for the decidedly cool winter months of June and July, particularly in the south and the higher altitudes. The rainfall is uneven and unpredictable; periodic droughts and floods occur.

Population

Mozambique's population of about 20 million is mainly Bantu-speaking and is divided into 10 ethnic groupings. The Ronga, Changane, and Chope tribes inhabit the south; the numerous and widespread Macua are in the north and center; the Maconde are in the northeast along the Tanzanian border; and the Ajaua (Yoa) and Nyanja live along Lake Niassa. About 15,000 to 20,000 Portuguese citizens still reside in the country, as well as smaller numbers of descendants of immigrants from other European countries and the subcontinent of Asia.

Portuguese is the official language and the only language of instruction and information. African Mozambicans have mastery of a number of indigenous tongues, and many have learned English while working in Zimbabwe and South Africa or while in exile with FRELIMO in Tanzania and Zambia. In the northern coastal area, which has experienced considerable Arab influence, Swahili is widely spoken.

Although most Africans continue to practice traditional religions, there are many Muslims (especially in the north) and Christians (both Catholic and Protestant). Christian missionaries have been active throughout the country; many of the latter were affiliated with English and American churches. Freedom of worship is assured under the constitution.

History

Historically, Mozambique lies at the southern edge of Arab influence along the East African coast; the Arabized town of Sofala was the southernmost port from which the annual monsoon permitted an easy return by sail. First visited in the late 1480s by the intrepid Portuguese traveler, Pero da Covilhña, Mozambique entered modern history when Vasco da Gama ventured here on his historic voyage to India in 1498.

Sofala, the first Portuguese settlement, dates from 1505, but the administrative and commercial capital of the area was soon established on the fortress island of Mozambique. Besides being an important way station on the route to India, Mozambique was also a source of gold (real as well as legendary). Trading posts, fortresses, and precarious settlements soon were established up the Zambezi River (at Sena and Tete), along what was hoped would become a secure trading route to the fabled African kingdom of Monomotapa. During its early history, Mozambique was also a source of slaves at various times, although never to the extent of other Portuguese possessions in West Africa.

Maputo, the capital, developed slowly as a minor trading post after the mid-1700s. At the end of the 19th century, it attained economic and strategic importance as the rail outlet to the mining area of the Transvaal in what is now the Republic of South Africa. After 1875, Maputo developed rapidly as a port, railhead, and commercial center.

In 1890, the Portuguese abandoned claims to the hinterland between Mozambique and Angola, which in effect established the boundaries of present-day Mozambique. A series of military campaigns effectively secured Portuguese occupation of the territory, previously limited to a few coastal forts and trading stations. During much of the early 20th century, the central and northern parts of the territory were administered by chartered companies. In 1907, the capital was moved from Mozambique Island to Lourenço Marques (renamed Maputo after independence in 1975).

Mozambique's pre-independence status was varied. For many centuries, it was a dependency of the Portuguese viceroy in India, and later it was considered an integral part of Portugal. In 1961, full Portuguese citizenship rights were extended to all Mozambicans. In 1964, the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) launched a guerrilla campaign aimed at forcing the Portuguese Government to grant independence and majority rule to Mozambique. From 1964 to 1974, FRELIMO soldiers carried out military operations in the provinces of Cabo Delgado, Niassa, Sofala, and Manica. FRELIMO was supported politically and materially by several neighboring independent African states and by the Organization of American States.

Shortly after the April 1974 coup in Lisbon, FRELIMO ended its military campaign against Portugal. A transition government was established in September 1974, following negotiations in Lusaka (Zambia) between FRELIMO and the Portuguese Government. Mozambique became an independent country on June 25, 1975.

Government

Following independence from Portugal in 1975, Mozambique adopted a one-party Marxist political system with FRELIMO serving as the sole legal party. Samora Moises Machel was selected as the country's first president. As president of the FRELIMO party, Machel served as chief of the armed forces and was given authority to annul the decisions of provincial, district, and local assemblies. In October 1986, Machel was killed in a plane crash and succeeded by Joaquim Alberto Chissano.

Under Chissano's leadership, Mozambique has experienced dramatic political changes. In July 1989, FRELIMO abandoned its commitment to Marxism-Leninism. Also, a new constitution was adopted in November 1990. This document abolished FRELIMO's status as sole legal party, authorized the creation of opposition political parties, and introduced a Bill of Rights including the right to strike, freedom of the press, and the right to a fair trial. Since 1990, opposition political parties such as the Liberal Democratic Party of Mozambique (PALMO), the Mozambique National Union (UNAMO), and the Mozambique National Movement (MONAMO) have been created.

Mozambique's legislative branch consists of the 250-member Assembly of the Republic. Members are elected by universal suffrage to five-year terms. The president is also elected by universal suffrage to a five-year term, and may only be reelected to two more consecutive terms.

The country is divided into ten administrative provinces, with the city of Maputo under the administrative direction of a city council chairman.

The flag of Mozambique consists of three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed AK47 rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book.

Arts, Science, Education

Mozambique has an adult literacy rate of about 42 percent. Theoretically, schools were integrated under the Portuguese administration, although in practice it was difficult for Africans to get more than a rudimentary education. This was particularly true outside the cities where few secondary educational facilities existed.

After independence, the Mozambique Government nationalized all schools in the country and banned the system of private tutors. About half of the country's primary schools were destroyed during the civil war. In 1990, private schooling was reintroduced. The educational ladder remains basically the same as under the Portuguese, with five years of primary education followed by two years of preparatoria, then a secondary, a commercial or industrial course (three years) or a lyceu, the five-year traditional college preparatory course. The government is seeking to expand educational opportunities for all Mozambicans.

The Eduardo Mondlane University (called University of Lourenço Marques until independence) was established in 1967. The university, located in a residential neighborhood on the outskirts of the city, offers courses in agronomy, economics, engineering, liberal arts, medicine, science, and veterinary medicine.

Mozambique possesses considerable talent in its poets, novelists, artists, and sculptors. Many of their works depict political themes. Periodic exhibitions of local and foreign artists are sponsored by the government, and art objects are available for hard currency only in government-supervised stores.

Several foreign embassies have brought native dance troupes to Mozambique as part of their cultural programs. Traditional art, mostly African masks, rough leather goods, tourist items, beads, metal trinkets, and wood carvings are hawked in the cities, as are some excellent black wood sculpture produced by the Makonde in Mozambique's northern areas.

A Museum of Natural History, a Money Museum, and a Museum of the Revolution exist in Mozambique. The National Library in Maputo is open and houses an extensive collection. The National Gallery of Art has a limited collection of sculpture, artifacts, and paintings. Mozambique also has a school of photography that holds occasional exhibits, a National Institute of Cinema that produces mostly political documentaries, and a National Dance Company that gives regular performances.

Commerce and Industry

Mozambique is underdeveloped and has a largely agricultural economy. A major source of income is derived from its ports and railroads.

Maputo, a busy regional port, is a natural transit point for the South African Transvaal and Swaziland. Beira is an important outlet for Zimbabwe and Zambia, and the port of Nacala in the north serves Malawi and other central African countries.

Major economic problems face the country. About one-third of Mozambique's land is suitable for agriculture, but only some 4 percent is under cultivation at any one time. Most of the rural population is engaged in subsistence farming; corn and manioc are the principal crops. Livestock is found primarily in the south and far north where the tsetse fly is not prevalent. Mozambique, the principal cashew producer of the world, exports about $65 million worth of that crop annually. Other important products are copra, cotton, sugar, tea, sisal, timber, and vegetable oil. Since independence, agricultural production has dropped precipitately, affecting export earnings and domestic food supplies. Civil war and recurrent droughts have seriously affected the economy.

Although Mozambique is famous for its shrimp (prawns), the fishing industry remains small and undeveloped, and much of the catch is taken by foreign ships fishing outside territorial waters.

Local industrial production is mainly confined to processing agricultural products. Some industries exist, including assembly plants for transistor radios, railroad cars, and truck bodies; and manufacturing plants for furniture, plastic goods, metal containers, shoes, cosmetics, soap, cigarettes, and beer. Mozambique also has large cement and textile factories. Manufacturing is centered in Maputo and Beira.

Various parts of Mozambique are believed to be rich in a number of minerals, but production thus far has been small. Coal, gold and gem-stones are all important mineral commodities. Other products are colombo-tantalite, copper, fluorite, microlite, and bentonite. A natural gas field has been discovered at Pande, south of the Save River. All mineral rights in Mozambique belong to the government, which issues concessions for prospecting and mining.

There is a considerable amount of unofficial trade along the borders as well as unreported fish exports to Asia. In the mid-1990s, an estimated $50 million in gold and $50 million in gemstones were being smuggled out of the country annually. In 1997, the Mozambican government contracted a private British firm to take responsibility for the regulation of foreign trade in order to reduce smuggling and corruption.

Mozambique's Chamber of Commerce, Camara de Comericio de Moçambique, is located at Rua Mateus Sansñao Mutemba 452, CP 1836, Maputo; telephone: 491970; telex: 6498.

Transportation

Roads and railroads in Mozambique have historically concentrated on linking the coastline with bordering countriesMalawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. The major rail connections are from Maputo to Swaziland and South Africa, from Beira to Zimbabwe, and from Nacala to Malawi and Zambia.

Roads in general are in poor condition. Paved roads from Maputo to Beira and from Chimoio to Tete and Cahora Bassa have been completed, and a new program to connect Beira by paved roads to Quelimane and Nampula and places farther north is underway. Mozambique has over 4,700 kilometers (2,900 miles) of paved roads and 27,000 kilometers (17,000 miles) of dirt and gravel roads, but many of the latter are impassable during the rainy season.

Efforts are being made to improve north-south road connections and to construct rural feeder road systems. Overland rail or road travel to or from Mozambique or within the country is discouraged due to poor conditions. Travel at night outside of major cities is hazardous.

The Mozambican airline, LAM, provides domestic service to Beira, Lichinga, Nampula, Pemba, Quelimane, and Tete.

Bus service exists between many of the main population centers throughout the country, but bus trips can be long, hot, and crowded. Bus schedules are very erratic.

Local bus service in Maputo is poor and buses are usually overcrowded. Taxis are extremely scarce, but are sometimes available at stands near the major hotels and in downtown areas. They are impossible to obtain during rush hours, and no taxis serve the international airport of Maputo. Fares are metered and are lower than in the U.S.; special hourly sight-seeing rates can be negotiated. Tipping is permitted and is usually 10 percent of the fare.

For those employed by foreign firms, or on official government duty in Mozambique, a private car is a necessity, since car rental service is limited. New Japanese and French automobiles are now appearing on the streets of Maputo. Small, used, foreign vehicles can be bought at varying prices (expensive by U.S. standards).

Since traffic moves on the left throughout southern Africa, right-hand-drive vehicles are generally used.

Communications

Long-distance telephone connections within Mozambique, to nearby countries, and worldwide are fair; service is sometimes slow. Maputo's automatic dial system usually works reasonably well but, sometimes, lines are overloaded during business hours. Satisfactory telegraph service is available to all points, although extremely expensive.

International airmail service is usually reliable, but slow. Letters take from two to three weeks to reach the U.S. east coast.

Maputo has a few radio stations; all broadcast in Portuguese. One is FM, (operating from 5:30 p.m. to 11:30 p.m.) and presents mainly local news, classical, and light musical programs. Reception of Voice of America (VOA) and British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) news is usually good on shortwave, as are stations from South Africa and nearby countries.

Television service, on a limited basis, served some 68,000 receivers in 1995. It is also possible to receive TV broadcasts from Swaziland and South Africa. All use the PAL system.

Maputo has two daily newspapers, a Sunday paper, and one weekly magazine (Portuguese). There are a few other magazines and periodicals. All papers report primarily domestic news. International news reflects Mozambique's foreign policy preferences. One daily newspaper, also in Portuguese, is published in Beira.

Time and Newsweek are not available from local bookstores. Practically no English-language books can be obtained locally, except for those of a technical or scientific nature.

Health

Shortly after assuming power in 1975, the FRELIMO government nationalized all medical practice, facilities, and services. This action led to a serious deterioration of the country's limited medical care and facilities, including the exodus of the vast majority of its qualified medical personnel.

Hospitals in urban areas, primarily in Maputo and Beira, are seriously overcrowded, doctors and medical staff are overworked and often minimally trained, emergency cases frequently do not receive prompt attention, and sanitary conditions are often substandard. Beyond the two major urban centers, medical facilities and care decrease in quality or are nonexistent. Dental and eye care in all areas are deficient.

Obtaining even the most routine medical assistance is generally time-consuming. Application for services is highly bureaucratized, and long waiting lines are the norm.

Hospital equipment is often inoperative because of the lack of maintenance and/or spare parts. In some cases, there are no trained medical technicians to operate the equipment. Pharmaceutical supplies and drugs are constantly in short supply, and even the most common medications often are unavailable. Routine laboratory work can be done, but is often of low quality and dubious validity. Emergency ambulance services are theoretically available, but are unreliable because of a severe shortage of vehicles.

In all but the most routine medical cases, American diplomatic personnel or businessmen and their families seek medical attention outside of Mozambique, generally in South Africa or Swaziland. Both of these neighboring countries' facilities are about four hours away by car. The facilities offered in Nelspruit, South Africa, approximate care most likely to be found in a small American city. However, Johannesburg/Pretoria, the largest metropolitan area in South Africa, is about eight hours by car from Maputo or a one-hour flight (flights are scheduled only twice weekly). Both have a full range of quality medical services and facilities. Medical care in Swaziland is fair.

Mozambique has the usual variety of tropical diseases such as malaria, filariasis, typhoid fever, bilharzia, tick fever, and infectious hepatitis; nevertheless, Maputo is a clean city and is relatively free of such illnesses. Flies, ticks, mosquitoes, ants, cockroaches, and parasitic worms are present, but well-controlled, in the better residential areas. Living in Maputo should present no real threat, provided immunizations are complete and up-to-date and prudence is exercised.

The water in Maputo (and in a number of the northern cities) is unsafe to drink; boiling and filtering are recommended. Most buildings in the city's center are connected to a central sewage system, but some outlying districts still use septic tanks.

Garbage is collected regularly, efficiently, and noisily at night in residential areas.

Bilharzia (schistosomiasis) is widespread throughout the country; it is extremely dangerous to wade, swim, and wash in fresh lakes, ponds, puddles, or streams.

Cholera is endemic in practically all areas of Mozambique and has been most severe in the central and northern provinces. A serious outbreak occurred in Maputo in 1980, killing at least 12 persons. The epidemic was contained, however, and no additional fatalities from cholera in the Maputo area have been reported. Nonetheless, the disease remains a potential threat, even in the capital area. Visiting Americans should take the following precautions: drink only bottled or boiled and filtered water; treat locally purchased fruit and vegetables (including purchases from South Africa and Swaziland where cholera is also prevalent) in a permanganate solution before consumption; observe the strictest sanitary practices; and avoid designated, unsafe, local beach areas.

Persons subject to hay fever, asthma, rheumatism, and arthritis may find the climate uncomfortable and should follow appropriate treatment. Respiratory ailments such as colds, bronchitis, and influenza are common. Inoculations against typhoid, yellow fever, polio, and hepatitis are essential, and anti-malarial medication should be started before leaving for Mozambique.

Clothing and Services

Americans find that suitable clothing is not available in Maputo. However, South Africa and Swaziland have a fairly good selection for all. Light cotton clothing is needed for the hot, humid summer; medium-weight garments are required for the cool, relatively dry winter.

Women need a reasonable number of dresses in Maputo, as sun and frequent laundering are hard on clothes. Slacks and pantsuits are frequently worn. A medium-heavy coat is handy for travel to South Africa and Swaziland during winter, when temperatures drop below freezing in the higher altitudes. Cardigan sweaters and shawls are useful on chilly mornings and evenings, even those days with surprisingly hot mid-days.

Sportswear is generally conservative, although bikinis are seen at the beach and around swimming pools. White dresses are worn for tennis, and slacks or Bermuda shorts for golf.

Men's clothing is usually simple. Suits and ties are not always required for business, and often bush jackets or leisure suits are worn in offices. Official calls require coat and tie. Shorts and sport shirts are worn for informal occasions.

A fair selection of children's clothing is available in South Africa, and prices are reasonable. Styles and sizes of shoes, however, are limited. Boys under 12 usually wear shorts.

Most basic services are available in Maputo, and are of fair to good quality. Tailors are quite skilled for repair work. There have been serious shortages of food items, with supplies erratic and unpredictable, and Westerners on extended stays often travel to Swaziland and South Africa for groceries. Tourists, of course, encounter no difficulties, as they use the services of restaurants and hotel dining rooms.

NOTES FOR TRAVELERS

Most Americans enter Mozambique by air from Johannesburg, Lisbon, or Paris. Direct connections are also available to Mbabane, Harare, Dares-Salaam, Berlin, Luanda, Lusaka, Rome, and Moscow.

Visas can be obtained through the Mozambican Embassy in Washington, its Mission in New York or by applying directly by cable with pre-paid response to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Maputo at least six weeks in advance. A valid passport is also required.

Pets can be imported only if there are accompanying health and vaccination certificates. The veterinary record must state that there have been no cases of rabies within a radius of 50 miles from where pets have resided for the previous year.

In Maputo, religious services in English are conducted only at the Anglican Church. Other places of worship include Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches, a Jewish synagogue (Portuguese and Orthodox rites), Buddhist and Hindu temples, and a mosque for two Muslim sects.

The time in Mozambique is Greenwich Mean Time minus two hours.

The Mozambique unit of exchange is the metical, which is divided into 100 centavos. No foreign currency may legally be imported into the country.

The metric system of weights and measures is used.

LOCAL HOLIDAYS

Jan. 1 New Year's Day

Feb. 3 Heroes' Day

Mar.(2nd Mon) Commonwealth Day

Apr. 7 Women's Day

May 1Worker's Day

June 25 Independence Day

Sept. 7 Lusaka Agreement/Victory Day

Sept. 25 Armed Forces Day

Nov. 10Maputo City Day

Dec. 25 Family Day

RECOMMENDED READING

The following titles are provided as a general indication of the material published on this country:

Azevedo, Mario Joaquim. Historical Dictionary of Mozambique. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991.

Christie, Iain. Samora Machel: A Biography. Highlands, NJ: Humanities, 1989.

Egero, Bertil. Mozambique: A Dream Undone. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1988.

Finnegan, W. A Complicated War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992.

Hanlon, Joseph. Mozambique: The Revolution Under Fire. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities, 1990.

James, R.S. Mozambique. Places &Peoples of the World Series. New York: Chelsea House, 1988.

Magaia, Lina. Dumba Nengue, Run For Your Life: Peasant Tales of Tragedy in Mozambique. Translated by Michael Wolfers. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1988.

Sachs, Albie. Running to Maputo. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.

Torp, Jens Erik. Mozambique. New York: Pinter Publishers, 1989.

Urdang, Stephanie. And Still They Dance: Women, Destabilization & the Struggle for Change. New York: Monthly Review Press. 1988.