Zambia

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ZAMBIA

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT
TOPOGRAPHY
CLIMATE
FLORA AND FAUNA
ENVIRONMENT
POPULATION
MIGRATION
ETHNIC GROUPS
LANGUAGES
RELIGIONS
TRANSPORTATION
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL PARTIES
LOCAL GOVERNMENT
JUDICIAL SYSTEM
ARMED FORCES
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
ECONOMY
INCOME
LABOR
AGRICULTURE
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
FISHING
FORESTRY
MINING
ENERGY AND POWER
INDUSTRY
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DOMESTIC TRADE
FOREIGN TRADE
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
BANKING AND SECURITIES
INSURANCE
PUBLIC FINANCE
TAXATION
CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
HEALTH
HOUSING
EDUCATION
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS
MEDIA
ORGANIZATIONS
TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION
FAMOUS ZAMBIANS
DEPENDENCIES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Republic of Zambia

CAPITAL: Lusaka

FLAG: The flag is green, with a tricolor of dark red, black, and orange vertical stripes at the lower corner of the fly, topped by a golden flying eagle.

ANTHEM: Stand and Sing for Zambia.

MONETARY UNIT: The kwacha (k) of 100 ngwee replaced the Zambian pound (z£) on 15 January 1968. There are coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 ngwee, and notes of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 500 kwacha. k1 = $0.00022 (or $1 = k4,549.58) as of 2005.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is used.

HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Youth Day, 11 March; Labor Day, 1 May; African Freedom Day, 24 May; Heroes' Day, 1st Monday after 1st weekend in July; Unity Day, Tuesday after Heroes' Day; Farmers' Day, 5 August; Independence Day, 24 October; Christmas, 25 December. Movable religious holidays include Good Friday and Easter Monday.

TIME: 2 pm = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

A landlocked country in south central Africa, Zambia has an area of 752,614 sq km (290,586 sq mi), with a maximum length of 1,206 km (749 mi) ew and a maximum width of 815 km (506 mi) ns. Comparatively, the area occupied by Zambia is slightly larger than the state of Texas. Bounded on the ne by Tanzania, on the e by Malawi, on these by Mozambique and Zimbabwe, on the s by Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Namibia (South West Africa), on the w by Angola, and on the w and n by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC), Zambia has a total boundary length of 5,664 km (3,519 mi).

Zambia's capital city, Lusaka, is located in the south central part of the country.

TOPOGRAPHY

Most of the landmass in Zambia is a high plateau lying between 910 and 1,370 m (3,0004,500 ft) above sea level. In the northeast, the Muchinga Mountains exceed 1,800 m (5,900 ft) in height. Elevations below 610 m (2,000 ft) are encountered in the valleys of the major river systems. Plateau land in the northeastern and eastern parts of the country is broken by the low-lying Luangwa River, and in the western half by the Kafue River. Both rivers are tributaries of the upper Zambezi, the major waterway of the area. The frequent occurrence of rapids and falls prevents through navigation of the Zambezi.

There are three large natural lakesBangweulu, Mweru, and Tanganyikaall in the northern area. Lake Tanganykia is the largest with an area of about 12,770 sq km (32,893 sq mi). Lake Bangweulu and the swamps at its southern end cover about 9,840 sq km (3,799 sq mi) and are drained by the Luapula River. Kariba, one of the world's largest manmade lakes, is on the southern border; it was formed by the impoundment of the Zambezi by the construction of the Kariba Dam.

CLIMATE

Although Zambia lies within the tropics, much of it has a pleasant climate because of the altitude. Temperatures are highest in the valleys of the Zambezi, Luangwa, and Kafue and by the shores of Lakes Tanganyika, Mweru, and Bangweulu.

There are wide seasonal variations in temperature and rainfall. October is the hottest month. The main rainy season starts in mid-November, with heavy tropical storms lasting well into April. The northern and northwestern provinces have an annual rainfall of about 125 cm (50 in), while areas in the far south have as little as 75 cm (30 in). May to mid-August is the cool season, after which temperatures rise rapidly. September is very dry.

Daytime temperatures may range from 23° to 31°c (7388°f), dropping at night to as low as 5°c (41°f) in June and July. Lusaka, at 1,250 m (4,100 ft), has an average minimum of 9°c (48°f) and an average maximum of 23°c (73°f) in July, with averages of 17°c (63°f) and 26°c (79°f), respectively, in January; normal annual rainfall is 81 cm (32 in).

FLORA AND FAUNA

Most of the territory is plateau and the prevailing type of vegetation is open woodland or savanna. Acacia and baobab trees, thorn trees and bushes, and tall perennial grasses are widespread, becoming coarser and sparser in the drier areas to the south. To the north and east grows a thin forest. The southwest has forests of Zambian teak (Baikiaea plurijuga).

The national parks and game reserves, such as the Kafue National Park, conserve the wildlife threatened by settlement. The Cookson's wildebeest, Senga Kob, Thornicroft giraffe, and red lechwe are unique to Zambia. The many varieties of buck include kudu, impala, duiker, and sten. In Luangwa Valley can be found giraffe, zebra, rhinoceros, elephant, baboon, monkey, hyena, wolf, and lion. Among the nocturnal animals are serval and civet cat, genet, and jackal. Other mammals include the honey badger, ant bear, rock rabbit, wart hog, and bush pig.

Zambia has a wealth of bird life, including the eagle, gull, tern, kingfisher, swift, redwing, lark, babbler, sunbird, weaver, red-billed quelea (in Luangwa Valley), stork, goose, plover, skimmer, bee-eater, wagtail, sparrow, swallow, thrush, shrike, nightingale, dove, nightjar, and an occasional ostrich. White pelican, flamingo, heron, ibis, and the crowned crane are found in the game reserves. As of 2002, there were at least 233 species of mammals, 252 species of birds, and over 4,700 species of plants throughout the country.

There are more than 150 recorded species of reptiles, including 78 species of snakes and 66 of lizards. Among them are the crocodile, tortoise, turtle, terrapin, gecko, agama, nonvenomous python, mamba, viper, and adder. The range of species of fish is also wide and includes bream, snoutfish, butterfish, tigerfish, bottlenose, gorgefish, mudfish, catfish, barbel, "vundu," squeaker, whitebait, perch, carp, bass, and "utaka" (of the sardine type). Insect types number in the thousands, and many are peculiar to the area. The Copperbelt region and the swamps of Lake Bangweulu are especially rich in insect life.

ENVIRONMENT

Both traditional and modern farming methods in Zambia involve clearing large areas of forest. As of 1985, the nation had lost 699 sq km (270 sq mi) of forestland, mainly to slash-and-burn agriculture but also to firewood gathering and charcoal production. Consequent erosion results in the loss of up to 3 million tons of topsoil annually. The exclusive cultivation of a single crop on agricultural land and the use of fertilizers threaten the soil and contribute to acidification. The Copperbelt region, Zambia's mineral-extraction and refining center has been polluted by contaminants including acid rain. The buildup of toxins in the soil near many smelters poses a threat to food crops.

Air pollution is caused by vehicle emissions and coal-powered industrial plants. Lack of adequate water-treatment facilities contributes to the prevalence of bilharziasis and other parasitic infections. Water pollution arises from contamination by sewage and toxic industrial chemicals. The nation has 80 cu km of renewable water sources, of which 77% of annual withdrawals is used for farming and 7% for industry. Roughly 90% of Zambia's city dwellers and 36% of the people living in rural areas have access to improved water sources.

Wildlife is endangered in some areas by hunting and poaching, although the National Parks and Wildlife Act (1982) mandates automatic imprisonment for trading illicitly in elephant tusks and rhinoceros horns. According to a 2006 report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the number of threatened species included 11 types of mammals, 12 species of birds, 1 species of amphibian, 4 types of mollusks, 3 species of other invertebrates, and 8 species of plants. Threatened species include the African wild dog, the black rhinoceros, the Madagascar pond heron, and white-winged crake.

POPULATION

The population of Zambia in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 11,227,000, which placed it at number 73 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 3% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 45% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 100 males for every 100 females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 20052010 was expected to be 1.9%, a rate the government viewed as too high. With support from international organizations, the country sought to reduce its fertility rate, which stood at 5.8 births per woman in 2005. The projected population for the year 2025 was 15,798,000. The population density was 15 per sq km (39 per sq mi).

The UN estimated that 35% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 2.32%. The capital city, Lusaka, had a population of 1,394,000 in that year. Population estimates for other cities included Ndola (374,757), Kitwe (363,734), Kabwe (219,600), Chingola (211,755), and Mufulira (204,104). The main urban concentrations were in the Copperbelt mining complex.

The prevalence of HIV/AIDS has had a significant impact on the population of Zambia. The UN estimated that 17% of adults between the ages of 1549 were living with HIV/AIDS in 2005. The AIDS epidemic causes higher death and infant mortality rates, and lowers life expectancy.

MIGRATION

Before independence, the size of the European population waxed and waned with the fortunes of the mining industry. During the political upheavals of the mid-1960s, many Europeans in the mining industries left Zambia. As of 1999, there were nearly 200,000 refugees in Zambia. Most were from Angola; the rest were from the DROC, Rwanda, Burundi, and other African countries. There were 377,000 migrants living in Zambia in 2000, including refugees. By the end of 2004 there were 17,307 refugees and 84 asylum seekers in Zambia. However, in that same year over 39,000 Angolan refugees had been assisted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Zambia, as well as, over 49,000 refugees from the DROC, and over 3,000 refugees from Rwanda. Also in 2004, 111 Zambians sought asylum in South Africa. The net migration rate in 2005 was estimated as zero migrants per 1,000 population. The government views the migration levels as satisfactory.

ETHNIC GROUPS

The African community, close to 99% of Zambia's total population, is composed of various Bantu groups. (The term "Bantu" refers roughly to all peoples in whose language the root ntu means "man.") The Bemba group37% of the African populationinhabits the Northern and Copperbelt provinces. Other African societies include the Tonga (19%), Lunda (12%), Nyanja (11%), Mambwe (8%), and Lozi or Barotse (7%). In all, there are at least 73 different African societal classifications.

The Europeans, accounting for about 1% of the population, are mainly of British stock, either immigrants or their descendants from the United Kingdom or South Africa. Other European groups include those of Dutch, Italian, and Greek descent. Counting Asians, mainly migrants from the Indian subcontinent, and people of mixed race, other non-Africans constitute only about 0.2% of the population.

LANGUAGES

Some 80 different languages have been identified, most of them of the Bantu family. For educational and administrative purposes, seven main languages are recognized: Bemba, Lozi, Lunda, Kaonda, Luvale, Tonga, and Nyanja. Bemba, with its various dialects, is widely spoken in northern Zambia and is the lingua franca in the Copperbelt. The Ila and Tonga tongues predominate in the Southern Province. English is the official language.

RELIGIONS

An estimated 87% of the population professes some form of Christianity. Another 1% are either Muslim or Hindu. The majority of Christians are either Roman Catholics or Protestants. There has also been a surge in new Pentecostal churches, which have attracted many young followers. Muslims tend to be concentrated in parts of the country where Asians have settledalong the railroad line from Lusaka to Livingstone and in the eastern province.

A 1996 amendment to the constitution declared the country a Christian nation while providing for freedom of religion in practice. Some members of the Muslim community have complained of discrimination since the country was declared a Christian nation. They claim they cannot freely teach and practice Islam; however, other Muslim organizations state they have not experienced any restrictions on their activities. Religious groups must register with the government in order to operate legally; however, all applications for registration are reportedly approved without discrimination. Various ecumenical groups have formed to promote interfaith dialogue and to discuss national political concerns. These include the Zambia Episcopal Conference, the Christian Council of Zambia, and the Evangelical Fellowship of Zambia.

TRANSPORTATION

Almost all of Zambia's industries, commercial agriculture, and major cities are located along the rail lines, which are often paralleled by highways. The Zambia Railways system consists of 2,173 km (1,349 mi) of track, all of it narrow gauge. The rail link with the Atlantic via the Katanga and Benguela railways to Lobito Bay in Angola has been affected by instability in Angola since the mid-1970s. Construction began in October 1970 on the Tazara railway, a 1,860-km (1,156-mi) line linking Dar es Salaam in Tanzania with Kapiri Mposhi, north of Lusaka; intended to lessen Zambian dependence on the former white-minority regimes of South Africa and the former Rhodesia (presently Zimbabwe), the line (890 km/553 mi of which is in Zambia) was completed and commissioned in July 1976. Equipment and operational problems have kept the railway from reaching its full potential, however, and rail cargo links with South Africa and Mozambique ports, passing through Zimbabwe, remain important for Zambian commerce.

Zambia had 66,781 km (41,498 mi) of roadway in 2002. The principal routes were: the Great North Road (809 km/503 mi), running from Kapiri Mposhi through Tanzania to Dar es Salaam, with a connecting road in Zambia from Kapiri Mposhi south to Livingstone (Maramba); the Great East Road (586 km/364 mi), from Lusaka to Chipata and thence to the Malawi border, with a connecting road (583 km/362 mi) from Mongu to Lusaka; the Zaire Border Road, from Kapiri Mposhi on the Great North Road through the Copperbelt region to Katanga, DROC; and the Kafue-Harare (Zimbabwe) road. Road services continue to play an important role in transporting copper and general cargo to and from Dar es Salaam. Transport services on the main routes also are provided by the National Transport Corp. of Zambia, the state-owned freight and passenger transport service. The United Bus Co. of Zambia is the largest passenger carrier. In 2003, there were 114,300 registered motor vehicles, including 68,500 passenger cars.

In 2004, there were an estimated 109 airports, but only 10 of which had paved runways as of 2005. Lusaka International is the principal airport. State-owned Zambia Airways is the national airline. Zambia Airways provides international service from Lusaka to several African and European countries, as well as domestic service to 17 Zambian centers. In 2003, about 51,000 passengers were carried on scheduled domestic and international flights.

There are 2,250 km (1,398 mi) of waterways, including Lake Tanganyika, and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers. Mpulungu on Lake Tanganyika is Zambia's only port and receives goods supplied through Tanzania. There are several fishing harbors on Kariba Lake.

HISTORY

The history of Zambia before the 19th century can be studied only through archaeology and oral traditions. Iron working and agriculture were practiced in some parts of Zambia by about ad 100. By ad 900, mining and trading were evident in southern Zambia. Between the 15th century (or possibly earlier) and the 18th century, various groups of Bantu migrants from the southern Congo settled in Zambia. By the beginning of the 19th century, three large-scale political units existed in Zambia, in three different types of geographic environment. On the northeast plateau between the valleys of the Luapula and Luangwa, the Bemba had established a system of chieftainships; the Lunda kingdom of Kazembe was in the Luapula Valley; and the kingdom of the Lozi was in the far west, in the floodplain of the upper Zambezi.

Zambia was affected by two "invasions" in the mid-19th century. Shaka's Zulu empire in South Africa set in motion a series of migrations, commonly referred to as the mfecane; groups of peoples, including the Ngoni, were forced to migrate north across the Zambezi in order to avoid the Zulu raids and conquests. The other invasion came in the form of traders from the northNyamwezi, Arabs, and Swahilidrawing Zambia into long-distance trading systems.

The first significant European contact was through Christian missionaries. David Livingstone explored the region near Lake Bangweulu extensively from 1851 to his death in 1873. In 1884, François Coillard, a French Protestant missionary, settled in Barotseland (now the Western Province).

In the 1890s, Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company, which had already established itself to the south, extended its charter to the lands north of the Zambezi. From 1891 to the end of 1923, the territoryknown as Northern Rhodesiawas ruled by this private company. Efforts to stimulate European settlement were disappointing, since anticipated discoveries of mineral wealth failed to materialize.

In the 1920s, new methods of exploiting the extensive mineral deposits in the Copperbelt region transformed the economic life of the territory. Development of these ore bodies, although hampered by the Great Depression, reversed the roles of the two Rhodesias. Northern Rhodesia, formerly viewed as an economic liability in any projected merger with Southern Rhodesia, now was seen as a source of wealth. European settlements rose rapidly, spurred directly by the requirements of the mining industry and indirectly by the subsequent expansion of the economy.

Before federation in 1953, the political development of the territory focused on two relationships: that of the European settlers with the colonial authorities on the one hand, and that between the settlers and the Africans on the other. The European settler community pressed for a greater voice in the colony's affairs. The major political issue involving the relations between Europeans and Africans concerned the allocation of land. Commissions on land policy designated the areas adjacent to the railway line as crown land. Although there was no legal bar to the acquisition of crown land by Africans, the effect of the arrangement was to exclude them from the commercially most attractive acreage.

In 1953, Northern Rhodesia became a member of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Even though the overwhelming majority of Africans in the territory was opposed to the federal arrangement, the British government decided that Northern Rhodesia would participate in the federation. In 1960, a royal commission reported that, despite clear economic benefits, the majority of Africans in both Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland was opposed to the continuance of federation in its present form. In early 1962, Nyasaland's desire to secede from the federation was acknowledged by the British government.

Following its initiation into the federation, the government of Northern Rhodesia underwent constitutional changes, with a growing emphasis on African representation. Africans had not been represented on the Legislative Council until 1948, when two were named to that body. An enlarged Legislative Council, convened in 1954 just after the formation of the federation, included four Africans selected by the African Representative Council. A new constitution, introduced in January 1959, aimed at replacing the council with a political system based on a greater degree of cooperation between the races.

Discussions on a revision of this constitution began in December 1960 but were brought to an early close by disagreement between the European-dominated United Federal Party and the United National Independence Party (UNIP). But agreement was finally reached, and a new constitution came into effect in September 1962. Elections later that year produced an African majority in the Legislative Council, which then called for secession from the federation, full internal self-government under a new constitution, and a new National Assembly based on a broader, more democratic franchise.

The Republic of Zambia is Born

On 31 December 1963, the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was formally dissolved. On 24 October 1964, Northern Rhodesia became an independent republic, and its name was changed to Zambia. Kenneth Kaunda, the leader of the ruling UNIP, became the nation's first president. Kaunda was reelected in 1969, 1973, 1978, and 1983, surviving a series of coup attempts during 198081.

During the 1970s, Zambia played a key role in the movement toward black majority rule in Rhodesia. Zambia's border with Rhodesia was closed from 1973 to 1978 by Kaunda in retaliation for Rhodesian raids into Zambia; the raids were intended to impede the infiltration of Patriotic Front guerrillas into Rhodesia from their Zambian bases. The emergence of independent, black-ruled Zimbabwe eased the political pressure, but a drastic decline of world copper prices in the early 1980s, coupled with a severe drought, left Zambia in a perilous economic position. The continuing civil war in Angola also had repercussions in Zambia, bringing disruption of Zambian trade routes and casualties among Zambians along the border.

A South African air raid near Lusaka on 19 May 1986 was aimed at curbing Zambia's support for black nationalist groups in exile there. Later in the year, Kaunda supported Commonwealth sanctions against South Africa but did not take action himself, since Zambia was heavily dependent on imports from South Africa.

Riots, the worst since independence, broke out on 9 December 1986 in protest against the removal of subsidies for cornmeal, which had caused the price to rise by 120%; 15 people were killed, hundreds were injured, and hundreds of shops were looted. Peace returned two days later when Kaunda restored the subsidy and nationalized the grain-milling industry. He also ruled thenceforth with state of emergency powers. Reduction in government spending in order to reduce the deficit had been demanded by the International Monetary Fund, along with the devaluation of the currency, as a condition for extending new loans to enable Zambia to pay for essential imports. On 1 May 1987, Kaunda rejected the IMF conditions for a new financing package of about $300 million. He limited payments on the foreign debt to well under 10% of export earnings and established a new fixed currency rate of eight kwacha to the dollar. This did little to improve the economy or the popularity of Kaunda and UNIP.

By early 1989, Zambia, in consultation with the IMF and the World Bank, developed a new economic reform plan. In early 1991, Zambia qualified for World Bank assistance for the first time since 1987, although this was later suspended. By 1990, a growing opposition to UNIP's monopoly of power had coalesced in the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). A number of UNIP defectors and major labor leaders came together to pressure Kaunda to hold multiparty elections. In December 1990, after a tumultuous year that included riots in Lusaka and a coup attempt, Kaunda signed legislation ending UNIP's legal monopoly of power.

After difficult negotiations between the government and opposition groups, Zambia enacted a new constitution in August 1991. It enlarged the National Assembly, established an electoral commission, and allowed for more than one presidential candidate. Candidates no longer were required to be UNIP members. In September, Kaunda announced the date for Zambia's first multiparty parliamentary and presidential elections in 19 years. On 31 October and 1 November 1991, the 27-year long state of emergency was terminated. Frederick J. T. Chiluba (MMD) defeated Kaunda, 81% to 15%. The MMD won over 125 of the 150 elected seats in the Assembly. UNIP won 25 seats, although UNIP swept the Eastern Province, winning 19 seats there.

Despite the change of government, the economy still sputtered. Chiluba's austerity measures may have been popular with Zambia's creditors, but not with its people. Likewise, his privatization plans alarmed the unions, his original base of support. Chiluba's MMD in power became autocratic and corrupt. Kaunda, his family, and UNIP officials were harassed. The press began to criticize Chiluba's government and Chiluba lashed back. An Anticorruption Commission investigated three senior cabinet ministers suspected of abuse of office.

UNIP remained the principal target of Chiluba's wrath. In February 1993, a document known as "Operation Zero Option" was leaked to the press. Allegedly written by Kaunda loyalists, it called for a campaign of strikes, riots and crime to destabilize the government. On 4 March 1993, government declared a three-month state of emergency and detained 26 UNIP members, including three of Kaunda's sons. Chiluba lifted the state of emergency on May 25 and released all but eight of the detainees, whom he charged with offenses from treason to possession of seditious documents.

Throughout the 1990s, Zambia continued to face troubles in its attempts to modernize its economy and to reform its political system. Despite liquidation of the government's huge stake in the nation's industrial sector, and implementing a drastic austerity program to reduce its budget deficit, the country saw only marginal growth. Further, despite the promise of fresh beginnings in 1991, the country momentarily reverted to one-party rule under Chiluba as the MMD fraudulently won huge victories in the November 1996 elections prompting foreign donors to suspend aid payments briefly in early 1997. Subsequently, a campaign mounted by Chiluba and his party to amend the constitution to allow a third term was defeated. In the election of 27 December 2001, Chiluba's handpicked candidate Levy Mwanawasa was elected president with 29% of the vote; the MMD picked up 68 of 150 seats in the National Assembly. The vote was ruled flawed by international and local poll monitorsmainly on grounds of misuse of state funds and vote buying. An opposition petition to the Supreme Court alleged that the elections were rigged.

In an overture for national unity, or perhaps a bid to save his presidency, Mwanawasa named nine opposition members of parliament to his cabinet in February 2003. The move provoked a constitutional crisis when Mwanawasa refused to back down against a High Court ruling that the appointments were unconstitutional. Opposition parties expelled the members of parliament from the National Assembly. Later that month the Supreme Court declined a petition by former president Chiluba seeking immunity from prosecution under the government's anticorruption drive. Chiluba was accused of abuse of office and 60 counts of theft during his ten-years in office. In May 2003, under pressure from church, women's and other civil society groups, Mwanawasa conceded to the formation of a constituent assembly to review the constitution. Civic groups contended that the current document grants the executive far-reaching powers, which groups say is at odds with their vision for a people-driven constitution. Activist opponents of the president's vision for the constitutional review process took to wearing green ribbons and honking their horns on Fridays.

Levy Mwanawasa attempted to root out corruption in Zambia unlike the increasingly apparent corruption of the later years of Frederick Chiluba's time in office. Chiluba was arrested by Mwanawasa's government and charged with several counts of embezzlement and corruption, firmly quashing initial fears that President Mwanawasa would turn a blind eye to the allegations of his predecessor's corrupt practices. However, his early zeal to root out corruption waned, with key witnesses in the Chiluba trial leaving the country. The Constitutional Review Commission set up by Mwanawasa also hit some turbulence, with arguments as to where its findings should be submitted leading to suspicions that he has been trying to manipulate the outcome. Nevertheless, Zambian people view Mwanawasa's rule as a great improvement on Chiluba's corrupt regime.

In recent years, the government has considered participation in a future free trade area as part of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) arrangement. Food security and care for AIDS orphans and vulnerable children were also on the policy agenda. The government had also commenced the repatriation of some 5,000 Rwandan refugees. An estimated 1.2 million Zambians are HIV positive, with 21.5% of adults aged between 15 and 49 years infected with the virus. Around 86% of Zambians are classified as poor, which impacts nutritional status. Lingering fallout from crop failures and drought in the sub-region in 2001-2002 required targeted food aid for some 60,000 persons, down from a high of 2.7 million in 2002.

GOVERNMENT

From 1953 to 1963, Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate under the jurisdiction of the British crown, within the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. On 24 October 1964, it became an independent republic. The constitution of January 1964 was amended in 1968 and in 1972, when it was officially announced that Zambia would become a one-party "participatory democracy," with the sole party the ruling United National Independence Party. A new constitution was drafted and received presidential assent in August 1973.

Under the 1973 constitution, the president of the Republic of Zambia was head of state, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and president of the UNIP. Once chosen by the ruling party, the president had to be confirmed by a majority of the electorate, but there was no limitation on the length of the president's tenure in office. The prime minister was the leader of government business and an ex officio member of the UNIP Central Committee. As provided in the constitution, the Central Committee consisted of not more than 25 members, 20 to be elected at the party's general conference held every 5 years, and 3 to be nominated by the president, who was also a member. Cabinet decisions were subordinate to those of the UNIP Central Committee. The parliament consisted of the president and a National Assembly of 125 elected members, but all Assembly members had to be UNIP members, and their candidacy had to be approved by the party's Central Committee. The constitution also provided for a House of Chiefs of 27 members. A Bill of Rights guaranteed the fundamental freedom and rights of the individual, but if at any time the president felt the security of the state threatened, he had the power to proclaim a state of emergency. Indeed, Zambians lived under a state of emergency for 27 years.

In August 1991, a new constitution was promulgated. The president is now elected directly by universal suffrage and may serve a maximum of two five-year terms. The National Assembly has 150 directly elected members with up to eight appointed by the president, also for five-year terms. Since 2 January 2002, President Levy Mwanawasa served as head of state with Vice President Enoch Kavindele (4 May 2001) and on 4 October 2004 a new vice president was appointed, Lupando Mwape. The next presidential elections were scheduled for December 2006.

POLITICAL PARTIES

African nationalism began to rise in Northern Rhodesia after World War II. African welfare associations, founded before the war, developed rapidly into political organizations. In 1946, representatives from 14 welfare societies formed the Federation of Welfare Societies. In 1948, the federation was reconstituted as the Northern Rhodesia Congress. It became the North Rhodesian African National Congress (ANC) in 1951 under the leadership of Harry Nkumbula. In 1958, dissatisfaction with Nkumbula's leadership gave rise to a breakaway movement led by the party's secretary-general, Kenneth Kaunda. Kaunda formed the Zambia African National Congress, which was declared illegal the following year. In 1960, the United National Independence Party (UNIP) was formed under Kaunda's leadership. UNIP received a majority of the popular votes in the 1962 elections and formed the first government after independence. The ANC became the chief opposition party.

In 1967, the United Party (UP) was formed by Nalumino Mundia, a Lozi who had been dismissed from the cabinet in 1966. Its support came mainly from Barotseland in the southwest, where the UP promised to restore the power of the chiefs. After violence erupted in the Copperbelt, Kaunda banned the UP as a "threat to public security and peace," and Mundia and his principal officers were arrested. In August 1968, the UP was declared illegal. Mundia was released in 1969, joined the UNIP in 1974, and was named prime minister in 1981.

In the general elections of December 1969, the UNIP won 81 seats in the National Assembly, the ANC 23, and independents 1. Kaunda was reelected president. The elections were followed by violence and political unrest. At the opening of the new Assembly, the speaker refused to recognize the ANC as the official opposition. With the proclamation of a one-party state in December 1972, UNIP became the only legal party in Zambia. The ANC was assimilated into UNIP; the United Progressive Party, formed in August 1971, was summarily disbanded by the government, and its founder, Simon Kapwepwe, briefly arrested.

On 5 December 1973, the first presidential elections held under the new constitution brought the reelection of Kaunda to a third term with 85% of the vote. Voters also filled the 125 elective seats in the National Assembly. In 1975, the UNIP declared its ranks open to former followers of banned parties, but in 1978 candidacy was restricted to those with five years' continuous UNIP membership. National Assembly and presidential elections were held in December 1978, with Kaunda, again unopposed, receiving 80.5% of the vote. In the elections of October 1983, Kaunda's share of the total rose to 93%. A total of 766 candidates ran for the 125 Assembly seats.

After considerable social unrest in 1986 and again in 1990, the Kaunda government came under domestic and international pressure to end UNIP's monopoly in legitimate partisan activity. A Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) was formed and led by trade unionists and defectors from UNIP. Finally, in December 1990, Kaunda signed into law a bill legalizing opposition political parties. In the new constitution adopted in August 1991, candidates are no longer required to belong to UNIP.

These changes paved the way to multiparty presidential and parliamentary elections on 31 October and 1 November 1991, the first in 19 years. The MMD's leader, Frederick Chiluba, easily won the presidency, 81% to 15% for Kaunda. The MMD got 125 seats to 15 for UNIP in the National Assembly. Kaunda and his family were harassed by the MMD, which forced Kaunda to step down as UNIP leader in August 1992. However, he returned a few years later to reclaim UNIP leadership. He briefly considered running on the UNIP ticket in the national presidential elections in 2001.

Since the legalization of multiparty competition, more than 30 parties have operated in the country. Parties include Agenda for Zambia (AZ), Forum for Democracy and Development (FDD), Heritage Party (HP), Progressive Front (PF), Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), National Citizens Coalition (NCC), National Leadership for Development (NLD), National Party (NP), Patriotic Front (PF), Zambian Republican Party (ZRP), Social Democratic Party (SDP), United National Independence Party (UNIP), United Party for National Development (UPND), and the National Democratic Alliance (NADA). The United Democratic Party and the United Democratic Congress Party are headed by former top UNIP leaders. The National Party (also with prominent ex-MMD figures) was created in August 1993 and won four seats in the Assembly in 199394 by-elections. Within the MMD there is a breakaway group, the Caucus for National Unity, to root out corruption in government.

In elections held on 20 November 1996, President Frederick Chiluba and the MMD won over 85% of the available seats in the National Assembly. However, independent observers condemned the election as being rigged by the MMD.

In the election of 27 December 2001, Levy Mwanawasa was elected president with 29% of the vote to 27% for Anderson Mazoka, 13% for Christon Tembo, 10% for Tilyenji Kaunda, 8% for Godfrey Miyanda, 5% for Benjamin Mwila, and 3% for Michael Sata. In the legislative contest held the same date, eight parties won seats in the National Assembly. The MMD claimed 45.9% of the vote winning 68 seats, followed by the UPND with 32.4% and 48 seats, the UNIP with 8.8% and 13 seats, the FDD with 8.1% and 12 seats, the HP with 2.7% and 4 seats, the PF with 0.7% and one seat, the ZRP with 0.7% and one seat, and independents with 0.7% and one seat. Two seats were not determined. The next elections were due in December 2006.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Zambia is divided into nine provinces (including the special province of Lusaka), administered by officials appointed by the central government. Each province is further divided into districts, presided over by district secretaries. Around 55% of Zambians live in towns and cities, giving Zambia one of the highest urbanization rates in Africa. Lusaka has a city council, and the other large towns have councils or town management boards; most townships, however, are directly administered by government officers. Local elections in urban areas are organized on a ward system with universal adult suffrage. Local urban authorities can levy taxes, borrow money, and own and manage housing projects. They control roads, water, power, town planning, health facilities, and other public services within their areas.

Administrative districts lying outside municipal and township areas are governed by rural councils, consisting of members elected by universal adult suffrage and a minority of nominated members, mainly chiefs, appointed by the under minister of the interior. Councils have evolved from the former native authorities, which were constituted on a tribal basis. The rural councils have frequently cut across African societal boundaries in order to establish larger and more viable units. The functions and powers of rural councils are similar to those of the urban local authorities.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

The judicial system is based on English common law and customary law. Common law is administered by several High Courts, which have authority to hear criminal and civil cases and appeals from lower courts. Resident magistrate's courts are also established at various centers. Local courts mainly administer customary law, especially cases relating to marriage, property, and inheritance.

Under the constitution of 1991, the Supreme Court is the highest court in Zambia and serves as the final court of appeal. The chief justice and other eight judges are appointed by the president. In consultation with the prime minister, the president also appoints the director of public prosecution and the attorney general, the latter being the principal legal adviser to the government. The independence of the judiciary has been respected by the government. Trials in magistrate courts are public.

ARMED FORCES

As of 2005, the strength of the armed forces was 15,100 active personnel, supported by 3,000 reservists and paramilitary forces that consisted of two police battalions, totaling 1,400 members. The Army had 13,500 personnel, whose equipment included 30 main battle tanks and 30 light tanks. The Air Force had 1,600 personnel operating 33 combat capable aircraft, that included 14 fighters and 12 fighter ground attack aircraft. In 2005, the defense budget totaled $48.1 million.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Zambia joined the United Nations on 1 December 1964 and participates in ECA and several nonregional specialized agencies, such as the FAO, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, the FAO, the World Bank, IAEA, and the WHO. It belongs to the African Development Bank, the ACP Group, the Commonwealth of Nations, G-77, the WTO, COMESA, and the African Union. Located in Zambia are the headquarters of the International Red Locust Control Organization for Central and Southern Africa, as well as COMESA headquarters, an office of the UN High Commissioner of Refugees, and a regional office of the UN Institute for Namibia, established to provide training for future administrators of an independent Namibian state. Zambia belongs to the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa.

Zambia has played an important role in peace negotiation efforts for neighboring states, particularly the DROC. The country has also supported UN operations and missions in Kosovo (est. 1999), Ethiopia and Eritrea (est. 2000), Liberia (est. 2003), Sierra Leone (est. 1999), Burundi (est. 2004), and Côte d'Ivoire (est. 2004). Zambia is part of the Nonaligned Movement.

In environmental cooperation, Zambia is part of the Basel Convention, the Convention on Biological Diversity, Ramsar, CITES, the Montréal Protocol, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and the UN Conventions on the Law of the Sea, Climate Change, and Desertification.

ECONOMY

The Zambian economy was in a precarious state during the 1990s. High inflation, severe drought, declining export prices, and failed economic policies all took their toll. Four of the nation's 20 banks failed and total debt stood at $7 billion in 1999. Divided into the population, that was $700 of debt per capita, compared with a GDP per capita of only $380. After steady declines in per capita GDP, Zambia was redesignated a least developed country by the United Nations. The impact of inflation on the poor, the middle class, and business eroded public support for the government's reform policies. Economic reforms aimed at privatizing the economy succeeded in selling approximately 85% of 330 parastatal companies, including the main copper mining conglomerate Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines (ZCCM) in 2000.

The first sign that tight monetary and fiscal policies were beginning to have an effect, was a rapid drop in the inflation rate, but by 1998, the rate had increased from 19% in 1997 to 31% in 2001. It was forecast to remain at around 20% in 2002. After the drought of 1992, agricultural production rebounded with record harvests of many crops, but the government's tight cash budget policy limited its capacity to purchase the crops. The key copper industry (which took in 80% of export revenues in 1999), maintained production levels, but depressed world prices kept revenues at lower levels. However, in 2000, copper export earnings reached $800 million, a 5.4% increase over 1999, but declined to $595 million in 2003. As of 2003, there was growing interest in developing coffee and tobacco as cash crops, but the main agricultural product is maize, a noncash crop necessary for domestic consumption. The tourism industry is growing. In 2000 Zambia became eligible for $3.8 billion in debt relief under the IMF/World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative.

In 2005, the kwacha had gained some ground and remained strong, but falling copper prices and the need for maize imports will put downward pressure on it. Furthermore, the only oil refinery in Zambia was shut down in 2005 bringing the country into a fuel crisis that is likely to wreck havoc on an already weak economy. The fuel crisis has adversely affected the mining sector. It is estimated that about 1.7 million Zambians do not have adequate food due to a prolonged drought.

INCOME

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005 Zambia's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $10.3 billion. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The per capita GDP was estimated at $900. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 5.8%. The average inflation rate in 2005 was 19%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 21.7% of GDP, industry 29.5%, and services 48.8%.

Foreign aid receipts amounted to $560 million or about $54 per capita and accounted for approximately 13.4% of the gross national income (GNI).

The World Bank reports that in 2003 household consumption in Zambia totaled $2.89 billion or about $278 per capita based on a GDP of $4.3 billion, measured in current dollars rather than PPP. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the period 1990 to 2003 household consumption grew at an average annual rate of -2.6%. Approximately 52% of household consumption was spent on food, 8% on fuel, 2% on health care, and 11% on education. It was estimated that in 1993 about 86% of the population had incomes below the poverty line.

LABOR

In 2005, the labor force in Zambia was estimated at 4.8 million persons. Agriculture accounts for 85% of the country's workforce, with industry accounting for only 6% and the services sector only 9%. In 2000 it was estimated that 50% of the workforce was unemployed.

The Labor Department is responsible for employment exchange services and for enforcing protective labor legislation. In 2002, about 60% of the country's 300,000 formal wage earners were unionized. There were about 19 large national labor unions, all but one of them affiliated with the Zambia Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU). With the exception of essential services, all workers have the right to strike.

The minimum wage was $0.07 per hour in 2002. The maximum regular workweek is 48 hours, but most wage earners work 40hour weeks. The minimum working age is 16 years. This is enforced in the industrial sector but not in subsistence agriculture, domestic services, or the informal economy where children are more likely to work. The law also regulates minimum health and safety standards in industry but staffing problems at the Ministry of Labor chronically limit enforcement effectiveness.

AGRICULTURE

The development of commercial farming followed the construction of the railroad in the early 20th century, but the main stimulus did not come until World War II (193945), when it was necessary to ensure a maximum output of copper and to minimize the shipping space required for food imports. Food production continued to expand as the copper industry helped raise living standards. Additional European immigration in the 1950s, as well as programs to diversify the economy, gave rise to the production for export of tobacco, cotton, and peanuts. However, partly because of the rapidly rising population, agricultural output never reached the point of meeting domestic food requirements. Only 5% of the land area is cultivated at any time, although a much larger area is potentially arable.

The majority of Zambia's population engages in subsistence farming. The principal subsistence crops are corn, sorghum, and cassava, while the main cash crops are tobacco, corn, sugarcane, peanuts, and cotton. In 1992, liberalized marketing began for most crops, but because of the 1991/92 drought, corn marketing remained under government control. A bountiful 1993 harvest made a solid recovery from the drought. In 2003, agriculture accounted for 23% of total GDP.

Production of tobacco, the most important export crop, was estimated at 4,800 tons in 2004. Marketed corn production in 2004 was 1,161,000 tons. Cotton production reached 22,000 tons of fiber. Also marketed in 2004 were 1,800,000 tons of sugarcane, 10,000 tons of sunflowers, 42,000 tons of peanuts, and 135,000 tons of wheat.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

The estimated livestock population in 2005 included 2,600,000 head of cattle, 1,270,000 goats, 340,000 hogs, and 150,000 sheep. Cattle production in certain regions is limited by sleeping sickness, carried by the tsetse fly. During 2005, beef production was 40,800 tons; poultry, 36,500 tons. Meat production in 2005 was estimated at 127,000 tons.

FISHING

Because Zambia's inland waters are a valuable source of food and employment, the fishing industry plays an important part in the rural economy. Large quantities of fish, most of which are transported by rail to processing centers, are frozen or dried. Major quantities are obtained from Bangweulu, Tanganyika, and Mweru lakes, and from the Kafue and Luapula rivers. The catch in 2003 was 69,500 tons.

FORESTRY

About 42% of Zambia is covered by forest; commercial exploitation is concentrated in the southwest and in the Copperbelt. Roundwood production was about 8.05 million cu m (284 million cu ft) in 2004, 90% of it for fuel needs.

MINING

Zambia's mining sector in 2003 was dominated by the production of copper and cobalt, for which the country ranks 11th and second in the world, respectively. The country was also a leading producer of gem quality emeralds. However, mining and quarrying as a whole, accounted for only 2.8% of Zambia's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2003, although employment in that industry rose to 53,900, from 39,900 in 2002. Gemstones, mined mostly by small-scale and artisanal miners, also recorded significant earnings; earnings from this segment may amount to as much as $250 million per year, since much of the output bypassed official counts. Construction was another leading industry, along with the production of chemicals and fertilizers. By 2000, privatization of most of the major mines, including copper, had been completed, and efforts were ongoing to privatize the gemstone and other small mines sectors, and to attract foreign investors to develop other known metallic and industrial mineral resources. Among the difficulties faced by landlocked Zambia were high transportation costs, the threat posed by HIV/AIDS to the labor force, cyclical world commodity prices, and the impact of civil wars in Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo on foreign investment.

In 2003, total copper mine output (by concentration, cementation, and leaching; metal content) was 349,000 metric tons, up from 330,000 metric tons in 2002. The output of cobalt (metal content), as a by-product of copper mining and processing, was 6,550 metric tons, up from 6,144 metric tons in 2002. The mining industry has been effected by declining world copper demand, slow global economic growth, labor unrest, transportation difficulties, including port and rail congestion, and shortages of spare parts, raw materials, and fuel. Most of Zambia's major mines had been privatized by 2000. However, investment reversals in 2002 involved the Konkola Mines and the Baluba-Luanshya Mines. As a result, the government was forced to reopen privatization bids.

Among the largest copper mines were the Nkana (5.5 million tons ore per year capacity), the Nchanga and Chingola open-pits (4.5 million tons ore per year), the Nchanga underground (2.8 million tons), the Mufalira (2.8 million tons), the Konkola underground (2.2 million tons), the Luanshya underground (1.7 million tons), and the Baluba underground (1.4 million tons). The country's total mineral resources exceeded 2,580 million tons, with ore reserves of 728 million tons. Equinox Resources Ltd.'s Lumwana project, with two large copper-cobalt-gold-uranium deposits (Chimiwunga and Malundwe), had resources of 1 billion tons that contained 0.67% copper, and 481 million tons of ore (1% copper). The Kalimba Group's Nama and Ngosa areas had a resource of 950 million tons.

Zambia also produced gold, refined selenium, silver, cement, clays (including brick, china, and ball), gemstones (amethyst, beryl, emerald, red garnet, and tourmaline), calcined lime, limestone, sand and gravel, and sulfur. No iron ore, tin, aquamarine, citrine, feldspar, magnetite, or nitrogen has been produced for several years. Exploration was being carried out for zinc, and for diamonds in western Zambia.

ENERGY AND POWER

Zambia is self-sufficient in electricity. The country's output of electric power in 2002 totaled 9.015 billion kWh, of which nearly 100% was from hydropower. Consumption of electricity in that year totaled 5.684 billion kWh. Total electric power generating capacity in 2002 was 1.8 million kW. Zambia exports almost 30% of its production to Zimbabwe.

Zambia relies almost entirely on imports to meet its hydrocarbon needs. In 2002, imports of all petroleum products averaged 12,240 barrels per day, of which crude oil accounted for 9,500 barrels per day. Refined oil product output in 2002 averaged 9,800 barrels per day. Refined petroleum consumption that year averaged 12,190 barrels per day. Crude oil is imported by means of a pipeline from Tanzania.

Coal production in 2002 totaled 231,000 short tons, all of which was bituminous. Demand for coal that year totaled 150,000 short tons.

INDUSTRY

Industry accounted for 28% of GDP in 2001. Apart from copper refining, the most important industries are those connected with the manufacture of sulfuric acid, fertilizer, compressor lubricants, electrical appliances and parts, glass, batteries, cigarettes, textiles, yarn, glycerine, vehicle and tractor assembling, sawmilling, wood and joinery manufacture, tire retreading, processing of food and drink, and the manufacture of cement and cement products. Nitrogen Chemicals of Zambia, which produces fertilizer, is the largest nonmining enterprise. Since tariff barriers for imports have been lifted, many manufacturing facilities have closed, especially in the clothing industry.

To assist in the establishment of manufacturing and processing industries, the government has formed the Industrial Development Corp. of Zambia (INDECO). It has developed a number of enterprises, including a chemical-fertilizers plant, an explosives plant, a glass bottle factory, and a battery factory; these projects were joint ventures with foreign companies. The country has one oil refinery, at Ndola, with a production capacity of 24,000 barrels per day.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

The National Council for Scientific Research, founded in 1967 at Lusaka, advises the government on scientific matters and coordinates and disseminates the results of the Zambian research effort. Scientific learned societies include the Engineering Institution of Zambia, founded in 1955 at Lusaka. Research institutes specialize in fisheries, veterinary science, geology, agriculture, forestry and forest products, tropical diseases, pneumoconiosis, and red locust control. The University of Zambia, founded in 1965 at Lusaka, has departments of natural sciences, engineering, medicine, agricultural sciences, veterinary sciences, and mines. Copperbelt University, founded in 1979 at Kitwe, has schools of environmental studies and technology. Three other colleges offer courses in agriculture and engineering. In 198797, science and engineering students accounted for 16% of college and university enrollments. In 1999 (the latest year for which data is available, there were 55 researchers and 17 technicians engaged in research and development per million people. In 2002, high technology exports totaled $2 million, or 2% of the country's manufactured exports.

DOMESTIC TRADE

Since independence, trading activity has increased in both rural and urban areas, especially in Lusaka. The Zambian Privatization Agency was in the process of privatizing parastatals that controlled large wholesale and retail chains. Centers of trading activity are the main towns along the rail line. Wholesale outlets are prevalent in larger towns and cities, while individually owned vendors and smaller retail shops are common in smaller communities and remote areas.

Normal business hours are from 8 am to 5 pm, MondayFriday, and 8 am to 12:30 pm on Saturday. Banks are open from 8:15 am to 12:45 pm on most weekdays, but close at noon on Thursdays and 11 am on Saturdays.

FOREIGN TRADE

Mineral commodities account for about 90% of exports, led by copper and cobalt. Other export commodities include zinc, lead, and tobacco. Leading imports are machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, petroleum products, electricity, and fertilizer.

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

Zambian trade is normally in rough balance. However, a heavy debt burden gives the country a current account deficit, and hard currency is often in short supply. Total debt service payments in 1997 equaled $277 million, or about 21% of export earnings.

In the early 2000s, the trade deficit worsened due to mining-related imports needed to reform the privatized copper industry. Nonetheless, an improvement in official and commercial inflows,

Country Exports Imports Balance
World 929.5 1,252.7 -323.2
United Kingdom 393.6 153.6 240.0
South Africa 214.0 641.7 -427.7
Tanzania 71.1 14.9 56.2
Switzerland-Liechtenstein 57.1 6.9 50.2
Congo (DROC) 39.8 39.8
Malawi 19.4 3.8 15.6
Belgium 17.3 7.8 9.5
India 17.0 45.5 -28.5
Zimbabwe 14.1 97.9 -83.8
Netherlands 11.3 6.6 4.7
() data not available or not signifi cant.
Current Account -584.0
    Balance on goods -221.0
       Imports -978.0
       Exports 757.0
    Balance on services -226.0
    Balance on income -120.0
    Current transfers -18.0
Capital Account 153.0
Financial Account -274.0
    Direct investment abroad
    Direct investment in Zambia 122.0
    Portfolio investment assets
    Portfolio investment liabilities -1.0
    Financial derivatives
    Other investment assets -85.0
    Other investment liabilities -309.0
Net Errors and Omissions 185.0
Reserves and Related Items 520.0
() data not available or not signifi cant.

supported by a resumption of concessional donor support, was expected to prompt a recovery.

The Economist Intelligence Unit reported that in 2005 the purchasing power parity of Zambia's exports was $1.947 billion while imports totaled $1.934 billion resulting in a trade deficit of 13 million.

BANKING AND SECURITIES

In November 1970, the Zambian government announced that it would take a majority interest in all banks operating in Zambia; however, the banking proposals were later modified so that the government became majority shareholder through the State Finance and Development Corp. of the already state-owned Zambia National Commercial Bank Ltd. (ZNCB) and the Commercial Bank of Zambia. The state-owned Bank of Zambia (BOZ), the central bank founded in 1964, sets and controls all currency and banking activities in the country.

In 2002, the leading commercial banks were subsidiaries of Barclays, Citibank, Equator Bank, Standard Chartered, First Alliance, and Stanbic. There are two development banks: the Development Bank of Zambia and the Lima Bank. Other state-owned financial institutions include the Zambia National Building Society, and the Import Export Bank of Zambia, launched in early 1988 to promote trade generally and nontraditional exports in particular. In 1985, the first locally and privately owned bank was formed, the African Commercial Bank. Its success led to the establishment of several more, including Cavmont Merchant Bank, making Zambia one of Africa's most "overcrowded" countries in terms of banking, with 28 registered commercial banks at the end of December 1994. This number had dropped to twelve, however, by 2002.

The International Monetary Fund reports that in 2001, currency and demand depositsan aggregate commonly known as M1were equal to $288.4 million. In that same year, M2an aggregate equal to M1 plus savings deposits, small time deposits, and money market mutual fundswas $764.3 million.

In 1997, things were looking up for the Lusaka Stock Exchange (LuSE), which has in the past struggled to attract new listings and improve its frequently thin trading volumes.

INSURANCE

On 1 January 1972, the Zambia State Insurance Corp. (ZSIC) took over all insurance transactions in Zambia. The operations of ZSIC cover fire, marine, aviation, accident, motor vehicle, and life insurance. All imports must be insured with this agency.

PUBLIC FINANCE

With its heavy dependency on copper, Zambia is able to show comfortable surpluses in its public accounts only when the mining industry is prosperous. From 1985 to 1987, Zambia attempted to implement a structural reform program, sponsored by the IBRD and IMF. In 1987, however, the government stopped the program and reverted to deficit spending and monetary creation. By 1992, a new government was committed to curtailing public expenditures through privatization and decreasing the civil service. By 1998, more than 85% of parastatals were privatized. In early 2000, the giant parastatal mining company, Zambian Consolidated Copper Mines (ZCCM) was completely privatized; that transaction helped Zambia satisfy the conditions for balance of payment support.

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that in 2005 Zambia's central government took in revenues of approximately $1.6 billion and had expenditures of $1.8 billion. Revenues minus expenditures totaled approximately -$178 million. Public debt in 2005 amounted to 104.2% of GDP. Total external debt was $5.866 billion.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) reported that in 1999, the most recent year for which it had data, budgetary central government revenues were k1,844.4 billion and expenditures were

Revenue and Grants 1,844.4 100.0%
   Tax revenue 1,378.3 74.7%
   Social contributions
   Grants 414.2 22.5%
   Other revenue 51.9 2.8%
Expenditures 1,874.3 100.0%
   General public services 758.9 40.5%
   Defense 73.7 3.9%
   Public order and safety 61.4 3.3%
   Economic affairs 383.4 20.5%
   Environmental protection
   Housing and community amenities 43.3 2.3%
   Health 248 13.2%
   Recreational, culture, and religion 10.5 0.6%
   Education 270.8 14.4%
   Social protection 24.3 1.3%
() data not available or not significant. f = forecasted or projected data.

k1,874.3 billion. The value of revenues in US dollars was us$770 million and expenditures us$780 million, based on a official exchange rate for 1999 of us$1 = k2,388.02 as reported by the IMF. Government outlays by function were as follows: general public services, 40.5%; defense, 3.9%; public order and safety, 3.3%; economic affairs, 20.5%; housing and community amenities, 2.3%; health, 13.2%; recreation, culture, and religion, 0.6%; education, 14.4%; and social protection, 1.3%.

TAXATION

As of 2005, Zambia's corporate tax rate ranged from 15% up to 45%, depending upon the type of business. Generally, dividends, interest, royalties and management fees are each subject to a 15% withholding tax. There is also a mineral royalty tax and a property transfer tax.

Income taxes include a 1% charge by local Councils on the gross salaries of employees after a deduction of 300,000 Kwacha (about $66.55) and a 1.015% property tax. Individual income is taxed according to a progressive schedule with four bands: 0% on the first 600,000 Kwacha (about $133) of annual income; 10% on the next 600,000 Kwacha; 20% on the next 600,000 Kwacha, and 30% on the increment of annual income above 1,800,000 Kwacha (about $400).

A value-added tax (VAT) with a standard rate of 20% replaced the sales tax in 1995. The standard rate was subsequently reduced to 17.5%, where it stands as of 2005. Items exempted from VAT include insurance transactions, mosquito nets and insecticides, and exports.

CUSTOMS AND DUTIES

Tariff schedules give preferential treatment to imports from the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries. Zambia belongs to the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC), both committed to free trade. Rebates are allowed on certain capital goods and on most materials used in local manufacturing industries. Tariff protection also is accorded to selected new industries. Most imports require licenses. Import duties ranged from 5% for raw materials and capital equipment, 15% for intermediate goods, and 25% on final products as of 2005. Selected items, such as soaps and vegetable cooking oils, carry special protective tariffs. There are no free trade zones.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT

In the past, the heaviest concentrations of foreign private capital in Zambia were in the mining enterprises of the Copperbelt. Anglo-American holds only a 27% interest in the national mining company ZCCM, a company that was privatized in 2000. Most investment is from the United Kingdom or South Africa. Although tax holidays have been offered as incentives, Zambia's highly socialized economy has not been conducive to private foreign investment, and exchange controls have made the repatriation of profits and dividends difficult.

Laws concerning retention of foreign exchange have been consistent, achieving full liberalization only recently. In 1983, exporters of nontraditional items could keep 50% of earned foreign exchange to finance imported inputs. This resulted in a fivefold increase in nonmetal exports. This provision was revoked in 1987. The Investment Act of 1991 provided for a 70% foreign exchange retention during the first three years of a license, 60% in the next two years, and 50% for the rest of the license's term. This act was subsequently revised to allow for full retention of foreign exchange earnings.

Annual foreign direct investment (FDI) flow into Zambia reached $207 million in 1997, after which it steadily declined, from $198 million in 1998 to $72 million in 2001. Zambia's success in attracting FDI declined from 1990 to 2000. The FDI flow increased steadily from $82 million in 2002 to $334 million in 2004. For the period 1988 to 1999, Zambia's share of world FDI inflows was more than four times its share in world GDP. For the period 1998 to 2000, its share of world inward FDI was less than twice its share of world GDP.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Controlling inflation is a development priority, followed by faster implementation of social sector programs, legal and civil service reform, and privatization. New investment has been slow to form as investors await anticipated lower inflation rates. The lack of administrative capacity lies at the heart of the delays. Various debt cancellations and loans have been prescribed by the World Bank (loan of $170 million), Paris Club (aid of $630 million), and the United States (aid of $20 million). Inflation stood at 26.7% in 2002 and at 18.5% in 2004.

The public sector in 2003 represented some 44% of total formal employment. In 2000, Zambia became eligible for $3.8 billion in debt service relief under the International Monetary Fund (IMF)/World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. In July 2005, the world's eight leading industrialized nations (G8) agreed to provide further debt relief for poor countries including Zambia. The additional relief for Zambia would cut around $2.8 billion and combining this with the $3.9 billion debt write-off package agreed under the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative, Zambia's debt burden would decline to just $300 million by mid-2006. This comes as a direct result of the government's fiscal austerity measures which had finally paid off through the two debt cancellations which is likely to renew confidence of donors and investors in the country's economic policies.

In 2003, the government indicated it would take measures to privatize the Zambia National Commercial Bank and the national telephone and electricity utilities. In 2005, the Zambia Privatisation Agency (ZPA) invited bids for 49% government shareholding in the Zambia National Commercial Bank with management rights. The closing date for submission of bids was 13 September 2005 with bids received from three entities. In addition to undertaking a relatively ambitious privatization program, Zambia in the early 2000s was implementing trade and exchange liberalization, and the liberalization of agricultural policies.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

A social insurance system provides benefits to most employed persons. Coverage includes old age pensions, permanent disability benefits, and survivorship payments. Medical care is available to all citizens in government facilities. Workers' compensation is funded totally by the employer. A funeral grant is also provided.

A national provident fund requires employers and employees to make contributions toward a worker's retirement at ages 5055. This program covers employed persons, including domestic servants in urban areas, and agricultural workers. The lump sum payment is equivalent to contributions plus interest. Maternity leave of 90 days plus a maternity grant for each birth are provided to working women. Medical benefits are available to all citizens in government run facilities and rural health clinics. Employers are required to fund work injury insurance for all employees.

Domestic violence against women is a widespread problem. Police are hesitant to interfere, although in 2004 the government formed a sex crimes unit to address the issue. Women have full legal rights under law, but customs discriminate against women in areas of inheritance, property ownership, and marriage. Sex-based discrimination in education and employment is pervasive. Women are underrepresented in senior management positions in the private sector and in high-level government positions. However, a growing number of women can be found in local government. Child welfare is a serious concern; there were approximately one million orphans under the age of 15 in 2004, mostly attributable to the deaths of parents from AIDS.

Human rights abuses, including beatings and even the killing of persons in police custody, continue to be reported. A government-created commission is investigating past human rights abuses and some offenders have been punished. However, human rights organizations operate freely in Zambia.

HEALTH

In 1964, responsibility for public health was transferred from the federation to Zambian authorities. Since then, the government has developed a health plan centered on specialist hospitals, with general and regional hospitals dealing with less complicated cases. At a lower level, district hospitals treat common medical and surgical cases. Rural health centers and clinics with outpatient facilities have been established throughout the country. Services to Zambian nationals are free at the rural health centers and clinics and at hospitals at the large urban centers. Due to government spending restrictions, the public health care sector has suffered from a severe shortage of doctors, medicine, and medical equipment and supplies. Health indicators have suffered since the advent of the AIDS epidemic, with earlier improvements reversed. For example, average life expectancy, which has been declining since 1984, was down to 39.70 years in 2005.

The government records indicated nine hospitals and a few small outpatient clinics. Zambia produces locally 25% of the pharmaceuticals it consumes. As of 2004, there were an estimated 7 physicians and 113 nurses per 100,000 people. Total health care expenditure was estimated at 6.9% of GDP.

Malaria and tuberculosis are major health problems, and hookworm and schistosomiasis afflict a large proportion of the population. Cholera remains prevalent. In addition, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has increased the incidence of tuberculosis. Other commonly reported diseases in Zambia were diarrheal diseases, leprosy, and measles.

Zambia has one of the highest rates of HIV infection, even in hard-hit sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV/AIDS prevalence was 16.50 per 100 adults in 2003. As of 2004, there were approximately 920,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in the country. There were an estimated 89,000 deaths from AIDS in 2003. It has been estimated that 500,0001,000,000 Zambian children have lost both parents to AIDS.

As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 41 and 21.9 per 1,000 people. About 26% of Zambian married women used contraceptives. The maternal mortality rate was 649 per 100,000 live births. It was estimated that 32 of every 100 school-age children suffered from goiter. Children up to one year old were immunized against tuberculosis, 81%; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 70%; polio, 70%; and measles, 69%. The infant mortality rate in 2005 was 88.29 per 1,000 live births. In the same year, 42% of the all children under five were malnourished.

HOUSING

Widespread instances of overcrowding and slum growth have for many years focused government attention on urban housing problems. Local authorities have statutory responsibility for housing and housing management. The Zambia National Building Society makes loans to local agencies for the financing of approved schemes and the National Housing Authority established a special fund to support self-help projects for low-income earners. One program gives land ownership to certain residents in recognized informal settlements, thus giving them legal status to build more permanent structures. Mining companies have constructed townships for the families of African workers in the Copperbelt.

The 2000 census counted 1,768,287 housing units nationwide. A 2002/2003 housing survey stated that 66% of all dwellings were defined as traditional structures; these use mud bricks, thatch, straw, and grass as primary building materials. Traditional dwellings accounted for 91% of the housing stock in rural areas and 16% in urban areas. About 34% of the population lived in modern or conventional housing structures. Conventional structures accounted for 86% of the housing stock in Lusaka province and 72% of housing in Copperbelt. About 78% of all dwellings were owner occupied. About 54% of all households lived in units of only one bedroom. Only 50% of all households had access to a source of clean drinking water, 18% had electricity for lighting, and over 50% of all households used pit latrines. The average household size was about five members.

EDUCATION

Most of the nation's schools are operated by local authorities or by missions and are aided by the central government. A small number of schools are directly administered by the government. Primary education lasts for seven years and is compulsory. Secondary education lasts for five years: two years of junior and three years of senior school. Students must pass an entrance exam to enter senior secondary school.

Primary school enrollment in 2003 was estimated at about 68% of age-eligible students. The same year, secondary school enrollment was about 23% of age-eligible students. It is estimated that about 69% of all students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about 43:1 in 2003; the ratio for secondary school was about 34:1.

The University of Zambia was established in 1965, and the Copperbelt University opened in 1986. Other institutions of higher learning include technical colleges and a two-year college of agriculture. In 2001, it was estimated that about 2% of the tertiary age population were enrolled in tertiary education programs. The adult literacy rate for 2004 was estimated at about 67.9%, with 76.1% for men and 59.7% for women.

As of 2003, public expenditure on education was estimated at 2% of GDP, or 17.6% of total government expenditures.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

The Zambia Library Service maintains 900 library centers, six regional libraries, six branch libraries, and a central library with 500,000 volumes. The Lusaka Urban District Libraries has 145,000 volumes, and the Zambesi District Library has 120,000. The National Archives of Zambia maintains a library of about 70,000 volumes. The University of Zambia has holdings of more than 2.5 million books.

Zambia's museums include the National Museum, located in Livingstone. It has displays on natural history, archaeology, ethnography, recent history, African art, metallurgy, and memorabilia relating to David Livingstone. The Eastern Cataract Field Museum near Victoria Falls concentrates on archaeology and geology, including illustrations of the formation of the falls and the Stone Age sequence in the area. Lusaka has the Art Center and the Military and Police Museum of Zambia. The Moto Moto Museum in Mbala (founded in 1974) exhibits ethnography and history materials. The Copperbelt Museum at Ndola exhibits geological and historical items as well as ethnic art.

MEDIA

The central government is responsible for postal and telecommunication services. A direct radiotelegraph circuit has been established between Lusaka and London, and direct telephone links are in operation to all neighboring countries. In 2003, there were an estimated eight mainline telephones for every 1,000 people; about 11,600 people were on a waiting list for telephone service installation. The same year, there were approximately 22 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people.

The Zambia Broadcasting Service, which provides radio programs in English and seven local languages, and Zambian Television are government owned and operated. As of 2001, there were also several church-sponsored radio stations, two private commercial stations and three community stations. The same year there were 19 AM and 5 FM radio stations. There were nine television stations in 2002. In 2003, there were an estimated 179 radios and 51 television sets for every 1,000 people. The same year, there were 8.5 personal computers for every 1,000 people and six of every 1,000 people had access to the Internet. There were two secure Internet servers in the country in 2004.

There are a number of privately-owned newspapers in the country. However, the publications with the largest circulations tend to be politically affiliated. There are three major daily newspapers: the UNIP-owned Times of Zambia, founded in Ndola in 1943 and with an estimated 2002 daily circulation of 32,100; the government-owned Zambia Daily Mail, published in Lusaka, with a circulation of 40,000; and The Post, an independent English-language paper founded in 1991, with a circulation of 40,000.

The constitution provides for free expression, including a free press; however the penal code lists several exceptions and justifies government restrictions and censorship.

ORGANIZATIONS

Professional and learned societies include the Wildlife Conservation Society of Zambia, the Zambia Library Association, and the Zambia Medical Association, all in Lusaka. Business groups include chambers of commerce in the major towns. The Zambia Association of Chambers of Commerce and Industry is located in Lusaka. The Consumer Protective Association of Zambia is also active.

National youth organizations include the Catholic Agricultural and Rural Youth Movement, Girl Guides Association of Zambia, YMCA/YWCA, United National Independence Party Youth League, Zambian Youth League, Girl Guides, and the Zambia Scouts Association. There are sports associations promoting amateur competition for athletes of all ages in a wide variety of pastimes, including softball, baseball, squash, lawn tennis, badminton, and weightlifting.

National women's organizations include the National Women's Lobby Group, the Society For Women and AIDS in Zambia, Women for Change, and the Women in Development Department. Among service organizations are the Lions, Rotary, Junior Chamber of Commerce (Jaycees), Professional Women's Club, and Women's Institute. There are national chapters of the Red Cross Society, Habitat for Humanity, the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, UNICEF, and Amnesty International.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

One of the most impressive tourist attractions in Zambia is Mosioa-Tunya ("the smoke that thunders")Victoria Falls. In 1972, a national park system created 17 parks covering 8% of the entire country. The Kafue National Park, one of the largest in Africa, with 22,500 sq km (8,700 sq mi) of bush, forest, and plain, is well-served with tourist facilities. South Luangwa National Park is another outstanding wildlife area. Tourism in Zambia has maintained a steady increase since the mid-1970s. A valid passport is required to enter Zambia. Most travelers need a visa. Proof of vaccination against yellow fever is required if traveling from an infected country.

In 2003, about 578,000 visitors arrived in Zambia, mostly from other African countries. There were 5,202 hotel rooms with 8,774 beds and an occupancy rate of 53%. Tourism expenditure receipts totaled $149 million that year.

According to 2005 US Department of State estimates, the cost of staying in Lusaka was $171 per day. Expenses in other areas ranged from $51 to $213 per day.

FAMOUS ZAMBIANS

Kenneth David Kaunda (b.1924) was Zambia's president from independence in 1964 until 1991. Frederick J.T. Chiluba (b.1943) ousted Kaunda in 1991 in Zambia's first free elections and was re-elected in 1996; he served until 2002. Levy Patrick Mwanawasa (b.1948) is the third president of Zambia (since 2002).

Nalumino Mundia (192788), long prominent in Zambian political affairs, was prime minister 198185, when he became ambassador to the United States.

DEPENDENCIES

Zambia has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Grotpeter, John J. Historical Dictionary of Zambia. 2nd ed. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 1995.

Guest, Emma. Children of AIDS: Africa's Orphan Crisis. Sterling, Va.: Pluto Press, 2001.

Hope, Kempe R. AIDS and Development in Africa: A Social Science Perspective. New York: Haworth Press, 1999.

Kaunda, Kenneth. Letter to My Children. London: Longman, 1963.

McElrath, Karen (ed.). HIV and AIDS: A Global View. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Mutale, Emmanuel. The Management of Urban Development in Zambia. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2004.

Posner, Daniel N. Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Rotberg, Robert I. Ending Autocracy, Enabling Democracy: The Tribulations of Southern Africa, 19602000. Cambridge, Mass.: World Peace Foundation, 2002.

Zambian Women Entrepreneurs: Going for Growth. Lusaka, Zambia: ILO Office: Gender in Development Division (GIDD), International Labour Office, 2003.

Zeilig, Leo and David Seddon. A Political and Economic Dictionary of Africa. Philadelphia: Routledge/Taylor and Francis, 2005.

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ZAMBIA

Republic of Zambia

COUNTRY OVERVIEW

LOCATION AND SIZE.

A landlocked state located in southern Africa, east of Angola, Zambia has an area of 752,614 square kilometers (290,584 square miles) and a total land boundary of 5,664 kilometers (3,520 miles). Comparatively, Zambia is slightly larger than Texas. Zambia's capital city, Lusaka, is located in the southern center of the country's territory.

POPULATION.

The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa estimated Zambia's population at 9,133,000 in 2000, a notable rise from the 1995 level of 8,081,000. In 2000 the birth rate stood at 41.9 births per 1,000 population while the death rate was 22.08 deaths per 1,000. With similar annual growth rates, the population will stand at 13,201,000 in 2015 and 21,965,000 in 2050. Zambians of African descent constitute 98.2 percent of the population, and 1.1 percent are European. In 1998, 39 percent of Zambians lived in urban habitatsone of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa.

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is a considerable problem in Zambia with 19 percent of the working age population infected. It is estimated that 99,000 Zambians died from AIDS in 1999 whilst those with HIV infection who were still alive at the end of 1999 numbered 870,000. These deaths and levels of infection are not only important in themselves but have extremely negative social and economic costs. The drawn-out nature of death from AIDS means that many of the population (predominantly women) who could be productively employed have to provide long-term care for the dying. In addition, by 1999 the cumulative number of orphans created since the epidemic began in the mid-1980s reached 650,000. This raises the problem of the development and guidance of Zambia's children.

OVERVIEW OF ECONOMY

The mining of copper dominates Zambia's national economy. A central legacy of the colonial period (1899-1964) was the exploitation of Northern Rhodesia's (modern Zambia) vast copper deposits, first, by the British South Africa Company (BSAC) who administered the territory until 1924 and, second, by the British government. The need for copper miners meant that a high percentage of Zambia's male workforce was, often forcibly, encouraged to leave their subsistence farms and work in the mines. This led to the neglect of the agricultural sector and Zambia's reliance on copper exportsa trend that continued to affect the national economy by 2001.

At independence in 1964, Zambia's economy was highly skewed; most regions outside of the "line of rail" (the railway that serviced the mining sector) were highly underdeveloped. However, the newly elected United National Independence Party's (UNIP) policy of actively developing the economy meant that the manufacturing and agricultural sectors increased in importance, and the supply of health and education services to the population dramatically improved.

The UNIP, led by President Kenneth Kaunda, promoted a brand of so-called "humanist" socialism which was the ideological justification for the creation of a large number of parastatals in Zambia. The important reasons for this policy were the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (1965) by the neighboring white-supremacist Rhodesia (modern Zimbabwe), which threatened Zambia's supply lines, and the fact that the foreign owners of Zambia's enterprises often invested their profits abroad. In addition, parastatals were seen by the Zambian government as a mechanism to develop and diversify the economy.

By the late 1970s, parastatals employed a third of the official workforce and consisted of over 330 enterprises whose activities criss-crossed Zambia's economy with areas such as mining, transport, agriculture, construction, tourism, trade, and finance. Partly due to the parastatal system, Zambia's manufacturing output rose by more than 160 percent between 1965 and 1975, and the level of domestic power generated grew by more than 350 percent. However, the parastatals, and the economy as a whole, continued to rely on colonial structures in that they were dependent on foreign capital, expertise, technology, imports, and markets. In addition, parastatals (along with the government and civil service) were rife with corruption and inefficiency as many could not function without large government subsidies . This simply meant that the Zambian form of parastatals was inherently unsustainable.

In order to continue to subsidize state spending on parastatals and social services, UNIP continually borrowed from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to support the economy's balance of payments deficits. By the early 1980s the IMF began to impose conditions of free market reform for continued lending. These reforms consisted of the stabilization of the economy and a degree of economic liberalization . However, the effects of these reforms on the incomes and employment of Zambia's workers were negative. By 1987, widespread social protest and discontent persuaded Kaunda to drop the IMF-sponsored reform.

In 1991 the UNIP government was defeated during multiparty elections by the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD). The MMD immediately institutionalized a radical program of free market reform in order to secure continued external aid and to satisfy Zambia's business class. Parastatals were privatized , the kwacha was devalued, and the exchange rate was liberalized. As well as reducing consumer incomes, these reforms caused a considerable amount of financial uncertainty, and a number of domestic banks collapsed. Moreover, even though the government had benefitted from increased revenue through the privatization of 85 percent of its parastatals by 1998, the national balance of payments remained in deficit.

In comparison to Zambia's traditional reliance on copper and cobalt at independence, by the 1990s the economy had significantly diversified. In 1999, non-traditional exports such as processed foods, copper rods, and textiles constituted 39.4 percent of export earnings. However, the growth of the national economy and government revenue was still determined by the unstable prices of primary commodities , particularly copper and cobalt, in world markets.

CRIME.

It is important to note that Zambia is a key transhipment point for the global illegal drug trade. A significant quantity of heroin and cocaine bound for Europe and for distribution throughout the rest of Southern Africa passes through Zambia. This illicit trade is supported by the fact that Zambia is a regional money-laundering center that acts as an excellent facility for those dealing in drugs to disguise the illegal source of their profits.

DEBT.

External debt is a huge drain on Zambia's economy. Due to government subsidies of parastatals and investment in public health and education, by 1980 Zambia was one of sub-Saharan Africa's most indebted countries; it owed $3.261 billion. By 1997, the national debt had risen to $6.758 billion. This increased indebtedness was predominantly caused by an annual average government deficit of 10.72 percent of GDP between 1989 and 1998. Although the national balance of payments had been improving over the latter half of the 1990s, by 2000 the government remained fully dependent upon external aid in order to function.

POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND TAXATION

Like most of sub-Saharan Africa's countries, Zambia was a false creation of European imperialism during the "scramble for Africa" during the late 1800s. The territory of Zambia (formerly Northern Rhodesia) cut across dozens of ethnic groupings, chiefdoms, and languages and pulled these different societies together under an increasingly centralized colonial state. Colonial rule in Zambia (1899-1964) was a period of "divide and rule" where different chiefdoms were played off each other by the BSAC and the British government, respectively. (Although specific African leaders would often use colonial power to achieve their own ends).

When vast copper reserves were discovered in the mid-1920s the country was mobilized to mine this valuable mineral to enrich the colonial powers, whilst the rest of the economy was neglected. As Marcia Burdette noted in her Zambia: Between Two Worlds, the colonial administration transformed Zambia into "a mineral-exporting enclave with a vast underdeveloped hinterland." Due to the growing nationalist militancy of the African population, independence was achieved in 1964. Zambia's post-colonial politics can be divided into 3 periods, each of which corresponds to the establishment of a new republic and constitution.

THE FIRST REPUBLIC.

The First Republic (1964-1972) was formed at independence in 1964. In multiparty elections in 1964 the United National Independence Party (UNIP) defeated its main rival, the African National Congress (ANC). The socialist-"humanist" orientation of the government (led by President Kenneth Kaunda) was bolstered by a large revenue supplied by high international copper prices, which allowed the opening of health and education services to the black population. The UNIP could boast a considerable success; by 1972 Zambia's hospitals had grown by 50 percent and health clinics doubled, whilst the availability of education services also dramatically increased. In order to administer the growing public sector the civil service expanded dramatically and acted as a mechanism for the UNIP ruling elite to award the party faithful. Due to the lack of a significant business sector, civil servants became the nation's upper class.

THE SECOND REPUBLIC.

The Second Republic (1972-1990) was established in 1972. Known as the "one party-participatory democracy," it was a one-party state ruled by the UNIP. All other political parties were banned, and Kaunda's dominant role in the UNIP and the government assured him an uncontested rule. However, the Second Republic ran into serious difficulties due to corruption within the civil service, government, and parastatal sector, and declining government revenue caused by the falling price of copper. The government began to borrow heavily to support the vast state expenditure and the country became highly indebted.

Discontent grew throughout the country over the 1980s because of rapidly declining incomes and rising prices, partly caused by an IMF economic liberalization program (which was subsequently dropped in 1987). The culmination of worker militancy, student protests, and growing opposition within the ruling class was the formation of the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) led by Frederick Chiluba (a key trade union figure). Mounting economic crisis and political pressure led Kaunda to sign a new constitution in 1990, putting an end to one-party rule.

THE THIRD REPUBLIC.

The Third Republic adopted a multi-party parliamentary democracy. Peaceful presidential and parliamentary elections were held in 1991 wherein Chiluba received 76 percent of votes cast. After this defeat Kaunda stepped down from office and ended his 27 years of leading the country. Relatively free and fair elections were held again in 1996 and the MMD won a landslide victory for the second time. In 2001, the MMD continued to pursue free market economic reform. The global dominance of free market capitalism since the 1990s and, perhaps, the success of the pro-business MMD has led the UNIP to drop its socialist orientation and adopt "capitalism with a social conscience."

The Zambia Revenue Authority (ZRA) was set up in 1994 to increase government revenuewhich had been historically lowand to reduce the economy's growing dependence on external aid, which is essential in supporting Zambia's most basic necessities. The ZRA had reported considerable success in its role. For example, value-added tax (VAT) was introduced in 1995 and by the turn of the century it constituted 20 percent of all tax revenue. In order to provide increased incentives for domestic and international business the levels of these various revenue-collecting mechanisms had been progressively reduced in the 1990s. Nonetheless, even in light of these pro-business tax reductions, ZRA revenue collections still grew from K421 billion in 1994 to K954 billion in 1997.

INFRASTRUCTURE, POWER, AND COMMUNICATIONS

Of Zambia's 66,935 kilometers (41,500 miles) of roads, relatively few are of good quality and paved except for those routes linking Lusaka to main border posts. The publicly-owned Zambia Railways (ZR) controls most of the 2,169 kilometers (1,345 miles) of national rail infrastructure . Rail routes to regional seaports are very important because Zambia is landlocked. The railway track linking Zambia to the seaport of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania is jointly run by the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TZRA), which is not part of ZR. Other seaports used for Zambia's imports and exports are Beria in Mozambique, Durban in South Africa, and Walvis Bay in Namibia. Lusaka International is Zambia's primary airport; the main secondary airports are based at Ndola, Livingstone, and Mfuwe. All of these airports are run by the publicly-owned National Airport Corporation (NAC).

The state-owned Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) produced 8.16 billion kilowatts (kWh) of electricity in 1998 using hydropower. Of this, 1.2 billion kWh was exported. However, the use of commercial energy within the country declined by an annual average of 1.7 percent between 1980 and 1997, whereas the use of traditional fuels as a percentage of total energy use rose from 37.4 percent in 1980 to 73.1 percent in 1996. This increased reliance on traditional energy sources, mainly wood, means that Zambia's environment is threatened by deforestation which, in turn, creates soil erosion and a subsequent decrease in arable land.

The state-owned Zambia Telecommunications Company (ZAMTEL) is the national provider of telecommunication services (predominantly telephone lines). ZAMTEL is planned to be partially privatized. Although generally adequate, Zambia's telecommunications can be unreliable, particularly during rainy seasons. A cellular telephone service is available in Lusaka and

Communications
Country Newspapers Radios TV Sets a Cabl subscribers a Mobile Phones a Fax Machines a Personal Computers a Internet Hosts b Internet Users b
1996 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999
Zambia 12 121 137 N/A 1 0.1 N/A 0.48 15
United States 215 2,146 847 244.3 256 78.4 458.6 1,508.77 74,100
South Africa 32 317 125 N/A 56 3.5 47.4 33.36 1,820
Dem. Rep. of Congo 3 375 135 N/A 0 N/A N/A 0.00 1
aData are from International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report 1999 and are per 1,000 people.
bData are from the Internet Software Consortium (http://www.isc.org) and are per 10,000 people.
SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000.

other built-up areas. Fax machines are widely used, and the Internet is becoming an increasingly popular means of communication for those few who are fortunate enough to have access.

ECONOMIC SECTORS

Zambia's economic sectors reflect 3 key constraints. First, the influence of colonial rule created a reliance on mining (in particular, copper) and a failure to fully exploit the agricultural sector. Second, the small size of the population means that domestic markets are limited. Third, its landlocked status reduces the competitiveness of exports as they are subjected to the tariffs of neighboring countries and high transportation costs.

However, for such an underdeveloped country, Zambia has been relatively successful in diversifying its economy. Although copper exports continue to be of primary importance, the export of cash crops such as cotton and tobacco, as well as refined sugar, provide a high level of revenue and employment. However, all of these goods are highly sensitive to fluctuations in international market prices. The manufacturing sector produces a large quantity of textiles for export and there is a growth in the production of cut flowers. Within the industrial sector, the mining of gems and other minerals, as well as the production of cement, engineering products, and chemicals, helped balance out the economy's reliance on the mining of copper and cobalt.

AGRICULTURE

Zambia's main agricultural exports are cotton, sugar, and cut flowers. Agricultural exports increased significantly between 1993 and 1998 from US$27.2 million to US$89.7 million. However, Zambia's agricultural sector has historically lacked significant infrastructure and productive investment. This means that the sector is highly underdeveloped whilst offering considerable potential if large investment was supplied. For example, neighboring Zimbabwe, which is of a comparable size and climate to Zambia, exported US$1,157 million of agricultural goods in 1998. The key problem with Zambia's failure to fully exploit its agricultural production to a similar extent as Zimbabwe is that agricultural imports have significantly outweighed agricultural exports throughout the 1990s. This represented another imbalance on the national balance of payments and a serious drain of foreign currency reserves that have to be used to pay for imports.

COTTON.

Cotton is one of Zambia's most important cash crops. Although it is partly produced on large commercial farms by expatriates and some African commercial farmers, like most of Zambia's cash crops, the vast bulk of cotton output comes from small subsistence farmers. Even though the price of cotton plummeted between 1998-1999, export earnings from this crop rose from US$22.8 million to US$41.4 million, partly due to companies holding back 1998 stocks in the hope that prices would rise. The production of cotton also supports Zambia's large domestic textile industry.

Another key cash crop is tobacco. In 1998 Zambia exported US$9.5 million of tobacco, an impressive rise from the 1988 level of US$3.8 million. However, like most primary commodities, tobacco exports are subject to the continuing change and instability of international market prices. In 1960 1 metric ton of tobacco fetched US$8,391; by 1999 this had fallen to US$2,922. Also of note is the farming of coffee. In 1999 coffee provided US$8.7 million in exports; these earnings would have been higher if the world market leader, Brazil, had not almost doubled its normal output.

SUGAR.

Sugar is a dominant agricultural export, accounting for 70 percent of all export earnings in the processed food sub-sector in 1999 (other key goods in this sub-sector are stock feeds, marigold meal, mealie-meal, and wheat flour). Sugar exports have increasingly benefitted from initiatives by the European Union which, under the Lome Convention, agreed to buy 13,000 metric tons from the Zambia Sugar Company in 2000. However, processed food exports suffered a decline from the 1998 level of US$49.4 million to US$33 million in 1999. This is because of serious instability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo which was the recipient of roughly 40 percent of Zambia's processed food exports.

A recent agricultural development of huge significance is the production of floricultural goods (mainly cut flowers). Despite low prices at Dutch auctions in 1999 (the Netherlands is the key trading point for flowers in Europe), Zambia's floricultural products fetched US$42.8 million in export earnings. In addition, in 1999 horticultural production (mainly fruit and vegetables) earned US$23.8 million. However, there appears to be a certain imbalance here as Zambia exports vast amounts of fruit and vegetables whilst remaining a net importer of food for domestic consumption.

The major food crops produced in Zambia for domestic consumption are cassava, maize, and wheat. Maize used to be one of the most important food goods in Zambia with 1,845,000 metric tons being produced in 1989, but by 1998 this had declined to 650,000 tons. However, over the same ten-year period the consistent growth of cassava production (from 290,000 tons to 817,000 tons) and of wheat (from 10,000 tons to 70,000 tons) partly canceled out the decrease of maize output. Nonetheless, the total domestic production of these 3 basic food crops was 608,000 tons less in 1998 than in 1989. This decline of domestic food production often means that Zambians have to pay more for their essential nutritional requirements with a negative knock-on effect on the standard of living.

INDUSTRY

MINING.

National copper and cobalt reserves are by far the most important factor in Zambia's national economy. Zambia is the world's fourth largest producer of copper and, due to the ongoing civil war in the cobalt-rich Democratic Republic of the Congo, it has been the leading producer of cobalt in the late 1990s. In 1996 total copper exports amounted to US$568 million and cobalt exports US$193 million.

Copper is subject to the constant fluctuation and uncertainty of international market prices. In 1960 the price for a metric ton of copper was US$3,271; at its height in 1970 it was US$5,629. Yet from the mid-1970s onwards it consistently declined to only US$1,519 by 1999. For example, even though Zambia produced 12,700 tons more copper in 1993 than in 1988, it received US$219.4 million less in export receipts. But, in total, copper production has steadily declined from a 1970 high of 700,000 metric tons to only 250,000 tons in 1999. More importantly, it is estimated that, at the ongoing level of production, the nation's economically viable copper reserves will be exhausted by 2010.

By 2000 the giant parastatal mining company, Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines (ZCCM), had been fully privatized. The private sector successors (principally the mining giants Anglo America, Avmin, and the Glen-core/First Quantum consortium) had begun to invest hundreds of millions of dollars in Zambia's mines. In combination with the fact that Zambia has the largest non-exploited underground copper reserve in the world, private sector investment means that the mining sector may continue to provide considerable export earnings to the national economy well into the 21st century.

In the 1960s and 1970s Zambia also mined and refined a significant amount of lead and zinc. The high point for the production of these minerals was in 1974 when 27,000 tons of lead and 58,000 tons of zinc were produced; however, by 1993 these levels had dropped dramatically to 3,000 tons and 5,000 tons, respectively. Yet, lead and zinc in combination with gold, silver, and platinum provided US$12.3 million in export earnings in 1998. (In 1999 this fell to only US$3.3 million, but this was due to the modernization and rehabilitation of mines.) The export of gemstones has grown in importance and provided US$13.8 million of exports in 1999 to the main market of East Asia.

MANUFACTURING.

Unusual for an economy in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia exports more manufactured goods than it importswith US$180 million exported in 1997 and US$116 million imported (although as a whole the economy generally remains in deficit). The principal manufacturing exports are textiles, engineering products, and building materials.

Zambia's textile industry is considered to have vast competitive potential in the region due to relatively cheap labor costs and a high level of domestic cotton production. But the dumping (the sale of a good on a foreign market at a price below marginal cost) of foreign textiles on the Zambian market by regional competitors has negated the growth of domestic textile production. Zambia's export earnings from textile products (80 percent of which is cotton yarn) declined from US$42.4 million in 1998 to US$37 million in 1999. This is principally due to a fall in the price of cotton yarn over this period as the quantity of exports remained stable. The principal destinations for textile products were the EU countries, which consumed 80 percent, and regional African countries with 15 percent.

In 1999, the main engineering products manufactured in Zambia were copper rods (73.4 percent), electrical cables (13.7 percent), and copper wire (11.2 percent). The export of these engineering products declined by 26.7 percent between 1998 and 1999 to US$23.2 million. This is mainly because of a fall in international demand due to the slow recovery of the industrialized economies in East Asia after the 1996-97 world financial crisis. Similarly, the export of building manufactures (such as cement and roofing sheets) declined in 1999 to US$10.2 million. Again, this was due to the ongoing civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, traditionally the main destination of these goods.

SERVICES

TOURISM.

Zambia has a great deal to offer adventurous tourists. It provides a sample of relatively "untouched" Africa with authentically wild national parks, stunning scenery, and the Victoria Falls and Zambezi River (2 of Southern Africa's main tourist spots), which it shares with Zimbabwe.

Zambia's tourism sector has benefitted from the serious social and political instability in neighboring Zimbabwe (which was traditionally a preferred destination). As a consequence, and also due to considerable public and private investment in tourist facilities, the level of tourists visiting Zambia rose from 87,000 in 1980 to 362,000 in 1998. This created an increase in tourism receipts from US$20 million to US$75 million, although it should be noted that Zambian nationals vacationing abroad spent US$59 million in 1998.

FINANCIAL SERVICES.

In the 1960s the Zambian government nationalized several non-bank financial institutions (such as insurance companies) and set up the Zambia National Commercial Bank to compete with existing private commercial banks. But due to political interference and the inefficient allocation of loans, this system of public banking was unsuccessful. With the aim of improving efficiency in the banking sector through the discipline of free market competition, Zambia liberalized interest rates between 1992 and 1995. This created a considerable amount of financial turmoil and instability. In 1995, Zambia's third largest bank, Meridien Bank, collapsed along with 2 other local banks. In addition, due to a new regulation requiring banks to have at least US$140 million in working capital, and because of the insufficient experience of domestic banks in operating in a liberalized economy, 5 other banks had their licenses withdrawn by the Bank of Zambia (the central bank) by 1998.

Despite free market reform, by the late 1990s there was still considerable evidence of political leaders and their allies defaulting on loans and interfering in the affairs of Zambia's banks. In addition, not only has new regulation and economic liberalization failed to significantly increase confidence in the banking sector (which remains fragile as 30 percent of total loans are non-performing), the Economist Intelligence Unit maintained in 1997 that "too many banks [are] chasing the little profit available." This has led to the increased domestic dominance of huge multinational banks such as Barclays and Citibank, thereby displacing less powerful national banks such as the National Savings and Credit Bank of Zambia and the publicly owned Zambia National Commercial Bank.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

From 1991 Zambia became a net importer of goods, importing US$83 million more than it exported in 1998. The national balance of payments generally remained in deficit throughout the 1990s. In order to address this imbalance the government relied on external aid to prop up the economy; this in turn has led to a deeper indebtedness and a rise of annual debt repayment levels. In 1993, Zambia's main imports were US$144 million of crude oil (it is refined domestically into petroleum oils), and US$30 million in fertilizer. The main sources of Zambia's imports in 1996 were South Africa (US$303 million), Saudi Arabia (US$107 million), the UK (US$81 million), neighboring Zimbabwe (US$67 million), and Japan (US$19 million).

Historically, Zambia's main exports are copper and cobalt, which in total provided US$761 million in export earnings in 1996. However, there has been a huge expansion of non-traditional exports (NTEs) such as sugar, cotton, copper rods, textiles, cut flowers, gemstones, and cement since independence in 1964. In 1999, the European Union was the largest market for Zambia's NTEs, which

Trade (expressed in billions of US$): Zambia
Exports Imports
1975 .810 .929
1980 1.298 1.116
1985 .784 .545
1990 1.309 1.220
1995 1.040 .700
1998 N/A N/A
SOURCE: International Monetary Fund. International Financial Statistics Yearbook 1999.

consumed US$117.4 million (38.54 percent) of total NTE earnings. Within the EU the largest market was the Netherlands which accounted for US$40.6 million of such goods as cut flowers and live fish. The UK was the second largest EU market and imported US$37.4 million of specialty vegetables, cotton yarn, and coffee. Germany consumed US$21.3 million in cotton yarn and cut flowers.

The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) was Zambia's second largest regional market for NTEs in 1999 and imported US$81.8 million. Some of the principal NTEs sold in this region were sugar, petroleum oils, cement, food, and electricity. The main 3 markets and their percentage of COMESA's imports were the Democratic Republic of the Congo (41.93 percent), Malawi (18.66 percent), and Zimbabwe (12.86 percent). However, due to war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and social unrest in Zimbabwe, 1999 exports to these countries fell. The key market for Zambia's copper rods, gemstones, and tobacco was East Asia, accounting for US$10.3 million.

MONEY

Since the liberalization of the kwacha in the early 1990s Zambia has suffered from a permanently high level of inflation . In part due to the influx of imports to modernize Zambia's recently privatized copper mines, the kwacha lost 40 percent of value to the U.S. dollar in 2000. Zambia's inflation has resulted in its coinage being more valuable as pieces of metal than at face value. In consequence, notes are the population's source of cash. Due to expensive and scarce credit facilities, Zambia's domestic trade is generally undertaken using cash.

Zambia has a single stock exchange, the Lusaka Stock Exchange (LuSE). The LuSE opened in 1994. By 1997 it had benefitted from increased trading volumes, and its capitalization value was US$502 million. At the outset of 2000 it listed 15 companies. The national Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulates Zambia's stock market.

Exchange rates: Zambia
Zambian kwacha (K) per US$1
Jan 2001 4,024.53
2000 3,110.84
1999 2,388.02
1998 1,862.07
1997 1,314.50
1996 1,207.90
SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2001 [ONLINE].
GDP per Capita (US$)
Country 1975 1980 1985 1990 1998
Zambia 641 551 483 450 388
United States 19,364 21,529 23,200 25,363 29,683
South Africa 4,574 4,620 4,229 4,113 3,918
Dem. Rep. of Congo 392 313 293 247 127
SOURCE: United Nations. Human Development Report 2000; Trends in human development and per capita income.

POVERTY AND WEALTH

Zambia is a country defined by extreme poverty. By 2000, over 70 percent of the population lived on less than 1 dollar a day (the figure 10 years before was 50 percent) and 64 percent of this income was spent on essential food. This is in a country whose public expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP fell from 2.6 percent in 1990 to 2.3 percent in 1998, and where external aid per capita fell from US$119.7 in 1992 to US$36.1 in 1998. In addition, the daily per capita supply of calories fell from 2,173 in 1970 to 1,970 in 1997, and the daily supply of protein declined by 19.2 percent and fat by 27.1 percent over the same period. Consequently, 3 in 5 of Zambian children were malnourished by 2001. Along with the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, these factors have contributed to a declining life expectancy for the average Zambian from 47.3 years in the early 1970s to 40.1 in the late 1990s.

There are vast disparities in living conditions between Zambia's rural and urban habitants. For example, whilst 64 percent of the urban population have access to safe water, only 27 percent of the rural population are so fortunate. Moreover, 46 percent of the urban population live below the poverty line compared to a massive 88 percent in rural areas. In more general terms, the disparity of wealth between Zambia's rich and poor is also considerable.

Distribution of Income or Consumption by Percentage Share: Zambia
Lowest 10% 1.6
Lowest 20% 4.2
Second 20% 8.2
Third 20% 12.8
Fourth 20% 20.1
Highest 20% 54.8
Highest 10% 39.2
Survey year: 1996
Note: This information refers to expenditure shares by percentiles of the population and is ranked by per capita expenditure.
SOURCE: 2000 World Development Indicators [CD-ROM].
Household Consumption in PPP Terms
Country All food Clothing and footwear Fuel and power a Health care b Education b Transport & Communications Other
Zambia 52 10 8 2 11 3 14
United States 13 9 9 4 6 8 51
South Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Dem. Rep. of Congo N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Data represent percentage of consumption in PPP terms.
aExcludes energy used for transport.
bIncludes government and private expenditures.
SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000.

The poorest 60 percent of the population share 25.2 percent of the nation's wealth, whereas the wealthiest 10 percent benefit from 39.2 percent of the wealth. Incomes have not grown as fast as inflation which, in combination with the introduction of user fees for health and education services, means that a majority of Zambians cannot afford to provide themselves with even basic social services.

WORKING CONDITIONS

Of a labor force of 4 million the average Zambian works for 45 hours a week. However, this official figure does not take account of those who work outside of the official sector and embark upon such activities as subsistence farming on small plots of land and petty trading. Zambia has been a member of the International Labour Organisation since independence in 1964, yet it only ratified Conventions 87 (Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize) and 98 (Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining) as late as 1994. Zambia's trade unions are obliged to join the highly centralized Zambia Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU). The ZCTU is a very powerful organization and by withdrawing its support from the UNIP in 1990, it almost assured the MMD's electoral success in 1991. Six of 7 ZCTU leaders joined the 1991 MMD government, including President Chiluba who had been the ZCTU's chairman. However, the ZCTU is highly critical of the MMD, in particular its pro-business policies such as the liberalization of the economy which has resulted in a decline of living standards for Zambia's workers. There is also tension within the ZCTU. In 1995 3 of its twenty affiliate trade unions broke away with the intention of setting up a competing center body.

COUNTRY HISTORY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

1899. The British South African Company (BSAC) assumes control over Zambia (then Northern Rhodesia).

1924. British government takes over Zambia's administration.

1964. Zambian independence and the beginning of the First Republic. The United National Independence Party (UNIP) wins multi-party elections, and Kenneth Kaunda becomes president.

1965. Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Rhodesia (modern Zimbabwe) threatens Zambia's supply routes.

1972. The one-party state of the Second Republic is formed.

1987. A series of riots against declining incomes ends an IMF-sponsored free market reform program.

1990. Kaunda agrees to the formation of the Third Republic.

1991. Multi-party elections are won by the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy led by Frederick Chiluba. The MMD embarks on a program of IMF-sponsored free market reform.

1996. The MMD wins a second round of elections.

2000. The former parastatal Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines (ZCCM) is fully privatized.

FUTURE TRENDS

The Zambian government projects that the privatization of the giant mining parastatal (ZCCM) will lead to the increased efficiency of copper production, improved export earnings, and a subsequent influx of foreign exchange in order to correct the economy's sizeable balance of payments deficit. The proposed privatization of other major parastatals in the telecommunications, electricity, and transport sectors is expected to produce similar results. In part due to this adaptation of free market reform, Zambia's external creditors seem likely to write off US$670 million of debt in 2001, continue to reschedule the repayments of a large proportion of debt, and extend the level of credit available to the government by US$4.5 billion in order to prop up the economy. However, signs of a global recession in early 2001 indicate that the world market for Zambia's exports may become less profitable. This will have a severely negative impact on the country's population and the growing non-traditional export sector, and make the repayment of outstanding debt unfeasible.

DEPENDENCIES

Zambia has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Africa Institute. Africa A-Z: Continental and Country Profiles. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Africa Institute of South Africa, 1998.

Africa South of the Sahara 2001. 30th edition. London: Europa,2000.

Africa: the South. London: Lonely Planet, 1997.

Arnold, G. The Resources of the Third World. London: Cassell,1997.

Burdette, M.M. Zambia: Between Two Worlds. Boulder:Westview, 1988.

Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook 2000. <http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html>. Accessed February 2001.

Chikulo, B. C. and O. B. Sichone. "Introduction: Creation of the Third Republic." In Democracy in Zambia: Challenges for the Third Republic, edited by O. B. Sichone and B. C. Chikulo. Harare: SAPES Books, 1996.

Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). <http://www.comesa.int>. Accessed March 2001.

Export Board of Zambia (EBZ). <http://www.ebz.co.zm/country_profile>. Accessed March 2001.

Food and Agriculture Organisation. FAO Yearbook: Trade, Volume 52, 1998. Rome: FAO, 1999.

International Monetary Fund. International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2000. Washington, D.C.: IMF, 2000.

Mehran, H., P. Ugolini, J. Briffaux, G. Iden, T. Lybek, S.Swaray, and P. Hayward. "Financial Sector Development in Sub-Saharan African Countries." IMF Occasional Article 169. Washington, D.C.: IMF, 1998.

Mitchell, B.R. International Historical Statistics: Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993. 3rd edition. London: Macmillan, 1998.

Mulenga, C. "Structural Adjustment and the Rural-Urban Gap." Institute of African Studies Working Papers. University of Zambia: Institute of African Studies, 1993.

Mwanakatwe, J. M. End of Kaunda Era. Lusaka: Multimedia,1994.

Nadzam, B., ed. Countries of the World and Their Leaders Yearbook 2001. Two volumes. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale Group, 2001.

Republic of Zambia Revenue Authority (ZRA). <http://www.zra.org.zm>. Accessed March 2001.

Turok, B. "The Penalties of Zambia's Mixed Economy." In Development in Zambia: A Reader, edited by B. Turok. London: Zed, 1979.

United Nations. Statistical Yearbook: 44th issue, 1997. NewYork: United Nations, 2000.

United Nations. UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS). <http://www.unaids.org/hivaidsinfo/statistics/june00/fact_sheets/pdfs/zambia.pdf>. Accessed March 2001.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). UNCTAD Commodity Yearbook 1995. New York: United Nations, 1995.

United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Human Development Report 2000. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. <http://www.uneca.org>. Accessed March 2001.

United States Department of State. Country Commercial Guide: Zambia, Fiscal Year 2001. <http://www.state.gov./www/about_state/business/com_guides/index.html>. Accessed February 2001.

Upham, M., ed. Trade Unions of the World. 4th edition. London: Cartermill, 1996.

World Bank. African Development Indicators 2000. Washington DC: World Bank, 2000.

. World Development Indicators 2000. Washington DC:World Bank, 2000.

. World Development Report: From Plan to Market. NewYork: Oxford University Press, 1996.

. World Development Report: Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

. World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

. World Development Report 1997: The State in a Changing World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

. World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Liam Campling

CAPITAL:

Lusaka.

MONETARY UNIT:

Zambian kwacha (K). One Zambian kwacha is equal to 100 ngwee. Coin denominations include 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 ngwee and notes include 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 500 kwacha.

CHIEF EXPORTS:

Copper, cobalt, lead, and zinc.

CHIEF IMPORTS:

Crude oil, manufactured goods, machinery, transport equipment, and foodstuffs.

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT:

US$3.325 billion (1999). [CIA World Factbook estimates GDP at purchasing power parity at US$8.5 billion (1999 est.).]

BALANCE OF TRADE:

Exports: US$1.057 billion (1998). Imports: US$1.140 billion (1998). [CIA World Factbook reports exports to be US$900 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.) and imports to be US$1.15 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.).]

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Zambia

PROFILE
PEOPLE
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL CONDITIONS
ECONOMY
DEFENSE
FOREIGN RELATIONS
U.S.-ZAMBIAN RELATIONS
TRAVEL

Compiled from the February 2008 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:

Republic of Zambia

PROFILE

Geography

Area: 752,614 sq. km. (290,585 sq. mi.); slightly larger than Texas.

Cities: Capita--Lusaka (pop. approx. 1 million). Other cities: Kitwe, Ndola, Livingstone, Kabwe.

Terrain: Varies; mostly plateau savanna.

Climate: Generally dry and temperate.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Zambian(s).

Population: (2006) Approx. 11.9 million.

Annual growth rate: (2006) 1.6%.

Ethnic groups: More than 70 ethnic groups.

Religions: Christian, indigenous beliefs, Muslim, Hindu.

Languages: English (official), about 70 local languages and dialects, including Bemba, Lozi, Kaonde, Lunda, Luvale, Tonga, and Nyanja.

Education: No compulsory education; 7 years free education. Net primary school enrollment: 67%. Literacy--women: 60.6%; men: 81.6%.

Health: Infant mortality rate--102/ 1,000. Life expectancy (2005)--38.4 years. HIV prevalence (15-49)--17%.

Work force: Agriculture--75%; mining and manufacturing--6%; services-19%.

Government

Type: Republic.

Independence: October 24, 1964.

Constitution: 1991 (as amended in 1996).

Government branches: Executive-president (chief of state and head of government), cabinet. Legislative--unicameral National Assembly. Judicial--Supreme Court, high court, magistrate courts, and local courts.

Political parties: Movement for Multi-party Democracy (MMD).

Suffrage: Universal adult.

Political subdivisions: Nine provinces subdivided into 72 districts.

Economy

GDP: (2006, current prices) $10.9 billion.

Annual growth rate: (2006) 6.0%.

Per capita GDP: (2006, current prices) $921.

Natural resources: Copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydroelectric power, fertile land.

Agriculture: Products--corn, sorghum, rice, groundnuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, horticultural products, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, livestock, coffee, and soybeans.

Industry: Types--mining, transport, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, and textiles.

Trade: (2006) Exports--$3.54 billion: copper, cobalt, lead, and zinc, cut vegetables, cotton. Major markets--South Africa, United Kingdom, Tanzania, Malawi, Japan. Imports--$2.7 billion: crude oil, refined petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs. Major suppliers--South Africa, China, Tanzania, Zimbabwe.

Major donors: Donors provided $1.1 billion in development assistance to Zambia in 2005/6. The World Bank is Zambia's largest multilateral donor. Other key multilateral donors include the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Union, UN agencies, and the African Development Bank. Counting direct bilateral assistance and assistance through multilateral agencies, the U.S. is Zambia's largest country donor.

PEOPLE

Zambia's population comprises more than 70 Bantu-speaking ethnic groups. Some ethnic groups are small, and only two have enough people to constitute at least 10% of the population. Most Zambians are subsistence farmers. The predominant religion is a blend of traditional beliefs and Christianity; Christianity is the official national religion. Expatriates, mostly British (about 15,000) or South African, live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are employed in mines and related activities. Zambia also has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians. The country is 44% urban. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is ravaging Zambia. Nearly 1 million Zambians are HIV positive or have AIDS. An estimated 100,000 died in 2004. Over 750,000 Zambian children have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS. Life expectancy at birth is 32.7 years.

HISTORY

The indigenous hunter-gatherer occupants of Zambia began to be displaced or absorbed by more advanced migrating tribes about 2,000 years ago. The major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants began in the 15th century, with the greatest influx between the late 17th and early 19th centuries. They came primarily from the Luba and Lunda tribes of southern Democratic Republic of Congo and northern Angola but were joined in the 19th century by Ngoni peoples from the south. By the latter part of that century, the various peoples of Zambia were largely established in the areas they currently occupy.

Except for an occasional Portuguese explorer, the area lay untouched by Europeans for centuries. After the mid-19th century, it was penetrated by Western explorers, missionaries, and traders. David Livingstone, in 1855, was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River. He named the falls after Queen Victoria, and the Zambian town near the falls is named after him.

In 1888, Cecil Rhodes, spearheading British commercial and political interests in Central Africa, obtained a mineral rights concession from local chiefs. In the same year, Northern and Southern Rhodesia (now Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively) were proclaimed a British sphere of influence. Southern Rhodesia was annexed formally and granted self-government in 1923, and the administration of Northern Rhodesia was transferred to the British colonial office in 1924 as a protectorate.

In 1953, both Rhodesias were joined with Nyasaland (now Malawi) to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Northern Rhodesia was the center of much of the turmoil and crisis that characterized the federation in its last years. At the core of the controversy were insistent African demands for greater participation in government and European fears of losing political control.

A two-stage election held in October and December 1962 resulted in an African majority in the legislative council and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties. The council passed resolutions calling for Northern Rhodesia's secession from the federation and demanding full internal self-government under a new constitution and a new national assembly based on a broader, more democratic franchise. On December 31, 1963, the federation was dissolved, and Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on October 24, 1964.

At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges. Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise. Abroad, three of its neighbors--Southern Rhodesia and the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola--remained under white-dominated rule. Rhodesia's white-ruled government unilaterally declared independence in 1965. In addition, Zambia shared a border with South African-controlled South-West Africa (now Namibia). Zambia's sympathies lay with forces opposing colonial or white-dominated rule, particularly in Southern Rhodesia. During the next decade, it actively supported movements such as the Union for the Total Liberation of Angola (UNITA), the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), the African National Congress of South Africa (ANC), and the South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO).

Conflicts with Rhodesia resulted in the closing of Zambia's borders with that country and severe problems with international transport and power supply. However, the Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the country's requirements for electricity. A railroad to the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam, built with Chinese assistance, reduced Zambian dependence on railroad lines south to South Africa and west through an increasingly troubled Angola.

By the late 1970s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal. Zimbabwe achieved independence in accordance with the 1979 Lancaster House agreement, but Zambia's problems were not solved. Civil war in the former Portuguese colonies generated refugees and caused continuing transportation problems. The Benguela Railroad, which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to traffic from Zambia by the late 1970s. Zambia's strong support for the ANC, which had its external headquarters in Lusaka, created security problems as South Africa raided ANC targets in Zambia.

In the mid-1970s, the price of copper, Zambia's principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide. Zambia turned to foreign and international lenders for relief, but as copper prices remained depressed, it became increasingly difficult to service its growing debt. By the mid-1990s, despite limited debt relief, Zambia's per capita foreign debt remained among the highest in the world.

GOVERNMENT

Zambia became a republic immediately upon attaining independence in October 1964. The constitution promulgated on August 25, 1973, abrogated the original 1964 constitution. The new constitution and the national elections that followed in

December 1973 were the final steps in achieving what was called a “one-party participatory democracy.”

The 1973 constitution provided for a strong president and a unicameral National Assembly. National policy was formulated by the Central Committee of the United National Independence Party (UNIP), the sole legal party in Zambia. The cabinet executed the central committee's policy.

In accordance with the intention to formalize UNIP supremacy in the new system, the constitution stipulated that the sole candidate in elections for the office of president was the person selected to be the president of UNIP by the party's general conference. The second-ranking person in the Zambian hierarchy was UNIP's secretary general.

In December 1990, at the end of a tumultuous year that included riots in the capital and a coup attempt, President Kenneth Kaunda signed legislation ending UNIP's monopoly on power. In response to growing popular demand for multi-party democracy, and after lengthy, difficult negotiations between the Kaunda government and opposition groups, Zambia enacted a new constitution in August 1991. The constitution enlarged the National Assembly from 136 members to a maximum of 158 members, established an electoral commission, and allowed for more than one presidential candidate who no longer had to be a member of UNIP. The constitution was amended again in 1996 to set new limits on the presidency (including a retroactive two-term limit, and a requirement that both parents of a candidate be Zambian-born). The National Assembly is comprised of 150 directly elected members, up to eight presidentially-appointed members, and a speaker. Zambia is divided into nine provinces, each administered by an appointed deputy minister who essentially performs the duties of a governor.

The Supreme Court is the highest court and the court of appeal; below it are the high court, magistrate's court, and local courts.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 2/1/2008

Pres.: Levy Patrick MWANAWASA

Vice Pres.: Rupiah BANDA

Min. of Agriculture & Cooperatives: Ben KAPITA

Min. of Commerce, Trade, & Industry: Felix MUTATI

Min. of Community Development & Social Services: Catherine NAMUGALA

Min. of Defense: George MPOMBO

Min. of Education: Geoffrey LUNGWANGA

Min. of Energy & Water Development: Kenneth KONGA

Min. of Environment, Natural Resources, & Tourism: Michael KAINGU

Min. of Finance & National Planning: Ngandu Peter MAGANDE

Min. of Foreign Affairs: Kabinga PANDE

Min. of Gender & Women's Development: Sarah SAYIFWANDA

Min. of Health: Angela CIFIRE

Min. of Home Affairs: Ronnie SHIKAPWASHA, Lt. Gen.

Min. of Information & Broadcasting: Mike MULONGOTI

Min. of Labor & Social Security

Min. of Lands: Gladys NYIRONGO

Min. of Justice: George KUNDA

Min. of Local Govt. & Housing: Sylvia MASEBO

Min. of Mines & Mineral Resources: Kalombo MWANSA

Min. of Science, Technology, & Vocational Training: Brian CHITUWO

Min. of Sports, Youth, & Child Development: Gabriel NAMULAMBE

Min. of Transport & Communications: Peter DAKA

Min. of Works & Supply: Kapembwa SIMBAO

Permanent Sec., Office of the Pres.: Gibson ZIMBA

Attorney Gen.: George KUNDA

Solicitor Gen.: Sunday NKONDE

Governor, Central Bank: Caleb FUNDANGA

Ambassador to the US: Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Lazarous KAPAMBWE

Zambia maintains an embassy in the United States at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel: 202-265-9717/8/9).

POLITICAL CONDITIONS

The major figure in Zambian politics from 1964 to 1991 was Kenneth Kaunda, who led the campaign for independence and successfully bridged the rivalries among the country's various regions and ethnic groups. Kaunda tried to base government on his philosophy of “humanism,” which condemned human exploitation and stressed cooperation among people, but not at the expense of the individual.

Kaunda's political party--the United National Independence Party (UNIP)--was founded in 1959 and was in power under Kaunda's leadership from 1964 to 1991. Before 1972, Zambia had three significant political parties--UNIP, the African National Congress (ANC), and the United Progressive Party (UPP). The ANC drew its strength from western and southern provinces, while the UPP found some support among Bemba-speakers in the Copperbelt and northern provinces. Although not strongly supported in all areas of the country, only UNIP had a nationwide following.

In December 1972, Zambian law established a one-party state, and all other political parties were banned; this was later enshrined in the 1973 constitution. Kaunda, the sole candidate, was elected President in the 1973 elections. Elections also were held for the National Assembly. Only UNIP members were permitted to run, but these seats were sharply contested. President Kaunda's man-date was renewed in December 1978, October 1983, and October 1988 in “yes” or “no” vote on his candidacy. Growing opposition to UNIP's monopoly on power led to the rise in 1990 of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). The MMD assembled an increasingly impressive group of important Zambians, including prominent UNIP defectors and labor leaders. During the year, President Kaunda agreed to a referendum on the one-party state but, in the face of continued opposition, dropped the referendum and signed a constitutional amendment making Zambia a multi-party state. Zambia's first multi-party elections for parliament and the presidency since the 1960s were held on October 31, 1991. MMD candidate Frederick Chiluba resoundingly carried the presidential election over Kenneth Kaunda with 81% of the vote.

To add to the MMD landslide, in the parliamentary elections the MMD won 125 of the 150 elected seats and UNIP the remaining 25. However, UNIP swept the Eastern Province, gathering 19 of its seats there.

By the end of Chiluba's first term as President (1996), the MMD's commitment to political reform had faded in the face of re-election demands. A number of prominent supporters founded opposing parties. Relying on the MMD's overwhelming majority in parliament, President Chiluba in May 1996 pushed through constitutional amendments that eliminated former President Kaunda and other prominent opposition leaders from the 1996 presidential elections. In the presidential and parliamentary elections held in November 1996, Chiluba was re-elected, and the MMD won 131 of the 150 seats in the National Assembly. Kaunda's UNIP party boy-cotted the parliamentary polls to protest the exclusion of its leader from the presidential race, alleging in addition that the outcome of the election had been predetermined due to a faulty voter registration exercise. Despite the UNIP boycott, the elections took place peacefully, and five presidential and more than 600 parliamentary candidates from 11 parties participated. Afterward, however, several opposition parties and non-governmental organizations declared the elections neither free nor fair. As President Chiluba began his second term in 1997, the opposition continued to reject the results of the election amid international efforts to encourage the MMD and the opposition to resolve their differences through dialogue.

Early in 2001, supporters of President Chiluba mounted a campaign to amend the constitution to enable Chi-luba to seek a third term of office. Civil society, opposition parties, and many members of the ruling party exerted sufficient pressure on Chi-luba to force him to back away from any attempt at a third term.

Presidential, parliamentary, and local government elections were held on December 27, 2001. Eleven parties contested the elections. The elections encountered numerous administrative problems. Opposition parties alleged that serious irregularities occurred. Nevertheless, MMD presidential candidate Levy Mwanawasa, having garnered a plurality of the vote (29%), was declared the victor by a narrow margin, and he was sworn into office on January 2, 2002. Three parties submitted petitions to the Supreme Court, challenging the election results, but the court ruled against the petitioners in February 2005. Opposition parties won a majority of parliamentary seats in the December 2001 election, but sub-sequent by-elections gave the ruling MMD a majority in parliament.

During his first months in office, President Mwanawasa encouraged the Zambian Anticorruption Commission to aggressively pursue its mandate. In July 2002, in a speech before the Zambian National Assembly, President Mwanawasa provided details on a number of corruption allegations targeting former President Chiluba, and called for parliament to consider lifting Chiluba's immunity from prosecution. Mwana-wasa appointed a special Task Force to investigate and prosecute corrupt officials. Zambian courts are now hearing cases involving corruption charges against Chiluba and numerous officials from his regime.

During his first term in office, President Mwanawasa appointed an Electoral Reform Technical Committee (ERTC) and a Constitutional Reform Committee (CRC) to make recommendations for reforms. The ERTC submitted its final report to the President in August 2005. Voter registration began on October 31, 2005 and continued through December 31, 2005. The CRC presented its final report and a draft constitution in December 2005. In February 2006 the government agreed to allow the formation of a Constituent Assembly to consider and adopt the draft constitution, subject to certain conditions. However, to date, a Constituent Assembly has not been formed. The Government of Zambia introduced very limited legislative changes to electoral procedures in mid-2006.

On July 25, 2006, President Mwana-wasa dissolved parliament and his cabinet and set September 28, 2006 as the date for presidential, parliamentary, and local government elections. Mwanawasa won the September 2006 election with 1,177,846 votes, while the Patriotic Front's Michael Sata came in second with 804,748 votes. The head of a three-party alliance, Hakainde Hich-ilema, placed third. In parliamentary elections, the ruling MMD party won a slim majority of seats. International observers commended the overall conduct of the elections, but noted some anomalies.

ECONOMY

Over 70% of Zambians live in poverty. Per capita annual incomes are currently at about one-half their levels at independence and, at $627, place the country among the world's poorest nations. Social indicators continue to decline, particularly in measurements of life expectancy at birth (about 38 years) and maternal mortality (729 per 100,000 pregnancies). The country's rate of economic growth cannot support rapid population growth or the strain which HIV/ AIDS related issues (i.e., rising medical costs, decline in worker productivity) place on government resources. Zambia is also one of Sub-Saharan Africa's most highly urbanized countries. Almost one-half of the country's 10 million people are concentrated in a few urban zones strung along the major transportation corridors, while rural areas are underpopulated. Unemployment and underemployment are serious problems.

HIV/AIDS is the nation's greatest challenge, with 16% prevalence among the adult population. HIV/ AIDS will continue to ravage Zambian economic, political, cultural, and social development for the foreseeable future.

Once a middle-income country, Zambia began to slide into poverty in the 1970s when copper prices declined on world markets. The socialist government made up for falling revenue by increasing borrowing. After democratic multi-party elections, the Chi-luba government (1991-2001) came to power in November 1991 committed to an economic reform program. The government was successful in some areas, such as privatization of most of the parastatals, maintenance of positive real interest rates, the elimination of exchange controls, and endorsement of free market principles. Corruption grew dramatically under the Chiluba government. Zambia has yet to address effectively issues such as reducing the size of the public sector and improving Zambia's social sector delivery systems.

Zambia's total foreign debt stood at about $7 billion when Zambia reached the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC) completion point in April 2005. In December 2005, the U.S. and Zambian Governments signed an agreement for cancellation of $280 million in bilateral debt. Once debt cancellation under HIPC is completed, almost $6 billion in debt will be eliminated.

The IMF conducts periodic economic reviews under a three-year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility. In November 2006, the Fund commended Zambia's macroeconomic stability and continued fiscal discipline, but noted lags in the implementation of some reform measures. In 2006, the rate of inflation dropped into single digits for the first time in recent history. The Zambian economy has historically been based on the coppermining industry. Output of copper had fallen, however, to a low of 228,000 metric tons in 1998, after a 30-year decline in output due to lack of investment, low copper prices, and uncertainty over privatization. Following privatization of the industry, copper production rebounded, reaching almost 400,000 metric tons in 2004 and 440,000 metric tons in 2005. Improvements in the world copper market have magnified the effect of this volume increase on revenues and foreign exchange earnings.

The Zambian Government is pursuing an economic diversification program to reduce the economy's reliance on the copper industry. This initiative seeks to exploit other components of Zambia's rich resource base by promoting agriculture, tourism, gemstone mining, and hydro power.

DEFENSE

The Zambian Defense Force (ZDF) consists of the army, the air force, and Zambian National Service (ZNS). The ZNS, while operating under the Ministry of Defense, is responsible primarily for public works projects. The ZDF is designed primarily for internal defense. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has hit the ZDF especially hard.

The ZDF contributes to African Union and United Nations peace-keeping operations in Africa, and in 2005 became a partner in the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Zambia is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), the African Union, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), which is headquartered in Lusaka.

President Kaunda was a persistent and visible advocate of change in Southern Africa, supporting liberation movements in Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), and South Africa. Many of these organizations were based in Zambia during the 1970s and 1980s.

President Chiluba assumed a somewhat higher profile internationally in the mid-and late 1990s. His government played a constructive regional role sponsoring Angola peace talks that led to the 1994 Lusaka Protocols. Zambia has provided troops to UN peacekeeping initiatives in Mozambique, Rwanda, Angola, and Sierra Leone. Zambia was the first African state to cooperate with the International Tribunal investigation of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. In 1998, Zambia took the lead in efforts to establish a cease-fire in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Zambia was active in the Congolese peace effort after the signing of a cease-fire agreement in Lusaka in July and August 1999, although activity diminished considerably after the Joint Military Commission tasked with implementing the ceasefire relocated to Kinshasa in September 2001.

U.S.-ZAMBIAN RELATIONS

The United States and Zambia enjoy warm relations. The United States works closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia, to promote economic growth and development, and to effect political reform needed to strengthen the nation's emerging democratic institutions. The United States is also supporting the governmen's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). Total U.S. Government assistance obligated for Zambia in 2006 was approximately $268 million. These funds provided a variety of technical assistance and other support that is managed by the Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development, Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) Threshold Program, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Treasury, Department of Defense, and Peace Corps. The majority of assistance was provided through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.

In addition to supporting development projects, the United States has provided considerable emergency food aid during periods of drought through the World Food Program (WFP) and is a major contributor to refugee programs in Zambia through the UN High Commission for Refugees and other agencies.

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

USAID administered more than $141 million in obligated funding for 2006. This included the management of over $70 million for PEPFAR and $22 million for the MCA assistance to Zambia to fight corruption, reduce administrative barriers, and make customs clearance more efficient, to improve trade. During 2006, USAID focused on the following programs in addition to PEPFAR and MCA:

  • Increased private sector competitiveness;
  • Improved quality of basic education for more school-aged children;
  • Improved health status of Zambians; and
  • Reduced impact of HIV/AIDS through a multi-sectoral response.

Peace Corps

A country agreement inviting the Peace Corps to work in Zambia was signed by the United States and Zambia on September 14, 1993. The first group of volunteers was sworn in on April 7, 1994. In 2007, the Peace Corps program in Zambia continued to increase understanding between Zambians and Americans. More than 160 two-year Volunteers and as many as 10 extension and Crisis Corps Volunteers promote sustainable development through their activities in agricultural and natural resource management, health and sanitation, rural education, and humanitarian assistance. Volunteers are working in eight of Zambia's nine provinces building local capacity to manage family fish farms, to promote food security and positive resource management practices near forest reserves, to implement health reforms at the village level, to promote and support rural education, and to extend HIV/AIDS education and prevention efforts through full participation in PEPFAR. Volunteers live primarily in rural villages in remote parts of the country without running water, electricity, or other amenities. New trainees undertake training in local language, culture, and the relevant technical specialty for 9-12 weeks at a center in the Chongwe district of Lusaka province.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Last Updated: 2/19/2008

LUSAKA (E) Crn of Independence and United Nations Ave, 260-211-250-955, after hours follow instructions, Fax 260-211-252-225/Management Office-253-951, Executive Office–251 865, INMARSAT Tel Inbound-XXX-870-762637588 (use code req. fm USA or Outside USA), Workweek: Mon–Thu-07:30–17:00, Fri–07:00–12:30, Website: http://zambia.usembassy.gov.

DCM OMS:Nelda Villines
AMB OMS:Lorraine Mabazza
ECO:Mikail Cleverley
FM:Mark Nichols
MGT:J. Denver Herren
POL ECO:Jill Derderian
SPSH:Jeane Harris
AMB:Carmen Martinez
CON:Malia Heroux
DCM:Michael Koplovsky
PAO:Christopher Wurst
GSO:Bill Hunt
AGR:Kevin N. Smith (Nairobi)
AID:Melissa Williams
CLO:Kristin Ford
DAO:Ltc. David Dougherty
FMO:Martin Schwartz
ICASS:Chair Melissa Williams
IMO:Michael Ac Jordan
ISSO:Travis Waite
LAB:Randy Fleitman (Nairobi)
State ICASS:Jill Derderian

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet

December 14, 2007

Country Description: Zambia is a developing country in southern Africa. Tourist facilities outside of the capital, Lusaka, Livingstone (Victoria Falls), and well-known game parks are not fully developed.

Entry Requirements: A passport and visa are required. A visa may be obtained in advance at a Zambian Embassy or Consulate or at the port of entry. Visas for American passport holders are $100. Visas are valid for 3 years, multiple entries. At the time of entry, the immigration officer will stamp your passport with the permitted length of stay. This is normally 30 days and can ordinarily be extended twice (for a total time of 90 days) by visiting the immigration home office in Lusaka. All Americans, except resident diplomats, must pay an airport departure tax which is collected in U.S. dollars. Airlines include this tax in the cost of the ticket. However, passengers will need to verify that this tax has been paid at the airport. The passenger will receive a “no-fee” receipt reflecting this payment. Travelers transiting through South Africa should ensure that they have at least two blank (unstamped) visa pages in their passports. South African immigration authorities routinely turn away visitors who do not have enough blank visa pages in their passports. Zambian Immigration officials insist visitors carry the original or a certified copy of their passport and their immigration permit at all times. Certified copies must be obtained from the immigration office that issued the permit. American citizens should closely follow immigration guidelines, including visa requirements for travel to Zambia.

Visit the Embassy of Zambia web site at http://www.zambiaembassy.org/ for the most current visa information. Additional information on entry requirements may be obtained from the Embassy of the Republic of Zambia, 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 265-9717 or 19.

Safety and Security: U.S. citizens are advised to avoid travel in northern Luapula Province and in areas of the Northern Province adjacent to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Although a cease-fire is currently in effect, the DRC is not yet stable and uncontrolled militias operate in the eastern DRC. In the past, armed gunmen have occasionally attacked vehicles near the DRC-Zambian border.

Land mines along the western, southern, and eastern borders make off-road travel to those areas potentially hazardous. American citizens are advised not to travel off-road along the border areas. U.S. citizens should avoid political rallies and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's web site, where the current World-wide Caution Travel Alert, Middle East and North Africa Travel Alert, Travel Warnings and other Travel Alerts can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.

Crime: Crime in Zambia is wide-spread. Armed carjacking, mugging, residential burglaries, and petty theft are commonplace in Lusaka and other major cities, especially in down-town commercial districts and low-income housing neighborhoods. Armed criminals perpetrate carjacking, robberies and home invasions at all times of the day. Often carjackers will block the back of a car when one pulls into a driveway. Many times they will pretend to be distressed motorists seeking assistance or use other ruses to get their victim to stop. Carjackers target the full range of vehicles, and anyone who does not practice sound security procedures may be victimized. Thieves steal possessions from automobiles and public transport vehicles stopped in traffic. Bystanders have been known to pretend to assist victims of car accidents, while actually stealing wallets, cell phones or other possessions. Travelers should keep car doors locked and car windows rolled up at all times. Travel at night is particularly risky, both in Lusaka and on roads outside of the city.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Government hospitals and clinics are often understaffed and lack supplies. Private medical clinics in major cities can provide reasonable care in many cases, but major medical emergencies usually require medical evacuation to South Africa, Europe, or the United States. Basic medical care outside of major cities is extremely limited. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services. Travelers should carry their prescription drugs and medications in original labeled containers, as well as the written prescription from their physician.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Zambia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Driving on Zambian roads can be hazardous; passing or “overtaking” another car can be particularly dangerous. Since most roads do not have shoulders or sidewalks, pedestrians and livestock use the roadways both day and night. While the main roads in Lusaka are maintained, many secondary roads are in poor repair. Driving at night can be hazardous and is discouraged. Minibuses and cars break down often. When breakdowns occur, local drivers place a few branches behind the car to indicate trouble, but this is hardly visible at night. Many drivers use their high beams at night to detect stopped vehicles and pedestrians.

There are no emergency services for stranded drivers. Car accident victims are vulnerable to theft by those who pretend to be “helpful.” It is advisable to have a cell phone when undertaking a trip outside of town, although many parts of the country do not yet have cell phone service. During the rainy season (end of October to mid-March), travelers who do not have a four-wheel drive vehicle will encounter problems driving on rural roads. The roads from Lusaka to Livingstone and the Copperbelt cities of Ndola and Kitwe are generally in good condition year-round.

Minibuses serve as the primary means of inter-city travel in Zambia. They are often overcrowded and seldom punctual. Some luxury buses do ply the routes between Lusaka and Livingstone and the Copperbelt. City traffic is comprised mostly of cars and minibuses; motorcycles are rare. Since 2000, Americans have been involved in several car accidents, a number of them serious. Carjacking occurs in Lusaka day and night, most often by blocking the back of one's car when one pulls into the driveway. For security reasons, the U.S. Embassy discourages travelers from driving on rural roads, especially near the borders with DRC and Angola. American citizens who must drive in these areas are encouraged to drive in convoy and to carry satellite telephones.

Traffic circulates on the left side of the road, and there are many British-style roundabouts rather than intersections with traffic lights. There is no left turn on red. Seat belts are mandatory, as are helmets for motorcyclists. A child's seat is not mandatory by law, but is essential for safeguarding children. The speed limit is 50 km/30 mph in Lusaka and 100 km/60 mph outside of city limits. However, speed limits are rarely respected, and most cars drive 80 km/ 50 mph in the city and 120 km/75 mph outside town. It is not unusual to see four-wheel drive vehicles, trucks, and buses driving at even higher speeds on the stretch between Lusaka and Livingstone. Drivers under the influence of alcohol who are involved in accidents are tested at Lusaka's University Teaching Hospital (UTH) and then taken to court. Visit the website of the country's national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at www.zambiatourism.com.

Aviation Safety Oversight: As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Zambia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Zambia's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov.

Special Circumstances: Perpetrators of business fraud often target foreigners, including Americans. While such fraud schemes in the past have been largely associated with Nigeria, they are now prevalent throughout Africa, including Zambia.

Recently, American citizens have consulted the Embassy regarding questionable business offers sent by email. Typically, these scam operations begin with an unsolicited communication (usually by e-mail) from an unknown individual who describes a situation that promises quick financial gain, often by assisting in the transfer of a large sum of money or valuables out of the country. A series of advance fees, such as fees to open a bank account, or to pay certain taxes, must then be paid in order to conclude the transaction. In fact, the final payoff does not exist; the purpose of the scam is simply to collect the advance fees.

U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times, so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship is readily available. Zambian police do not provide the U.S. Embassy with timely notification of the arrest of American citizens. If you are detained, you should insist on your right to contact a U.S. consular officer.

American Express, MasterCard and Visa cards are accepted in major supermarkets, restaurants, stores, and hotels in Lusaka and Livingstone (Victoria Falls). Credit card fraud is increasing in Zambia and there have been several cases involving fraudulent charges, including some at major hotels catering primarily to foreign visitors. Many businesses use carbonized paper documents to process payment. These documents are not secure and can pose a threat to cardholders. The Embassy urges caution when using debit or credit cards at any point of purchase, especially if the transaction is not processed electronically. Normally, American travelers can withdraw money (in local currency) from ATMs in major cities in Zambia using their ATM cards or credit cards from the United States. However, from time to time, the banks lose their connections with the credit card exchanges, thus making withdrawals impossible. Zambian banks and bureaux de change will not accept dollar-denominated notes issued before 1990.

Travel to military areas and photographing military facilities, airports, bridges, and other facilities deemed to be of security relevance, are prohibited. Authorities may also challenge photography of areas other than tourist attractions. Service providers in Zambia, including the tourism sector, are not subject to the same standards of safety oversight that exist in the United States; visitors should evaluate risks carefully.

Travelers are cautioned to observe local or park regulations and heed all instruction given by tour guides. Even in the most serene settings, wild animals can pose a threat to life and safety.

Large numbers of travelers visit tourist destinations, including South Luangwa National Park and Livingstone (Victoria Falls), without incident. However, American citizens are advised to avoid rafting and other whitewater boating activities on the Zambezi River below Victoria Falls during the high-water season, February through June. During periods of high water, the Batoka Gorge section of the river becomes unpredictable and several tourists have been involved in fatal accidents.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Zambia laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Zambia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

It is against both Zambian and U.S. law to buy, possess or transport animals or animal products, such as tortoise shell, rhino horn, elephant ivory, tusks of any animal or any items made out of these materials. In Zambia, penalties range from large fines to mandatory 5-year prison sentences. The Zambian Wildlife Authority has screeners at international ports of entry/exit and WILL prosecute offenders to the fullest extent of the law.

While many of these items are sold in open markets particularly aimed at foreign tourists, it remains the responsibility of the customer to ensure that he/she is not purchasing a prohibited item.

Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Registration and Embassy Locations: Americans living or traveling in Zambia are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Zambia. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at the corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues. The mailing address is PO Box 31617, Lusaka, Zambia. Telephone exchanges have recently changed within Zambia. When calling from the United States, please contact the American Embassy during regular work hours, Monday through Thursday from 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., and on Friday from 7:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. by dialing 011-260-21-125-0955. For after-hours emergencies involving American citizens, please dial 011-260-21-125-0955 extension 1. The fax number is 260-21-125-2225. The web site is http://zambia.usembassy.gov.

International Adoption

December 2007

The information in this section has been edited from a report of the State Department Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Overseas Citizens Services. For more information, please read the International Adoption section of this book and review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Disclaimer: The information in this flyer relating to the legal requirements of specific foreign countries is based on public sources and current understanding. Questions involving foreign and U.S. immigration laws and legal interpretation should be addressed respectively to qualified foreign or U.S. legal counsel. Zambia is not a signatory to the Hague Convention of 29 May 1993 on Protection of Children and Co-operation in respect of Intercountry Adoption (The Hague Convention).

Patterns of Immigration: Please review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Adoption Authority: The Department of Social Welfare of the Ministry of Community Development and Social Services oversees adoptions. Prospective adoptive parents may contact Social Welfare Officers and Juvenile Inspectors of the Provincial and District Social Welfare Offices to apply for adoption.

Commissioner for Juvenile Welfare Ministry of Community Development & Social Welfare HQ

P.O. Box 31958
Lusaka, Zambia
Telephone: (26)-021-123-5343, (26)-021-122-3319, (26)-021-123-6967
Fax: (26)-021-123-6968, (26)-021-123-5343
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

Lusaka Provincial Social Welfare Office
Boma House Church Road
P.O. Box 30281
Lusaka, Zambia
Telephone: (26)-021-122-5770

Please review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/family for a list of agencies.

Eligibility Requirements for Adoptive Parents: Adoptive parents must be at least 25 years old to adopt. Prospective adoptive parents (or one of them if it is a couple) must be at least 25 years old and at least 21 years older than the child. If they are related to the child, then they must be at lest 21 years old. Prospective adoptive parents may be married or single; however, single men may not adopt a female child unless the court is satisfied there are special circumstances warranting such an adoption.

Residency Requirements: According to the Zambian Adoption Act adoptive parents must be resident in Zambia for a period of at least 12 months in order to adopt a Zambian child. Furthermore, adoptive parents may be required to foster the child for three months. Zambian adoption law may be fairly flexible, but at the minimum, U.S. citizens with an approved I-600A or 1-600 indicating the completion of the home study, have to complete the three months fostering requirement. Zambian courts issue adoption and custody orders based on recommendations made by social welfare officers at the district level. If the social welfare officers are satisfied that the parents are suitable to adopt and that the adoption is clearly in the interest of the child, they are likely to recommend adoption to the courts.

Time Frame: Zambian adoption law mandates a three-month continuous care requirement and a 12-month residency requirement prior to finalizing an adoption. The foster care period can be within the 12-month residency period. If the 12 month residency requirement is waived in lieu of the mandatory fostering, adoption processing may be completed within a few months.

Adoption Agencies and Attorneys: U.S. Adoption agencies must be registered with the Commissioner of Juvenile Welfare in order to provide adoption services in Zambia. Currently, there are no registered U.S. adoption agencies licensed to work in Zambia. Prospective adoptive families may also hire an attorney to assist them with Zambian legal requirements. The U.S. Embassy in Lusaka has a list of lawyers who will work with U.S. citizens [http://www.usemb.org.zm/wwwhlawyers.htm], but the Embassy cannot restrict applicants from using other attorney nor recommend the services of any specific attorney.

Adoption Fees: Adoption agencies, attorneys, and courts charge fees for services rendered.

Government fees include:

  • Fostering fee—50,000 kwacha (approximately $12.00)
  • Adoption court fee—50,000 kwacha (approximately $12.00)
  • Zambian passport fee—72,000 kwacha (approximately $24.00)
  • Registration/certificate of adoption—105,000 (approximately $26.00)
  • Costs as may be determined by the court—105,000 (approximately $26.00)

If a parent chooses to work with an attorney, please be aware that hourly fees vary widely, just as they do in the U.S.

  • Attorney's fees—4,500,000—15,000,000 kwacha (approximately $10,000—35,000)

The U.S. Embassy in Lusaka is not aware of any fees prospective adoptive parents have to pay to the orphanage where the child resides and would discourage any fees that are not properly receipted, “donations” or “expediting” fees that may be requested from prospective parents. Any irregular fees paid have the appearance of “buying” a baby, which is strictly against international law and puts all future adoptions at risk.

Adoption Procedures: Prospective adoptive families must first apply to the Commissioner for Juvenile Welfare for permission to adopt. If foreign citizen prospective adoptive parents are resident in Zambia, Zambian social workers will interview them and conduct a home study. U.S. citizens residing in the U.S. may submit an approved Form I-600A instead.

An adoption agency places the child with the prospective adoptive parents upon approval by provincial adoption committee. Parents must foster the child in Zambia for three months. After three months, parents file an adoption application with the court of the first class (provincial court). The child is assigned a guardian ad litem, (Social Worker) who will represent the child's interests before the court, investigate what is in the child's best interests, and report his/her findings to the court at the adoption hearing. A summons will be served on the adoptive parents, the child and any person caring for the child (if applicable). The hearing is confidential. Once the adoption order is issued it must be recorded with the Registrar General's Office and the child's details are entered into the register as an adopted child.

The child will receive a new birth certificate in his or her adoptive name. The adoptive parents receive an adoption decree, which is the final document and signifies the successful completion of the process.

Equipped with the two documents, the child applies for a new Zambian passport in the adopted name. Passports can be obtained at passport offices in Lusaka, Ndola and Livingstone. Officially, processing time for passport applications is 21 days; however, passports are usually issued within a week of submission of the application.

Required Documents: Evidence of adequate finances (home study information will suffice), birth certificates of parent(s), passport, marriage certificate, and approved I-600A (this can serve as evidence that the adoptive parents were vetted for suitability by U.S. authorities and can be used to avoid the residency requirement).

Embassy in the United States
The Embassy of the Republic of Zambia
2419 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
Washington DC 20008
Telephone: (202) 265-9717
Email: [email protected]

U.S. Immigration Requirements: Prospective adopting parents are strongly encouraged to consult USCIS publication M-249, The Immigration of Adopted and Prospective Adoptive Children, as well as the Department of State publication, International Adoptions. Please see the International Adoption section of this book for more details and review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/family.

The American Embassy
Corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues
Phone: (26)-021-125-0955,
Fax: (26)-021-125-2225
E-mail: [email protected]
http://lusaka.usembassy.gov

Additional Information: Specific questions about adoption in Zambia may be addressed to the U.S. Embassy in Zambia. General questions regarding international adoption may be addressed to the Office of Children's Issues, U.S. Department of State, CA/OCS/CI, 2201 C Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20520-4818, toll-free Tel: 1-888-407-4747.

views updated

Zambia

Compiled from the November 2006 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Republic of Zambia

PROFILE

PEOPLE

HISTORY

GOVERNMENT

POLITICAL CONDITIONS

ECONOMY

DEFENSE

FOREIGN RELATIONS

U.S.-ZAMBIAN RELATIONS

TRAVEL

PROFILE

Geography

Area: 752,614 sq. km. (290,585 sq. mi.); slightly larger than Texas.

Cities: Capital—Lusaka (pop. approx. 1 million). Other cities: Kitwe, Ndola, Livingstone, Kabwe.

Terrain: Varies; mostly plateau savanna.

Climate: Generally dry and temperate.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective—Zambian(s).

Population: (2005) Approx. 11.5 million.

Annual growth rate: (2005) 1.6%.

Ethnic groups: More than 70 ethnic groups.

Religions: Christian, indigenous beliefs, Muslim, Hindu.

Languages: English (official), about 70 local languages and dialects, including Bemba, Lozi, Kaonde, Lunda, Luvale, Tonga, and Nyanja.

Education: No compulsory education; 7 years free education. Net primary school enrollment: 67%. Literacy—women: 60.6%; men: 81.6%.

Health: Infant mortality rate—95/1,000. Life expectancy (2005)—38.1 years. HIV prevalence (15-49)—16%.

Work force: Agriculture—75%; mining and manufacturing—6%; services—19%.

Government

Type: Republic.

Independence: October 24, 1964.

Constitution: 1991 (as amended in 1996).

Government branches: Executive—president (chief of state and head of government), cabinet. Legislative—unicameral National Assembly. Judicial—Supreme Court, high court, magistrate courts, and local courts.

Political parties: Movement for Multi-party Democracy (MMD).

Suffrage: Universal adult.

Political subdivisions: Nine provinces subdivided into 72 districts.

Economy

GDP: (2005, current prices) $7.3 billion.

Annual growth rate: (2005) 5.1%.

Per capita GDP: (2005, current prices) $627.

Natural resources: Copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydroelectric power, fertile land.

Agriculture: Products—corn, sorghum, rice, groundnuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, horticultural products, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, livestock, coffee, and soybeans.

Industry: Types—mining, transport, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, and textiles.

Trade: (2005) Exports—$2.2 billion: copper, cobalt, lead, and zinc, cut vegetables, cotton. Major markets—South Africa, United Kingdom, Tanzania, Malawi, Japan. Imports—$2.2 billion: crude oil, refined petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs. Major suppliers—South Africa, China, Tanzania, Zimbabwe.

Major donors: Donors provided $38 million in development assistance to Zambia in 2004. The World Bank is Zambia’s largest multilateral donor. Other key multilateral donors include the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Union, UN agencies, and the African Development Bank. Counting direct bilateral assistance and assistance through multilateral agencies, the U.S. is Zambia’s largest country donor.

PEOPLE

Zambia’s population comprises more than 70 Bantu-speaking ethnic groups. Some ethnic groups are small, and only two have enough people to constitute at least 10% of the population. Most Zambians are subsistence farmers. The predominant religion is a blend of traditional beliefs and Christianity; Christianity is the official national religion. Expatriates, mostly British (about 15,000) or South African, live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are employed in mines and related activities. Zambia also has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians. The country is 44% urban. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is ravaging Zambia. Nearly 1 million Zambians are HIV positive or have AIDS. An estimated 100,000 died in 2004. Over 750,000 Zambian children have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS. Life expectancy at birth is 32.7 years.

HISTORY

The indigenous hunter-gatherer occupants of Zambia began to be displaced or absorbed by more advanced migrating tribes about 2,000 years ago. The major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants began in the 15th century, with the greatest influx between the late 17th and early 19th centuries. They came primarily from the Luba and Lunda tribes of southern Democratic Republic of Congo and northern Angola but were joined in the 19th century by Ngoni peoples from the south. By the latter part of that century, the various peoples of Zambia were largely established in the areas they currently occupy.

Except for an occasional Portuguese explorer, the area lay untouched by Europeans for centuries. After the mid-19th century, it was penetrated by Western explorers, missionaries, and traders. David Livingstone, in 1855, was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River. He named the falls after Queen Victoria, and the Zambian town near the falls is named after him.

In 1888, Cecil Rhodes, spearheading British commercial and political interests in Central Africa, obtained a mineral rights concession from local chiefs. In the same year, Northern and Southern Rhodesia (now Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively) were proclaimed a British sphere of influence. Southern Rhodesia was annexed formally and granted self-government in 1923, and the administration of Northern Rhodesia was transferred to the British colonial office in 1924 as a protectorate.

In 1953, both Rhodesias were joined with Nyasaland (now Malawi) to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Northern Rhodesia was the center of much of the turmoil and crisis that characterized the federation in its last years. At the core of the controversy were insistent African demands for greater participation in government and European fears of losing political control.

A two-stage election held in October and December 1962 resulted in an African majority in the legislative council and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties. The council passed resolutions calling for Northern Rhodesia’s secession from the federation and demanding full internal self-government under a new constitution and a new national assembly based on a broader, more democratic franchise. On December 31, 1963, the federation was dissolved, and Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on October 24, 1964.

At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges. Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise. Abroad, three of its neighbors—Southern Rhodesia and the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola—remained under white-dominated rule. Rhodesia’s white-ruled government unilaterally declared independence in 1965. In addition, Zambia shared a border with South African-controlled South-West Africa (now Namibia). Zambia’s sympathies lay with forces opposing colonial or white-dominated rule, particularly in Southern Rhodesia. During the next decade, it actively supported movements such as the Union for the Total Liberation of Angola (UNITA), the Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU), the African National Congress of South Africa (ANC), and the South-West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO). Conflicts with Rhodesia resulted in the closing of Zambia’s borders with that country and severe problems with international transport and power supply. However, the Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the country’s requirements for electricity. A railroad to the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam, built with Chinese assistance, reduced Zambian dependence on railroad lines south to South Africa and west through an increasingly troubled Angola.

By the late 1970s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal. Zimbabwe achieved independence in accordance with the 1979 Lancaster House agreement, but Zambia’s problems were not solved. Civil war in the former Portuguese colonies generated refugees and caused continuing transportation problems. The Benguela Railroad, which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to traffic from Zambia by the late 1970s. Zambia’s strong support for the ANC, which had its external headquarters in Lusaka, created security problems as South Africa raided ANC targets in Zambia. In the mid-1970s, the price of copper, Zambia’s principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide. Zambia turned to foreign and international lenders for relief, but as copper prices remained depressed, it became increasingly difficult to service its growing debt. By the mid-1990s, despite limited debt relief, Zambia’s per capita foreign debt remained among the highest in the world.

GOVERNMENT

Zambia became a republic immediately upon attaining independence in October 1964. The constitution promulgated on August 25, 1973, abrogated the original 1964 constitution. The new constitution and the national elections that followed in December 1973 were the final steps in achieving what was called a “one-party

participatory democracy.” The 1973 constitution provided for a strong president and a unicameral National Assembly. National policy was formulated by the Central Committee of the United National Independence Party (UNIP), the sole legal party in Zambia. The cabinet executed the central committee’s policy.

In accordance with the intention to formalize UNIP supremacy in the new system, the constitution stipulated that the sole candidate in elections for the office of president was the person selected to be the president of UNIP by the party’s general conference. The second-ranking person in the Zambian hierarchy was UNIP’s secretary general.

In December 1990, at the end of a tumultuous year that included riots in the capital and a coup attempt, President Kenneth Kaunda signed legislation ending UNIP’s monopoly on power. In response to growing popular demand for multi-party democracy, and after lengthy, difficult negotiations between the Kaunda government and opposition groups, Zambia enacted a new constitution in August 1991. The constitution enlarged the National Assembly from 136 members to a maximum of 158 members, established an electoral commission, and allowed for more than one presidential candidate who no longer had to be a member of UNIP. The constitution was amended again in 1996 to set new limits on the presidency (including a retroactive two-term limit, and a requirement that both parents of a candidate be Zambian-born). The National Assembly is comprised of 150 directly elected members, up to eight presidentially-appointed members, and a speaker. Zambia is divided into nine provinces, each administered by an appointed deputy minister who essentially performs the duties of a governor. The Supreme Court is the highest court and the court of appeal; below it are the high court, magistrate’s court, and local courts.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 10/30/2006

President: Levy Patrick MWANAWASA

Vice President: Rupiah BANDA

Min. of Agriculture & Cooperatives: Ben KAPITA

Min. of Commerce, Trade, & Industry: Kenneth KONGA

Min. of Community Development & Social Services: Catherine NAMUGALA

Min. of Defense: George MPOMBO

Min. of Education: Geoffrey LUNGWANGA

Min. of Energy & Water Development: Felix MUTATI

Min. of Environment, Natural Resources, & Tourism: Kabinga PANDE

Min. of Finance & National Planning: Ngandu Peter MAGANDE

Min. of Foreign Affairs: Mundia SIKATANA

Min. of Gender & Women’s Development: Sarah SAYIFWANDA

Min. of Health: Angela CIFIRE

Min. of Home Affairs: Ronnie SHIKAPWASHA, Lt. Gen.

Min. of Information & Broadcasting Services: Vernon MWAANGA

Min. of Labor & Social Security: Min. of Lands: Gladys NYIRONGO

Min. of Justice: George KUNDA

Min. of Local Govt. & Housing: Sylvia MASEBO

Min. of Mines & Mineral Resources: Kalombo MWANSA

Min. of Science, Technology, & Vocational Training: Brian CHITUWO

Min. of Sports, Youth, & Child Development: Gabriel NAMULAMBE

Min. of Transport & Communications: Peter DAKA

Min. of Works & Supply: Kapembwa SIMBAO

Permanent Sec., Office of the President: Gibson ZIMBA

Attorney General: George KUNDA

Solicitor General: Sunday NKONDE

Governor, Central Bank: Caleb FUNDANGA

Ambassador to the US: Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Tens KAPOMA

Zambia maintains an embassy in the United States at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel: 202-265-9717/8/9).

POLITICAL CONDITIONS

The major figure in Zambian politics from 1964 to 1991 was Kenneth Kaunda, who led the campaign for independence and successfully bridged the rivalries among the country’s various regions and ethnic groups. Kaunda tried to base government on his philosophy of “humanism,” which condemned human exploitation and stressed cooperation among people, but not at the expense of the individual.

Kaunda’s political party—the United National Independence Party (UNIP)—was founded in 1959 and was in power under Kaunda’s leadership from 1964 to 1991. Before 1972, Zambia had three significant political parties—UNIP, the African National Congress (ANC), and the United Progressive Party (UPP). The ANC drew its strength from western and southern provinces, while the UPP found some support among Bemba-speakers in the Copperbelt and northern provinces. Although not strongly supported in all areas of the country, only UNIP had a nationwide following.

In December 1972, Zambian law established a one-party state, and all other political parties were banned; this was later enshrined in the 1973 constitution. Kaunda, the sole candidate, was elected President in the 1973 elections. Elections also were held for the National Assembly. Only UNIP members were permitted to run, but these seats were sharply contested. President Kaunda’s mandate was renewed in December 1978, October 1983, and October 1988 in a “yes” or “no” vote on his candidacy.

Growing opposition to UNIP’s monopoly on power led to the rise in 1990 of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). The MMD assembled an increasingly impressive group of important Zambians, including prominent UNIP defectors and labor leaders. During the year, President Kaunda agreed to a referendum on the one-party state but, in the face of continued opposition, dropped the referendum and signed a constitutional amendment making Zambia a multi-party state. Zambia’s first multi-party elections for parliament and the presidency since the 1960s were held on October 31, 1991. MMD candidate Frederick Chiluba resoundingly carried the presidential election over Kenneth Kaunda with 81% of the vote. To add to the MMD landslide, in the parliamentary elections the MMD won 125 of the 150 elected seats and UNIP the remaining 25. However, UNIP swept the Eastern Province, gathering 19 of its seats there.

By the end of Chiluba’s first term as President (1996), the MMD’s commitment to political reform had faded in the face of re-election demands. A number of prominent supporters founded opposing parties. Relying on the MMD’s overwhelming majority in parliament, President Chiluba in May 1996 pushed through constitutional amendments that eliminated former President Kaunda and other prominent opposition leaders from the 1996 presidential elections. In the presidential and parliamentary elections held in November 1996, Chiluba was re-elected, and the MMD won 131 of the 150 seats in the National Assembly. Kaunda’s UNIP party boycotted the parliamentary polls to protest the exclusion of its leader from the presidential race, alleging in addition that the outcome of the election had been predetermined due to a faulty voter registration exercise. Despite the UNIP boycott, the elections took place peacefully, and five presidential and more than 600 parliamentary candidates from 11 parties participated. Afterward, however, several opposition parties and non-governmental organizations declared the elections neither free nor fair. As President Chiluba began his second term in 1997, the opposition continued to reject the results of the election amid international efforts to encourage the MMD and the opposition to resolve their differences through dialogue.

Early in 2001, supporters of President Chiluba mounted a campaign to amend the constitution to enable Chiluba to seek a third term of office. Civil society, opposition parties, and many members of the ruling party exerted sufficient pressure on Chiluba to force him to back away from any attempt at a third term.

Presidential, parliamentary, and local government elections were held on December 27, 2001. Eleven parties contested the elections. The elections encountered numerous administrative problems. Opposition parties alleged that serious irregularities occurred. Nevertheless, MMD presidential candidate Levy Mwanawasa, having garnered a plurality of the vote (29%), was declared the victor by a narrow margin, and he was sworn into office on January 2, 2002. Three parties submitted petitions to the Supreme Court, challenging the election results, but the court ruled against the petitioners in February 2005. Opposition parties won a majority of parliamentary seats in the December 2001 election, but subsequent by-elections gave the ruling MMD a majority in parliament.

During his first months in office, President Mwanawasa encouraged the Zambian Anticorruption Commission to aggressively pursue its mandate. In July 2002, in a speech before the Zambian National Assembly, President Mwanawasa provided details on a number of corruption allegations targeting former President Chiluba, and called for parliament to consider lifting Chiluba’s immunity from prosecution. Mwanawasa appointed a special Task Force to investigate and prosecute corrupt officials. Zambian courts are now hearing cases involving corruption charges against Chiluba and numerous officials from his regime.

During his first term in office, President Mwanawasa appointed an Electoral Reform Technical Committee (ERTC) and a Constitutional Reform Committee (CRC) to make recommendations for reforms. The ERTC submitted its final report to the President in August 2005. Voter registration began on October 31, 2005 and continued through December 31, 2005. The CRC presented its final report and a draft constitution in December 2005. In February 2006 the government agreed to allow the formation of a Constituent Assembly to consider and adopt the draft constitution, subject to certain conditions. However, to date, a Constituent Assembly has not been formed.

The Government of Zambia introduced very limited legislative changes to electoral procedures in mid-2006. On July 25, 2006, President Mwanawasa dissolved parliament and his cabinet and set September 28, 2006 as the date for presidential, parliamentary, and local government elections. Mwanawasa won the September 2006 election with 1,177,846 votes, while the Patriotic Front’s Michael Sata came in second with 804,748 votes. The head of a three-party alliance, Hakainde Hichilema, placed third. In parliamentary elections, the ruling MMD party won a slim majority of seats. International observers commended the overall conduct of the elections, but noted some anomalies.

ECONOMY

Over 70% of Zambians live in poverty. Per capita annual incomes are currently at about one-half their levels at independence and, at $627, place the country among the world’s poorest nations. Social indicators continue to decline, particularly in measurements of life expectancy at birth (about 38 years) and maternal mortality (729 per 100,000 pregnancies). The country’s rate of economic growth cannot support rapid population growth or the strain which HIV/AIDS related issues (i.e., rising medical costs, decline in worker productivity) place on government resources. Zambia is also one of Sub-Saharan Africa’s most highly urbanized countries. Almost one-half of the country’s 10 million people are concentrated in a few urban zones strung along the major transportation corridors, while rural areas are underpopulated. Unemployment and underemployment are serious problems.

HIV/AIDS is the nation’s greatest challenge, with 16% prevalence among the adult population. HIV/AIDS will continue to ravage Zambian economic, political, cultural, and social development for the foreseeable future.

Once a middle-income country, Zambia began to slide into poverty in the 1970s when copper prices declined on world markets. The socialist government made up for falling revenue by increasing borrowing. After democratic multi-party elections, the Chiluba government (1991-2001) came to power in November 1991 committed to an economic reform program. The government was successful in some areas, such as privatization of most of the parastatals, maintenance of positive real interest rates, the elimination of exchange controls, and endorsement of free market principles. Corruption grew dramatically under the Chiluba government. Zambia has yet to address effectively issues such as reducing the size of the public sector and improving Zambia’s social sector delivery systems.

Zambia’s total foreign debt stood at about $7 billion when Zambia reached the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC) completion point in April 2005. In December 2005, the U.S. and Zambian Governments signed an agreement for cancellation of $280 million in bilateral debt. Once debt cancellation under HIPC is completed, almost $6 billion in debt will be eliminated.

The IMF conducts periodic economic reviews under a three-year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility. In November 2006, the Fund commended Zambia’s macroeconomic stability and continued fiscal discipline, but noted lags in the implementation of some reform measures. In 2006, the rate of inflation dropped into single digits for the first time in recent history. The Zambian economy has historically been based on the copper-mining industry. Output of copper had fallen, however, to a low of 228,000 metric tons in 1998, after a 30-year decline in output due to lack of investment, low copper prices, and uncertainty over privatization. Following privatization of the industry, copper production rebounded, reaching almost 400,000 metric tons in 2004 and 440,000 metric tons in 2005. Improvements in the world copper market have magnified the effect of this volume increase on revenues and foreign exchange earnings.

The Zambian Government is pursuing an economic diversification program to reduce the economy’s reliance on the copper industry. This initiative seeks to exploit other components of Zambia’s rich resource base by promoting agriculture, tourism, gemstone mining, and hydro power.

DEFENSE

The Zambian Defense Force (ZDF) consists of the army, the air force, and Zambian National Service (ZNS). The ZNS, while operating under the Ministry of Defense, is responsible primarily for public works projects. The ZDF is designed primarily for internal defense. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has hit the ZDF especially hard.

The ZDF contributes to African Union and United Nations peace-keeping operations in Africa, and in 2005 became a partner in the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Zambia is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), the African Union, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), which is headquartered in Lusaka.

President Kaunda was a persistent and visible advocate of change in Southern Africa, supporting liberation movements in Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), and South Africa. Many of these organizations were based in Zambia during the 1970s and 1980s.

President Chiluba assumed a somewhat higher profile internationally in the mid- and late 1990s. His government played a constructive regional role sponsoring Angola peace talks that led to the 1994 Lusaka Protocols. Zambia has provided troops to UN peacekeeping initiatives in Mozambique, Rwanda, Angola, and Sierra Leone. Zambia was the first African state to cooperate with the International Tribunal investigation of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.

In 1998, Zambia took the lead in efforts to establish a cease-fire in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Zambia was active in the Congolese peace effort after the signing of a cease-fire agreement in Lusaka in July and August 1999, although activity diminished considerably after the Joint Military Commission tasked with implementing the ceasefire relocated to Kinshasa in September 2001.

U.S.-ZAMBIAN RELATIONS

The United States and Zambia enjoy warm relations. The United States is working closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia and to effect political reform needed to strengthen the nation’s emerging democratic institutions. The United States is also supporting the govern-ment’s efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

The United States has a substantial foreign assistance program; the U.S. Government provided about $106 million in assistance to Zambia in 2004. Overall U.S. assistance, including that administered by USAID, increased in 2005 with the expansion of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, which during 2005 provided approximately $132 million in support for the fight against HIV/AIDS. USAID, the Centers for Disease Control, the Peace Corps, the Defense Attache Office, and the State Department administered Emergency Plan programs.

USAID’s Country Strategic Plan forms the basis for development assistance to Zambia from 2004 to 2010. The strategy focuses on the following strategic objectives:

  • Increased private sector competitiveness;
  • Improved quality of basic education for more school-aged children;
  • Improved health status of Zambians;
  • Government held more accountable; and
  • Reduced impact of HIV/AIDS through a multi-sectoral response.

In addition to supporting development projects, the United States has provided considerable emergency food aid during periods of drought through the World Food Program (WFP) and is a major contributor to refugee programs in Zambia through the UN High Commission for Refugees and other agencies.

Peace Corps

A country agreement inviting the Peace Corps to work in Zambia was signed by the United States and Zambia on September 14, 1993. The first group of volunteers was sworn in on April 7, 1994. In 2005, the Peace Corps program in Zambia continued to increase understanding between Zambians and Americans. More than 140 volunteers are promoting sustainable development through their activities in agricultural and natural resource management, health and sanitation, education, and humanitarian assistance. Volunteers are working in eight of Zambia’s nine provinces building local capacity to manage family fish farms, to manage and preserve wildlife resources, to implement health reforms at the village level, to introduce interactive radio instruction for primary school children, and to extend HIV/AIDS education efforts.

Recently, a Crisis Corps Program was resumed to support local organizations in the fight against AIDS. Volunteers live primarily in rural villages in remote parts of the country without running water, electricity, or other amenities. New trainees undertake training in local language, culture, and the relevant technical specialty for 9-12 weeks at a center in the Copperbelt.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

LUSAKA (E) Address: Crn of Independence and United Nations Ave; Phone: 260-1-250-955, after hours follow instructions; Fax: 260-1-252-225/Management Office–253-951, Executive Office–251 865; INMARSAT Tel: Inbound–XXX-870-762637588 (use code req. fm USA or Outside USA); Workweek: Mon–Thu–07:30–17:00, Fri–07:00–12:30; Website: http://zambia.usembassy.gov.

AMB:Carmen Martinez
AMB OMS:Lorraine Mabazza
DCM:Andrew Passen
DCM OMS:Sanya Hunsucker
POL/ECO:Jill Derderian
CON:Malia Heroux
MGT:J. Denver Herren
AFSA:Sanya Hunsucker
AGR:Kevin N. Smith (Nairobi)
AID:Jim Bednar
CLO:Vacant
DAO:David Dougherty
ECO:Mikail Cleverly
EEO:Mike Wagoner
FMO:Mike Wagoner
GSO:Bill Hunt
ICASS Chair:Jim Bednar
IMO:Wayne Payton
ISSO:Travis Waite
LAB:Randy Fleitman (Nairobi)
PAO:Christopher Wurst
SPSH:Jeane Harris

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet

Last Updated: 1/11/2007

February 7, 2007

Country Description: Zambia is a developing country in southern Africa. Tourist facilities outside of the capital, Lusaka, Livingstone (Victoria Falls), and well-known game parks are not fully developed.

Exit/Entry Requirements: A passport and visa are required. A visa may be obtained in advance at a Zambian Embassy or Consulate or at the port of entry. All Americans, except resident diplomats, must pay an airport departure tax which is collected in U.S. dollars. Airlines include this tax in the cost of the ticket. However, passengers will need to verify that this tax has been paid at the airport. The passenger will receive a “no-fee” receipt reflecting this payment. Travelers transiting through South Africa should ensure that they have at least two blank (unstamped) visa pages in their passports. South African immigration authorities routinely turn away visitors who do not have enough blank visa pages in their passports. Zambian Immigration officials insist visitors carry the original or a certified copy of their passport and their immigration permit at all times. Certified copies must be obtained from the immigration office that issued the permit. American citizens should closely follow immigration guidelines, including visa requirements for travel to Zambia.

Additional information on entry requirements may be obtained from the Embassy of the Republic of Zambia, 2419 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 265-9717 or 19.

Visit the Embassy of Zambia website at http://www.zambiaembassy.org/ for the most current visa information.

Safety and Security: U.S. citizens are advised to avoid travel in northern Luapula Province and in areas of the Northern Province adjacent to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Although a cease-fire is currently in effect, the DRC is not yet stable and uncontrolled militias operate in the eastern DRC. In the past, armed gunmen have occasionally attacked vehicles near the DRC-Zambian border.

Land mines along the western, southern, and eastern borders make off-road travel to those areas potentially hazardous. American citizens are advised not to travel off-road along the border areas. U.S. citizens should avoid political rallies and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times. For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet website where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Crime: Crime in Zambia is widespread. Armed carjacking, mugging, residential burglaries, and petty theft are commonplace in Lusaka and other major cities, especially in downtown commercial districts and low-income housing neighborhoods. Armed criminals perpetrate carjacking, robberies and home invasions at all times of the day. Often carjackers will block the back of a car when one pulls into a driveway. Many times they will pretend to be distressed motorists seeking assistance or use other ruses to get their victim to stop. Carjackers target the full range of vehicles, and anyone who does not practice sound security procedures may be victimized. Thieves steal possessions from automobiles and public transport vehicles stopped in traffic. Bystanders have been known to pretend to assist victims of car accidents, while actually stealing wallets, cell phones or other possessions. Travelers should keep car doors locked and car windows rolled up at all times. Travel at night is particularly risky, both in Lusaka and on roads outside of the city.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Government hospitals and clinics are often understaffed and lack supplies. Private medical clinics in major cities can provide reasonable care in many cases, but major medical emergencies usually require medical evacuation to South Africa, Europe, or the United States. Basic medical care outside of major cities is extremely limited. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services. Travelers should carry their prescription drugs and medications in original labeled containers, as well as the written prescription from their physician. Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en/.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Zambia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Driving on Zambian roads can be hazardous; passing or “overtaking” another car can be particularly dangerous. Since most roads do not have shoulders or sidewalks, pedestrians and livestock use the roadways both day and night. While the main roads in Lusaka are maintained, many secondary roads are in poor repair. Driving at night can be hazardous and is discouraged. Minibuses and cars break down often. When breakdowns occur, local drivers place a few branches behind the car to indicate trouble, but this is hardly visible at night. Many drivers use their high beams at night to detect stopped vehicles and pedestrians.

There are no emergency services for stranded drivers. Car accident victims are vulnerable to theft by those who pretend to be “helpful.” It is advisable to have a cell phone when undertaking a trip outside of town, although many parts of the country do not yet have cell phone service. During the rainy season (end of October to mid-March), travelers who do not have a four-wheel drive vehicle will encounter problems driving on rural roads. The roads from Lusaka to Livingstone and the Copperbelt cities of Ndola and Kitwe are generally in good condition year-round.

Minibuses serve as the primary means of inter-city travel in Zambia. They are often overcrowded and seldom punctual. Some luxury buses do ply the routes between Lusaka and Livingstone and the Copperbelt. City traffic is comprised mostly of cars and minibuses; motorcycles are rare. Since 2000, Americans have been involved in several car accidents, a number of them serious. Carjacking occurs in Lusaka day and night, most often by blocking the back of one’s car when one pulls into the driveway. For security reasons, the U.S. Embassy discourages travelers from driving on rural roads, especially near the borders with DRC and Angola. American citizens who must drive in these areas are encouraged to drive in convoy and to carry satellite telephones.

Traffic circulates on the left side of the road, and there are many British-style roundabouts rather than intersections with traffic lights. There is no left turn on red. Seat belts are mandatory, as are helmets for motor-cyclists. A child’s seat is not mandatory by law, but is essential for safeguarding children. The speed limit is 50 km/30 mph in Lusaka and 100 km/60 mph outside of city limits. However, speed limits are rarely respected, and most cars drive 80 km/50 mph in the city and 120 km/75 mph outside town. It is not unusual to see four-wheel drive vehicles, trucks, and buses driving at even higher speeds on the stretch between Lusaka and Livingstone. Drivers under the influence of alcohol who are involved in accidents are tested at Lusaka’s University Teaching Hospital (UTH) and then taken to court.

Aviation Safety Oversight: As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Zambia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Zambia’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s internet website at http://www.faa.gov.

Special Circumstances: Perpetrators of business fraud often target foreigners, including Americans. While such fraud schemes in the past have been largely associated with Nigeria, they are now prevalent throughout Africa, including Zambia.

Recently, American citizens have consulted the Embassy regarding questionable business offers sent by email. Typically, these scam operations begin with an unsolicited communication (usually by e-mail) from an unknown individual who describes a situation that promises quick financial gain, often by assisting in the transfer of a large sum of money or valuables out of the country. A series of advance fees, such as fees to open a bank account, or to pay certain taxes, must then be paid in order to conclude the transaction. In fact, the final payoff does not exist; the purpose of the scam is simply to collect the advance fees. For additional information, please consult The Department of State’s publication “Advance Fee Business Scams” available via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page. U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times, so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship is readily available. Zambian police do not provide the U.S. Embassy with timely notification of the arrest of American citizens. If you are detained, you should insist on your right to contact a U.S. consular officer.

American Express, MasterCard and Visa cards are accepted in major supermarkets, restaurants, stores, and hotels in Lusaka and Livingstone (Victoria Falls). Credit card fraud is increasing in Zambia and there have been several cases involving fraudulent charges, including some at major hotels catering primarily to foreign visitors. Many businesses use carbonized paper documents to process payment. These documents are not secure and can pose a threat to card-holders. The Embassy urges caution when using debit or credit cards at any point of purchase, especially if the transaction is not processed electronically. Normally, American travelers can withdraw money (in local currency) from ATMs in major cities in Zambia using their ATM cards or credit cards from the United States. However, from time to time, the banks lose their connections with the credit card exchanges, thus making withdrawals impossible. Zambian banks and bureaux de change will not accept dollar-denominated notes issued before 1990.

Travel to military areas and photographing military facilities, airports, bridges, and other facilities deemed to be of security relevance, are prohibited. Authorities may also challenge photography of areas other than tourist attractions. Service providers in Zambia, including the tourism sector, are not subject to the same standards of safety oversight that exist in the United States; visitors should evaluate risks carefully.

Travelers are cautioned to observe local or park regulations and heed all instruction given by tour guides. Even in the most serene settings, wild animals can pose a threat to life and safety.

Large numbers of travelers visit tourist destinations, including South Luangwa National Park and Livingstone (Victoria Falls), without incident. However, American citizens are advised to avoid rafting and other whitewater boating activities on the Zambezi River below Victoria Falls during the high-water season, February through June. During periods of high water, the Batoka Gorge section of the river becomes unpredictable and several tourists have been involved in fatal accidents.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country’s laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Zambia laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Zambia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Persons overstaying their visa or attempting to work while on a tourist visa risk imprisonment and deportation. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children’s Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Registration/Embassy Locations: Americans living or traveling in Zambia are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Zambia. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at the corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues. The mailing address is P.O. Box 31617, Lusaka, Zambia. U.S. citizens may contact the American Embassy during regular work hours, Monday through Thursday from 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., and on Friday from 7:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. by dialing 260-1-250-955. For after-hours emergencies involving American citizens, please dial 260-1-250-955 extension 1. The fax number is 260-1-252-225. The website is http://zambia.usembassy.gov.

International Adoption : February 2006

The information below has been edited from a report of the State Department Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Overseas Citizens Services. For more information, please read the International Adoption section of this book and review current reports online at www.travel.state.gov/family.

Disclaimer: The information in this flyer relating to the legal requirements of specific foreign countries is based on public sources and current understanding. Questions involving foreign and U.S. immigration laws and legal interpretation should be addressed respectively to qualified foreign or U.S. legal counsel.

Patterns of Immigration: Please review current reports online at www.travel.state.gov/family.

Adoption Authority: In Zambia: The Department of Social Welfare of the Ministry of Community Development and Social Services oversees adoptions. Prospective adoptive parents may contact Social Welfare Officers and Juvenile Inspectors of the Provincial and District Social Welfare Offices to apply for adoption. Please review current reports online at www.travel.state.gov/family for a list of agencies.

Eligibility Requirements for Adoptive Parents: Adoptive parents must be 25 years old to adopt. Relatives of an orphaned child must be at least 21 years older than the child. Prospective adoptive parents may be married or single; however, single men may not adopt a female child unless the court is satisfied there are special circumstances warranting such an adoption.

Residency Requirements: According to the Zambian Adoption Act adoptive parents must be resident in Zambia for a period of at least 12 months in order to adopt a Zambian child. Furthermore, adoptive parents may be required to foster the child for three months. However, Zambian adoption law appears to be fairly flexible. For U.S. citizens, an approved I-600A or I-600 indicating the completion of the home study will often be accepted by Zambian adoption authorities in lieu of the 12-month residency requirement, and in some instances can even allow adoptive parents to avoid the three-month fostering requirement.

Zambian courts issue adoption and custody orders based on recommendations made by social welfare officers at the district level. If the social welfare officers are satisfied that the parents are suitable to adopt and that the adoption is clearly in the interest of the child, they are likely to recommend adoption to the courts regardless of whether the 12-month residency or three-month fostering requirements have been met.

Time Frame: Zambian adoption law mandates a three-month foster care requirement and a 12-month residency requirement prior to finalizing an adoption. The foster care period can be with in the 12-month residency period. See above for information on waivers of the residency requirements. If residency requirements are waived, adoption requirements can be completed within 2-8 weeks.

Adoption Agencies and Attorneys: Adoption agencies must be registered with Commissioner of Juvenile Welfare in order to provide adoption services. Prospective adoptive families may also hire an attorney to assist them with Zambian legal requirements. The U.S. Embassy in Lusaka has a list of lawyers who will work with U.S. citizens [http://www.usemb.org.zm/wwwhlawyers.htm], but the Embassy cannot recommend the services of any specific attorney.

Adoption Fees: In Zambia: Adoption agencies, attorneys, and courts may charge fees for services rendered. Government fees include:

Fostering fee – 30,000 kwacha (approximately $9.00)
Adoption court fee – 50,000 kwacha (approximately $15.00)
Zambian passport fee – 72,000 kwacha (approximately $21.00)

The U.S. Embassy in Lusaka is not aware of any fees prospective adoptive parents have to pay any fees to the orphanage where the child resides.

Adoption Procedures: Prospective adoptive families must first apply to the Commissioner for Juvenile Welfare for permission to adopt. If U.S. citizen prospective adoptive parents are resident in Zambia, Zambian social workers will interview them and conduct a home study. U.S. citizens residing in the U.S. may submit an approved Form I-600A instead.

An adoption agency places the child with the prospective adoptive parents upon approval by provincial adoption committee. Parents must foster the child in Zambia for three months (unless it is waived). After three months, parents file an adoption application with the court of the first degree (provincial court). The child is assigned a guardian ad litem, who will represent the child’s interest before the court, investigate what is in the child’s best interests, and report his/her findings to the judge at the adoption hearing. A summons will be served on the adoptive parents, the child and any person caring for the child (if applicable). The hearing is confidential. Once the adoption decree is issued it must be recorded with the Provincial Register General’s Office and the child is entered into the record as an adopted child.

Note: Another possibility for Zambian adoption cases is to file the adoption petition in the High Court. However, this is a much lengthier process. Adoptions filed in the High Court can take up to two years to complete.

The child will receive a new birth certificate in his or her adoptive name. The child will need a new Zambian passport in the adopted name. Passports can be obtained at passport offices in Lusaka, Ndola and Livingston. Officially, processing time for passport applications is 21 days; however, passports are usually issued within a week of submission of the application.

Documentary Requirements: Evidence of adequate finances (home study information will suffice), birth certificates of parent(s), passport, marriage certificate, and approved I-600A (this can serve as evidence that the adoptive parents vetted for suitability by U.S. authorities and can be used to avoid a lengthy residency requirement).

The Embassy of the Republic of Zambia:
2419 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
Washington DC 20008
Telephone: (202) 265-9717
Email: [email protected]

U.S. Immigration Requirements: Prospective adopting parents are strongly encouraged to consult U.S. CIS publication M-249, The Immigration of Adopted and Prospective Adopting Children, as well as the Department of State publication, International Adoptions.

Please see the International Adoption section of this book for more details and review current reports online at www.travel.state.gov/family.

U.S. Embassy in Zambia: As soon as prospective adopting parents arrive in Zambia, they should contact the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in order to register their presence in Zambia. The Consular Section is located at:

The American Embassy
Corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues
Phone: (260)-1-250-955
Fax: (260)-1-252-225
E-mail: [email protected]
http://lusaka.usembassy.gov/

Additional Information: Specific questions about adoption in Zambia may be addressed to the U.S. Embassy in Zambia. General questions regarding international adoption may be addressed to the Office of Children’s Issues, U.S. Department of State, CA/OCS/CI, SA-29, 4th Floor, 2201 C Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20520-4818, toll-free Tel: 1-888-407-4747.

views updated

ZAMBIA

Compiled from the May 2003 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.




Official Name:
Republic of Zambia

PEOPLE
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL CONDITIONS
ECONOMY
FOREIGN RELATIONS
DEFENSE
U.S.-ZAMBIAN RELATIONS
TRAVEL

Geography

Area: 752,614 sq. km. (290,585 sq. mi.); slightly larger than Texas.

Cities: Capital—Lusaka (pop. 1 million).

Other cities: Kitwe, Ndola, Livingstone, Kabwe.

Terrain: Varies; mostly plateau savanna.

Climate: Generally dry and temperate.


People

Nationality: Noun and adjective—Zambian(s).

Population: Approx. 10 million.

Annual growth rate: 2.3%.

Ethnic groups: More than 70 ethnic groups.

Religions: Christian, indigenous beliefs, Muslim, Hindu.

Languages: English (official), about 70 local languages and dialects, including Bemba, Lozi, Kaounde, Lundu, Luvale, Tonga, and Nyanja.

Education: Years compulsory—7. Attendance—Less than 50% in grades 1-7. Less than 20% of primary school graduates are admitted to secondary school. Literacy—67.2%.

Health: Infant mortality rate—95/1,000. Life expectancy—35 years (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2002).

Work force: Agriculture—85%; industry and commerce—15%.

Government

Type: Republic.

Independence: October 24, 1964.

Constitution: 1991 (as amended in 1996).

Branches: Executive—president (chief of state and head of government), cabinet. Legislative—unicameral National Assembly. Judicial—Supreme Court, high court, magistrate courts, and local courts. Ruling political party: Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD).

Suffrage: Universal adult.

Subdivisions: Nine provinces subdivided into districts.


Economy

GDP: (2001 est.) $3.6 billion.

Annual growth rate: (2002) 3.0.

Per capita GDP: (2001) $302.

Natural resources: Copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydroelectric power, fertile land.

Agriculture: Products—corn, sorghum, rice, groundnuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, horticultural products, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, livestock, coffee, and soybeans.

Industry: Types—mining, transport, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, and textiles.

Trade: (2000) Exports—$871 million: copper, cobalt, lead, and zinc. Major markets—Japan, Saudi Arabia, India, Thailand, South Africa, European Union (EU), U.S. Imports—$1.253 billion: crude oil, refined petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs. Major suppliers—South Africa, Saudi Arabia, U.K., Zimbabwe.

Major donors: Donor coordination is good, with various donors taking the lead in coordinating areas of their comparative advantage. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and the National Economic Diversification Program are important focal points for donor collaboration. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has been the leader of the Parliamentary Reform Subgroup of donors in the context of donor collaboration in support of democratic governance. Overall development assistance to Zambia has averaged $310 million a year (1997-2001). The World Bank is Zambia's largest donor. Other key multilateral donors include the International Monetary Fund (IMF), EU, UN agencies, and the African Development Bank. The United Kingdom and the United States are Zambia's first- and second-largest bilateral donors, respectively. Zambia's major donors and their principal areas of collaboration with USAID include The World Bank (privatization, PRSP, agriculture, tourism, health, and wildlife sectors); Germany and the EU (tourism, small and medium business development); Norway and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (rural agribusiness development); Norway and the Netherlands (Public-private Agricultural Forum); Japan, Denmark, Sweden, the U.K., Ireland, Netherlands, Canada, and UNICEF (health sector); U.K., Japan, Norway, and other bilateral donors (HIV/AIDS activities); and U.K., Denmark, Norway, Japan, Netherlands, Ireland, Finland, the World Bank, and UNICEF (basic education). The U.S.-Japan Partnership for Global Health is active in 11 program areas. USAID also collaborates with 13 other donors in supporting Zambia's Basic Education Subsector Investment Program.




PEOPLE

Zambia's population comprises more than 70 Bantu-speaking ethnic groups. Some ethnic groups are small, and only two have enough people to constitute at least 10% of the population. Most Zambians are subsistence farmers. The predominant religion is a blend of traditional beliefs and Christianity.


Expatriates, mostly British (about 15,000) or South African, live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are employed in mines and related activities. Zambia also has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians. The country is 42% urban.




HISTORY

The indigenous hunter-gatherer occupants of Zambia began to be displaced or absorbed by more advanced migrating tribes about 2,000 years ago. The major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants began in the 15th century, with the greatest influx between the late 17th and early 19th centuries. They came primarily from the Luba and Lunda tribes of southern Zaire and northern Angola but were joined in the 19th century by Ngoni peoples from the south. By the latter part of that century, the various peoples of Zambia were largely established in the areas they currently occupy.

Except for an occasional Portuguese explorer, the area lay untouched by Europeans for centuries. After the mid-19th century, it was penetrated by Western explorers, missionaries, and traders. David Livingstone, in 1855, was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River. He named the falls after Queen Victoria, and the Zambian town near the falls is named after him.


In 1888, Cecil Rhodes, spearheading British commercial and political interests in Central Africa, obtained a mineral rights concession from local chiefs. In the same year, Northern and Southern Rhodesia (now Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively) were proclaimed a British sphere of influence. Southern Rhodesia was annexed formally and granted self-government in 1923, and the administration of Northern Rhodesia was transferred to the British colonial office in 1924 as a protectorate.


In 1953, both Rhodesias were joined with Nyasaland (now Malawi) to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Northern Rhodesia was the center of much of the turmoil and crisis that characterized the federation in its last years. At the core of the controversy were insistent African demands for greater participation in government and European fears of losing political control.


A two-stage election held in October and December 1962 resulted in an African majority in the legislative council and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties. The council passed resolutions calling for Northern Rhodesia's secession from the federation and demanding full internal self-government under a new constitution and a new national assembly based on a broader, more democratic franchise. On December 31, 1963, the federation was dissolved, and Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on October 24, 1964.


At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges. Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise. Abroad, three of its neighbors—Southern Rhodesia and the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola—remained under white-dominated rule. Rhodesia's white-ruled government unilaterally declared independence in 1965. In addition, Zambia shared a border with South African-controlled South-West Africa (now Namibia). Zambia's sympathies lay with forces opposing colonial or white-dominated rule, particularly in Southern Rhodesia. During the next decade, it actively supported movements such as the Union for the Total Liberation of Angola (UNITA), the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), the African National Congress of South Africa (ANC), and the South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO).

Conflicts with Rhodesia resulted in the closing of Zambia's borders with that country and severe problems with international transport and power supply. However, the Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the country's requirements for electricity. A railroad to the Tanzanian port of Dares Salaam, built with Chinese assistance, reduced Zambian dependence on railroad lines south to South Africa and west through an increasingly troubled Angola.


By the late 1970s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal. Zimbabwe achieved independence in accordance with the 1979 Lancaster House agreement, but Zambia's problems were not solved. Civil war in the former Portuguese colonies generated refugees and caused continuing transportation problems. The Benguela Railroad, which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to traffic from Zambia by the late 1970s. Zambia's strong support for the ANC, which had its external headquarters in Lusaka, created security problems as South Africa raided ANC targets in Zambia.

In the mid-1970s, the price of copper, Zambia's principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide. Zambia turned to foreign and international lenders for relief, but as copper prices remained depressed, it became increasingly difficult to service its growing debt. By the mid-1990s, despite limited debt relief, Zambia's per capita foreign debt remained among the highest in the world.




GOVERNMENT

Zambia became a republic immediately upon attaining independence in October 1964. The constitution promulgated on August 25, 1973, abrogated the original 1964 constitution.

The new constitution and the national elections that followed in December 1973 were the final steps in achieving what was called a "one-party participatory democracy."


The 1973 constitution provided for a strong president and a unicameral National Assembly. National policy was formulated by the Central Committee of the United National Independence Party (UNIP), the sole legal party in Zambia. The cabinet executed the central committee's policy.


In accordance with the intention to formalize UNIP supremacy in the new system, the constitution stipulated that the sole candidate in elections for the office of president was the person selected to be the president of UNIP by the party's general conference. The second-ranking person in the Zambian hierarchy was UNIP's secretary general.

In December 1990, at the end of a tumultuous year that included riots in the capital and a coup attempt, President Kaunda signed legislation ending UNIP's monopoly on power. In response to growing popular demand for multi-party democracy, and after lengthy, difficult negotiations between the Kaunda government and opposition groups, Zambia enacted a new constitution in August 1991. The constitution enlarged the National Assembly from 136 members to a maximum of 158 members, established an electoral commission, and allowed for more than one presidential candidate who no longer had to be a member of UNIP. The constitution was amended again in 1996 to set new limits on the presidency (including a retroactive two-term limit, and a requirement that both parents of a candidate be Zambianborn). The National Assembly is comprised of 150 directly elected members, up to eight presidentially appointed members, and a speaker. Zambia is divided into nine provinces, each administered by an appointed deputy minister who essentially performs the duties of a governor.


The Supreme Court is the highest court and the court of appeal; below it are the high court, magistrate's court, and local courts.


Principal Government Officials
Last Updated: 11/20/03


President: Mwanawasa, Levy

Vice President: Mumba, Nevers

Min. of Commerce & Industry: Patel, Dipak

Min. of Community Development: Chibamba, Norman

Min. of Defense: Mabenga, Michael

Min. of Education: Mulenga, Andrew

Min. of Energy & Water Development: Mpombo, George

Min. of Environment, Natural Resources, & Tourism: Kalifungwa, Patrick

Min. of Finance & National Planning: Magande, Ngandu Peter

Min. of Foreign Affairs: Mwansa, Kalombo

Min. of Health: Chituwo, Brian

Min. of Home Affairs: Shikapwasha, Ronnie

Min. of Information & Broadcasting: Nalumango, Mutale

Min. of Labor & Social Services:

Min. of Lands: Kapingipanga, Judith

Min. of Legal Affairs: Kunda, George

Min. of Local Government & Housing: Masebo, Sylvia

Min. of Mines & Mineral Development: Mulela, Davison

Min. of Science & Technology: Chambeshi, Abel

Min. of Sports & Youth Development: Mumba, Levison

Min. of Transport & Communication: Mwape, Augustine

Min. of Works & Supply: Sondashi, Ludwig

Permanent Sec., Office of the President: Zimba, Gibson

Attorney General: Mutale, Bonaventure

Solicitor General: Nkonde, Sunday

Governor, Central Bank: Mwanza, Jacob

Ambassador to the US: Kamana, Dunstan Weston

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Musambachime, Mwelwa



Zambia maintains an embassy in the United States at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-265-9717/8/9).




POLITICAL CONDITIONS

The major figure in Zambian politics from 1964 to 1991 was Kenneth Kaunda, who led the fight for independence and successfully bridged the rivalries among the country's various regions and ethnic groups. Kaunda tried to base government on his philosophy of "humanism," which condemned human exploitation and stressed cooperation among people, but not at the expense of the individual.


Kaunda's political party—the United National Independence Party (UNIP)—was founded in 1959 and was in power under Kaunda's leadership from 1964 to 1991. Before 1972, Zambia had three significant political parties—UNIP, the African National Congress, and the United Progressive Party (UPP). The ANC drew its strength from western and southern provinces, while the UPP found some support among Bemba-speakers in the copperbelt and northern provinces. Although not strongly supported in all areas of the country, only UNIP had a nationwide following.


In February 1972, Zambia became a one-party state, and all other political parties were banned. Kaunda, the sole candidate, was elected president in the 1973 elections. Elections also were held for the National Assembly. Only UNIP members were permitted to run, but these seats were sharply contested. President Kaunda's mandate was renewed in December 1978 and October 1983 in a "yes" or "no" vote on his candidacy. In the 1983 election, more than 60% of those registered participated and gave President Kaunda a 93% "yes" vote.

Growing opposition to UNIP's monopoly on power led to the rise in 1990 of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). The MMD assembled an increasingly impressive group of important Zambians, including prominent UNIP defectors and labor leaders. During the year, President Kaunda agreed to a referendum on the one-party state but, in the face of continued opposition, dropped the referendum and signed a constitutional amendment making Zambia a multiparty state. Zambia's first multi-party elections for parliament and the presidency since the 1960s were held on October 31, 1991. MMD candidate Frederick Chiluba resoundingly carried the presidential election over Kenneth Kaunda with 81% of the vote. To add to the MMD landslide, in the parliamentary elections the MMD won 125 of the 150 elected seats and UNIP the remaining 25. However, UNIP swept the Eastern Province, gathering 19 of its seats there.


By the end of Chiluba's first term as president (1996), the MMD's commitment to political reform had faded in the face of re-election demands. A number of prominent supporters founded opposing parties. Relying on the MMD's overwhelming majority in parliament, President Chiluba in May 1996 pushed through constitutional amendments that eliminated former President Kaunda and other prominent opposition leaders from the 1996 presidential elections. In the presidential and parliamentary elections held in November 1996, Chiluba was re-elected, and the MMD won 131 of the 150 seats in the National Assembly. Kaunda's UNIP party boycotted the parliamentary polls to protest the exclusion of its leader from the presidential race, alleging in addition that the outcome of the election had been predetermined due to a faulty voter registration exercise. Despite the UNIP boycott, the elections took place peacefully, and five presidential and more than 600 parliamentary candidates from 11 parties participated. Afterward, however, several opposition parties and non-governmental organizations declared the elections neither free nor fair. As President Chiluba began his second term in 1997, the opposition continued to reject the results of the election amid international efforts to encourage the MMD and the opposition to resolve their differences through dialogue.


Early in 2001, supporters of President Chiluba mounted a campaign to amend the constitution to enable Chiluba to seek a third term of office. Civil society, opposition parties, and many members of the ruling party exerted sufficient pressure on Chiluba to force him to back away from any attempt at a third term.


Presidential, parliamentary, and local government elections were held on December 27, 2001. Eleven parties contested the elections. The elections encountered numerous administrative problems. Opposition parties alleged that serious irregularities occurred. Nevertheless, MMD presidential candidate Levy Mwanawasa was declared the victor by a narrow margin, and he was sworn into office on January 2, 2002. Three parties submitted petitions to the High Court, challenging the election results. The petition remained under consideration by the courts in February 2003. Opposition parties won a majority of parliamentary seats in the December, 2001 election, but subsequent by-elections gave the ruling MMD a slim majority in Parliament.




ECONOMY

Zambia is one of Sub-Saharan Africa's most highly urbanized countries. About one-half of the country's 10 million people are concentrated in a few urban zones strung along the major transportation corridors, while rural areas are underpopulated. Unemployment and underemployment are serious problems. Per capita annual incomes are currently at about one-half their levels at independence, and at $302, place the country among the world's poorest nations. Social indicators continue to decline, particularly in measurements of life expectancy at birth (about 35 years) and maternal and infant mortality (95 per 1,000 live births). The high population growth rate of 2.3% per annum makes it difficult for per capita income to increase. The country's rate of economic growth cannot support rapid population growth or the strain which HIV/AIDS related issues (i.e., rising medical costs, decline in worker productivity) places on government resources.

The Chiluba government (1991-2001) came to power after democratic multi-party elections in November 1991 committed to an economic recovery program. The government was successful in some areas such as privatization of most of the parastatals, maintenance of positive real interest rates, the elimination of exchange controls, and endorsement of free market principles. It remains to be seen whether the new Mwanawasa government will be more aggressive in implementing economic reform and undertaking further privatization. Telecommunications, electricity, and transport parastatals still need to be privatized before the economy can compete regionally and internationally. Furthermore, Zambia has yet to address effectively issues such as reducing the size of the public sector, which still represents 44% of total formal employment, and improving Zambia's social sector delivery systems.


After the government privatized the giant parastatal mining company Zambian Consolidated Copper Mines (ZCCM), donors resumed balance-of-payment support. The final transfer of ZCCM's assets occurred on March 31, 2000. Although balance-of-payment payments are not the answer to Zambia's long-term debt problems, it will in the short term provide the government some breathing room to implement further economic reforms. The government has, however, spent much of its foreign exchange reserves to intervene in the exchange rate mechanism. To continue to do so, however, would jeopardize Zambia's debt relief. Zambia qualified for HIPC debt relief in 2000, contingent upon the country meeting certain performance criteria, and this should offer a long-term solution to Zambia's debt situation. In January 2003, the Zambian Government informed the IMF and World Bank that it wished to renegotiate some of the agreed performance criteria calling for privatization of the Zambia National Commercial Bank and the national telephone and electricity utilities.

The Zambian economy has historically been based on the copper-mining industry. Output of copper had fallen, however, to a low of 228,000 tonnes in 1998, continuing a 30-year decline in out put due to lack of investment, and more recently, low copper prices and uncertainty over privatization. In 2001, the first full year of a privatized industry, Zambia recorded its first year of increased productivity since 1973. The future of the copper industry in Zambia was thrown into doubt in January 2002, when investors in Zambia's largest copper mine announced their intention to withdraw their investment.


Lack of balance-of-payment support meant the Zambian Government did not have resources for capital investment and periodically had to issue bonds or otherwise expand the money supply to try to meet its spending and debt obligations. The government continued these activities even after balance-of-payment support resumed. This has kept interest rates at levels that are too high for local business, fueled inflation, burdened the budget with domestic debt payments, while still falling short of meeting the public payroll and other needs, such as infrastructure rehabilitation. The government was forced to draw down foreign exchange reserves sharply in 1998 to meet foreign debt obligations, putting further pressure on the kwacha and inflation. Inflation held at 32% in 2000; consequently, the kwacha lost the same value against the dollar over the same period. In mid- to late 2001, Zambia's fiscal management became more conservative. As a result, 2001 year-end inflation was below 20%, its best result in decades. In 2002 inflation rose to 26.7%.

The agriculture sector represented 20% GDP in 2000. Agriculture accounted for 85% of total employment (formal and informal) for 2000. Maize (corn) is the principal cash crop as well as the staple food. Other important crops include soybean, cotton, sugar, sunflower seeds, wheat, sorghum, millet, cassava, tobacco and various vegetable and fruit crops. Floriculture is a growth sector, and agricultural nontraditional exports now rival the mining industry in foreign exchange receipts. Zambia has the potential for significantly increasing its agricultural output; currently, less than 20% of its arable land is cultivated. In the past, the agriculture sector suffered from low producer prices, difficulties in availability and distribution of credit and inputs, and the shortage of foreign exchange.


There are, however, positive macroeconomic signs, rooted in reforms implemented in the early and mid-1990s. Zambia's floating exchange rate and open capital markets have provided useful discipline on the government, while at the same time allowing continued diversification of Zambia's export sector, growth in the tourist industry, and procurement of inputs for growing businesses. Some parts of the copperbelt have experienced a significant revival as spin-off effects from the massive capital reinvestment are experienced.




FOREIGN RELATIONS

Zambia is a member of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), now known as the African Union, and was its chairman until July 2002, Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), which is headquartered in Lusaka.


President Kaunda was a persistent and very visible advocate of change in Southern Africa, supporting liberation movements in Angola, Namibia, Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), and South Africa. Many of these organizations were based in Zambia during the 1970s and 1980s.

President Chiluba assumed a somewhat higher profile internationally in the mid- and late 1990s. His government played a very constructive regional role sponsoring Angola peace talks that led to the 1994 Lusaka Protocols. Zambia has provided troops to UN peacekeeping initiatives in Mozambique, Rwanda, Angola, and Sierra Leone. Zambia was the first African state to cooperate with the International Tribunal investigation of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.


In 1998, Zambia took the lead in efforts to establish a cease-fire in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Zambia was active in the Congolese peace effort after the signing of a cease-fire agreement in Lusaka in July and August 1999, although activity diminished considerably after the Joint Military Commission tasked with implementing the ceasefire relocated to Kinshasa in September 2001.




DEFENSE

The Zambian Defense Force (ZDF) consists of the army, the air force, and Zambian National Service (ZNS). The ZNS, while operating under the Ministry of Defense, is responsible primarily for public works projects. The ZDF is designed primarily for internal defense.




U.S.-ZAMBIAN RELATIONS

Bilateral relations between Zambia and the United States improved dramatically with the 1991 election of President Chiluba on a platform of economic and political reform. The United States made extensive new aid commitments based on the government's reform efforts. As the 1996 elections approached, government's commitment to democratic development weakened when President Chiluba signed into law constitutional amendments eliminating his best-known opponent from the presidential elections. The new government elected in 2001 has stated an explicit commitment to governance issues such as corruption.

The United States has worked closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia and to effect constitutional, parliamentary, and electoral reform needed to strengthen the nation's emerging democratic institutions. United States also is supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption.


U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)


The United States has a substantial foreign assistance program in Zambia. Through USAID, the U.S. Government provides about $47 million every year in assistance to Zambia. This is being provided under USAID's Country Strategic Plan (CSP) for the period 1998-2003, which focuses on ensuring that more Zambians benefit from the political and economic reforms ushered in with the change of government in 1991.


USAID assistance is focused in the following four areas and is being implemented in partnership with the Zambian Government, the Zambian private sector, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as well as U.S. private organizations and other partners:


  • Increased incomes of selected rural groups;
  • More equitable access to quality basic education and learning, especially for girls;
  • Increased use of integrated child and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS interventions; and
  • Expanded opportunity for effective participation in democratic governance

USAID is in the process of designing a new CSP that will form the basis for development assistance to Zambia from 2004 to 2010. The new strategy will focus on the following strategic objectives:

  • Increased private sector competitiveness;
  • Improved quality of basic education for more school-aged children;
  • Improved health status of Zambians;
  • Government held more accountable; and
  • Reduced impact of HIV/AIDS through a multi-sectoral response

In addition to supporting development projects, the United States has provided considerable emergency food aid during periods of drought through the World Food Program (WFP) and is a major contributor to refugee programs in Zambia through the UN High Commission for Refugees and other agencies.


Peace Corps

A country agreement inviting the Peace Corps to work in Zambia was signed by the United States and Zambia on September 14, 1993. The first group of volunteers was sworn in on April 7, 1994. In 2003, the Peace Corps program in Zambia continues to provide an opportunity for increased understanding between Zambians and Americans. More than 120 Volunteers are promoting sustainable development through their activities in agricultural and natural resource management, health and sanitation, education, and humanitarian assistance. Volunteers are working in eight of Zambia's nine provinces building local capacity to manage family fish farms, to manage and preserve wildlife resources, to implement health reforms at village level, to introduce interactive radio instruction for primary school children, and to extend HIV/AIDS education efforts. Recently, a Crisis Corps Program was resumed to support local organizations in the fight against AIDS. Volunteers live primarily in rural villages in remote parts of the country without running water, electricity, or other amenities. New trainees undertake training in local language, culture, and the relevant technical specialty for 9-12 weeks at a center in the copperbelt.

In 2003 Peace Corps expanded its offices and staff in Lusaka in preparation for program growth in ensuing years with the aim of fielding 175 Volunteers by 2005.


Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Lusaka (E), Corner of Independence and United Nations Aves. • P.O. Box 31617, Tel [260] (1) 250-955 or 252-230, front office Tel 254-301, afterhours Tel 252-234, Fax 252-225; E-mail; [email protected], AID Tel 254-303 thru 6, ext. 212, Fax 254-532; PAO Tel 227-993 thru 4, ext. 211, Fax 226-523.

AMB: Martin G. Brennan
AMB OMS: Nelda G. Vellines
DCM: Dan Mozena
POL/ECON: Katherine S. Dhanani
CON: Leslie C. Livingood
MGT: Thaddeus D. Plosser
RSO: Michael V. Perkins
PAO: James F. Greene
IPO: Samuel O. Pratt (TDY)
AID: Helen Gunther, Acting
DAO: LTC Leslie M. Bryant
PC: David Morris
CDC: David B. Nelson
FAA: Edward Jones (res. Dakar)
R: Virginia E. Palmer (res. Nairobi)
LAB: Virginia E. Palmer (res. Nairobi)
IRS: Paul J. Beene (res. London)


Last Modified: Monday, December 15, 2003




TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet
December 31, 2003


Country Description: Zambia is a developing southern African country. Tourist facilities outside of Lusaka, the capital, Livingstone (Victori a Falls), and well-known game parks are not fully developed.

Entry and Exit Requirements: A passport and visa are required. A visa should be obtained in advance. American citizens arriving for tourism or business at the Lusaka, Ndola, and Livingstone international airports, or at major land borders, can obtain a one-entry visa for $25 (US), a double-entry visa for $40 (US), or a multiple entry visa for $80 (US). Recently, however, some American citizens have not been allowed to board airlines without a visa. It is recommended that those traveling to Zambia acquire a visa before departing for Zambia. All Americans, except resident diplomats, must pay an airport departure tax of $20 (US).


In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated special procedures at entry/exit points to control the movement of children. These procedures may include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for a child's travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian(s), if neither is present. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure.


Safety and Security: U.S. citizens are advised to avoid travel in those areas of Luapula Province and Northern Province adjacent to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Although a transitional government has been formed in the DRC, uncontrolled militia continue operating in the eastern DRC and sometimes cross into Zambia. Armed gunmen have occasionally attacked vehicles near the DRC-Zambian border.


Land mines along the western, southern, and eastern borders make off-road travel to those areas potentially hazardous. American citizens are advised not to travel off-road along the border areas.


Large numbers of travelers visit tourist destinations, including South Luangwa National Park, Lower Zambezi National Park, and Livingstone (Victoria Falls), without incident. However, a recent tragic incident underscored that canoeing on the Zambezi River in areas inhabited by crocodiles and hippopotamuses can be extremely dangerous.


U.S. citizens should avoid political rallies and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times.


Crime: Crime in Zambia is widespread. Armed carjackings, muggings, and petty theft occur in Lusaka and other major cities, especially in downtown commercial districts and housing compounds. Carjackers target the full range of vehicles, and anyone who does not practice sound security procedures may be targeted. Thieves steal possessions from automobiles and public transport vehicles stopped in traffic. Travelers should keep car doors locked and car windows rolled up at all times. Travel at night is particularly risky, since roads both in Lusaka and outside of the city lack street lighting.


If you are the victim of a crime in Zambia, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Embassy for assistance. The Embassy staff can, for example, assist you with finding appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime are solely the responsibilities of local authorities, the Embassy consular officer can help you understand the local criminal justice process and find an attorney, if needed.


The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to local police and to the U.S. Embassy. The pamphlets, A Safe Trip Abroad and Tips for Travelers to Sub-Saharan Africa, provide useful information on protecting personal security while traveling abroad and on travel in the region in general. Both are available from the superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, via the Internet at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ or via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov/.


Business Fraud: Perpetrators of business fraud often target foreigners, including Americans. While such fraud schemes in the past have been largely associated with Nigeria, they are now prevalent throughout Africa, including Zambia.

Recently, American citizens have consulted the Embassy regarding questionable business offers described to them by electronic mail sent by Nigerian-based individuals. Typically, these scam operations begin with an unsolicited communication (usually by e-mail) from an unknown individual who describes a situation that promises quick financial gain, often by assisting in the transfer of a large sum of money or valuables out of the country. A series of "advance fees" must then be paid in order to conclude the transaction: for example, fees to open a bank account, or to pay certain taxes. In fact, the final payoff does not exist; the purpose of the scam is simply to collect the advance fees.


The Department of State's brochure Advance Fee Business Scams is available for review at the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov. Single copies are available at no charge by sending a self-addressed, stamped envelope to the Office of American Citizens Services and Crisis Management, 2100 Pennsylvania Avenue, 4th Floor, SA-29, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520-4818.


Medical Facilities: Government hospitals and clinics are often understaffed and lack supplies. Private medical clinics in major cities can provide reasonable care in many cases, but major medical emergencies usually require medical evacuation to South Africa or the United States. Basic medical care outside of major cities is extremely limited. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services.


Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as medical evacuation. U.S. medical insurance plans seldom cover health costs incurred outside the United States unless supplemental coverage is purchased. Further, U.S. Medicare and Medicaid programs do not provide payment for medical services outside the United States. However, many travel agents and private companies offer insurance plans that will cover health care expenses incurred overseas, including emergency services such as medical evacuations.

When making a decision regarding health insurance, Americans should consider that many foreign doctors and hospitals require payment in cash prior to providing service and that a medical evacuation to the United States may cost well in excess of 50,000 dollars (US). Uninsured travelers who require medical care overseas often face extreme difficulties, whereas travelers who have purchased overseas medical insurance have found it to be life saving when a medical emergency has occurred. When consulting with your insurer prior to your trip, please ascertain whether payment will be made to the overseas healthcare provider or if you will be reimbursed later for expenses that you incur. Some insurance policies also include coverage for psychiatric treatment and for disposition of remains in the event of death.


Useful information on medical emergencies abroad, including overseas insurance programs, is provided in the Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs brochure Medical Information for Americans Traveling Abroad, available via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page.


Other Health Information: Information on vaccinations and other health precautions may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel.


Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Zambia is provided for general reference only; it may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance:


Safety of Public Transportation: Poor

Urban Road Conditions/Maintenance: Fair

Rural Road Conditions/Maintenance: Poor

Availability of Roadside Assistance: Poor


Driving on Zambian roads can be hazardous. Since most roads do not have shoulders or sidewalks, pedestrians and livestock use the roadways both day and night. While the main roads in Lusaka are maintained, many secondary roads are in poor repair. Driving at night can be hazardous and is discouraged. Minibuses and cars break down often. When breakdowns occur, local drivers place a few branches behind the car to indicate trouble, but this is hardly visible at night. Many drivers use their high beams at night to detect stopped vehicles and pedestrians.


There are no emergency services for stranded drivers. It is advisable to have a cell phone when undertaking a trip outside of town, although many parts of the country do not yet have cell phone service. During the rainy season (end of October to mid-March), travelers who do not have a four-wheel drive vehicle will encounter problems driving on rural roads. The roads from Lusaka to Livingstone and the Copperbelt cities of Ndola and Kitwe are generally in good condition year-round.


Minibuses serve as the primary means of inter-city travel in Zambia. They are often overcrowded and seldom punctual. Some luxury buses do ply the routes between Lusaka and Livingstone and the Copperbelt. City traffic is comprised mostly of cars and minibuses; motorcycles are rare. There were 6,468 automobile accidents reported in the year 2001, six times as many as were reported in 2000. Statistics for 2002 are not available. Several American and Canadian citizens were involved in serious car accidents in 2003. Carjackings occur in Lusaka day or night, most often by blocking the back of one's car when one pulls into the driveway. For security reasons, the U.S. Embassy discourages travelers from driving near the borders with DRC and Angola. American citizens who must drive in these areas are encouraged to drive in convoy and to carry satellite telephones.

Seat belts are mandatory, as are helmets for motorcyclists. A child's seat is not mandatory by law, but is essential for safeguarding children. Traffic circulates on the left side of the road. There is no left turn on red. The speed limit is 50 km/30 mph in Lusaka and 100 km/60 mph outside of city limits. However, speed limits are rarely respected, and most cars drive 80 km/50 mph in the city and 120 km/75 mph outside town. It is normal to see four-wheel drive vehicles, trucks, and buses driving at even higher speeds on the stretch between Lusaka and Livingstone. Drivers under the influence of alcohol who are involved in accidents are tested at Lusaka's University Teaching Hospital (UTH) and then taken to court.


For additional general information about road safety, including links to foreign government sites, please see the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov/road_safety.html. For specific information concerning Zambian driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, please contact the Zambia National Tourist Board at [email protected] The Road Safety Commission is responsible for road safety in Zambia, telephone 260-1-25-24-38 or 25-19-77.


Aviation Safety Oversight: As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Zambia by local carriers at present, nor economic authority to operate such service, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Zambia's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with international aviation safety standards.


For further information, travelers may contact the Department of Transportation within the United States at telephone 1-800-322-7873, or visit the FAA Internet web page at http://www.faa.gov/avr/iasa/. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) separately assesses some foreign air carriers for suitability as official providers of air services. For information regarding the DOD policy on specific carriers, travelers may contact the DOD at telephone (618) 229-4801.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual in the U.S. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Zambian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Zambia are strict, and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.


U.S. citizens importing prescription drugs into Zambia without a physician's prescription may be arrested and incarcerated. Travelers should carry their prescription drugs and medications in original labeled containers, as well as the written prescription from their physician. Persons overstaying their visa or attempting to work while on a tourist visa risk imprisonment and deportation.


Zambian police do not provide the U.S. Embassy with timely notification of the arrest of American citizens. If you are detained, you should insist on your right to contact a U.S. consular officer.


Currency Issues: MasterCard, American Express, and Visa cards are accepted in major supermarkets, restaurants, stores, and hotels in Lusaka and Livingstone (Victoria Falls). Normally, American travelers can withdraw money (in local currency) from ATMs in major cities in Zambia using their ATM cards or credit cards from the United States. However, from time to time, the banks lose their connections with the credit card exchanges, thus making withdrawals impossible. U.S. traveler checks are easy to cash provided you have identification and the original receipt to prove you are the person who purchased the travelers checks. Zambian banks do not accept old versions of US currency. All bank notes must have the large Presidential head.


Zambian banks and bureaux de change will not accept dollar-denominated notes issued before 1990.


Photography Restrictions: Travel to military areas and photographing military facilities, airports, bridges, and other facilities deemed to be of security relevance, are prohibited. Authorities may also challenge photography of areas other than tourist attractions.

Dangers Posed by Wild Animals: Travelers are advised that, even in the most serene settings, wild animals can pose a threat to life and safety. Travelers are cautioned to observe local or park regulations and heed all instruction given by tour guides.


Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction please refer to our Internet site at http://travel.state.gov/children's_issues.html, or telephone (202) 736-7000.


Registration/Embassy Location: U.S. citizens living in or visiting Zambia are encouraged to register with the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Lusaka at the corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues, and to obtain updated information on travel and security in Zambia. U.S. citizens may contact the American Embassy during regular work hours, Monday through Thursday from 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., and on Friday from 7:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. The telephone number is 260-1-250-955 or 260-1-252-230. After hours, the number is 260-1-252-305. The Embassy duty officer can be reached at telephone 260-96-864-030. The mailing address is P.O. Box 31617, Lusaka, Zambia. The fax number is 260-1-252-225. The website is http://lusaka.usembassy.gov/.

views updated

ZAMBIA

Compiled from the January 2005 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Republic of Zambia


PROFILE

Geography

Area: 752,614 sq. km. (290,585 sq. mi.); slightly larger than Texas.

Cities: Capital—Lusaka (pop. approx. 1 million). Other cities: Kitwe, Ndola, Livingstone, Kabwe.

Terrain: Varies; mostly plateau savanna.

Climate: Generally dry and temperate.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective—Zambian(s).

Population: Approx. 10 million.

Annual growth rate: 2%.

Ethnic groups: More than 70 ethnic groups.

Religions: Christian, indigenous beliefs, Muslim, Hindu.

Languages: English (official), about 70 local languages and dialects, including Bemba, Lozi, Kaonde, Lunda, Luvale, Tonga, and Nyanja.

Education: No compulsory education; 7 years free education. Net primary school enrollment: 67%. Literacy—women: 60.6%; men: 81.6%.

Health: Infant mortality rate—95/1,000. Life expectancy—37 years. HIV prevalence (15-49)—16%.

Work force: Agriculture—75%; mining and manufacturing—6%; services—19%.

Government

Type: Republic.

Independence: October 24, 1964.

Constitution: 1991 (as amended in 1996).

Branches: Executive—president (chief of state and head of government), cabinet. Legislative—unicameral National Assembly. Judicial—Supreme Court, high court, magistrate courts, and local courts.

Political parties: (ruling party) Movement for Multi-party Democracy (MMD).

Suffrage: Universal adult.

Administrative subdivisions: Nine provinces subdivided into 72 districts.

Economy

GDP: (2003) $3.95 billion.

Annual growth rate: (2003) 4.2%.

Per capita GDP: (2003) $395.

Natural resources: Copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydroelectric power, fertile land.

Agriculture: Products—corn, sorghum, rice, groundnuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, horticultural products, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, livestock, coffee, and soybeans.

Industry: Types—mining, transport, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, and textiles.

Trade: (2003) Exports—$1.1 billion: copper, cobalt, lead, and zinc, cut vegetables, cotton. Major markets—Malawi, Thailand, Japan, South Africa, European Union. Imports—$1.4 billion: crude oil, refined petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs. Major suppliers—South Africa, U.S., China, Tanzania. Major donors: Donors provided $409 million in development assistance to Zambia in 2003. The World Bank is Zambia's largest multilateral donor. Other key multilateral donors include the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Union, UN agencies, and the African Development Bank. Counting direct bilateral assistance and assistance through multilateral agencies, the U.S. is Zambia's largest country donor.


PEOPLE

Zambia's population comprises more than 70 Bantu-speaking ethnic groups. Some ethnic groups are small, and only two have enough people to constitute at least 10% of the population. Most Zambians are subsistence farmers. The predominant religion is a blend of traditional beliefs and Christianity; Christianity is the official national religion. Expatriates, mostly British (about 15,000) or South African, live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are employed in mines and related activities. Zambia also has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians. The country is 44% urban. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is ravaging Zambia. Nearly 1 million Zambians are HIV positive or have AIDS. An estimated 100,000 will die in 2004. Over a half million Zambian children have been orphaned. Life expectancy at birth is 37.


HISTORY

The indigenous hunter-gatherer occupants of Zambia began to be displaced or absorbed by more advanced migrating tribes about 2,000 years ago. The major waves of Bantuspeaking immigrants began in the 15th century, with the greatest influx between the late 17th and early 19th centuries. They came primarily from the Luba and Lunda tribes of southern Democratic Republic of Congo and northern Angola but were joined in the 19th century by Ngoni peoples from the south. By the latter part of that century, the various peoples of Zambia were largely established in the areas they currently occupy.

Except for an occasional Portuguese explorer, the area lay untouched by Europeans for centuries. After the mid-19th century, it was penetrated by Western explorers, missionaries, and traders. David Livingstone, in 1855, was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River. He named the falls after Queen Victoria, and the Zambian town near the falls is named after him.

In 1888, Cecil Rhodes, spearheading British commercial and political interests in Central Africa, obtained a mineral rights concession from local chiefs. In the same year, Northern and Southern Rhodesia (now Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively) were proclaimed a British sphere of influence. Southern Rhodesia was annexed formally and granted self-government in 1923, and the administration of Northern Rhodesia was transferred to the British colonial office in 1924 as a protectorate.

In 1953, both Rhodesias were joined with Nyasaland (now Malawi) to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Northern Rhodesia was the center of much of the turmoil and crisis that characterized the federation in its last years. At the core of the controversy were insistent African demands for greater participation in government and European fears of losing political control.

A two-stage election held in October and December 1962 resulted in an African majority in the legislative council and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties. The council passed resolutions calling for Northern Rhodesia's secession from the federation and demanding full internal self-government under a new constitution and a new national assembly based on a broader, more democratic franchise. On December 31, 1963, the federation was dissolved, and Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on October 24, 1964.

At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges. Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise. Abroad, three of its neighbors—Southern Rhodesia and the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola—remained under white-dominated rule. Rhodesia's white-ruled government unilaterally declared independence in 1965. In addition, Zambia shared a border with South African-controlled South-West Africa (now Namibia). Zambia's sympathies lay with forces opposing colonial or white-dominated rule, particularly in Southern Rhodesia. During the next decade, it actively supported movements such as the Union for the Total Liberation of Angola (UNITA), the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), the African National Congress of South Africa (ANC), and the South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO).

Conflicts with Rhodesia resulted in the closing of Zambia's borders with that country and severe problems with international transport and power supply. However, the Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the country's requirements for electricity. A railroad to the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam, built with Chinese assistance, reduced Zambian dependence on railroad lines south to South Africa and west through an increasingly troubled Angola.

By the late 1970s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal. Zimbabwe achieved independence in accordance with the 1979 Lancaster House agreement, but Zambia's problems were not solved. Civil war in the former Portuguese colonies generated refugees and caused continuing transportation problems. The Benguela Railroad, which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to traffic from Zambia by the late 1970s. Zambia's strong support for the ANC, which had its external headquarters in Lusaka, created security problems as South Africa raided ANC targets in Zambia.

In the mid-1970s, the price of copper, Zambia's principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide. Zambia turned to foreign and international lenders for relief, but as copper prices remained depressed, it became increasingly difficult to service its growing debt. By the mid-1990s, despite limited debt relief, Zambia's per capita foreign debt remained among the highest in the world.


GOVERNMENT

Zambia became a republic immediately upon attaining independence in October 1964. The constitution promulgated on August 25, 1973, abrogated the original 1964 constitution. The new constitution and the national elections that followed in December 1973 were the final steps in achieving what was called a "one-party participatory democracy."

The 1973 constitution provided for a strong president and a unicameral National Assembly. National policy was formulated by the Central Committee of the United National Independence Party (UNIP), the sole legal party in Zambia. The cabinet executed the central committee's policy.

In accordance with the intention to formalize UNIP supremacy in the new system, the constitution stipulated that the sole candidate in elections for the office of president was the person selected to be the president of UNIP by the party's general conference. The second-ranking person in the Zambian hierarchy was UNIP's secretary general.

In December 1990, at the end of a tumultuous year that included riots in the capital and a coup attempt, President Kenneth Kaunda signed legislation ending UNIP's monopoly on power. In response to growing popular demand for multi-party democracy, and after lengthy, difficult negotiations between the Kaunda government and opposition groups, Zambia enacted a new constitution in August 1991. The constitution enlarged the National Assembly from 136 members to a maximum of 158 members, established an electoral commission, and allowed for more than one presidential candidate who no longer had to be a member of UNIP. The constitution was amended again in 1996 to set new limits on the presidency (including a retroactive two-term limit, and a requirement that both parents of a candidate be Zambian-born). The National Assembly is comprised of 150 directly elected members, up to eight presidentially-appointed members, and a speaker. Zambia is divided into nine provinces, each administered by an appointed deputy minister who essentially performs the duties of a governor.

The Supreme Court is the highest court and the court of appeal; below it are the high court, magistrate's court, and local courts.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 1/12/05

President: Levy Patrick MWANAWASA
Vice President: Lupando MWAPE
Min. of Commerce & Industry: Dipak PATEL
Min. of Community Development & Social Services: Marina NSINGO
Min. of Defense: Levy Patrick MWANAWASA
Min. of Education: Andrew MULENGA
Min. of Energy & Water Development: George MPOMBO
Min. of Environment, Natural Resources, & Tourism: Patrick KALIFUNGWA
Min. of Finance & National Planning: Ngandu Peter MAGANDE
Min. of Foreign Affairs: Ronnie SHIKAPWASHA
Min. of Health: Brian CHITUWO
Min. of Home Affairs: Kalombo MWANSA
Min. of Information & Broadcasting: Mutale NALUMANGO
Min. of Labor & Social Security: Patrick KAFUMUKACHE ,
Lt. Col. Min. of Lands: Judith KAPIJIMPANGA
Min. of Justice: George KUNDA
Min. of Local Government & Housing: Sylvia MASEBO
Min. of Mines & Mineral Development: Kaunda LEMBALEMBA
Min. of Science & Technology: Abel CHAMBESHI
Min. of Sports, Youth, & Child Development: Gladys NYIRONGO
Min. of Transport & Communication: Bates NAMUYAMBA
Min. of Works & Supply: Permanent Sec., Office of the President: Gibson ZIMBA
Attorney General: George KUNDA
Solicitor General: Sunday NKONDE
Governor, Central Bank: Caleb FUNDANGA
Ambassador to the US: Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Mwelwa MUSAMBACHIME

Zambia maintains an embassy in the United States at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel: 202-265-9717/8/9).


POLITICAL CONDITIONS

The major figure in Zambian politics from 1964 to 1991 was Kenneth Kaunda, who led the campaign for independence and successfully bridged the rivalries among the country's various regions and ethnic groups. Kaunda tried to base government on his philosophy of "humanism," which condemned human exploitation and stressed cooperation among people, but not at the expense of the individual.

Kaunda's political party—the United National Independence Party (UNIP)—was founded in 1959 and was in power under Kaunda's leadership from 1964 to 1991. Before 1972, Zambia had three significant political parties—UNIP, the African National Congress (ANC), and the United Progressive Party (UPP). The ANC drew its strength from western and southern provinces, while the UPP found some support among Bemba-speakers in the Copperbelt and northern provinces. Although not strongly supported in all areas of the country, only UNIP had a nationwide following.

In December 1972, Zambian law established a one-party state, and all other political parties were banned; this was later enshrined in the 1973 constitution. Kaunda, the sole candidate, was elected President in the 1973 elections. Elections also were held for the National Assembly. Only UNIP members were permitted to run, but these seats were sharply contested. President Kaunda's mandate was renewed in December 1978, October 1983, and October 1988 in a "yes" or "no" vote on his candidacy.

Growing opposition to UNIP's monopoly on power led to the rise in 1990 of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). The MMD assembled an increasingly impressive group of important Zambians, including prominent UNIP defectors and labor leaders. During the year, President Kaunda agreed to a referendum on the one-party state but, in the face of continued opposition, dropped the referendum and signed a constitutional amendment making Zambia a multi-party state. Zambia's first multi-party elections for parliament and the presidency since the 1960s were held on October 31, 1991. MMD candidate Frederick Chiluba resoundingly carried the presidential election over Kenneth Kaunda with 81% of the vote. To add to the MMD landslide, in the parliamentary elections the MMD won 125 of the 150 elected seats and UNIP the remaining 25. However, UNIP swept the Eastern Province, gathering 19 of its seats there.

By the end of Chiluba's first term as President (1996), the MMD's commitment to political reform had faded in the face of re-election demands. A number of prominent supporters founded opposing parties. Relying on the MMD's overwhelming majority in parliament, President Chiluba in May 1996 pushed through constitutional amendments that eliminated former President Kaunda and other prominent opposition leaders from the 1996 presidential elections. In the presidential and parliamentary elections held in November 1996, Chiluba was re-elected, and the MMD won 131 of the 150 seats in the National Assembly. Kaunda's UNIP party boycotted the parliamentary polls to protest the exclusion of its leader from the presidential race, alleging in addition that the outcome of the election had been predetermined due to a faulty voter registration exercise. Despite the UNIP boycott, the elections took place peacefully, and five presidential and more than 600 parliamentary candidates from 11 parties participated. Afterward, however, several opposition parties and non-governmental organizations declared the elections neither free nor fair. As President Chiluba began his second term in 1997, the opposition continued to reject the results of the election amid international efforts to encourage the MMD and the opposition to resolve their differences through dialogue.

Early in 2001, supporters of President Chiluba mounted a campaign to amend the constitution to enable Chiluba to seek a third term of office. Civil society, opposition parties, and many members of the ruling party exerted sufficient pressure on Chiluba to force him to back away from any attempt at a third term.

Presidential, parliamentary, and local government elections were held on December 27, 2001. Eleven parties contested the elections. The elections encountered numerous administrative problems. Opposition parties alleged that serious irregularities occurred. Nevertheless, MMD presidential candidate Levy Mwanawasa, having garnered a plurality of the vote (29%), was declared the victor by a narrow margin, and he was sworn into office on January 2, 2002. Three parties submitted petitions to the High Court, challenging the election results. The petitions remained under consideration by the courts in March 2004. Opposition parties won a majority of parliamentary seats in the December 2001 election, but subsequent by-elections gave the ruling MMD a majority in parliament.

During his first months in office, President Mwanawasa encouraged the Zambian Anticorruption Commission to aggressively pursue its mandate. In July 2002, in a speech before the Zambian National Assembly, President Mwanawasa provided details on a number of corruption allegations targeting former President Chiluba, and called for Parliament to consider lifting Chiluba's immunity from prosecution. Mwanawasa appointed a special Task Force to investigate and prosecute corrupt officials. Zambian courts are now hearing cases involving corruption charges against Chiluba and numerous officials from his regime.


ECONOMY

Over 70% of Zambians live in poverty. Per capita annual incomes are currently at about one-half their levels at independence and, at $395, place the country among the world's poorest nations. Social indicators continue to decline, particularly in measurements of life expectancy at birth (about 37 years) and maternal mortality (729 per 100,000 pregnancies). The country's rate of economic growth cannot support rapid population growth or the strain which HIV/AIDS related issues (i.e., rising medical costs, decline in worker productivity) place on government resources. Zambia is also one of Sub-Saharan Africa's most highly urbanized countries. Almost one-half of the country's 10 million people are concentrated in a few urban zones strung along the major transportation corridors, while rural areas are underpopulated. Unemployment and underemployment are serious problems.

HIV/AIDS is the nation's greatest challenge, with 16% prevalence among the adult population. HIV/AIDS will continue to ravage Zambian economic, political, cultural, and social development for the foreseeable future.

Once a middle-income country, Zambia began to slide into poverty in the 1970s when copper prices declined on world markets. The socialist government made up for falling revenue by increasing borrowing. After democratic multi-party elections, the Chiluba government (1991-2001) came to power in November 1991 committed to an economic reform program. The government was successful in some areas, such as privatization of most of the parastatals, maintenance of positive real interest rates, the elimination of exchange controls, and endorsement of free market principles. Corruption grew dramatically under the Chiluba government. It remains to be seen whether the Mwanawasa government will be aggressive in continuing economic reform. Zambia has yet to address effectively issues such as reducing the size of the public sector and improving Zambia's social sector delivery systems. Zambia's total foreign debt exceeded $6 billion when the country qualified for Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative (HIPC) debt relief in 2000, contingent upon meeting certain performance criteria. Initially, Zambia hoped to reach the HIPC completion point, and benefit from substantial debt forgiveness, in late 2003. In January 2003, the Zambian Government informed the IMF and World Bank that it wished to renegotiate some of the agreed performance criteria calling for privatization of the Zambia National Commercial Bank and the national telephone and electricity utilities. Although agreements were reached on these issues, subsequent overspending on civil service wages delayed Zambia's final HIPC debt forgiveness from late 2003 to early 2005, at the earliest. In an effort to reach HIPC completion in 2004, the government drafted an austerity budget for 2004, freezing civil service salaries and increasing a number of taxes. The labor movement and other components of civil society have objected to the sacrifices called for in the budget, and, in some cases, the role of the international financial institutions in demanding austerity.

The Zambian economy has historically been based on the copper-mining industry. Output of copper had fallen, however, to a low of 228,000 metric tons in 1998, after a 30-year decline in output due to lack of investment, low copper prices, and uncertainty over privatization. In 2002, following privatization of the industry, copper production rebounded to 337,00 metric tons. Improvements in the world copper market have magnified the effect of this volume increase on revenues and foreign exchange earnings.

The Zambian Government is pursuing an economic diversification program to reduce the economy's reliance on the copper industry. This initiative seeks to exploit other components of Zambia's rich resource base by promoting agriculture, tourism, gemstone mining, and hydro power. In 2003, nonmetal exports increased by 25%, and accounted for 38% of all export earnings, up from 35%.


DEFENSE

The Zambian Defense Force (ZDF) consists of the army, the air force, and Zambian National Service (ZNS). The ZNS, while operating under the Ministry of Defense, is responsible primarily for public works projects. The ZDF is designed primarily for internal defense. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has hit the ZDF especially hard.


FOREIGN RELATIONS

Zambia is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), the African Union, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), which is headquartered in Lusaka. President Kaunda was a persistent and visible advocate of change in Southern Africa, supporting liberation movements in Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), and South Africa. Many of these organizations were based in Zambia during the 1970s and 1980s.

President Chiluba assumed a somewhat higher profile internationally in the mid- and late 1990s. His government played a constructive regional role sponsoring Angola peace talks that led to the 1994 Lusaka Protocols. Zambia has provided troops to UN peacekeeping initiatives in Mozambique, Rwanda, Angola, and Sierra Leone. Zambia was the first African state to cooperate with the International Tribunal investigation of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.

In 1998, Zambia took the lead in efforts to establish a cease-fire in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Zambia was active in the Congolese peace effort after the signing of a cease-fire agreement in Lusaka in July and August 1999, although activity diminished considerably after the Joint Military Commission tasked with implementing the ceasefire relocated to Kinshasa in September 2001.


U.S.-ZAMBIAN RELATIONS

The United States and Zambia enjoy warm relations. The United States is working closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia and to effect constitutional, parliamentary, and electoral reform needed to strengthen the nation's emerging democratic institutions. The United States is also supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

The United States has a substantial foreign assistance program; through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Government provided about $50 million in assistance to Zambia in 2003. Overall U.S. assistance, including that administered by USAID, will increase in 2004 with implementation of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, which during 2004 should provide approximately $66 million in support for the fight against HIV/AIDS. USAID, the Centers for Disease Control, the Peace Corps, the Defense Attache Office, and the State Department will administer Emergency Plan programs.

USAID 's Country Strategic Plan forms the basis for development assistance to Zambia from 2004 to 2010. The strategy focuses on the following strategic objectives:

  • Increased private sector competitiveness;
  • Improved quality of basic education for more school-aged children;
  • Improved health status of Zambians;
  • Government held more accountable; and
  • Reduced impact of HIV/AIDS through a multi-sectoral response.

In addition to supporting development projects, the United States has provided considerable emergency food aid during periods of drought through the World Food Program (WFP) and is a major contributor to refugee programs in Zambia through the UN High Commission for Refugees and other agencies.

Peace Corps

A country agreement inviting the Peace Corps to work in Zambia was signed by the United States and Zambia on September 14, 1993. The first group of volunteers was sworn in on April 7, 1994. In 2004, the Peace Corps program in Zambia continues to increase understanding between Zambians and Americans. More than 140 volunteers are promoting sustainable development through their activities in agricultural and natural resource management, health and sanitation, education, and humanitarian assistance. Volunteers are working in eight of Zambia's nine provinces building local capacity to manage family fish farms, to manage and preserve wildlife resources, to implement health reforms at the village level, to introduce interactive radio instruction for primary school children, and to extend HIV/AIDS education efforts. Recently, a Crisis Corps Program was resumed to support local organizations in the fight against AIDS. Volunteers live primarily in rural villages in remote parts of the country without running water, electricity, or other amenities. New trainees undertake training in local language, culture, and the relevant technical specialty for 9-12 weeks at a center in the Copperbelt.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

LUSAKA (E) Address: Crn of Independence and United Nations Ave; Phone: 260-1-250-955, After hours (Post 1 260-1-252305); Fax: 260-1-252-225/Management Office-253-951, Executive Office-251 865; INMARSAT Tel: Inbound-XXX-870-762637588 (use code req. fm USA or Outside USA); Workweek: Mon-Thu-07:30-17:00, Fri-07:00-12:30; Website: http://zambia.usembassy.gov

AMB:Martin G.Brennan
AMB OMS:Maria Schamber
DCM:Andrew Passen
DCM OMS:Cynthia Hoof
POL/ECO:Katherine S. Dhanani
CON:Joshua Fischel
MGT:Ted D. Plosser
AFSA:Katherine S. Dhanani
AGR:Kevin N. Smith
AID:Jim Bednar
CLO:Judith Morris
CON/POL/ECO:Lance Kinne
DAO:Leslie M. Bryant
ECO:James Garry
EEO:Michelle Fulcher/Chris Gomes
EST:Lance B. Kinne
FMO:Carmen P. Catala
GSO:Craig Anderson
ICASS Chair:Allen Fulcher
IMO:Wayne Payton
ISSO:Robert Sadousky
LAB:Virginia Palmer
PAO:Dehab Ghebreab
RSO:Frank De Michele
SPSH:Natalie Messelt
State ICASS:Katherine S. Dhanani
Last Updated: 1/19/2005

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet

July 14, 2004

Country Description: Zambia is a developing country in southern Africa. Tourist facilities outside of Lusaka, the capital, Livingstone (Victoria Falls), and well-known game parks are not fully developed.

Entry/Exit Requirements: A passport and visa are required. A visa may be obtained in advance or at the port of entry. However, it is recommended that those traveling to Zambia acquire a visa before departing for Zambia. All Americans, except resident diplomats, must pay an airport departure tax of $20 (US).

Zambian Immigration officials insist visitors carry the original or a certified copy of their passport, and if appropriate, their immigration permit at all times. Certified copies must be obtained from the immigration office that issued the permit. American citizens should closely follow immigration guidelines, including visa requirements, for travel to Zambia. Additional information on entry requirements may be obtained from the Embassy of the Republic of Zambia, 2419 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 265-9717 or 19. Overseas, inquiries should be made at the nearest Zambian embassy or consulate.

In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated special procedures at entry/exit points. These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for a child's travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian, if not present. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure.

Safety and Security: U.S. citizens are advised to avoid travel in northern Luapula Province and in areas of the Northern Province adjacent to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC). Although a cease-fire is currently in effect, the DRC is not yet stable and uncontrolled militia operate in the eastern DRC. In the past, armed gunmen have occasionally attacked vehicles near the DROCZambian border.

Land mines along the western, southern, and eastern borders make off-road travel to those areas potentially hazardous. American citizens are advised not to travel off-road along the border areas.

Large numbers of travelers visit tourist destinations, including South Luangwa National Park and Livingstone (Victoria Falls), without incident. U.S. citizens should avoid political rallies and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times.

Service providers in Zambia, including the tourism sector, are not subject to the same standards of safety oversight that exist in the United States; visitors should evaluate risks carefully. For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site at http://travel.state.gov where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, Travel Warnings and Public Announcements can be found.

Crime: Crime in Zambia is widespread. Armed carjackings, muggings, residential burglaries, and petty theft are commonplace in Lusaka and other major cities, especially in downtown commercial districts and housing compounds. Armed criminals perpetrate robberies and home invasions at night throughout Lusaka. Carjackings occur all times of the day. Often carjackers will block the back of a car when one pulls into a driveway. Carjackers target the full range of vehicles, and anyone who does not practice sound security procedures may be targeted. Thieves steal possessions from automobiles and public transport vehicles stopped in traffic. Travelers should keep car doors locked and car windows rolled up at all times. Travel at night is particularly risky, both in Lusaka and on roads outside of the city.

The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy or Consulate staff can, for example, help you find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and find an attorney if needed.

Business Fraud: Perpetrators of business fraud often target foreigners, including Americans. While such fraud schemes in the past have been largely associated with Nigeria, they are now prevalent throughout Africa, including Zambia.

Recently, American citizens have consulted the Embassy regarding questionable business offers described to them by electronic mail sent by Nigerian-based individuals. Typically, these scam operations begin with an unsolicited communication (usually by e-mail) from an unknown individual who describes a situation that promises quick financial gain, often by assisting in the transfer of a large sum of money or valuables out of the country. A series of advance fees, such as fees to open a bank account, or to pay certain taxes, must then be paid in order to conclude the transaction. In fact, the final payoff does not exist; the purpose of the scam is simply to collect the advance fees.

Medical Facilities: Government hospitals and clinics are often understaffed and lack supplies. Private medical clinics in major cities can provide reasonable care in many cases, but major medical emergencies usually require medical evacuation to South Africa or the United States. Basic medical care outside of major cities is extremely limited. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services. Travelers should carry their prescription drugs and medications in original labeled containers, as well as the written prescription from their physician.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as medical evacuation.

U.S. medical insurance plans seldom cover health costs incurred outside the United States unless supplemental coverage is purchased. Further, U.S. Medicare and Medicaid programs do not provide payment for medical services outside the United States. However, many travel agents and private companies offer insurance plans that will cover health care expenses incurred overseas, including emergency services such as medical evacuations.

When making a decision regarding health insurance, Americans should consider that many foreign doctors and hospitals require payment in cash prior to providing service and that a medical evacuation to the United States may cost well in excess of 50,000 dollars (US). Uninsured travelers who require medical care overseas often face extreme difficulties, whereas travelers who have purchased overseas medical insurance have found it to be life saving when a medical emergency has occurred. When consulting with your insurer prior to your trip, please ascertain whether payment will be made to the overseas healthcare provider or if you will be reimbursed later for expenses that you incur. Some insurance policies also include coverage for psychiatric treatment and for disposition of remains in the event of death.

Useful information on medical emergencies abroad, including overseas insurance programs, is provided in the Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs brochure Medical Information for Americans Traveling Abroad, available via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page.

Other Health Information: Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Zambia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance:

Safety of Public Transportation: Poor
Urban Road Conditions/Maintenance: Fair
Rural Road Conditions/Maintenance: Poor
Availability of Roadside Assistance: Poor

Driving on Zambian roads can be hazardous. Since most roads do not have shoulders or sidewalks, pedestrians and livestock use the roadways both day and night. While the main roads in Lusaka are maintained, many secondary roads are in poor repair. Driving at night can be hazardous and is discouraged. Minibuses and cars break down often. When breakdowns occur, local drivers place a few branches behind the car to indicate trouble, but this is hardly visible at night. Many drivers use their high beams at night to detect stopped vehicles and pedestrians.

There are no emergency services for stranded drivers. It is advisable to have a cell phone when undertaking a trip outside of town, although many parts of the country do not yet have cell phone service. During the rainy season (end of October to mid-March), travelers who do not have a fourwheel drive vehicle will encounter problems driving on rural roads. The roads from Lusaka to Livingstone and the Copperbelt cities of Ndola and Kitwe are generally in good condition year-round.

Minibuses serve as the primary means of inter-city travel in Zambia. They are often overcrowded and seldom punctual. Some luxury buses do ply the routes between Lusaka and Livingstone and the Copperbelt. City traffic is comprised mostly of cars and minibuses; motorcycles are rare. Since 2000, Americans have been involved several car accidents, a number of them serious. Carjackings occur in Lusaka day and night, most often by blocking the back of one's car when one pulls into the driveway. For security reasons, the U.S. Embassy discourages travelers from driving on rural roads, especially near the borders with DRC and Angola. American citizens who must drive in these areas are encouraged to drive in convoy and to carry satellite telephones.

Seat belts are mandatory, as are helmets for motorcyclists. A child's seat is not mandatory by law, but is essential for safeguarding children. Traffic circulates on the left side of the road. There is no left turn on red. The speed limit is 50 km/30 mph in Lusaka and 100 km/60 mph outside of city limits. However, speed limits are rarely respected, and most cars drive 80 km/50 mph in the city and 120 km/75 mph outside town. It is not unusual to see four-wheel drive vehicles, trucks, and buses driving at even higher speeds on the stretch between Lusaka and Livingstone. Drivers under the influence of alcohol, who are involved in accidents, are tested at Lusaka's University Teaching Hospital (UTH) and then taken to court.

For additional general information about road safety, including links to foreign government sites, please see the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov/travel/abroad_roadsafety.html. For specific information concerning Zambian driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, please contact the Zambia National Tourist Board at http://[email protected] The Road Safety Commission is responsible for road safety in Zambia, telephone 260-1-25-24-38 or 25-19-77.

Aviation Safety Oversight: As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Zambia by local carriers at present, nor economic authority to operate such service, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Zambia's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with international aviation safety standards.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Zambian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Zambia are strict, and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines. U.S. citizens importing prescription drugs into Zambia without a physician's prescription may be arrested and incarcerated Under the PROTECT Act of April 2003, it is a crime, prosecutable in the United States, for a U.S. citizen or permanent resident alien, to engage in illicit sexual conduct in a foreign country with a person under the age of 18, whether or not the U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident alien intended to engage in such illicit sexual conduct prior to going abroad. For purposes of the PROTECT Act, illicit sexual conduct includes any commercial sex act in a foreign country with a person under the age of 18. The law defines a commercial sex act as any sex act, on account of which anything of value is given to or received by a person under the age of 18.

Under the Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act of 1998, it is a crime to use the mail or any facility of interstate or foreign commerce, including the Internet, to transmit information about a minor under the age of 16 for criminal sexual purposes that include, among other things, the production of child pornography. This same law makes it a crime to use any facility of interstate or foreign commerce, including the Internet, to transport obscene materials to minors under the age of 16. Persons overstaying their visa or attempting to work while on a tourist visa risk imprisonment and deportation.

Consular Access: U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times, so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship are readily available. Zambian police do not provide the U.S. Embassy with timely notification of the arrest of American citizens. If you are detained, you should insist on your right to contact a U.S. consular officer.

Currency Issues: American Express and Visa cards are accepted in major supermarkets, restaurants, stores, and hotels in Lusaka and Livingstone (Victoria Falls). Normally, American travelers can withdraw money (in local currency) from ATMs in major cities in Zambia using their ATM cards or credit cards from the United States. However, from time to time, the banks lose their connections with the credit card exchanges, thus making withdrawals impossible. U.S. traveler checks are easy to cash provided you have identification and the original receipt to prove you are the person who purchased the travelers checks. Zambian banks and bureaux de change will not accept dollar-denominated notes issued before 1990.

Photography Restrictions: Travel to military areas and photographing military facilities, airports, bridges, and other facilities deemed to be of security relevance, are prohibited. Authorities may also challenge photography of areas other than tourist attractions.

Dangers Posed by Wild Animals: Travelers are advised that, even in the most serene settings, wild animals can pose a threat to life and safety. Travelers are cautioned to observe local or park regulations and heed all instruction given by tour guides.

Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction please refer to our Internet site at http://travel.state.gov/family/index.html, or telephone Overseas Citizens Services at 1-888-407-4747. This number is available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays). Callers who are unable to use toll-free numbers, such as those calling from overseas, may obtain information and assistance during these hours by calling 1-317-472-2328.

Registration/Embassy Location: Americans living in or visiting Zambia are encouraged to register with the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Lusaka and obtain updated information on travel and security within Zambia. The U.S. Embassy in Lusaka is located at the corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues, and to obtain updated information on travel and security in Zambia. U.S. citizens may contact the American Embassy during regular work hours, Monday through Thursday from 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., and on Friday from 7:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. The telephone number is 260-1-250-955 or 260-1-252-230. After hours, the number is 260-1-252-305. The Embassy duty officer can be reached at telephone 260-96-864-030. The mailing address is P.O. Box 31617, Lusaka, Zambia. The fax number is 260-1-252-225. The website is http://zambia.usembassy.gov.

views updated

ZAMBIA

Compiled from the January 2006 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Republic of Zambia


PROFILE

Geography

Area:

752,614 sq. m. (290,585 sq. mi.); slightly larger than Texas.

Cities:

Capital—Lusaka (pop. approx. 1 million).

Other cities:

Kitwe, Ndola, Livingstone, Kabwe.

Terrain:

Varies; mostly plateau savanna.

Climate:

Generally dry and ntemperate.

People

Nationality:

Noun and adjective—Zambian(s).

Population:

Approx. 10 million.

Annual growth rate:

2%.

Ethnic groups:

More than 70 ethnic groups.

Religion:

Christian, indigenous beliefs, Muslim, Hindu.

Language:

English (official), about 70 local languages and dialects, including Bemba, Lozi, Kaonde, Lunda, Luvale, Tonga, and Nyanja.

Education:

No compulsory education; 7 years free education. Net primary school enrollment: 67%. Literacy—women: 60.6%; men: 81.6%.

Health:

Infant mortality rate—95/1,000. Life expectancy—32.7 years. HIV prevalence (15-49)—16%.

Work force:

Agriculture—75%; mining and manufacturing—6%; services—19%.

Government

Type:

Republic.

Independence:

October 24, 1964.

Constitution:

1991 (as amended in 1996).

Branches:

Executive—president (chief of state and head of government), cabinet. Legislative—unicameral National Assembly. Judicial—Supreme Court, high court, magistrate courts, and local courts.

Ruling political party:

Movement for Multi-party Democracy (MMD).

Suffrage:

Universal adult.

Subdivisions:

Nine provinces subdivided into 72 districts.

Economy

GDP (2004):

$4.3 billion.

Annual growth rate (2004):

5%.

Per capita GDP (2004):

$478.

Natural resources:

Copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydroelectric power, fertile land.

Agriculture:

Products—corn, sorghum, rice, groundnuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, horticultural products, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, livestock, coffee, and soybeans.

Industry:

Types—mining, transport, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, and textiles.

Trade (2004):

Exports—$1.8 billion: copper, cobalt, lead, and zinc, cut vegetables, cotton. Major markets—South Africa, United Kingdom, Tanzania, Malawi, Japan. Imports—$2.2 billion: crude oil, refined petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs. Major suppliers—South Africa, China, Tanzania, Zimbabwe.

Major donors:

Donors provided $38 million in development assistance to Zambia in 2004. The World Bank is Zambia's largest multilateral donor. Other key multilateral donors include the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Union, UN agencies, and the African Development Bank. Counting direct bilateral assistance and assistance through multilateral agencies, the U.S. is Zambia's largest country donor.


PEOPLE

Zambia's population comprises more than 70 Bantu-speaking ethnic groups. Some ethnic groups are small, and only two have enough people to constitute at least 10% of the population. Most Zambians are subsistence farmers. The predominant religion is a blend of traditional beliefs and Christianity; Christianity is the official national religion. Expatriates, mostly British (about 15,000) or South African, live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are employed in mines and related activities. Zambia also has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians. The country is 44% urban. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is ravaging Zambia. Nearly 1 million Zambians are HIV positive or have AIDS. An estimated 100,000 died in 2004. Over 750,000 Zambian children have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS. Life expectancy at birth is 32.7 years.


HISTORY

The indigenous hunter-gatherer occupants of Zambia began to be displaced or absorbed by more advanced migrating tribes about 2,000 years ago. The major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants began in the 15th century, with the greatest influx between the late 17th and early 19th centuries. They came primarily from the Luba and Lunda tribes of southern Democratic Republic of Congo and northern Angola but were joined in the 19th century by Ngoni peoples from the south. By the latter part of that century, the various peoples of Zambia were largely established in the areas they currently occupy.

Except for an occasional Portuguese explorer, the area lay untouched by Europeans for centuries. After the mid-19th century, it was penetrated by Western explorers, missionaries, and traders. David Livingstone, in 1855, was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River. He named the falls after Queen Victoria, and the Zambian town near the falls is named after him.

In 1888, Cecil Rhodes, spearheading British commercial and political interests in Central Africa, obtained a mineral rights concession from local chiefs. In the same year, Northern and Southern Rhodesia (now Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively) were proclaimed a British sphere of influence. Southern Rhodesia was annexed formally and granted self-government in 1923, and the administration of Northern Rhodesia was transferred to the British colonial office in 1924 as a protectorate.

In 1953, both Rhodesias were joined with Nyasaland (now Malawi) to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Northern Rhodesia was the center of much of the turmoil and crisis that characterized the federation in its last years. At the core of the controversy were insistent African demands for greater participation in government and European fears of losing political control.

A two-stage election held in October and December 1962 resulted in an African majority in the legislative council and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties. The council passed resolutions calling for Northern Rhodesia's secession from the federation and demanding full internal self-government under a new constitution and a new national assembly based on a broader, more democratic franchise. On December 31, 1963, the federation was dissolved, and Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on October 24, 1964.

At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges. Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise. Abroad, three of its neighbors—Southern Rhodesia and the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola—remained under white-dominated rule. Rhodesia's white-ruled government unilaterally declared independence in 1965. In addition, Zambia shared a border with South African-controlled South-West Africa (now Namibia). Zambia's sympathies lay with forces opposing colonial or white-dominated rule, particularly in Southern Rhodesia. During the next decade, it actively supported movements such as the Union for the Total Liberation of Angola (UNITA), the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), the African National Congress of South Africa (ANC), and the South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO).

Conflicts with Rhodesia resulted in the closing of Zambia's borders with that country and severe problems with international transport and power supply. However, the Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the country's requirements for electricity. A railroad to the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam, built with Chinese assistance, reduced Zambian dependence on railroad lines south to South Africa and west through an increasingly troubled Angola.

By the late 1970s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal. Zimbabwe achieved independence in accordance with the 1979 Lancaster House agreement, but Zambia's problems were not solved. Civil war in the former Portuguese colonies generated refugees and caused continuing transportation problems. The Benguela Railroad, which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to traffic from Zambia by the late 1970s. Zambia's strong support for the ANC, which had its external headquarters in Lusaka, created security problems as South Africa raided ANC targets in Zambia.

In the mid-1970s, the price of copper, Zambia's principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide. Zambia turned to foreign and international lenders for relief, but as copper prices remained depressed, it became increasingly difficult to service its growing debt. By the mid-1990s, despite limited debt relief, Zambia's per capita foreign debt remained among the highest in the world.


GOVERNMENT

Zambia became a republic immediately upon attaining independence in October 1964. The constitution promulgated on August 25, 1973, abrogated the original 1964 constitution. The new constitution and the national elections that followed in December 1973 were the final steps in achieving what was called a "one-party participatory democracy."

The 1973 constitution provided for a strong president and a unicameral National Assembly. National policy was formulated by the Central Committee of the United National Independence Party (UNIP), the sole legal party in Zambia. The cabinet executed the central committee's policy.

In accordance with the intention to formalize UNIP supremacy in the new system, the constitution stipulated that the sole candidate in elections for the office of president was the person selected to be the president of UNIP by the party's general conference. The second-ranking person in the Zambian hierarchy was UNIP's secretary general.

In December 1990, at the end of a tumultuous year that included riots in the capital and a coup attempt, President Kenneth Kaunda signed legislation ending UNIP's monopoly on power. In response to growing popular demand for multi-party democracy, and after lengthy, difficult negotiations between the Kaunda government and opposition groups, Zambia enacted a new constitution in August 1991. The constitution enlarged the National Assembly from 136 members to a maximum of 158 members, established an electoral commission, and allowed for more than one presidential candidate who no longer had to be a member of UNIP. The constitution was amended again in 1996 to set new limits on the presidency (including a retroactive two-term limit, and a requirement that both parents of a candidate be Zambian-born). The National Assembly is comprised of 150 directly elected members, up to eight presidentially-appointed members, and a speaker. Zambia is divided into nine provinces, each administered by an appointed deputy minister who essentially performs the duties of a governor.

The Supreme Court is the highest court and the court of appeal; below it are the high court, magistrate's court, and local courts.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 12/19/2005

President: Levy Patrick MWANAWASA
Vice President: Lupando MWAPE
Min. of Commerce & Industry: Dipak PATEL
Min. of Community Development & Social Services: Steven MANJATA
Min. of Defense: Wamundila MULIOKELA
Min. of Education: Brian CHITUWO
Min. of Energy & Water Development: Felix MUTATI
Min. of Environment, Natural Resources, & Tourism: Kabinga PANDE
Min. of Finance & National Planning: Ngandu Peter MAGANDE
Min. of Foreign Affairs: Ronnie SHIKAPWASHA
Min. of Health: Sylvia MASEBO
Min. of Home Affairs: Bates NAMUYAMBA
Min. of Information & Broadcasting: Vernon MWAANGA
Min. of Labor & Social Security: Mutale NALUMANGO
Min. of Lands: Gladys NYIRONGO
Min. of Justice: George KUNDA
Min. of Local Government & Housing: Andrew MULENGA
Min. of Mines & Mineral Development: Kalombo MWANSA
Min. of Science & Technology: Judith KAPIJIMPANGA
Min. of Sports, Youth, & Child Development: George CHULUMANDA
Permanent Sec., Office of the President: Gibson ZIMBA
Attorney General: George KUNDA
Solicitor General: Sunday NKONDE
Governor, Central Bank: Caleb FUNDANGA
Ambassador to the US: Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Tens KAPOMA

Zambia maintains an embassy in the United States at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel: 202-265-9717/8/9).


POLITICAL CONDITIONS

The major figure in Zambian politics from 1964 to 1991 was Kenneth Kaunda, who led the campaign for independence and successfully bridged the rivalries among the country's various regions and ethnic groups. Kaunda tried to base government on his philosophy of "humanism," which condemned human exploitation and stressed cooperation among people, but not at the expense of the individual.

Kaunda's political party—the United National Independence Party (UNIP)—was founded in 1959 and was in power under Kaunda's leadership from 1964 to 1991. Before 1972, Zambia had three significant political parties—UNIP, the African National Congress (ANC), and the United Progressive Party (UPP). The ANC drew its strength from western and southern provinces, while the UPP found some support among Bemba-speakers in the Copperbelt and northern provinces. Although not strongly supported in all areas of the country, only UNIP had a nationwide following.

In December 1972, Zambian law established a one-party state, and all other political parties were banned; this was later enshrined in the 1973 constitution. Kaunda, the sole candidate, was elected President in the 1973 elections. Elections also were held for the National Assembly. Only UNIP members were permitted to run, but these seats were sharply contested. President Kaunda's mandate was renewed in December 1978, October 1983, and October 1988 in a "yes" or "no" vote on his candidacy.

Growing opposition to UNIP's monopoly on power led to the rise in 1990 of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). The MMD assembled an increasingly impressive group of important Zambians, including prominent UNIP defectors and labor leaders. During the year, President Kaunda agreed to a referendum on the one-party state but, in the face of continued opposition, dropped the referendum and signed a constitutional amendment making Zambia a multi-party state. Zambia's first multi-party elections for parliament and the presidency since the 1960s were held on October 31, 1991. MMD candidate Frederick Chiluba resoundingly carried the presidential election over Kenneth Kaunda with 81% of the vote. To add to the MMD landslide, in the parliamentary elections the MMD won 125 of the 150 elected seats and UNIP the remaining 25. However, UNIP swept the Eastern Province, gathering 19 of its seats there.

By the end of Chiluba's first term as President (1996), the MMD's commitment to political reform had faded in the face of re-election demands. A number of prominent supporters founded opposing parties. Relying on the MMD's overwhelming majority in parliament, President Chiluba in May 1996 pushed through constitutional amendments that eliminated former President Kaunda and other prominent opposition leaders from the 1996 presidential elections. In the presidential and parliamentary elections held in November 1996, Chiluba was re-elected, and the MMD won 131 of the 150 seats in the National Assembly. Kaunda's UNIP party boycotted the parliamentary polls to protest the exclusion of its leader from the presidential race, alleging in addition that the outcome of the election had been predetermined due to a faulty voter registration exercise. Despite the UNIP boycott, the elections took place peacefully, and five presidential and more than 600 parliamentary candidates from 11 parties participated. Afterward, however, several opposition parties and non-governmental organizations declared the elections neither free nor fair. As President Chiluba began his second term in 1997, the opposition continued to reject the results of the election amid international efforts to encourage the MMD and the opposition to resolve their differences through dialogue.

Early in 2001, supporters of President Chiluba mounted a campaign to amend the constitution to enable Chiluba to seek a third term of office. Civil society, opposition parties, and many members of the ruling party exerted sufficient pressure on Chiluba to force him to back away from any attempt at a third term.

Presidential, parliamentary, and local government elections were held on December 27, 2001. Eleven parties contested the elections. The elections encountered numerous administrative problems. Opposition parties alleged that serious irregularities occurred. Nevertheless, MMD presidential candidate Levy Mwanawasa, having garnered a plurality of the vote (29%), was declared the victor by a narrow margin, and he was sworn into office on January 2, 2002. Three parties submitted petitions to the Supreme Court, challenging the election results, but the court ruled against the petitioners in February 2005. Opposition parties won a majority of parliamentary seats in the December 2001 election, but subsequent by-elections gave the ruling MMD a majority in parliament.

During his first months in office, President Mwanawasa encouraged the Zambian Anticorruption Commission to aggressively pursue its mandate. In July 2002, in a speech before the Zambian National Assembly, President Mwanawasa provided details on a number of corruption allegations targeting former President Chiluba, and called for Parliament to consider lifting Chiluba's immunity from prosecution. Mwanawasa appointed a special Task Force to investigate and prosecute corrupt officials. Zambian courts are now hearing cases involving corruption charges against Chiluba and numerous officials from his regime.

During his term in office, President Mwanawasa appointed an Electoral Reform Technical Committee (ERTC) and a Constitutional Reform Committee (CRC) to make recommendations for reforms. The ERTC submitted its final report to the President in August 2005. The Government of Zambia has not yet introduced legislation to propose changes to electoral procedures, and it is expected that the electoral process will not be changed significantly before national elections are held in the second half of 2006. Voter registration began on October 31 and will continue through December 31, 2005. The CRC will present its final report and a draft constitution in December 2005. Despite demands from civil society for a new constitution, the President has said that introducing a new constitution would be too expensive and too difficult to do before national elections are held in 2006.


ECONOMY

Over 70% of Zambians live in poverty. Per capita annual incomes are currently at about one-half their levels at independence and, at $430, place the country among the world's poorest nations. Social indicators continue to decline, particularly in measurements of life expectancy at birth (about 37 years) and maternal mortality (729 per 100,000 pregnancies). The country's rate of economic growth cannot support rapid population growth or the strain which HIV/AIDS related issues (i.e., rising medical costs, decline in worker productivity) place on government resources. Zambia is also one of Sub-Saharan Africa's most highly urbanized countries. Almost one-half of the country's 10 million people are concentrated in a few urban zones strung along the major transportation corridors, while rural areas are underpopulated. Unemployment and underemployment are serious problems.

HIV/AIDS is the nation's greatest challenge, with 16% prevalence among the adult population. HIV/AIDS will continue to ravage Zambian economic, political, cultural, and social development for the foreseeable future.

Once a middle-income country, Zambia began to slide into poverty in the 1970s when copper prices declined on world markets. The socialist government made up for falling revenue by increasing borrowing. After democratic multi-party elections, the Chiluba government (1991-2001) came to power in November 1991 committed to an economic reform program. The government was successful in some areas, such as privatization of most of the parastatals, maintenance of positive real interest rates, the elimination of exchange controls, and endorsement of free market principles. Corruption grew dramatically under the Chiluba government. Zambia has yet to address effectively issues such as reducing the size of the public sector and improving Zambia's social sector delivery systems.

Zambia's total foreign debt stood at about $7 billion when Zambia reached the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC) completion point in April 2005. Once debt cancellation under HIPC is completed, almost $5 billion in debt will be eliminated. Initially, Zambia hoped to reach the HIPC completion point, and benefit from substantial debt forgiveness, in late 2003. In January 2003, the Zambian Government informed the IMF and World Bank that it wished to renegotiate some of the agreed performance criteria calling for privatization of the Zambia National Commercial Bank and the national telephone and electricity utilities. Although agreements were reached on these issues, subsequent overspending on civil service wages delayed Zambia's final HIPC debt forgiveness from late 2003 to early 2005.

The Zambian economy has historically been based on the copper-mining industry. Output of copper had fallen, however, to a low of 228,000 metric tons in 1998, after a 30-year decline in output due to lack of investment, low copper prices, and uncertainty over privatization. Following privatization of the industry, copper production rebounded, reaching 398,000 metric tons in 2004. Improvements in the world copper market have magnified the effect of this volume increase on revenues and foreign exchange earnings.

The Zambian Government is pursuing an economic diversification program to reduce the economy's reliance on the copper industry. This initiative seeks to exploit other components of Zambia's rich resource base by promoting agriculture, tourism, gemstone mining, and hydro power.


DEFENSE

The Zambian Defense Force (ZDF) consists of the army, the air force, and Zambian National Service (ZNS). The ZNS, while operating under the Ministry of Defense, is responsible primarily for public works projects. The ZDF is designed primarily for internal defense. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has hit the ZDF especially hard.

The ZDF contributes to African Union and United Nations peace-keeping operations in Africa, and in 2005 became a partner in the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program.


FOREIGN RELATIONS

Zambia is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), the African Union, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), which is headquartered in Lusaka.

President Kaunda was a persistent and visible advocate of change in Southern Africa, supporting liberation movements in Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), and South Africa. Many of these organizations were based in Zambia during the 1970s and 1980s.

President Chiluba assumed a somewhat higher profile internationally in the mid- and late 1990s. His government played a constructive regional role sponsoring Angola peace talks that led to the 1994 Lusaka Protocols. Zambia has provided troops to UN peacekeeping initiatives in Mozambique, Rwanda, Angola, and Sierra Leone. Zambia was the first African state to cooperate with the International Tribunal investigation of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.

In 1998, Zambia took the lead in efforts to establish a cease-fire in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Zambia was active in the Congolese peace effort after the signing of a cease-fire agreement in Lusaka in July and August 1999, although activity diminished considerably after the Joint Military Commission tasked with implementing the ceasefire relocated to Kinshasa in September 2001.


U.S.-ZAMBIAN RELATIONS

The United States and Zambia enjoy warm relations. The United States is working closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia and to effect political reform needed to strengthen the nation's emerging democratic institutions. The United States is also supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

The United States has a substantial foreign assistance program; the U.S. Government provided about $106 million in assistance to Zambia in 2004. Overall U.S. assistance, including that administered by USAID, will increase in 2005 with the expansion of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, which during 2005 should provide approximately $85 million in support for the fight against HIV/AIDS. USAID, the Centers for Disease Control, the Peace Corps, the Defense Attaché Office, and the State Department will administer Emergency Plan programs.

USAID 's Country Strategic Plan forms the basis for development assistance to Zambia from 2004 to 2010. The strategy focuses on the following strategic objectives:

  • Increased private sector competitiveness;
  • Improved quality of basic education for more school-aged children;
  • Improved health status of Zambians;
  • Government held more accountable; and
  • Reduced impact of HIV/AIDS through a multi-sectoral response.

In addition to supporting development projects, the United States has provided considerable emergency food aid during periods of drought through the World Food Program (WFP) and is a major contributor to refugee programs in Zambia through the UN High Commission for Refugees and other agencies.

Peace Corps

A country agreement inviting the Peace Corps to work in Zambia was signed by the United States and Zambia on September 14, 1993. The first group of volunteers was sworn in on April 7, 1994. In 2005, the Peace Corps program in Zambia continues to increase understanding between Zambians and Americans. More than 140 volunteers are promoting sustainable development through their activities in agricultural and natural resource management, health and sanitation, education, and humanitarian assistance. Volunteers are working in eight of Zambia's nine provinces building local capacity to manage family fish farms, to manage and preserve wildlife resources, to implement health reforms at the village level, to introduce interactive radio instruction for primary school children, and to extend HIV/AIDS education efforts. Recently, a Crisis Corps Program was resumed to support local organizations in the fight against AIDS. Volunteers live primarily in rural villages in remote parts of the country without running water, electricity, or other amenities. New trainees undertake training in local language, culture, and the relevant technical specialty for 9-12 weeks at a center in the Copperbelt.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

LUSAKA (E) Address: Crn of Independence and United Nations Ave; Phone: 260-1-250-955, after hours follow instructions; Fax: 260-1-252-225/Management Office - 253-951, Executive Office - 251 865; INMARSAT Tel: Inbound - XXX-870-762637588 (use code req. fm USA or Outside USA); Workweek: Mon - Thu - 07:30 - 17:00, Fri - 07:00 - 12:30; Website: http://zambia.usembassy.gov.

AMB:Carmen Martinez
AMB OMS:Lorraine Mabazza
DCM:Andrew Passen
DCM OMS:Cynthia Hoof
POL/ECO:Jill Derderian
CON:Joshua Fischel
MGT:Ted D. Plosser
AFSA:Laura Gritz
AGR:Kevin N. Smith (Dar es Salaam)
AID:Jim Bednar
CLO:Judith Morris
DAO:David Dougherty
ECO:James Garry
EEO:Michelle Fulcher/Chris Gomes
FMO:Mike Wagoner
GSO:Craig Anderson
ICASS Chair:Allen Fulcher
IMO:Wayne Payton
ISSO:Michael Fail
LAB:Virginia Palmer
PAO:Dehab Ghebreab
RSO:Frank De Michele
SPSH:Solo Lin/Jeane Harris
State ICASS:Jil Derderian
Last Updated: 12/5/2005

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet

July 18, 2005

Country Description:

Zambia is a developing country in southern Africa. Tourist facilities outside of Lusaka, the capital, Livingstone (Victoria Falls), and well-known game parks are not fully developed.

Entry/Exit Requirements:

A passport and visa are required. A visa may be obtained in advance or at the port of entry. However, it is recommended that those traveling to Zambia acquire a visa before departing for Zambia. All Americans, except resident diplomats, must pay an airport departure tax of $20 (US).

Zambian Immigration officials insist visitors carry the original or a certified copy of their passport and their immigration permit at all times. Certified copies must be obtained from the immigration office that issued the permit. American citizens should closely follow immigration guidelines, including visa requirements for travel to Zambia. Additional information on entry requirements may be obtained from the Embassy of the Republic of Zambia, 2419 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 265-9717 or 19. Visit the Embassy of Zambia's web site at http://www.zambiaembassy.org/for the most current visa information.

Safety and Security:

U.S. citizens are advised to avoid travel in northern Luapula Province and in areas of the Northern Province adjacent to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Although a cease-fire is currently in effect, the DRC is not yet stable and uncontrolled militia operate in the eastern DRC. In the past, armed gunmen have occasionally attacked vehicles near the DRC-Zambian border.

Land mines along the western, southern, and eastern borders make off-road travel to those areas potentially hazardous. American citizens are advised not to travel off-road along the border areas.

U.S. citizens should avoid political rallies and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site at http://travel.state.gov where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Crime:

Crime in Zambia is widespread. Armed carjackings, muggings, residential burglaries, and petty theft are commonplace in Lusaka and other major cities, especially in downtown commercial districts and low-income housing neighborhoods. Armed criminals perpetrate robberies and home invasions at night throughout Lusaka. Carjackings occur at all times of the day. Often carjackers will block the back of a car when one pulls into a driveway. Carjackers target the full range of vehicles, and anyone who does not practice sound security procedures may be targeted. Thieves steal possessions from automobiles and public transport vehicles stopped in traffic. Travelers should keep car doors locked and car windows rolled up at all times. Travel at night is particularly risky, both in Lusaka and on roads outside of the city.

Information for Victims of Crime:

The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Medical Facilities and Health Information:

Government hospitals and clinics are often understaffed and lack supplies. Private medical clinics in major cities can provide reasonable care in many cases, but major medical emergencies usually require medical evacuation to South Africa or the United States. Basic medical care outside of major cities is extremely limited. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services. Travelers should carry their prescription drugs and medications in original labeled containers, as well as the written prescription from their physician.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance:

The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions:

While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Zambia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Driving on Zambian roads can be hazardous. Since most roads do not have shoulders or sidewalks, pedestrians and livestock use the roadways both day and night. While the main roads in Lusaka are maintained, many secondary roads are in poor repair. Driving at night can be hazardous and is discouraged. Minibuses and cars break down often. When breakdowns occur, local drivers place a few branches behind the car to indicate trouble, but this is hardly visible at night. Many drivers use their high beams at night to detect stopped vehicles and pedestrians.

There are no emergency services for stranded drivers. It is advisable to have a cell phone when undertaking a trip outside of town, although many parts of the country do not yet have cell phone service. During the rainy season (end of October to mid-March), travelers who do not have a four-wheel drive vehicle will encounter problems driving on rural roads. The roads from Lusaka to Livingstone and the Copperbelt cities of Ndola and Kitwe are generally in good condition year-round.

Minibuses serve as the primary means of inter-city travel in Zambia. They are often overcrowded and seldom punctual. Some luxury buses do ply the routes between Lusaka and Livingstone and the Copperbelt. City traffic is comprised mostly of cars and minibuses; motorcycles are rare. Since 2000, Americans have been involved in several car accidents, a number of them serious. Carjackings occur in Lusaka day and night, most often by blocking the back of one's car when one pulls into the driveway. For security reasons, the U.S. Embassy discourages travelers from driving on rural roads, especially near the borders with DRC and Angola. American citizens who must drive in these areas are encouraged to drive in convoy and to carry satellite telephones.

Seat belts are mandatory, as are helmets for motorcyclists. A child's seat is not mandatory by law, but is essential for safeguarding children. Traffic circulates on the left side of the road. There is no left turn on red. The speed limit is 50 km/30 mph in Lusaka and 100 km/60 mph outside of city limits. However, speed limits are rarely respected, and most cars drive 80 km/50 mph in the city and 120 km/75 mph outside town. It is not unusual to see four-wheel drive vehicles, trucks, and buses driving at even higher speeds on the stretch between Lusaka and Livingstone. Drivers under the influence of alcohol, who are involved in accidents, are tested at Lusaka's University Teaching Hospital (UTH) and then taken to court.

For additional information about road traffic safety and driving permits in Zambia telephone the Road Safety Commission: 260-1-254-194.

Aviation Safety Oversight:

As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Zambia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Zambia's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's internet web site at www.faa.gov/avr/iasa/index.cfm.

Special Circumstances:

Perpetrators of business fraud often target foreigners, including Americans. While such fraud schemes in the past have been largely associated with Nigeria, they are now prevalent throughout Africa, including Zambia.

Recently, American citizens have consulted the Embassy regarding questionable business offers sent by email. Typically, these scam operations begin with an unsolicited communication (usually by e-mail) from an unknown individual who describes a situation that promises quick financial gain, often by assisting in the transfer of a large sum of money or valuables out of the country. A series of advance fees, such as fees to open a bank account, or to pay certain taxes, must then be paid in order to conclude the transaction. In fact, the final payoff does not exist; the purpose of the scam is simply to collect the advance fees.

For additional information, please consult The Department of State's publication Advance Fee Business Scams available via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov.

U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times, so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship are readily available. Zambian police do not provide the U.S. Embassy with timely notification of the arrest of American citizens. If you are detained, you should insist on your right to contact a U.S. consular officer.

American Express, Mastercard and Visa cards are accepted in major supermarkets, restaurants, stores, and hotels in Lusaka and Livingstone (Victoria Falls). Normally, American travelers can withdraw money (in local currency) from ATMs in major cities in Zambia using their ATM cards or credit cards from the United States. However, from time to time, the banks lose their connections with the credit card exchanges, thus making withdrawals impossible. U.S. traveler checks are easy to cash provided you have identification and the original receipt to prove you are the person who purchased the travelers checks. Zambian banks and bureaux de change will not accept dollar-denominated notes issued before 1990.

Travel to military areas and photographing military facilities, airports, bridges, and other facilities deemed to be of security relevance, are prohibited. Authorities may also challenge photography of areas other than tourist attractions.

Service providers in Zambia, including the tourism sector, are not subject to the same standards of safety over-sight that exist in the United States; visitors should evaluate risks carefully.

Travelers are cautioned to observe local or park regulations and heed all instruction given by tour guides. Even in the most serene settings, wild animals can pose a threat to life and safety.

Large numbers of travelers visit tourist destinations, including South Luangwa National Park and Livingstone (Victoria Falls), without incident. However, American citizens are advised to avoid rafting and other whitewater boating activities on the Zambezi River below Victoria Falls during the high-water season, February through June. During periods of high water, the Batoka Gorge section of the river becomes unpredictable and several tourists have been involved in fatal accidents.

Criminal Penalties:

While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Zambian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Zambia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Persons overstaying their visa or attempting to work while on a tourist visa risk imprisonment and deportation.

Children's Issues:

For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family/family_1732.html.

Registration/Embassy Location:

Americans living or traveling in Zambia are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website, https://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Zambia. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at the corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues. The mailing address is P.O. Box 31617, Lusaka, Zambia. U.S. citizens may contact the American Embassy during regular work hours, Monday through Thursday from 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., and on Friday from 7:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. by dialing 260-1-250-955. For after hours emergencies involving American citizens, please dial 260-1-250-955 extension 1. The fax number is 260-1-252-225. The website is http://zambia.usembassy.gov.

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Zambia

Culture Name

Zambian

Alternative Names

Republic of Zambia

Orientation

Identification. Zambia derives its name from the Zambezi River. The river runs across the western and southern border and then forms Victoria Falls and flows into Lake Kariba and on to the Indian Ocean.

Location and Geography. In size, the country is roughly equivalent to the state of Texas, about 290,585 square miles (752,615 square kilometers). The unique butterfly-shaped boundaries are the result of the European scramble for Africa's natural resources in the early 1900s. The capital is Lusaka. Bordering neighbors are the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, and Angola.

It is a landlocked country with several large freshwater lakes, including Lake Tanganyika, Lake Mweru, Lake Bangweulu, and the largest man-made lake in Africa, Lake Kariba. The terrain consists of high plateaus, large savannas, and hilly areas; the highest altitude is in the Muchinga Mountains, at 6,000 feet (1,828 meters). The Great Rift Valley cuts through the southwest and Victoria Falls, the most visited site in Zambia, is in the South.

There are several game parks in the country; some consider Southern Luangwa to be the best game park on the continent.

Demography. The population in 2000 was estimated at 9.87 million. There exists a strong migration to urban areas where families go looking for employment. With 43 percent of the population living in cities, Zambia has the highest ratio of urban population in Africa. Those living in the rural areas face a life of mainly low-yielding subsistence farming, which contributes to the high migration.

The population is comprised primarily (97 percent) of seven main tribes and a collection of seventy-five minor tribes. There is also a small percentage of citizens from other African nations. The remaining population is of Asian, Indian, and European descent. Because of conflicts in the border countries of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola, there has been a large influx of refugees in recent years.

Linguistic Affiliation. English is the official language as the country was once an English colony (19241964). While many people speak English, in rural areas tribal languages are spoken, in addition to a few other vernacular languages. Each of the seventy-five tribes living in the country has its own dialects and language. The main vernacular languages are Bemba, Lozi, Luanda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and Tumbuka.

Symbolism. The background of the national flag is green, symbolic of the country's natural beauty, with three vertical stripes in the lower right corner. The three stripes are: red, symbolic of the country's struggle for freedom; black, representing the racial makeup of the majority population; and orange, symbolic of the country's copper riches and other mineral wealth. A copper-colored eagle in the upper right corner symbolizes the country's ability to rise above its problems.

Zambia is noted for its rich wildlife and landscapes, using those resources to promote tourism with the slogan, "the Real Africa." The most notable landmark is Victoria Falls, known locally as Mosi-oa-Tunya, which means "the smoke that thunders." It is one of the seven natural wonders of the world and even though it is shared with Zimbabwe, it is a source of great pride for Zambians.

For many years, the saying "Copper is king" was symbolic of the country because copper was the main contributor to the economy.

History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. One of the cradles of the human race is in the northern African Rift Valley, which includes modern-day Zambia. This area traces human settlement back almost three million years. In Zambia, sites in the north and south record back to sixty thousand years ago.

Tribal migrations in only the past three hundred years have determined the makeup of present-day Zambia. Between 1500 and 1800 the Lunda and Luba people traveled from the Congo and became a powerful group. The Ngoni, originally from South Africa, escaped from the Boers and Zulus and settled in Eastern Zambia around 18501870. Another powerful tribe, the Lozi, dominated western Zambia and also originated from the Congo in the late seventeenth century. By the beginning of the twentieth century, these tribal migrations had transformed the area into a complex society tied together by conflicts and trade.

In the late 1800s, Portuguese and Muslim traders moved further inland and established trade with tribes. The main items were gold, ivory, and slaves. It was also at this time that missionaries established themselves, the most famous probably being David Livingstone. He worked hard to stop the slave trade and opened the door for the British who wanted to prevent the Portuguese from occupying the land and connecting Angola to Mozambique. Livingstone died in the Bangweulu Swamps in 1873 after exploring much of the area that is now Zambia.

Livingstone's exploring was tied directly into British colonial history and "the scramble for Africa." Cecil Rhodes founded the British South Africa Company (BSAC), which wanted to connect the "Cape to Cairo." Rhodes quickly became one of the wealthiest men in southern Africa. In 1898 he was granted a charter by Queen Victoria to govern the territory then under British control. Under the belief that there were gold and minerals along the Zambezi River, he financed British expansion into these areas. The BSAC established its headquarters in the town of Livingstone.

In 1929 the British government took back control and made the area a protectorate named Northern Rhodesia. The capital was moved to Lusaka in 1935. At this time large copper and other mineral deposits (including gold) were found in the Copperbelt, a province in the north central region. The mines became the driving force for the settlement and expansion of the country as a whole. To fill jobs in the mines, Zambians came from all over the country and settled in urban areas.

In 1953 the British Colonial Office decided to unite Nyasaland (Malawi), Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), and Northern Rhodesia into the Central African Federation. There was strong opposition to the federation because a substantial amount of money was funneled out of Northern Rhodesia to support Southern Rhodesia. The struggle against the federation soon turned into one for freedom as the independence fever swept across Africa. Strikes by mine workers turned into a power base that formed the United National Independence Party (UNIP), led by Kenneth Kaunda. Civil disobedience organized by the UNIP led the British government to allow elections. The republic of Zambia gained its independence on 24 October 1964 with Kaunda as the first president.

National Identity. The people retain strong ties to their tribe or clan, but there is also a strong national identity. Zambia became a settling ground for many migrating tribes around 1500 to 1700, and those immigrants helped create a crossroads of culture in the country. These tribes have lived in harmony with each other for decades. When the first president, Kenneth Kaunda, introduced the slogan "One Zambia, One Nation," it was considered a strong symbol of the country's unified national identity.

Ethnic Relations. The seventy-five tribes that make up Zambia coexist relatively well in comparison to tribes in neighboring countries who were purposefully pitted against each other as part of the colonial governing policies. In these calculated cases, the minority tribe would usually develop primary power; this would only fuel tribal hatred. In some countries, that animosity still exists and creates major social problems.

The main tribes in Zambia are Bemba, Nagoni, Lozi, Chewa, Chokwe, Lunda, Luvale, Tonga, and Tumbuka. Most Zambians have joking relations with other tribes; the relationships go back many years. For example, a Bemba may throw verbal abuses to a Nyanja, but this is done in jest for the most part. This is an important distinction from other countries, where greater animosity exists. Zambians may consider their tribe superior to another, but there is an overall sense of unity across all groups.

Another factor in these good relations is the large urban population. The vast bush regions provide for a great deal of open land and tribes generally do not infringe on one another. In the cities, there is a strong interaction between the tribes. Some members choose to marry out of their own tribes, which strengthens the ties between the different groups. The flip side is that Zambian society has become more homogenized.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

There is a trend to move away from vernacular building styles and techniques to more modern or Western ways of construction. Traditionally, the type of building depended on the availability of materials. For example, basket-weaving construction can be found in homes of the eastern province, while construction using mud-covered small branches can be found in the rest of the country. Construction also depends on the tribe's customs. The Lozi in the southwest build rectangular houses, while the Chewa favor circular structures. Most of the roofs are made of poles and thatch.

A great change occurred with the influence of missionaries and European colonists. The settlers built using Western standards. The missionaries introduced the burnt brick, used to build into square structures, while the colonists built wood-frame structures with metal roofs. These proved to be quite hot, and adaptations were made, incorporating large roofs to allow for ventilation, and spacious verandas to capitalize on the breezes. Examples of colonial architecture can still be seen in Livingstone as well as some examples of Cape Dutch influence from South Africa.

When the British reigned over the countryside, they established British Overseas Management Areas (BOMAs), or small towns that were seats of government and business. Towns were laid out using a grid system. Villages were different, varying from tribe to tribe. The Chewa would form a village in a crescent-moon shape with the chief's lodging in the center. The Lozi developed large homesteads enclosed in a fence. This was for protection from warring tribes, as well as safety for the tribe's cattle.

A homestead usually consists of a main house, other houses, a social insaka, a cooking insaka, and other functional structures such as latrines or granaries. An insaka is a small roofed structure that is similar to a gazebo.

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. The availability of food supplies depends on season and location. The main staple is nshima, which is made of maize (corn). "Mealie meal" is dried and pounded corn to which boiling water is added. It is cooked to a consistency of thickened mashed potatoes and is served in large bowls. The diner scoops out a handful, rolls it into a ball and dips it into a relish. The preferred relish is usually a meatgoat, fish, or chickenand a vegetable, usually rape (collard greens) and tomatoes, onions, or cabbage. In rural areas, where meat is not an option on a regular basis, nshima is served with beans, vegetables, or dried fish. Mealie meal is eaten three times a day, at breakfast as a porridge and as nshima for lunch and dinner. Buns are also popular at breakfast, taken with tea.

Other foods, such as groundnuts (peanuts), sweet potatoes, and cassava, are more seasonal. Fruits are plentiful, including bananas, mangoes, paw paws, and pineapples, which come from the hilly regions.

In the cities, there are plenty of fast-food establishments or "take-aways" that serve quick Western food such as sausages, samoosas (savory-filled pastries), burgers, and chips with a Coca-Cola. There are also an increasing number of formal Western-style restaurants that are largely accessible only to the wealthy.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Food customs vary among tribes. For example, in the Bemba culture it is taboo for a bride to eat eggs because it may affect her fertility. Another Bemba tradition is to serve the newlyweds a pot of chicken whose bones are then replaced in the pot and given to the bride's mother. A Lozi tradition is to eat porridge off of a stone to bless the couple. Most ceremonies, including weddings, funerals, and initiation ceremonies, involve lots of food and traditionally brewed beer.

Basic Economy. Starting with the rural community, life is supported primarily by subsistence farming. Most villagers have a small plot of land on which they farm maize, groundnuts, cassava, millet, sweet potatoes, and other products. Some villagers organize larger fields to support the community and groups of women may grow their own crops for sale.

The eastern part of the country has a climate suitable for the growing of cotton; coffee is grown in the north. Communities near lakes focus on fishing as a major industry, selling their catch all over the country. Zambia is host to a variety of freshwater fish species, including kapenta and bream. In areas where water is scarce, cattle and other domestic animals are raised.

While industrial manufacturing is limited, many everyday products are produced in the country, such as candles, cooking oil, and matches. People in the smaller urban areas may have small shops or a stand in the local marketplace, selling produce or providing a service such as watch repair. The market is a place not only of trade but of socialization. But while some may be able to support themselves and their families on the farm or in the village, job opportunities in the larger urban areas continue to contribute to the urban migration taking place in the country.

Land Tenure and Property. There are many plots of land, both in cities and rural areas, that are owned by individuals after purchase from the government. In the villages, the chiefs own the land and give out parcels to their supporters. In this distribution, tribal customs and practices are honored. The government supports this form of distribution because the acreage to be distributed is vast and unpopulated. The government still owns most of the valuable land, specifically the mines and other mineral-rich areas.

In the large urban areas, there is a huge housing crisis. Shantytowns have been erected with no sewage and the majority lack electricity. The occupants of these areas are squatters who do not own the land but who have established their homes there and indeed, whole communities.

There are no laws preventing ownership of land by women. Very few women own land in practice primarily because of cultural and historical precedent.

Ten percent of all the land is demarcated by the government for private ownership and most of that is located in the cities. The corridors of development that do exist appear along railways and highways, which are also demarcated, usually by large farmers who want to be tied into the transportation system.

Commercial Activities. Some of the locally produced agricultural products are sold domestically, along with some household goods, cloth, and other food items. In the years of Kaunda, there was an attempt to locally make the goods needed by the country. Zambia also had an agreement with the government of the People's Republic of China, who built the Tarzara railway, connecting Zambia to Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and the rest of the world. Because Zambia is landlocked, this link helped out with the limited trade that did occur. When democracy was ushered in, President Frederick Chiluba opened the Zambian doors to trade. Since that time, there has been a heavy influx of goods from England, Japan, the United States, and, primarily, South Africa, whose products have flooded the market and are very popular with Zambians.

Major Industries. The copper mines have traditionally provided for a major part of the economy. In 1996, copper accounted for 80 percent of all exports. A major portion of the mines were opened to privatization, but the government was still working to sell them off. Mines were sold because of years of mismanagement and financial corruption.

Zambia has great agricultural potential and many large-scale farms have been established. The infrastructure for the distribution of goods, though, is very poor and poses a major obstacle for economic advancement in this area.

The country does support some unique industries, such as a flourishing cement trade that exports primarily to Zambia's neighbors. Farms outside of Lusaka also export roses, and are a leading supplier to the European market.

In 1995, 70 percent of the labor force was in agriculture, 18 percent in services, and 12 percent in industry.

Trade. The main exports are copper, cobalt, zinc, tobacco, maize, and emeralds. The primary recipients are South Africa, Japan, and Saudi Arabia. The main imports are automobiles, farming equipment, chemicals and fuels, and food items, from South Africa, Japan, Europe, and the United States.

Division of Labor. Labor is primarily divided between rural and urban workforces. In urban areas, jobs obtained are related to an individual's educational levels. There is high unemployment in the cities, with better-paying jobs found in government work, large businesses, and with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). These jobs are held by people with higher education, especially those who had schooling overseas. The poor, lessertrained individuals who come to the cities may manage to earn a living by doing odd jobs or owning a small shop.

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. Since independence came to Zambia, there has been an obvious gap between the rich and the poor. The elite have adopted a Western standard of living and in essence have created their own class. In both rural and urban societies, there are definite lines of wealth and poverty. In the village a man is considered wealthy by having a large, healthy family, as well as his material goods. In the cities, there is greater emphasis on material wealth.

The white and Asian populations have traditionally owned businesses and have done well over the years.

With the loosening of trade restraints, the gap between rich and poor has only widened. At the same time, the government is working to increase foreign investment in the country, while national priorities such as education and health care declined in importance.

Symbols of Social Stratification. Concrete blocks and tin roofsonce provided by the government for palace construction within the villagesbecame a symbol of wealth and prestige. If a family did well financially, they would attempt to copy this construction fashion.

In small cities where electricity is available, appliances such as refrigerators, stoves and especially televisions and video cassette recorders are an indication of wealth. In all communities, a vehicle is an obvious indicator of wealth and success. In the cities, foreign imports are frequent sights on the streets.

An individual's house is also a symbol of wealth and success. In the cities, large houses with pools and manicured gardens enclosed in a large fence can be found. In the villages, a family's homestead reflects wealth through the number of structures, particularly if those structures include granaries, which hold a family's maize harvest.

Political Life

Government. The first president, Kaunda, came to power in 1964. He soon banned all other political parties and established what he called "Zambian Humanism," which was loosely based on socialist ideas. The country faired well because of the price of copper. Because of economic hardships and pressure from foreign countries, Kaunda eventually allowed for multiparty elections. Chiluba was the second president, winning the elections under the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). He encouraged open trade relations which led to increased economic activity. With the new elections, a declaration of independence was created that included a bill of rights for every citizen.

A president is elected for five years and cannot serve more than two terms. In 1996 the country was criticized for holding unfair elections.

The legal system is modeled after English common law and customary law. The judicial branch includes a supreme court with justices appointed by the president. The vice president is also appointed by the president.

Leadership and Political Officials. Government jobs are highly coveted because of the pay and other associated benefits that might include cars, houses, and even travel. Political power, as in other governments, is related to loyalty to the presidential administration and shifts in that power do occur.

In rural areas, political control is directed by the village chiefs or chieftainesses. Some of these rural rulers have immense power, wealth, and influence while others do not. Traditionally, the chiefs and chieftainesses ruled vast amounts of land and people. They held great power, and the British, while in control of the country, allowed for local rule in remote areas. This political structure is still in place today.

Social Problems and Control. AIDS is a major concern not only for sub-Saharan Africa but especially in Zambia, where the caseload is particularly high. The disease has led to a huge orphan crisis, creating an overburden on an already stressed medical system. Efforts to combat this disease are being made, but resources are scarce.

Refugees from warring neighboring countries also have had an impact on the government's ability to deliver human services. In 2000, government-sponsored camps held 200,000 refugees (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees figure) from the wars in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in Angola.

Crime is a growing problem for the country, with violent robberies and car-jacking incidents not uncommon. In villages and sometimes urban areas, a thief may find himself the victim of an angry crowd if he is unlucky enough to be caught before the official police show up. Government corruption is another problem that is crippling the country at all levels. From bribes to payoffs at a local roadblock, corruption exists. The misdirection of government funds affects everyday life when the money intended for social problems does not reach its intended use.

Military Activity. The military consists of an army and an air force but both branches suffer from inadequate funding and equipment shortages. In recent history, the troops have been used primarily for United Nations missions to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and to Angola.

There have been no major wars fought on Zambian soil. Kaunda supported Zimbabwe's fight for independence and Southern Rhodesia attacked camps in Zambia in 1978 and 1979.

In 1997, a minority faction of the military attempted a coup, but the result of that effort was a state of emergency which lasted six months.

President Chiluba traditionally has taken an active role in arranging peace talks for local conflicts as well as more international negotiations such as the Angolan conflict resolution. Zambian officials have also tried to help resolve the continuing political conflicts in the Congo.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

Once independence was achieved, copper prices made Zambia one of the wealthiest countries in Africa, which helped fund many of the subsidized government programs and products. But when copper prices dropped dramatically in the early 1970s, that income source of the government decreased and the subsidies were no longer available. With the government unable to assist, foreign aid was encouraged and some areas became dependent on that foreign support. Zambia became heavily indebted to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. It was pressure from these organizations that forced Kaunda to allow democratic elections.

Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations

Numerous nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), from various foreign countries and religious groups operate programs in Zambia. The stated goal of these organizations is to provide aid both on a large scale and at the grassroots level. One of the largest recent projects in Zambia has been a road improvement program, since transportation problems in the country are a major issue. Examples of NGOs operating in Zambia include: World Vision, Habitat for Humanity, and the International Red Cross.

Gender Roles and Statuses

Division of Labor by Gender. Both men and women work hard for basic survival. Traditionally, women have had the role of caring for the household, but in recent times, especially in cities, women work in offices, sell vegetables, and hold numerous other positions, including positions in the military. In the village, a woman's day starts out with sweeping and cleaning, followed by the collection of water, often from long distances. The washing of clothes and the preparation of meals are also done by women. The primary responsibility for children too, falls to women, although older siblings are expected to help out with these chores.

Both women and men work long hours in the fields, although the task is largely considered men's work. The men traditionally do the fishing, hunting, and raising of livestock, but also are known to socialize more with neighbors, family, and friends. Women tend to socialize when they are doing chores.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. Men have most of the power. There has been an effort to gain greater influence for women's rights, but it is difficult to incorporate programs that change traditional beliefs. Women's groups work together in sewing or farming a small vegetable plot. This gives the women some financial gain and a voice in the family's money matters. It is also a source of pride and belonging.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Marriage. Traditionally, people would marry within their tribe, rarely going outside that circle to find a mate, but marriage within a clan group is considered taboo. Tribal customs vary but there usually is a mediator who serves as a go-between for a man and his desired bride. The man and his negotiator will meet with a prospective bride's family and in addition to getting to know each other, start negotiations for a lobola (dowry). This lobola traditionally involves cattle or other livestock, but in modern times money settlements have been accepted. The lobola is considered a compensation to the family for the lost services of the woman.

Christian weddings are very common even in villages, although traditional religious customs are still practiced in both cities and rural areas, with variations from tribe to tribe. A Bemba custom calls for the man to live with his bride's parents for a period, to prove his ability to take care of his wife.

Domestic Unit. The main domestic structure is the extended family, common throughout Africa. The system grew out of a need to help family members in times of trouble. For example, if a family had a year of bad crops, their relatives would be expected to provide assistance. If a mother and father died, their children would be cared for by relatives.

Inheritance. The issue of inheritance is handled differently throughout the country, reflecting the different customs of the numerous tribes. Traditional methods call for disputes to be settled within the clan or at the next level, which is the chief. In disputes involving men and women, the clans traditionally favor the male's position. In urban areas, the courts resolve these disputes. The Goba tribe has what is called dihwe, a council to settle problems of succession and inheritance if a prominent member of the household dies. Many Zambians, especially in cities, now create a will and last testament.

Kin Groups. As in most areas of Africa, clans are an important factor in Zambia society. Clans provide another way to identify one's self, in addition to tribal connections. Similar to an extended family, one is expected to assist another clan member whenever needed; it is considered part of one's social duty and identity. These kin groups are traditionally named after animals or natural features, such as crocodiles, elephants, or rain.

Socialization

Infant Care. Because many families have a large number of children and since many parents work, both in rural and urban communities, a number of children are raised by their siblings. It is not uncommon in the village to see a baby being carried around by children as young as five years old.

Shitangas, which are large pieces of cloth, wrapped around the baby and the mother, allow the mother to carry the baby on her back with the baby's head peering just over her shoulder. Mothers often conduct hard labor, such as carrying water or working in the fields, while carrying an infant.

Child Rearing and Education. It is difficult for families, both rural and urban, to afford fees charged for attending school. In villages, schools are often hampered by out-of-date textbooks and buildings in terrible disrepair. There is usually an inadequate number of teachers, which forces a class schedule of only a half-day. When not in school, children are expected to be at home, helping with chores or working the fields.

Most tribes have an initiation ceremony for both boys and girls to mark an individual's entry into adulthood and official acceptance into the village. These are large events, lasting for days and celebrated with dance, food, and singing. Both male and female ceremonies involve many rituals that teach them about customs, sex, and the responsibilities of being an adult. It is usually right after these ceremonies that marriage takes place.

Higher Education. After primary school (grades one to seven), some Zambians proceed to secondary school, or grades eight to twelve. Since secondary school fees are even higher than primary school fees, some children are unable to attend. In addition to the secondary schools, the country has several boarding schools with even higher fees, but the results are a better-funded educational system. Educational resources are hard to come by and many rural schools simply must do with what they have.

After secondary school, students have limited options for furthering their formal education. There are numerous trade colleges specializing in technical programs, such as machinery, plumbing, construction, and sewing. More recently, computer programs are being offered, but these, as with other programs, specialize in basic skills for the trade fields. There also are teaching colleges that supply professionals for the Zambian school system. There are two universities: the University of Zambia in Lusaka, which specializes in liberal arts degrees, including law and business, and the Copperbelt University, in Kitwe, which offers degrees in technical subjects, such as mining, engineering, and architecture.

There have been several demonstrations by students, protesting the government's cutbacks on subsidies for school and living expenses.

In years past, these universities were well funded by the government, but deterioration has increased sharply. There is limited funding for basic things such as modern textbooks, computers, and basic building maintenance. Many Zambians choose to pursue an education out of the country and while some can afford the cost, others hope for scholarships from foreign countries, especially the United Kingdom, which has been very generous in the past. There is a concern that as many of the country's smarter students seek an education outside of the country, they will not return, opting instead to work overseas for more pay and a better standard of life.

Etiquette

Greetings are very important. One greets another by saying "hello" and "how are you?" Then come inquiries into one's family, the crops or the weather. It is rude to come directly to the point; conversations may go on for several minutes before the point of the conversation is broached.

There is hand etiquette as well. The right hand is for eatingwhich is traditionally done without utensilsgreetings, and exchanges of money. It is impolite to use your left hand when interacting with another person. Washing of one's hands before eating is very common, with a bowl of water passed around as one sits at the table. The guests are given the honor of going first.

Proverbs are an important part of Zambian society. They are part of the oral tradition and have become catchphrases in which a lesson is taught. For example a Kaunde proverb is "Bubela bubwel," which translates to "lies return." This is a proverb used to warn against gossip and telling lies because it can make you look foolish later.

Another important aspect of Zambian culture is respect for elders. When greeting an elder, one shows respect by dropping to one knee, bowing the head, clapping three times, and saying one of the many terms that signify respect.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. The influence of Christian missionaries is evident. An estimated 53 percent of the population considers themselves Catholic. The country's official religion has been Catholicism since 1993 when President Chiluba officially declared it so. There are other religions, including a large Muslim population primarily in Eastern Province. This is a result of the immigration of Arabs from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, largely due to the slave trade. There are Hindus, Jews, and Pentecostals, who, combined, comprise only 1 percent of the population. Animism is practiced by a large amount of the population, even if they are Catholic, Seventh Day Adventists, or practitioners of another religion. Animism beliefs vary from tribe to tribe, but most are based on beliefs in the power of ancestors and in nature. Some people call this witchcraft and indeed such terms as "wizards" and "witches" are used. Many areas believe that crocodiles have strong powers.

Religious Practitioners. Missionaries have a long history in the country although for many years there have been Zambian priests, especially in cities. A mission will periodically send a priest into the bush country for services and other religious duties.

There is a recognition of witch doctors, who use traditional medicines made from roots or plants, and every rural area has access to a traditional healer.

Rituals and Holy Places. The major holy places are the many waterfalls, where people believe certain spirits live. Traditional healers will often go into the woods or bush to contact spirits.

The various tribes have many rituals. For example, the Litunga tribe performs a ceremony that is called Kuomboka. This signifies the tribe's movement in the rainy season from the floodplains to higher ground. Hundreds of canoes travel down the river with the chief leading the way. Umutomboko is performed once a year by the Kazembe Bemba and is a ceremonial reenactment of a migration that took place in the early 1800s. Much dancing culminates with the chief's dance.

Death and the Afterlife. Funerals are a major event, with family members coming from great distances to attend. A funeral may last for many days, with the men outside drinking and talking, and women inside, wailing. The delay gives people traveling from long distances time to arrive. After a period, the group will proceed to a graveyard where services, usually Christian, will be held. Unfortunately, funerals have become an everyday occurrence due to the high death rate associated with AIDS and other illnesses.

There are separate ceremonies for the burial of village chiefs, along with their ancestors. A Bemba tradition is that if a paramount chief dies, his body will not be buried for a week but is protected because a clipping of his hair or a fingernail could be a very powerful item in traditional religions.

Traditional religions also have their specific beliefs on death and afterlife.

Medicine and Health Care

Under President Kaunda, the government provided basic health coverage for everyone, including those in rural areas. That, however, was when Zambia was a wealthy country and could afford to do so. Government hospitals have deteriorated significantly in the past few years with major problems of understaffing and increasing numbers of sick patients. Because of limited funding, even hospital maintenance has suffered. Medicines, particularly those for AIDS patients, are in high demand, and funding is inadequate; the situation is worse in the rural areas. The major health problems are AIDS, TB, malaria, and malnutrition.

Much of the support from NGOs and foreign governments comes in the form of medical assistance such as medicines, equipment, and personnel. There is a strong government immunization program for children in very rural areas, with traveling clinics for those five years or younger, where routine immunization shots and basic health care are distributed.

Secular Celebrations

Holidays officially celebrated by the government include: New Year's Day (1 January), Labor Day (1 May), African Freedom Day (21 May), Unity Day (in July), Heroes Day (in July), Youth Day (9 August), and Independence Day (21 October). Government offices and banks are closed on these days and there often are planned celebrations in the larger cities, including parades or festivals. Residents of the cities traditionally return to their clans for these times of celebrations.

The Arts and Humanities

Support for the Arts. Most of the support for the country's art programs comes from tourists or NGOs. Zambians produce beautifully carved pieces for the tourist trade with a sale expected to bring in quite a bit of money for a household. Basket weaving in Zambia is generally considered the best in Africa, with many different materials and styles used. The baskets are typically made out of grass reeds and are used for containers.

Literature. There are few published Zambian authors, largely because of the high illiteracy rate. Another factor is the high cost of books. The books that are written are usually stories of independence or on topics related to life in the city or the village.

Graphic Arts. At one time, a large textile industry existed in the country, owned and operated by the government. The main product was brilliantly colored dyed fabrics in many patterns. This fabric was used for clothing, particularly chitenges, which are strips of cloth. These are worn as skirts, wrapped about the bodies of women and especially popular in villages. In the 1990s, the importance of saulas, or secondhand clothing, increased, with donations from Western countries and church organizationsthus decreasing the need for new textiles.

Performance Arts. Drum and dance troupes are popular. Many of these are for the benefit of tourists and perform in major cities, since the smaller cities do not have the facilities or money to support the arts. These dances are very lively and use the traditional instruments of drums, an instrument similar to a xylophone, and a thumb piano.

Bands are also popular in urban settings. The most popular sound is rumba music from the Congo, but there is an appreciation of the traditional tribal songs and sounds. In village settings, the basics prevail. In most cases, not even an instrument is used; instead, traditional songs are sung and clapped while sitting around a community fire. The passing on of beliefs and customs in oral performances are still practiced. This is a very important part of tribal culture and preserves a tribe's identity and beliefs.

Bibliography

Baldwin, Robert E. Economic Development and Export Growth: A Study of Northern Rhodesia, 19201960, 1966.

Beveridge, Andrew A., and Anthony R. Oberschall. African Businessmen and Development in Zambia, 1979.

Bonnick, Gladstone G. Zambia Country Assistance Review: Turning an Economy Around, 1997.

Burdette, Marcia M. Zambia: Between two Worlds, 1988.

Cancel, Robert. Allegorical Speculation in an Oral Society, 1988.

Chiluba, Frederick J. T., Democracy: The Challenge of Change, 1995.

Crehan, Kate A. F. The Fractured Community, 1997.

De Gaay Fortman, Bastiaan, ed. After Mulungushi: The Economics of Zambian Humanism, 1969.

Epstein A. L. Urbanization and Kinship, 1981.

Fisher, W. Singleton, and Julyan Hoyte. Ndotolu, 1987.

Holmes, Timothy. Zambia, 1998.

Ihonvbere, Julius O. Economic Crisis, Civil Society and Democratization: The Case of Zambia, 1996.

Knauder, Stefanie. Shacks and Mansions, 1982.

Lancaster, Chet S. The Goba of the Zambezi, 1981.

Obidegwu, Chukwuma F., and Mudziviri Nziramasanga. Copper and Zambia: An Econometric Analysis, 1981.

Roberts, Andrew D. A History of the Bemba, 1973.

Schmetzer, Harmut. Traditional Architecture in Zambia, 1987.

Smith, Edwin W. The Ila Peoples of Northern Rhodesia, 1968.

Turner, Edith. The Spirit and the Drum, 1987.

. Experiencing Ritual, 1992.

Turok, Ben, ed. Development in Zambia: A Reader, 1979.

Van Binsbergen, Wim M. J. Religious Change in Zambia, 1981.

Jon Sojkowski

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ZAMBIA

Republic of Zambia

Major Cities:
Lusaka

Other Cities:
Chingola, Kabwe, Kitwe, Livingstone, Luanshya, Mbala, Mongu, Mufulira, Ndola

EDITOR'S NOTE

This chapter was adapted from the Department of State Post Report dated February 1997. Supplemental material has been added to increase coverage of minor cities, facts have been updated, and some material has been condensed. Readers are encouraged to visit the Department of State's web site at http://travel.state.gov/ for the most recent information available on travel to this country.

INTRODUCTION

The best thing about Lusaka is the climateit's wonderful. If you enjoy outdoor activities, i.e., horseback riding, golf, camping, etc. this is the place to be. It is also within reasonable driving distance of Victoria Falls, several game parks and Harare.

ZAMBIA is one of the continent's newer, developing nations. Its intense concern over minority rule in southern Africa, its relative affluence, and its prestige among non-aligned nations worldwide accord it a singular measure of importance.

Formerly known as Northern Rhodesia, Zambia was a British protectorate from 1923 until 1953, when it became one of the three territories of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. On October 24, 1964, the country achieved independence as the Republic of Zambia, 75 years after first coming under the administration of the British South Africa Company.

MAJOR CITIES

Lusaka

Lusaka, with a population of almost 1.7 million, lies 4,200 feet above sea level and spreads across a rolling plain. The city is well planned and landscaped. Several wide boulevards planted with trees and shrubs divide the city into sections. In the most affluent residential areas, large and comfortable ranch-style houses preside over wide lawns and gardens. In other parts of the city, the City Council has constructed substantial, modest-income housing. Shanty towns exist on Lusaka's outskirts, and the city itself has areas of squalor and congestion like many other African capitals.

Lusaka's main shopping area is a boulevard called Cairo Road. Adjacent to this boulevard are several streets of Asian and African general stores that sell traditional African staples: blankets, cooking utensils, kerosene lamps, cornmeal, clothes and shoes. An industrial park lies at the northwestern end of town. Smaller shopping areas are scattered throughout the city.

Food

A fairly wide variety of fresh produce is available in local markets. In addition to tropical fruits, you can buy oranges, apples, pineapple, strawberries, grapefruit, and lemons in season. Vegetables abound: potatoes, onions, tomatoes, carrots, mushrooms, spinach, lettuce, cabbage, green beans, peas, broccoli, garlic, celery, beets, green and red peppers, cucumbers, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, pumpkin, and squash. Some shops even offer Chinese cabbage and bean sprouts.

On the economy, one can buy sugar, molasses, jam, coffee, tea, condiments and spices (curry powder, cinnamon, coriander, cloves, nutmeg). Supermarkets stock flour, pasta, sunflower oil, household laundry soap and cleaning products. Keep in mind that these are made in Zambia, South Africa or Zimbabwe and may not be exactly the same as American products. Imported goods in local stores are expensive.

Lusaka butcher shops sell good quality chicken, beef and pork, including sausages and bacon, at reasonable prices. Baby food and formula are sometimes available on the economy, but most people find these unsatisfactory. Dietetic and diabetic foods are not generally stocked.

Clothing

Summer clothing is worn eight months of the year. Moderately heavy clothing is necessary during the cooler winter months. Remember the seasons are the reverse of those in the U.S. Lusaka nighttime temperatures can get as low as 40-50 degrees fahrenheit from mid-May to mid-August. Those arriving are advised to pack some light wool or wool-blend clothing in their suitcases. The rainy season (November through April) requires lightweight raincoats (rain boots for children) and umbrellas. Include a good supply of clothes in your shipment. Local shops are not a reliable source due to sporadic availability, poor quality and high prices.

Bring a sufficient supply of shoes, as those locally manufactured are of poor quality. Imported shoes are rarely available and are expensive. Fabric shops offer a variety of cotton, rayon and polyester fabrics suitable for clothing and home furnishings.

Men: Men customarily wear lightweight tropical-worsted or dacron blended suits at the office and official functions, although at least one wool, informal suit is a good idea. During the hot summer months, many men wear slacks with a shirt and tie. For restaurant dining and unofficial events, sport shirts and slacks (without ties) or safari suits are acceptable. Golfers who prefer to wear shorts are required to also wear knee-high socks.

Women: Women wear short-sleeved or sleeveless cotton, linen or lightweight fabric dresses, cotton and linen skirts, or tailored trousers and blouses for the office. Sweaters or lightweight jackets are also needed during winter months. Informal long and short dresses are normally worn to cocktail parties and dinners. For barbecues, pool side, and patio parties, women often wear long or short sundresses, jeans, slacks, skirts, pantsuits, or shorts with casual tops, depending on the season and time of day. For cooler evenings, sweaters or lightweight wraps or shawls may be required.

Children: Bring a good supply of all children's lightweight summer clothing, swimwear, tennis and sandal-type shoes, and sweaters. Children wear mostly cotton dresses, shorts, jeans and T-shirts.

Supplies And Services

Supplies: U.S. brands deodorants and other toiletries, cosmetics, feminine supplies, medicines and over-the-counter drug items, laundry detergent and cleansers, paper supplies, and other common household items are not generally available. Those found on the economy are usually not up to American standards and/or very expensive.

Basic Services: People who have found good tailors and dressmakers in Lusaka are happy to recommend them to newcomers. Many tailors and dressmakers can copy ready-made garments as well as follow printed patterns. Dry-cleaners are of mixed reliability. Haircuts, perms, manicures and pedicures are available.

Religious Activities

Religions represented in Zambia include but are not limited to (in alphabetical order): Anglican, Assemblies of God, Baha'i, Baptist, Brethren, Christian Science, Church of Christ, Greek Orthodox, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist, and various independent Pentecostals.

Education

American Embassy School of Lusaka (AESL), founded in 1986, offers a curriculum designed to meet or exceed the standards of better public schools in the U.S. The school enrolls children aged 2 to 14 years, starting with preschool for 2-4 year olds and ending with grade 8 for 13-14 year olds. Class size is restricted to 10-16 children in a class with one teacher and 17-19 children in a class with two instructional staff (a teacher and an assistant teacher). AESL is accredited in the U.S., as well as Europe, and is sponsored by the United States State Department. The school's curriculum emphasizes the academic subjects of English language arts, mathematics, science and social studies and includes art, music, physical education, computers and information technology, and library skills. Children in grades 1-8 have daily French lessons. Throughout the curriculum there is an emphasis on helping children learn about and appreciate Zambia's people, culture and environment. Special programs are provided for children who are learning English as a second language and for children with learning disabilities.

The school has moved into a new, purpose-built facility on a 15 acre campus with spacious classrooms, a well-stocked library media center with video and computer areas, specialized rooms for art, music, and science, and extensive sports facilities, including playgrounds with equipment for younger children, soccer/softball fields, tennis courts, a running track, a covered basketball court and a large swimming pool with changing rooms. The parent community is encouraged to use the school's sports facilities.

A few other schools in Lusaka enroll children of expatriates. In its primary section, the International School of Lusaka uses American materials, but all other schools are based on the British, South African, or Zambian systems of education. These include Nkhwazi School, Baobab Trust School, Lusaka International Community School and Lake Road School.

Sports

Zambia's most popular spectator sport is soccer. Throughout the country, teams compete in various leagues.

Facilities are available both in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt for cricket, field hockey, golf, tennis, squash, bowling (on the greens), and swimming. The Municipal Council operates an Olympic-sized public swimming pool in Lusaka near the International School. Entrance fees are nominal. The Lusaka Sports Club, which is quite run-down, maintains several clay tennis courts, a billiards room, squash courts, a swimming pool and a children's wading pool. It also sponsors soccer, cricket, field hockey, badminton, squash, and tennis teams.

Golf is quite popular in Zambia among both expatriates and Zambians. Three golf clubs in Lusaka have excellent courses: the Lusaka Golf Club and the Chainama Hills Golf Club (both 18 holes) and the Chilanga Golf Club (9 holes). A polo club sponsors periodic horse shows. The Lusaka Flying Club, located at the Lusaka City Airport, provides flying lessons.

All sports items cost more than in the U.S. Zambia boasts vast wildlife resources and hunting is popular. Hunting licenses for small game are inexpensive, but difficult to obtain. Licenses for large game are expensive and more difficult to obtain. Game is available for the enthusiast who has a rugged disposition and the necessary equipment, including a four-wheel-drive vehicle. A hunting safari can be costly, but photo safaris are quite reasonable.

Foreigners and Zambians enjoy fishing and many Zambians depend on fish as their chief protein source. About 35 miles from Lusaka is the Kafue River, which offers fair-to-good angling for bream, barbel (a type of catfish), and a variety of large mouth perch. Also, within 30 miles of Lusaka are many small man-made ponds that offer bream and barbel. Although fishing is generally possible throughout the year, the best time is between April and November. The Zambezi River offers perhaps the best tiger fishing grounds in Africa. Kasaba Bay on Lake Tanganyika is renowned for its Nile perch and nkupi (yellow-bel-lied bream). Other good fishing grounds are Lakes Kariba, Samfya and Kalabo.

Horseback riding is popular. Several stables are here. The Lusaka Gymkhana Club and the Lusaka Pony Club sponsor periodic horse shows. At the Lusaka Polo and Hunt Club, polo is played every weekend from March to October. Membership fees and dues for these clubs are reasonable. The cost of purchasing and stabling horses in Lusaka is less than in the U.S. Tack and riding apparel are not available locally. Riding instruction for children is available, although the quality varies.

Touring and Outdoor Activities

As a tourist center, Lusaka is ideally situated. It lies at the junction of the main highways to the north, east, south and west. Lusaka has an international airport with convenient airlinks to the tourist attractions of Luangwa Valley and Victoria Falls. Zambia's natural heritage offers unequaled opportunities for the tourist to view waterfalls, rivers, lakes and vast wildlife sanctuaries. In recent years, the Zambia National Tourist Board has made a determined effort to improve tourist facilities.

Victoria Falls, known by its ancient name of "Mosi-o-Tunya" (The Smoke That Thunders), is a must stop for all visitors to Zambia. The falls (twice as high and half again as wide as Niagara) are 295 miles, or a six-hour drive, from Lusaka near the border town of Livingstone. Accommodations range in cost and comfort from the Intercontinental Hotel to rustic cottages. Just outside of Livingstone is a small drive through park with 1,300 varieties of animals, reptiles and birds, including lion, giraffe, zebra, white rhino, antelope, warthog and bush pig. Other attractions near Victoria Falls are the National Museum, which houses many cultural and anthropological exhibits; the Maramba Cultural Village; and white water rafting trips organized by the American Company Sobek.

Zambian game viewing, walking safaris and hunting safaris are unparalleled. South Luangwa National Park is outstanding, comparable to the famous parks of East Africa in variety of game present. Kafue and Lochinvar National Parks offer conducted walking or Land Rover safaris, where visitors can get quite close to most wildlife. Luangwa and Kafue have inexpensive self-catering cottages with kitchens, as well as numerous full-service lodges. Each park is approachable by road, but visitors to Luangwa usually prefer to fly because of the long distance and poor roads (400 miles northeast of Lusaka).

Lake Tanganyika is accessible by road but nearly 700 miles from Lusaka. Lake Kariba, conveniently situated 93 miles south of the capital is a favorite weekend resort for Lusaka residents. Here you can stay on the Zambia side or cross into Zimbabwe. The area offers boating, fishing, water sports and swimming. Another option at Lake Kariba is spending your time on a house boat and cruising the lake.

Entertainment

Most Americans entertain in their homes. There are several movie houses in Lusaka; few non-Zambians attend them.

Lusaka restaurants are in the moderate to expensive range; dining quality ranges from fair to good. The Intercontinental Hotel has a coffee shop, barbecue grill and an expensive restaurant. The Pamodzi Hotel also has a coffee shop, an a-lacarte restaurant, and a poolside snack bar. Other restaurants offering both lunch and dinner are: Arabian Nights (Pakistani/steak); Danny's (Persian/Asian); Golden Spur, Holiday Inn (steak/mixture); Gringo's Grill (steak); Jayline (steak/Creole); Lilayi Lodge (buffet/a-la-carte); Marco Polo (Italian); Polo Grill (steak); and Shenai (Indian/Chinese). The Intercontinental has a casino.

Social Activities

Among Americans: The largest American get-togethers occur at Fourth of July, Thanksgiving and Christmas.

The American-Canadian Women's Club is open to all American and Canadian women and wives of Americans and Canadians. Activities include monthly afternoon meetings at the homes of members featuring guest speakers and refreshments. The Club runs special holiday events for children and evening parties for members and their partners.

International Contacts: Official representatives of 89 nations and 30 international agencies are accredited to Zambia. Of these, 74 are resident in Lusaka. Also present are many international business visitors interested in the copper industry, government contracts, and development opportunities. Another source of international contact is among the expatriates: professors, doctors, engineers, missionaries and other professionals who come to Zambia from around the world to assist in development projects.

OTHER CITIES

CHINGOLA , 30 miles northwest of Kitwe, is a large city which has expanded with the growth of the copper-mining industry. It has a current population of 186,000.

KABWE (formerly called Broken Hill/Kabwe), 50 miles north of Lusaka on the Great North Road, is a city of historic prominence. In the early 1900s, the Broken Hill mine was opened, introducing Zambia to foreign mining interests. One of Africa's first hydroelectric power plants began operations here in 1924 to supply power to the mines. Archaeologists found human and animal fossils in the mines in 1921, leading to the discovery of the "Rhodesian man." Kabwe is also the home of Zambia Railways and of a major trucking firm. The city is surrounded by large, fertile farming areas. Corn and tobacco are cultivated in the large farming areas surrounding the town. The population is approximately 210,000.

KITWE , with a population of 439,000, is about 175 miles north of Lusaka. Several small international communities of business representatives are in the area. Express and local trains from Lusaka serve Kitwe, and many amenities (although not equal to those in Lusaka) are available. The Edinburgh and Nkama Hotels are both modern and convenient. Taxis or car hire are easily obtained. Kitwe is Zambia's second largest city and is connected by rail, air, and road with major cities of central and southern Africa. The city has a large European population.

LIVINGSTONE , a marketing, distribution, and tourist center in southern Zambia, is close to Victoria Falls. This city of 108,000 was the capital of Northern Rhodesia from 1907 to 1935. It has several good hotels, among them the Intercontinental and the North-Western, the latter a favorite gathering spot for expatriates. Frequent buses from Lusaka serve Livingstone. The city is a major distribution point for agricultural products and timber. Livingstone has several nearby tourist spots, including Victoria Falls, Lake Kariba, Livingstone Game Park, and Kafue and Wankie National Parks. The Livingstone Museum has a collection of ethnological, historical, and archaeological exhibits, including those related to the explorer-missionary David Livingstone. The population in 1988 was 98,000.

Known as "the garden town of the copper belt," LUANSHYA is a city of 125,000, about 150 miles north of Lusaka. It is the terminus of a rail branch from Ndola and is linked to other cities in the province. In addition to mining, there are also machine shops and factories in Luanshya.

MBALA is a city if 16,000 in the extreme north, off Lake Tanganyika. Hills provide a majestic backdrop for the town, with the Kalambo Fallsnesting place of the maribou storknearby.

MONGU is a fascinating tourist stop located in the Western Province, some 300 miles west of Lusaka. Two noteworthy ceremonies performed here are the Kuomboka in March and the Kufulehela in July. These correspond to the rainy season, so actual dates fluctuate. Lozi basketwork and carvings are on display in the town's curio shop. A thermal power station at Mongu supplies electricity to the area. An airfield is located in Mongu. The current population is approximately 37,000.

MUFULIRA is a principal copper-mining center in north-central Zambia, southeast of the Zaire border. Smelting and refining of copper as well as an explosives plant are the city's surface industries. Mufulira's population is close to 131,000.

NDOLA , 175 miles north of Lusaka on the Zaire border, is Zambia's second largest city. It is linked by rail to the capital, Lusaka. Its more than 348,000 residents work in copper and sugar refineries, tire and car factories, and service industries. Educational opportunities in Ndola include the National Technical College and the Ndola campus of the University of Zambia.

COUNTRY PROFILE

Geography And Climate

Zambia, in central southern Africa, is mostly on a high, level plateau, 3,000-5,000 feet above sea level. Lusaka is one of the higher points in the country. Zambia, bordered by Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, Angola and Zaire, has an area of 290,586 square miles (a little larger than Texas).

All of Zambia lies within 18 degrees of the Equator. The climate is pleasant and rivals that of southern California. Humidity is quite low except during the rainy season (November-April), and the temperature rarely exceeds 95 degrees fahrenheit; it can get into the 40s during the winter months (June and July). Summer clothing is worn mid-August to mid-May. Light woolens are useful in winter (mid-May to mid-August). Generally, summer evenings are cool and winter days are sunny and warm.

Annual rainfall during the rainy season averages 34 inches. At the season's beginning and end, showers are brief. During January, however, heavier rains punctuated by thunderstorms often occur.

Population

Zambia's estimated population in 2001 was 9.8 million. Expatriates, mostly British or South African, live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in Northern Zambia. There are about some Americans living in Zambia, most of whom are missionaries. Zambia also has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians. The annual growth rate is 1.93 percent.

There are more than 70 tribal groups; English is the official language, with about 70 local languages and dialects. The principal ones are Bemba, Tonga, Nyanja, Lozi, Luvale, Ndembu (Lundu) and Kaonde. Some tribes are small, and only two have enough people to constitute at least 10 percent of the population. The predominant religion is a blend of traditional beliefs and Christianity.

The major cities are the capital-Lusaka (population 1.2 million), Ndola (348,000), Kitwe (305,000), and Kabwe (213,000).

Like many African countries, Zambia's new African elite consists of high government officials and successful business representatives. Next in salary status are lesser officials and urban managerial employees. Mine workers, factory laborers, and clerical and manual employees form a third social stratum in Lusaka, Livingstone and on the Copperbelt. Most Zambians in rural areas are subsistence farmers growing corn, soybeans, cotton, sugar, sunflower seeds, wheat, sorghum, millet, cassava, tobacco and various vegetable and fruit crops.

Public Institutions

After 27 years of one party rule, Zambia experienced a dramatic transformation in October 1991. After a vigorous multi-party campaign, the Movement for Multi-party Democracy (MMD) won a resounding victory and established a new government committed to democracy, respect for human rights, and economic reform. The President of Zambia, currently Levy Patrick Mwanasa, has executive power and appoints a 23-member Cabinet. The 150-member National Assembly has legislative powers. The President can veto legislation enacted by the National Assembly, and the Assembly can overrule the veto by a two-thirds vote. The judiciary is independent.

Arts, Science And Education

Artistic and intellectual activity in Lusaka is usually an informal affair with people gathering at one another's homes. A few organized societies for the arts exist, prominent among which is the Lusaka Musical Society that offers several professional performances annually.

Zambia requires seven years of compulsory education but attendance is less than 50 percent of those eligible for grades 1-7. Less than 20 percent of primary school graduates are admitted to secondary school. The literacy rate is 78 percent.

The University of Zambia, founded in 1966, is the educational center of Lusaka. The University maintains a library, sponsors lectures and seminars, and hosts cultural events of variable quality.

Copperbelt University, established first as a regional branch of the University of Zambia in 1977 and opened as a separate institution in 1989, includes the schools of Business, Environmental Studies, and Technology. Teachers' training colleges, Evelyn Hone College of Applied Arts and Commerce, and other primarily vocational-technical schools complete the picture of Zambian tertiary educational institutions.

The fine arts in Zambia are still in the developmental stage, but a few painters and printmakers have achieved recognition beyond Zambia's borders.

The Zambia Cultural Services maintains a handicrafts shop with objects drawn from rural areas throughout Zambia and offers occasional outdoor performances by the national Dance Troupe at Kabwata Cultural Village. The National Collection, housed in Lusaka's Mulungushi Hall, is an interesting exhibition of works of Zambian artists. The nation's best museums are the Livingstone Museum in Southern Province, Mbala's Moto-moto Museum in Northern Province, and the Choma Museum (on the way to Livingstone).

Commerce And Industry

Zambia is one of Sub-Saharan Africa's most highly urbanized countries. About half of the country's 9.8 million people are concentrated in a few urban zones strung along the major transportation corridors, while rural areas are under-populated. Unemployment and underemployment are serious. Per capital annual incomes are lower than their levels at independence, and at $880 place the country among the world's poorest nations. Social indicators continue to decline, particularly in measurements of life expectancy at birth, currently only 37 years, and maternal and infant mortality. The high population growth rate, near 2 percent per annum, makes it difficult for per capita income to increase. The country's rate of economic growth can support neither rapid population growth, nor the debilitating effects on maternal and child health resulting from it. Inflation is extremely high, at 27.3%.

Agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80% of Zambia's population. Maize (corn) is the principal cash crop as well as the staple food. Other important crops include soybeans, cotton, sugar, sunflower seeds, wheat, sorghum, millet, cassava, tobacco and various vegetable and fruit crops. Zambia has the potential for significantly increasing its agricultural output, as currently less than 20 percent of its arable land is cultivated.

The Zambian economy has historically been based on the coppermining industry, which has accounted for a significant portion of the gross domestic product (GDP), from one-third to one-half of government revenues, and more than 75 percent of Zambia's foreign exchange earnings. Due to a decline in world copper prices starting in the mid-1970s, lack of investment to increase productivity and output, nationalization and mismanagement, and socialist economic policies, the copper mining base of the economy has eroded over time.

Beginning in the 1970s, Zambia relied heavily on socialist-style planning and administrative controls to manage its economy; on the public sector-especially parastatal enterprises-to undertake investment and generate economic growth and employment; and on international borrowing to finance public sector investments and to support levels of consumption that proved to be unsustainable. As a result, in late 1991, the Zambian economy faced many problems: basic goods and services were in short supply; the money supply was growing rapidly because of the manner in which the government's domestic debt was financed; military expenditures were rising while social sector expenditures were declining; tax compliance was low, the budget deficit was large and increasing; many parastatal companies were heavily indebted and suffered crippling losses; private investment had collapsed; business and consumer confidence had eroded; external debt was not being serviced; a parallel market in foreign exchange was flourishing; asset holders were transferring their capital out of the country and switching to foreign currency for local transactions; the country's physical infrastructure was rapidly deteriorating; and Zambia had neither food reserves nor the financial resources to deal with natural disasters and emergencies.

The present government came to power after democratic, multi-party elections in November 1991, committed to an economic recovery program. Since these economic reforms began, Zambia has suffered droughts (three years out of the five) and falling copper production.

Although growth has been slow, positive effects are emerging. All domestic and external trade, except petroleum products, has been left to the private sector, resulting in a greatly improved availability of consumer and producer products in the market.

Transportation

Local

Buses are generally unsuitable and unsafe for commuter travel. Taxis and rental cars are expensive (Avis is available). Taxis tend to be unsafe.

Regional

Paved roads lead from Lusaka to the Copperbelt, Livingstone, Tunduma (on the Tanzanian border), Mongu (near Angola to the west), and to the Malawi border. Dirt or gravel roads connect the capital with other parts of the country. Paved roads usually have potholes.

Lusaka has an international airport, with flights to Europe, the United States and other cities in Africa originating with either British Airlines, KLM or South African Air. Aero Zambia and Zambian Express fly to points in Zimbabwe, South Africa and Ndola and Livingstone in Zambia. Eastern Air flies to Chipata, Mfuwe (Luangwa Game Park) and Kasama. Flights are often full during British and South African school holiday times and travelers should make reservations well in advance.

Zambia Railways offers domestic passenger service, but because passenger service is unreliable and unsafe and rail travel is generally slower than travel by car, few foreigners travel by rail. TAZARA Railway operates to Dar es Salaam several times a week. It is a fascinating (albeit very long) trip for those who do not expect European train travel standards. First class approximates European second class coaches. At the southern end of the line of rail, Zambia Railways ties into the Zimbabwean rail system connecting with the Mozambique Railroad coming up from the Indian Ocean port of Beira, and with the South African railway system. Bus service is also available to major points in Zambia and Zimbabwe, as well as Johannesburg.

Zambia's distance from the capitals of the neighboring African states makes air travel the most comfortable, convenient and popular way to travel to and from Zambia.

Communications

Telephone and Telegraph

Local service is adequate, but repair times can be lengthy. Direct dialing and trunk booking connect Zambia to the U.S. and many other locations in the world but can be extremely expensive. Obtain an AT&T calling card to take advantage of the AT&T USA Direct line, which offers much cheaper rates.

International cable service is generally good, but domestic service is still questionable.

Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals

The principal papers are the daily Times of Zambia, Daily Mail, Sunday Times, Sunday Mail, Post, Financial Mail, National Mirror, and Sun.

Lusaka has several commercial bookstores. None has a wide or dependable selection. The University of Zambia's bookstore usually offers numerous titles on Zambia and Africa.

Lusaka has several free libraries, including the Municipal Library in the main business area. The National Archives Library has a good collection of books on Africa. USIS and the British Council each operates a library. Books are limited to American and British subject matter, respectively. The American Embassy School of Lusaka has a fine children's library.

Health And Medicine

Medical Facilities

In Zambia most hospitals and out-patient clinics are government subsidized, and care is provided at relatively low cost. Unfortunately, these clinics and hospitals are far below American standards, poorly staffed, with virtually no medicine available and limited testing capabilities.

Local dental facilities are adequate for routine care, such as fillings and cleaning, but complete any special treatment (i.e., crowns, periodontal or oral surgical procedures) before coming. Additional dental clinics will be opening with more capabilities such as crowns and partial dentures which are made in South Africa. Ophthalmologists are scarce. Several opticians practice in Lusaka, but glasses are expensive. Purchase contact lenses and glasses (including extra pairs) before arrival in the country. Bring eye prescriptions with you in case you need emergency replacement. Bring any cleaning solution/equipment for contact lenses with you since you won't be able to find these in Lusaka. Most medicines are difficult to find in Lusaka. If you take medicine routinely for any long-standing medical condition, be sure to bring adequate supplies with you.

Community Health

The sanitation level in Lusaka is fair. City tap water is not potable. Testing of water in many of the residences showed that the chlorine levels were far below what is needed to make the city or bore hole (well) water acceptable for drinking. The local water lacks fluoride. Cholera and other diarrhea diseases are also endemic but should not affect the U.S. community when water is filtered and proper food handling and hand-washing are practiced. Pasteurized milk is available and is considered safe to use.

Preventive Measures

Automobile accidents probably present the greatest risk to personnel. Therefore, it is particularly important to wear seat belts and to have car seats for infants and small children. The condition of other motor vehicles on the road is quite poor, so defensive driving is very important. Avoid night driving whenever possible, as most roads are without street lights, and many cars do not have proper headlights or taillights.

Malaria is a constantly changing and challenging disease. Malaria is endemic, and all personnel should begin taking malaria prophylaxis two weeks prior to arrival.

Other measures to prevent mosquito bites are very important.

Consider all bodies of water (lakes, rivers, dams) to be infested with bilharzia. Anyone swimming, wading or using these waters will be at risk for developing bilharzia. Use only treated pools for swimming.

A shot record is required for entry into Zambia. Although no vaccines are strictly required for entry, yellow fever is required if entering from an endemic area. It is valid for ten years. Immunizations for typhoid, tetanus, diphtheria, rabies, hepatitis A and B, polio and meningitis are strongly recommended.

Wear protective clothing to protect against snake bites, especially for travel in rural areas.

Some well-staffed hospitals with limited medical supplies are in the rural areas, but the distances between them are often great.

AIDS and HIV

The most quoted figures for HIV prevalence in Zambia range between 25 to 30 percent, especially in urban areas such as Lusaka. HIV/AIDS continues to be a large and difficult health problem in Zambia in spite of many government and donor-sponsored programs to supply information and prevention. The death rate due to AIDS and AIDS-related illnesses appears to still be escalating.

Since HIV/AIDS is not casually transmitted, this situation should pose minimal risk to Americans posted here. The health unit periodically checks any local clinic or dental clinic to whom American personnel may be referred with special emphasis on sterilization of equipment and single use of all disposable items.

NOTES FOR TRAVELERS

Passage

Travelers, including Foreign Service personnel, temporary duty personnel, consultants, experts and any official or nonofficial visitors, must obtain visas from the Zambian Embassy in Washington, D.C., or at the Zambian Mission to the U.N. in New York. All travelers should also have a South African visa in the event a medical evacuation to that country is necessary.

Currency, Banking, And Weights And Measures

Zambia uses a decimal currency. The kwacha (which means dawn) is the main currency unit. Currency notes come in the following denominations: 10,000, 5,000, 1,000, 500, 100, 50 and 20. The exchange rate in January 2001 was 4,024.53 kwacha to one U.S. dollar.

Facilities

Banking facilities in Lusaka are satisfactory. A growing number of major commercial banks operate in Lusaka, including one American bank.

Travelers checks are easily cashed at banks and hotels, but not at all shops. Money cannot be withdrawn from automatic teller machines unless the traveler has an account set up in Zambia. American Express, Visa, MasterCard and other credit cards are accepted by some hotels, shops and restaurants in Zambia and surrounding countries.

Zambia follows the metric system for weights and measures.

LOCAL HOLIDAYS

Jan.1 New Year's Day

Mar. (2nd Sat) Youth Day

Mar.(2nd Mon) Commonwealth Day)

Mar/Apr. Good Friday*

Mar/Apr. Holy Saturday*

Mar/Apr. Easter*

Mar/Apr. Easter Monday*

May 1 Labor Day

May 25 Africa Day

July(1st Mon) Heroes' Day

July (After Heroes' Day) Unity Day

Aug. (1st Mon) Farmer's Day

Oct. 24 Independence Day

Dec. 25 Christmas Day

*variable

RECOMMENDED READING

These titles are provided as a general indication of the material published on this country. The Department of State does not endorse unofficial publications.

Burdette, Marcia M. Zambia: Between Two Worlds. Westview Press: Boulder, CO, 1988.

Carr, Norman. Kakuli. CBC Publishers: Harare, 1996.

Colson, Elizabeth and Thayer Scudder. For Prayer and Profit: The Ritual, Economic, and Social Importance of Beer in Gwembe District, Zambia, 1950-1982. Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA, 1988.

Derricourt, Robin. Man on the Kafue: The Archaeology & History of the Itezhitezhi Area of Zambia. New York: Barber Press, 1985.

Gertzel, Cherry, ed. The Dynamics of a One-Party State in Zambia. Longwood Publishing Group: Dover, NH, 1984.

Gulhati, Ravi. Impasse in Zambia: The Economics & Politics of Reform. (EDI Development Policy Case Series:No. 2.) (ISBN 0-8213-1241-2, 11241.) World Bank. The Publications Department, 1989.

Hansen, Karen Tranberg. Distant Companions: Servants and Employees in Zambia. Cornell University Press: Ithaca and London, 1989.

Hobson, Dick. T ales of Zambia. The Zambia Society Trust: London, 1996.

Hollmes, Timothy. Zambia. Let's Visit Places & Peoples of the World Series. New York: Chelsea House, 1988.

Laure, Jason. Zambia. (Enchantment of the World Series (ISBN 0-516-02716-6).) Children's Press.

MacPherson, Fergus. Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia: The Time and the Man. Oxford University Press: New York, 1975.

Mulaisho, Dominic. The Tongue of the Dumb. Heinemann: London, 1971.

Nag, Prithvish. Population, Settlement & Development in Zambia, 1990. ISBN 0-685-34761-3, South Asia Books: Concept India.

Ollawa, Patrick E. Participatory Democracy in Zambia. State Mutual Book and Periodical Service, Limited. ISBN 0-7223-1214-8, A.H. Stockwell, England.

Owen, Mark and Delia. Survivor's Song: Life and Death in the African Wilderness (published as "Eye of the Elephant" in U.S.). Harper Collins: London, 1992.

Poewe, Karla O. Religion, Kinship, & Economy in Luapula, Zambia. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1989.

Prins, Gwyn. The Hidden Hippopotamus: Reappraisal in African History: The Early Colonial Experience in Western Zambia. Cambridge University Press: New York, 1980.

Rogers, Barbara R. Zambia. RogersStillman, photographer (Children of the World Series). ISBN 0-8368-0257-8. Stevens, Gareth, Inc.

Rogers, Stillman. Zambia. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens Children's Books, 1991.

Skjonsberg, Else. Change in an African Village: Kefa Speaks. Kumarian Press: West Hartford, CT, 1989.

Vaughan, Richard (text) and Murphy, Ian (photos). Zambia. Corporate Brochure Co.: London, 1991.

Vickery, Kenneth P. Black and White in Southern Zambia: The Tonga Plateau Economy and British Imperialism, 1890-1939. Greenwood: New York, 1986.

In addition to the above books, the Wildlife Conservation Society of Zambia has a small selection of films available for loan. Particularly worth viewing is the documentary, "Last Kingdom of the Elephants," which was filmed in Zambia's Luangwa Valley and is narrated by the late Orson Welles.

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Zambia

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environment

6 Population

7 Migration

8 Ethnic Groups

9 Languages

10 Religions

11 Transportation

12 History

13 Government

14 Political Parties

15 Judicial System

16 Armed Forces

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Foreign Trade

27 Energy and Power

28 Social Development

29 Health

30 Housing

31 Education

32 Media

33 Tourism and Recreation

34 Famous Zambians

35 Bibliography

Republic of Zambia

CAPITAL: Lusaka

FLAG: The flag is green, with a tricolor of dark red, black, and orange vertical stripes at the lower corner of the fly, topped by a golden flying eagle.

ANTHEM: Stand and Sing for Zambia.

MONETARY UNIT: The kwacha (k) of 100 ngwee replaced the Zambian pound (z£) on 15 January 1968. There are coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 ngwee, and notes of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 500 kwacha. k1 = $0.00022 (or $1 = k4,549.58) as of 2005.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is used.

HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Youth Day, 11 March; Labor Day, 1 May; African Freedom Day, 24 May; Heroes’ Day, 1st Monday after 1st weekend in July; Unity Day, Tuesday after Heroes’ Day; Farmers’ Day, 5 August; Independence Day, 24 October; Christmas, 25 December. Movable religious holidays include Good Friday and Easter Monday.

TIME: 2 pm = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

A landlocked country in south-central Africa, Zambia has an area of 752,614 square kilometers (290,584 square miles), slightly larger than the state of Texas. The country shares boundaries with Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, Angola, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC), with a total land boundary length of 5,664 kilometers (3,519 miles). Zambia’s capital city, Lusaka, is located in the south-central part of the country.

2 Topography

Most of the landmass in Zambia is a high plateau lying between 910 and 1,370 meters (3,000 and 4,500 feet) above sea level. In the northeast, the Muchinga Mountains exceed 1,800 meters (5,900 feet) in height. The highest point in the country is an unnamed peak in the Mafinga Hills of the north, which rise to an elevation of 2,301 meters (7,550 feet). Elevations below 610 meters (2,000 feet) are encountered in the valleys of the major river systems. Plateau land in the northeastern and eastern parts of the country is broken by the low-lying Luangwa River,

GEOGRAPHICAL PROFILE

Geographic Features

Area: 752,614 sq km (290,584 sq mi)

Size ranking: 38 of 194

Highest elevation: 2,301 meters (7,550 feet) at Mafinga Hills

Lowest elevation: 329 meters (1,079 feet) at the Zambezi River

Land Use*

Arable land: 7%

Permanent crops: 0%

Other: 93%

Weather**

Average annual precipitation: 92.3 centimeters (36.3 inches)

Average temperature in January: 20.9°c (69.6°f)

Average temperature in July: 17.8°c (64.0°f)

* Arable Land: Land used for temporary crops, like meadows for mowing or pasture, gardens, and greenhouses.

Permanent crops: Land cultivated with crops that occupy its use for long periods, such as cocoa, coffee, rubber, fruit and nut orchards, and vineyards.

Other: Any land not specified, including built-on areas, roads, and barren land.

** The measurements for precipitation and average temperatures were taken at weather stations closest to the country’s largest city.

Precipitation and average temperature can vary significantly within a country, due to factors such as latitude, altitude, coastal proximity, and wind patterns.

and in the western half by the Kafue River. Both rivers are tributaries of the upper Zambezi, the major waterway of the area and the longest in the country with a total length of 2,735 kilometers (1,700 miles). The frequent occurrence of rapids and falls prevents navigation of some sections of the Zambezi. The lowest point in the country is along the Zambezi River, at 329 meters (1,079 feet).

There are three large natural lakes— Bangweulu, Mweru, and Tanganyika—all in the northern area. Lake Tanganyika is the largest, with an area of about 12,770 square kilometers (32,893 square miles). Lake Bangweulu and the swamps at its southern end cover about 9,840 square kilometers (3,799 square miles) and are drained by the Luapula River. Kariba, one of the world’s largest artificial lakes, with an area of 5,500 square kilometers (2,124 square miles), is on the southern border. It was formed by the construction of the Kariba Dam along the Zambezi.

3 Climate

Although Zambia lies within the tropics, much of the country has a pleasant climate because of the altitude. There are wide seasonal variations in temperature and rainfall. The northern and northwestern provinces have an annual rainfall of about 125 centimeters (50 inches), while areas in the far south receive as little as 75 centimeters (30 inches). Average annual rainfall is 92.3 centimeters (36.3 inches). Daytime temperatures may range from 23–31°c (73–88°f), dropping at night to as low as 5°c (41°f) in June and July.

4 Plants and Animals

Most of the territory is plateau and the prevailing type of vegetation is open woodland or savanna. Acacia and baobab trees, thorn trees and bushes, and tall perennial grasses are widespread, becoming coarser and sparser in the drier areas to the

south. To the north and east grows a thin forest. The southwest has forests of Zambian teak.

The national parks and game reserves, such as the Kafue National Park, conserve the wildlife that is threatened by settlement. The Cookson’s wildebeest, Senga Kob, Thornicroft giraffe, and red lechwe are unique to Zambia. The many varieties of buck include kudu, impala, duiker, and sten. In Luangwa Valley, giraffe, zebra, rhinoceros, elephant, baboon, monkey, hyena, wolf, and lion are found. Among the nocturnal animals are serval and civet cats, genet, and jackal. Other mammals include the honey badger, ant bear, rock rabbit, wart hog, and bush pig.

Zambia has a wealth of bird life, including the eagle, gull, tern, kingfisher, swift, redwing, lark, babbler, sunbird, weaver, red-billed quelea (in Luangwa Valley), stork, goose, plover, skimmer, bee-eater, wagtail, sparrow, swallow, thrush, shrike, nightingale, dove, nightjar, and an occasional ostrich. White pelican, flamingo, heron, ibis, and the crowned crane are found in the game reserves.

There are more than 150 recorded species of reptiles, including 78 species of snakes and 66 of lizards. Among them are the crocodile, tortoise, turtle, terrapin, gecko, agama, nonvenomous python, mamba, viper, and adder. The range of species of fish is also wide and includes bream, snoutfish, butterfish, tigerfish, bottlenose, gorge-fish, mudfish, catfish, barbel, “vundu,” squeaker, whitebait, perch, carp, bass, and “utaka” (of the sardine type). Insect types number in the thousands, and many are peculiar to the area. The Copperbelt region and the swamps of Lake Bangweulu are especially rich in insect life.

5 Environment

Both traditional and modern farming methods in Zambia involve clearing large areas of forest. As of 1985, the nation had lost 699 square kilometers (270 square miles) of forestland, mainly to slash-and-burn agriculture but also to firewood gathering and charcoal production. Consequent erosion results in the loss of up to 3 million tons of topsoil annually. The exclusive cultivation of a single crop on agricultural land and the use of fertilizers threaten the soil and contribute to acidification. Air pollution is caused by vehicle emissions and waste gases from coal-powered industrial plants. Lack of adequate water-treatment facilities contributes to the prevalence of bilharziasis and other parasitic infections. Water pollution arises from contamination by sewage and toxic industrial chemicals.

The Copperbelt region, Zambia’s mineral extraction and refining center, has been polluted by contaminants including acid rain. The buildup of toxins in the soil near many smelters poses a threat to food crops.

Wildlife is endangered in some areas by hunting and poaching, although the National Parks and Wildlife Act (1982) mandates automatic imprisonment for trading illicitly in elephant tusks and rhinoceros horns. In 2006, 11 of the nation’s mammal species, including the black rhinoceros, and 12 bird species were threatened, as were 8 types of plants.

6 Population

In 2005, the population was estimated at 11.2 million. The projected population for 2025 is 15.8 million. Lusaka, the capital, had 1.4 million inhabitants in 2005. Overall, population density was 15 persons per square kilometer (39 per square mile) in 2005.

7 Migration

In 1999, Zambia had 200,000 refugees. Most were from Angola and the rest were from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, and other African countries. In 2000 there were 377,000 migrants living in Zambia, including refugees. In 2004, there were 17,307 refugees in Zambia. The estimated net migration rate in 2005 was zero.

8 Ethnic Groups

The Africans, representing close to 99% of Zambia’s total population, belong to various

Bantu language groups. The Bemba group (37% of the African population) inhabits the Northern and Copperbelt provinces. The Tonga make up 19% of the population, the Lunda 12%, Nyanja 11%, Mambwe 8%, Lozi or Barotse 7%, and other African societies the remainder. In all, there are at least 73 different African societal classifications.

The Europeans, accounting for about 1% of the population in 1998, are mainly of British stock, either immigrants or their descendants from the United Kingdom or South Africa. Other European groups include those of Dutch, Italian, and Greek descent. Including Asians, mainly migrants from the Indian subcontinent, and people of mixed race, other non-Africans constitute only about 0.2% of the population.

9 Languages

Some 80 different languages have been identified, most of them of the Bantu family. For educational and administrative purposes, seven main languages are recognized: Bemba, Lozi, Lunda, Kaonda, Luvale, Tonga, and Nyanja. Bemba, with its various dialects, is widely spoken in northern Zambia and is the lingua franca (common language) in the Copperbelt. The Ila and Tonga tongues predominate in the Southern Province. English is the official language.

10 Religions

A 1996 amendment to the constitution declared the country a Christian nation while providing for freedom of religion in practice. The government requires registration of all religious groups; however, all applications reportedly are approved without discrimination. An estimated 87% of the population professes some form of Christianity. Another 1% are either Muslim or Hindu.

The majority of Christians are either Roman Catholics or Protestants. Currently, there is also a surge in new Pentecostal churches, which have attracted many young followers. Muslims tend to be concentrated in parts of the country where Asians have settled; for example, many live along the railroad line from Lusaka to Livingstone, in Chipata, and in the eastern province. Some members of the Muslim community have complained of discrimination since the country was declared a Christian nation. They claim they cannot freely teach and practice Islam; other Muslim organizations, however, state they have not experienced any restrictions on their activities.

11 Transportation

The Zambia Railways system consists of 2,173 kilometers (1,349 miles) of track. Zambia had 66,781 kilometers (41,498 miles) of roadway in 2002. In 2003, there were 114,300 registered motor vehicles, including 68,500 passenger cars. Mpulungu, on Lake Tanganyika, is Zambia’s only port. In 2004, there were 109 airports, only 10 of which had paved runways. Zambia Airways provides international service from Lusaka to several African and European countries, as well as domestic service to 17 Zambian centers. In 2003, scheduled domestic and international flights carried 51,000 passengers.

12 History

Ironworking and agriculture were practiced in some parts of Zambia by about ad 100. By ad 900, mining and trading were present in southern Zambia. Between the 15th and the 18th centuries, various groups of Bantu migrants from the southern Congo (formerly Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) settled in Zambia. By the beginning of the 19th century, three large-scale political units existed in Zambia: the Bemba system of chieftainships; the Lunda kingdom of Kazembe; and the kingdom of the Lozi. Zambia was affected by two “invasions” in the mid-19th century. First, there were a series of migrations, commonly referred to as the mfecane, by groups fleeing across the Zambezi River to avoid raids by Shaka’s Zulu empire in South Africa. The other invasion came in the form of traders from the north—Nyamwezi, Arabs, and Swahili—who drew Zambia into international commerce.

The first significant European contact was through Christian missionaries. David Livingstone explored the region near Lake Bangweulu extensively from 1851 until his death in 1873. In 1884, François Coillard, a French Protestant missionary, settled in Barotseland (now the Western Province). In the 1890s, Cecil Rhodes’s British South Africa Company extended its charter north of the Zambezi River. From 1891 to the end of 1923, the territory of Zambia—then known as Northern Rhodesia— was ruled by this private company. In the 1920s, new methods of exploiting the extensive mineral deposits in the “copperbelt” region transformed the economic life of the territory. Northern Rhodesia now was seen for the first time as a source of wealth, and European settlements multiplied rapidly.

In 1953, Northern Rhodesia became a member of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, an arrangement opposed by an overwhelming majority of Africans in the territory. Despite the opposition, however, the federation continued throughout the 1950s. In 1960, despite clear economic benefits, the majority of Africans in both Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland opposed the continuance of the federation in its existing form.

The Republic of Zambia Is Born On 31 December 1963, the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was formally dissolved. On 24 October 1964, Northern Rhodesia became an independent republic, and its name was changed to Zambia. Kenneth Kaunda, the leader of the ruling United National Independence Party (UNIP), became the nation’s first president. Kaunda was reelected in 1969, 1973, 1978, and 1983, surviving a series of coup (overthrow) attempts during 1980–81. During the 1970s, Zambia played a key role in the movement toward black majority rule in Rhodesia, providing a base from which Patriotic Front guerrillas infiltrated Rhodesia. A drastic decline of world copper prices in the early 1980s, coupled with a severe drought, left Zambia in a perilous economic position. The continuing civil war in Angola also had repercussions in Zambia, disrupting Zambian trade routes and causing casualties among Zambians along the border.

By 1990 a growing opposition to UNIP’s monopoly of power had coalesced in the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). In December 1990, after a tumultuous year that included riots in Lusaka and a coup attempt, Kaunda signed legislation ending UNIP’s legal monopoly of power. After difficult negotiations between the government and opposition groups, Zambia enacted a new constitution in August 1991. It enlarged the National Assembly, established an electoral commission, and allowed for more than one presidential candidate. Candidates no longer were required to be UNIP members.

In September, Kaunda announced the date for Zambia’s first multiparty parliamentary and presidential elections in 19 years. Frederick J. T. Chiluba (MMD) defeated Kaunda, 81 to 15%. Once in power, Chiluba’s MMD became tyrannical and corrupt. The press began to criticize Chiluba’s government and Chiluba retaliated. On 4 March 1993, the government declared a three-month state of emergency and detained 26 UNIP members, including three of Kaunda’s sons. Chiluba lifted the state of emergency on May 25 and released all but eight of the detainees, whom he charged with offenses from treason to possession of seditious documents. President Chiluba and the MMD won huge victories in the November 1996 election but only by committing widespread voting fraud. Foreign donors suspended aid briefly in early 1997, but then resumed funding.

A campaign mounted by Chiluba and his party to amend the constitution in order to allow him to serve a third term was defeated. In the election of 27 December 2001, Chiluba’s hand-picked candidate, Levy Mwanawasa, was elected president. The vote was determined to be flawed by international and local poll monitors.

BIOGRAPHICAL PROFILE

Name: Levy Mwanawasa

Position: President of a republic

Took Office: 2 January 2002

Birthplace: Mufulira, Copperbelt, a province in central Zambia

Birthdate: 3 September 1948

Religion: Christian

Education: Studied law at the University of Zambia

Spouse: Maureen

Children: Four children—Chipokota, Matolo, Lubona, and Ntembe—with his wife Maureen, and two children—Miriam and Patrick—from his first marriage.

Of interest: In 1992, Mwanawasa was involved in a serious car accident that has harmed his health.

Mwanawasa named nine opposition members of parliament (MPs) to his cabinet in February 2003, apparently to ease political tensions and to create a spirit of “unity and reconciliation.” The move instead provoked a constitutional crisis when Mwanawasa refused to back down against a High Court ruling that the appointments were unconstitutional. Opposition parties—the United Party for National Development and the Forum for a Democratic Process—expelled the MPs from the National Assembly, for the stated reason that they had breached their parties’ policies.

In May 2003, Mwanawasa conceded to the formation of a constituent assembly to review the constitution. Mwanawasa attempted to root out corruption in Zambia unlike the apparent corruption of the later years of Chiluba’s time in office.

An estimated 1.2 million Zambians are HIV-positive (are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS). Of all adults between the ages of 15 and 49, 21.5% are infected with the virus. Around 86% of Zambians are classified as poor, resulting in high levels of malnutrition.

13 Government

In August 1991, a new constitution was adopted. The president is now elected directly by universal suffrage and may serve a maximum of two five-year terms. The National Assembly has 150 directly elected members and as many as 8 members appointed by the president, all for 5-year terms. Candidates for office no longer are required to be members of the ruling party.

Zambia is divided into nine provinces (including the special province of Lusaka), administered by officials appointed by the central government. Each province is further divided into districts, presided over by district secretaries.

14 Political Parties

With the proclamation of a one-party state in December 1972, Kenneth Kaunda’s United National Independence Party (UNIP) became the only legal party in Zambia. With growing unrest in the late 1980s, the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) was formed. Finally, in December 1990, Kaunda signed into law a bill legalizing opposition political parties.

Multiparty presidential and parliamentary elections were held on 31 October and 1 November 1991 for the first time in 19 years. The MMD’s leader, Frederick Chiluba, easily won the presidency with 81% of the vote, compared to 15% for Kaunda. The MMD won 125 seats to 15 for UNIP in the National Assembly. Since then, new opposition parties have been formed: the Multi-Racial Party (MRP), the National Democratic Alliance (NADA), the United Democratic Party, and the United Democratic Congress Party. With the exception of the UNIP, more than 30 opposition parties operate without government interference.

Elections held on 20 November 1996 gave landslide victories to President Chiluba and the MMD. Independent observers, however, condemned the elections as being rigged by the MMD.

In the election of 27 December 2001, Levy Mwanawasa was elected president with 29% of the vote. In the legislative contest held on the same date, eight parties won seats in the National Assembly. The MMD claimed 45.9% of the vote, winning 68 seats, followed by the United Party for National Development with 32.4% and 48 seats, the UNIP with 8.8% and 13 seats, the Forum for Democracy and Development with 8.1% and 12 seats, and other smaller parties taking the remaining seats.

15 Judicial System

The law is administered by several high courts that hear criminal and civil cases and appeals from lower courts. Resident magistrate courts also are established at various centers. The local courts deal mainly with customary law, especially cases relating to marriage, property, and inheritance. Under the constitution of 1991, the Supreme Court is the highest court in Zambia and serves as the final court of appeal. The chief justice and other judges are appointed by the president.

16 Armed Forces

As of 2005, the strength of the armed forces was 15,100; paramilitary forces, consisting of two police battalions, totaled 1,400. The army numbered 13,500 and the air force had 1,600 members. In 2005, the defense budget totaled $48.1 million.

Yearly Growth Rate

This economic indicator tells by what percent the economy has increased or decreased when compared with the previous year.

17 Economy

During the 1990s, the Zambian economy was in an unstable condition. High inflation, severe drought, declining export prices, and failed economic policies had all taken their toll. In 1992, Zambia was classified as a least-developed country by the United Nations. The impact of inflation on the poor, the middle class, and business eroded public support for the government’s reform policies.

The key copper industry (which took in 80% of export revenues in 1999), maintained production levels, but depressed world prices kept revenues at lower levels. However, in 2000, copper export earnings reached $800 million, a 5.4% increase over 1999, but declined to $595 million in 2003.

In 2000, Zambia became eligible for $3.8 billion in debt relief under the IMF/World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative.

As of 2003, there was growing interest in developing coffee and tobacco as cash crops, but the main agricultural product is maize, a non-cash crop necessary for domestic consumption. The tourism industry is growing.

18 Income

In 2005, Zambia’s gross domestic product (GDP) was $10.3 billion, or $900 per person. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 5%. The average inflation rate in 2002 was 19%.

19 Industry

Industry accounted for about 29% of GDP in 2002. Apart from copper refining, the most important industries are those connected with the manufacture of sulfuric acid, fertilizer, glass, batteries, cigarettes, textiles, yarn, vehicle and tractor assembling, sawmilling, tire retreading, processing of food and drink, and the manufacture of cement and cement products.

20 Labor

In 2005, the labor force in Zambia was estimated at 4.8 million persons. The majority of Zambian laborers work not as wage earners but in subsistence agriculture (living off the land). Transport and services employed 9% of the labor force; mining, manufacturing and construction, 6%. In 2000 it was estimated that 50% of the workforce was unemployed.

About 60% of the nation’s 300,000 wage earners were unionized in 2002. There were at least 19 labor unions, most of them affiliated with the Zambia Congress of Trade Unions.

The minimum wage was $0.07 per hour in 2002. The minimum working age is 16 years. This law is enforced in the industrial sector but not in subsistence agriculture, domestic services, or other informal work.

21 Agriculture

Only 5% of the land area is cultivated at any time, although a much larger area is potentially suitable for farming. In 2005, agriculture accounted for 22% of total gross domestic product. The majority of Zambia’s population engages in subsistence farming. The principal subsistence crops are corn, sorghum, and cassava, while the main cash crops are tobacco, corn, sugarcane, peanuts, and cotton.

Annual production of tobacco, the most important export crop, was estimated at about 4,800 tons in 2004. In the same year, marketed corn production was about 1.2 million tons per year, and cotton production about 22,000 tons of fiber. Also sold in 2004 were approximately 1.8 million tons of sugarcane, 7,000 tons of sunflowers, 57,000 tons of peanuts, and 9,000 tons of wheat.

22 Domesticated Animals

The estimated livestock population in 2005 included 2.6 million head of cattle, 1.3 million goats, 340,000 hogs, and 150,000 sheep. Cattle production in certain regions is limited by sleeping sickness, which is carried and transmitted by the tsetse fly. During 2005, beef production was 40,800 tons and poultry production was 36,500

Components of the Economy

This pie chart shows how much of the country’s economy is devoted to agriculture (including forestry, hunting, and fishing), industry, or services.

tons. Total meat production in 2005 was estimated at 127,000 tons.

23 Fishing

Since Zambia’s inland waters are a valuable source of food and employment, the fishing industry plays an important part in the rural economy. Large quantities of fish, most of which are transported by rail to processing centers, are frozen or dried. Major quantities are obtained from Lakes Bangweulu, Tanganyika, and Mweru, and from the Kafue and Luapula Rivers. The catch in 2003 was 69,500 tons.

24 Forestry

About 42% of Zambia is covered by forest. Commercial exploitation is concentrated in the southwest and in the Copperbelt. Roundwood production in 2000 was about 8 million cubic meters (284 million cubic feet), with 90% of it used for fuel needs.

Yearly Balance of Trade

The balance of trade is the difference between what a country sells to other countries (its exports) and what it buys (its imports). If a country imports more than it exports, it has a negative balance of trade (a trade deficit). If exports exceed imports there is a positive balance of trade (a trade surplus).

25 Mining

Mining is central to Zambia’s economy; copper and cobalt are the leading minerals. In 2003, total copper mine output was 349,000 tons. The output of cobalt (metal content), as a byproduct of copper mining and processing, was 6,550 tons. The mining industry has been effected by declining world copper demand, slow global economic growth, labor unrest, transportation difficulties, including port and rail congestion, and shortages of spare parts, raw materials, and fuel. Zambia also produced gold, silver, cement, gem-stones (including amethyst, emerald, and red garnet), limestone, sand and gravel, stone, sulfur, and talc. Exploration was being carried out for zinc and for diamonds in western Zambia.

26 Foreign Trade

Minerals are the leading export items, mainly copper (80%) and cobalt (10%). Other leading export commodities are zinc, lead, and tobacco. Machinery, transportation equipment, food-stuffs, fuels, petroleum products, electricity, and fertilizer are the main imports.

Zambia’s principal trading partners in 2002 were the United Kingdom, South Africa, Tanzania, Switzerland, the DROC, and Malawi.

27 Energy and Power

Zambia is self-sufficient in electricity. A total of 9 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity was produced in 2002, of which nearly 100% came from hydropower. Zambia exports about 30% of its power production to Zimbabwe. In the late 1990s, only 18% of Zambians had access to electricity, however. Crude oil is imported by means of a pipeline from Tanzania.

Coal production in 2002 totaled 231,000 short tons and demand in that year totaled 150,000 short tons.

28 Social Development

A social insurance system provides benefits to most employed persons. Coverage includes old age pensions, permanent disability benefits, and survivorship payments. Workers’ compensation is funded totally by the employer. Employers and employees are required to make contributions toward a worker’s retirement between the ages of 50 and 55. Maternity benefits are provided to working women.

Women have full legal rights under the law, but discrimination often happens in matters

Selected Social Indicators

The statistics below are the most recent estimates available as of 2006. For comparison purposes, data for the United States and averages for low-income countries and high-income countries are also given. About 15% of the world’s 6.5 billion people live in high-income countries, while 37% live in low-income countries.

IndicatorZambia Low-income countriesHigh-income countriesUnited States
sources: World Bank. World Development Indicators. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2006; Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2006; World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.
Per capita gross national income (GNI)*$890 $2,258$31,009$39,820
Population growth rate2.3% 2%0.8%1.2%
People per square kilometer of land15 803032
Life expectancy in years: male39 587675
female38 608280
Number of physicians per 1,000 people0.1 0.43.72.3
Number of pupils per teacher (primary school)49 431615
Literacy rate (15 years and older)68% 65%>95%99%
Television sets per 1,000 people51 84735938
Internet users per 1,000 people21 28538630
Energy consumed per capita (kg of oil equivalent)592 5015,4107,843
CO2 emissions per capita (metric tons)0.19 0.8512.9719.92
* The GNI is the total of all goods and services produced by the residents of a country in a year. The per capita GNI is calculated by dividing a country’s GNI by its population and adjusting for relative purchasing power.
n.a.: data not available >: greater than <: less than

of inheritance, property ownership, marriage, education, and employment. Child welfare is a serious concern: there were approximately 1 million orphans under the age of 15 in 2004, mostly attributable to the deaths of parents from AIDS.

29 Health

In 2004, Zambia had and estimated 7 physicians and 113 nurses per 100,000 people.

Malaria and tuberculosis are major health problems, and hookworm and schistosomiasis afflict a large proportion of the population. Malaria accounts for about half of outpatient medical visits by children under five years of age. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has increased the incidence of tuberculosis. Other commonly reported diseases in Zambia were diarrheal diseases, leprosy, and measles.

Zambia has one of the world’s highest rates of HIV infection. At the end of 2004, the number of people living with HIV/AIDS was estimated at 920,000 and deaths from AIDS in 2003 were estimated at 89,000.

Average life expectancy was down to 38.5 years in 2005. The infant mortality rate in 2002 was 41 per 1,000 live births.

Widespread instances of overcrowding and slum growth have for many years focused government attention on urban housing problems. Mining companies have constructed townships for the families of African workers.

31 Education

Most of the nation’s schools are operated by local authorities or by missions and are aided by the central government. A small number of schools are directly administered by the government. Primary education lasts for seven years and is compulsory. Secondary education lasts for five years. The student-to-teacher ratio at the primary level averaged 49 to 1. Approximately 68% of primary-school-aged children enroll in school, while 21% of those eligible attend secondary school.

The University of Zambia was established in 1965, and the Copperbelt University opened in 1986. Other institutions of higher learning include technical colleges and a two-year college of agriculture. All higher-level institutions enroll an estimated 15,000 students.

As of 2003, the adult literacy rate has been estimated at 68%.

32 Media

The central government is responsible for postal and telecommunication services. In 2003, there were an estimated 8 mainline telephones and 22 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people.

Both the Zambia Broadcasting Service, which provides radio programs in English and seven local languages, and Zambian Television are owned and operated by the government. As of 2001, there were also several church-sponsored radio stations, two private commercial stations, and three community stations. The same year, there were 19 AM and 5 FM radio stations. There were nine television stations in 2002. In 2005, there were 179 radios and 51 television sets for every 1,000 people. Internet access was available through five Internet service providers, who served 15,000 subscribers in 2000.

There are many privately owned newspapers in the country; however, the publications with the largest circulations tend to be politically affiliated. There are three major daily newspapers: the UNIP-owned Times of Zambia, with an estimated 2002 daily circulation of 32,100; the government-owned Zambia Daily Mail, with a circulation of 40,000; and The Post, an independent English-language paper founded in 1991, with a circulation of 40,000.

The constitution provides for free expression, including a free press; however, the penal code lists several exceptions and justifies government restrictions and censorship.

33 Tourism and Recreation

One of the most impressive tourist attractions in Zambia is Victoria Falls, on the border with Zimbabwe. In 1972 a new national park system created 17 parks, covering 8% of the entire country. The Kafue National Park, one of the largest in Africa with 22,500 square kilometers (8,700 square miles) of bush, forest, and plain, is well served with tourist facilities. South Luangwa National Park is another outstanding wildlife area.

In 2003, Zambia received 578,000 foreign visitors, mostly from other African countries. Annual tourism receipts totaled around $149 million in that year.

34 Famous Zambians

Kenneth David Kaunda (1924–) was Zambia’s president from independence in 1964 until 1991. Frederick J. T. Chiluba (1943–) ousted Kaunda in 1991 in Zambia’s first free elections and was reelected in 1996. Nalumino Mundia (1927–1988), long prominent in Zambian political affairs, was prime minister from 1981 to 1985, when he became ambassador to the United States.

35 Bibliography

BOOKS

Grotpeter, John J. Historical Dictionary of Zambia. 2d ed. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1995.

Harmon, Daniel E. Southeast Africa: 1880 to the Present: Reclaiming a Region of Natural Wealth. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002.

Holmes, Timothy. Zambia. New York: Benchmark Books, 1998.

Lauré, Jason. Zambia. Chicago: Children’s Press, 1994.

WEB SITES

Aquastat. www.fao.org/ag/Agl/AGLW/aquastat/countries/zambia/index.stm. (accessed on January 15, 2007).

Commonwealth Country Profiles. www.thecommonwealth.org/Templates/YearbookHomeInternal.asp?NodeID=139659. (accessed on January 15, 2007).

Country Pages. www.state.gov/p/af/ci/za/. (accessed on January 15, 2007).

Government Home Page. www.statehouse.gov.zm/. (accessed on January 15, 2007).

World Heritage List. whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/zm. (accessed on January 15, 2007).