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Johannesburg, South Africa, Africa
Location: On the Highveld in the South African interior
Time Zone: 2 pm in South Africa = noon Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
Ethnic Composition: 70% black; 25% white; 5% Indian or mixed race
Elevation: 5,700 to 5,930 feet (1,740 to 1,810 meters)
Latitude and Longitude: 26°10′S, 28°2′E
Climate: Temperate, with mild summers and winters
Annual Mean Temperature: 15.5 °C (59.9°F); January 24°C (75°F); July 13°C (55°F)
Seasonal Average Snowfall: N.A.
Average Annual Precipitation (rainfall): 700 mm (28 in)
Government: Municipal and local councils
Weights and Measures: Metric system
Monetary Units: The rand
Telephone Area Codes: 11 (Johannesburg); 27 (South Africa)
Located in north-central South Africa, Johannesburg is the country's largest and fastest-growing city, with sprawling suburbs fanning out from the central city to cover an area of 1,100 square kilometers (424.7 square miles). The nickname "eGoli" ("city of gold") evokes Johannesburg's origin as a mining town in the late nineteenth century. Today, it is still the capital of South African mining and commerce and home to the headquarters of the country's mining companies and major financial institutions, as well as headquarters to a variety of multinational corporations and transportation hub of southern Africa.
Johannesburg is also a city built on a history of racial division that achieved its most dramatic form in the twentieth century policy of strict separation known as apartheid. This legacy is apparent in the racial divide between its various districts and suburbs, ranging from the teeming streets of Soweto to the posh mansions of the northern suburbs. The political changes of the 1990s can be seen most readily in the central city, which has become a bustling multicultural area where thousands of street traders earn their living in the shadow of the city's giant skyscrapers, and a blend of African and European languages evokes the city's unique cultural and social history.
Situated on the interior South African plateau known as the Highveld, Johannesburg stretches across a series of ridges called the Witwatersrand, or "Rand." Located near the center of South Africa and at the heart of a vast developed area in Gauteng Province, Johannesburg is a transportation hub for the region and the country as a whole. The closest major city is Pretoria to the northeast.
The Johannesburg area has a well-developed highway system that carries thousands of commuters between the city and its suburbs every day. The major north-south route, N1, becomes M1 when it reaches the metropolitan area, while N1 becomes part of an urban highway (the Eastern and Western Bypass) ringing the city. Also leading north out of the city, R28 joins N1 leading to Pretoria and beyond. A number of highways radiate outward from Johannesburg to the east, south, and west, including N12 and N17 (east), N3, R26, N1 and R29 (both leading to Soweto from the south), and N14 to the west.
Bus and Railroad Service
Inter-city bus service is provided by Greyhound, Intercape, and Translux, all of which arrive at and depart from the Rotunda, which also serves as the city's rail terminal.
Direct flights to cities in Europe, Asia, Australia, and the Western Hemisphere, as well as service to destinations throughout southern Africa are available at Johannesburg (formerly Jan Smuts) International Airport, South Africa's largest international airport. It is located around 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) east of the city. International air traffic to Johannesburg has increased greatly since the lifting of foreign embargoes against South Africa in early 1990s, and major renovations of the airport are underway.
Johannesburg Population Profile
Area: 1,100 sq km (424.7 sq mi)
Ethnic composition: 70% black; 25% white; 5% Indian or mixed race
World population rank 1: 126
Percentage of national population 2: 5.2%
Average yearly growth rate: 2.1%
Nicknames: Jo'burg; Jozi; eGoli (City of Gold); Africa's Manhattan
- The Johannesburg metropolitan area's rank among the world's urban areas.
- The percent of South Africa's total population living in the Johannesburg metropolitan area.
Greater Johannesburg consists of over 500 suburbs fanning out, mostly northward, from the central city over an area more than 518 square kilometers (200 square miles).
Bus and Commuter Rail Service
Double-decker buses are operated by the municipal transportation system, with most routes originating from the main bus terminal in Venderbijl Square. Buses run within the city and between the city and suburbs but usually not from one suburb to another. Since it is intended primarily for commuters, bus service is provided mostly during the work week, with few routes and infrequent runs offered during the weekend. Many blacks use minibuses, called "kombi-taxes," operated by privately owned black companies.
Bus and minibus tours of Johannesburg, Soweto, Gold Reef City, and area parks are available. There are also tours of the Parktown mansions. Specialty tours include balloon tours over the Magaliesberg Mountains and informative tours of Johannesburg mines.
Johannesburg is a multicultural and multiethnic city. Racially, its population is approximately 70 percent black and 25 percent white, with the remainder Indian or of mixed racial background. However, there is great diversity within each racial group. Virtually every ethnic and linguistic group in southern Africa is represented among Johannesburg's black population, and the white population, although primarily of English or Afrikaans origin, also includes Greeks, Portuguese, Italians, Russians, Poles, Lebanese, and other groups. A dozen or more languages are spoken in the city on a daily basis.
In 1995 Greater Johannesburg had a population of approximately 4.5 million. Its average population density was the highest in South Africa.
Central Johannesburg is laid out in a rectangular grid pattern with narrow streets dating back to the city's early history, although today they are lined with office towers that turn many of them into virtual canyons and have inspired the nickname "Africa's Manhattan." The central city today is primarily a business district devoted to the financial and mining industries and government. Located in this district are the Magistrates Court, the Gauteng Legislature, the public library and main post office, the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, and the 50-story Carleton Centre with an observatory that affords an excellent view of the city. A variety of small shops and street traders provides a traditional atmosphere at odds with the city's skyscrapers. The New-town district just west of the city is home to a number of cultural institutions, including several museums. The northern neighborhood of Braamfontein is home to the University of the Witwatersrand.
When first built, each of Johannesburg's suburbs and townships was racially restricted under the apartheid system as spelled out in the Group Areas Act. The Group Areas Act was nullified in 1991, but Johannesburg's neighborhoods remain largely segregated racially, with most blacks living in townships close to the central city. The two most populous are Soweto, with a population of at least one-and-a-half million, and Alexandra, with about half a million. Living conditions in the townships range from middle-class enclaves to squatters' camps with no plumbing or electricity. Black migrant workers still live in hostels on the outskirts of the townships.
Most of the city's mixed-race population is clustered in townships west of the central city while the Indian population lives in the township of Lenasia. The inner-city suburbs of Joubert Park, Hillbrow, and Berea are formerly white areas that blacks began moving into when apartheid began to crumble in the 1980s and 1990s. Today they are mostly black and house many immigrants from other parts of Africa, especially the Congo and Nigeria. The suburbs of Yeoville and Observatory, formerly Jewish and Portuguese neighborhoods, are multiracial areas with a colorful street scene.
|City Fact Comparison|
|Population of urban area1||2,412,000||10,772,000||2,688,000||12,033,000|
|Date the city was founded||1886||AD 969||753 BC||723 BC|
|Daily costs to visit the city2|
|Hotel (single occupancy)||$64||$193||$172||$129|
|Meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner)||$34||$56||$59||$62|
|Incidentals (laundry, dry cleaning, etc.)||$9||$14||$15||$16|
|Total daily costs||$107||$173||$246||$207|
|Number of newspapers serving the city||11||13||20||11|
|Largest newspaper||Sunday Times||Akhbar El Yom/Al Akhbar||La Repubblica||Renmin Ribao|
|Circulation of largest newspaper||567,934||1,159,339||754,930||3,000,000|
|Date largest newspaper was established||1906||1944||1976||1948|
|1United Nations population estimates for the year 2000.|
|2The maximum amount the U.S. Government reimburses its employees for business travel. The lodging portion of the allowance is based on the cost for a single room at a moderately-priced hotel. The meal portion is based on the costs of an average breakfast, lunch, and dinner including taxes, service charges, and customary tips. Incidental travel expenses include such things as laundry and dry cleaning.|
|3David Maddux, ed. Editor&Publisher International Year Book. New York: The Editor&Publisher Company, 1999.|
Johannesburg's western suburbs, including Briston and Melville, are home to middle-class whites while the northern suburbs, such as Parktown and Houghton, are elite enclaves with posh homes.
Settlement of Johannesburg began in 1886, when gold was discovered in the Witwatersrand by an Australian prospector named George Harrison. The discovery spurred a feverish gold rush as fortune hunters from all over the world descended on the area. Blacks from all parts of southern Africa came to work the gold fields either permanently or temporarily as contract laborers. The government of the Transvaal, then a Boer republic, established a city at the site, and in the space of three years it became the largest settlement in South Africa. By the 1890s, several large mining companies had taken control of the area's gold mines, creating huge fortunes for their owners. Tensions between the mine barons, the English-speaking newcomers to the area, and the Transvaal's Boer government—fed by British colonial aspirations in the region—led to the Anglo-Boer War of 1899–1901. By its end, the Transvaal and the Orange Free State were under British control.
At the start of the twentieth century, the population of Johannesburg had reached 100,000. Early in the century, the British colonial government began forcibly relocating blacks from the central city to areas on its outskirts, inaugurating the principle of racial separation that became entrenched in the administration of the city and eventually led to the system known as apart-heid. The substandard conditions in which most of the city's black majority lived led to protests and strikes, including a 1920 strike by 70,000 black mine workers. There was agitation among Johannesburg's white miners as well, culminating in the general strike and "Rand Revolt" of 1922, in which over 200 people died.
The growth of manufacturing in the 1930s and 1940s brought an even greater influx of blacks into the city, especially during World War II (1939–45), when many white workers were serving in the military. The city's black population doubled, with many of the new arrivals crowded into squatters' camps. The beginnings of a black nationalist consciousness that arose during this period led to a white backlash in the 1950s when the conservative National Party came to power and implemented the policy of apartheid, banning all black opposition movements. Beginning in the 1960s, hundreds of thousands of blacks were relocated from Johannesburg to remote "homelands," and their movements were regulated by strict enforcement of pass laws.
The milestone event in the black resistance movement that eventually overthrew apartheid and white dominance came on June 16, 1976, when South African police opened fire on a student protest in the black township of Soweto. The shooting sparked a months-long popular uprising that spread to dozens of other cities in South Africa, and unrest continued through the 1980s, with massive violence erupting in Johannesburg's black townships again in 1984. Black militancy, combined with the effects of international sanctions, finally toppled the apartheid system in the early 1990s and led to South Africa's first democratic elections in 1994.
With the removal of discriminatory laws, Johannesburg's black townships have slowly been integrated into the city's municipal government, and blacks have moved into formerly white districts in the central city and inner suburbs. The city still faces many challenges, including a serious crime problem and de facto segregation as many whites retreat to the northern suburbs.
Greater Johannesburg has a multilevel system of popularly elected local government that has been in place since November 1955 and has extended the boundaries of municipal government to include the surrounding black townships in the political process. At the highest level, there is the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Board, a metropolitan council that oversees the distribution of municipal resources. Next there are four local councils that handle city services within their communities. The local councils are divided into wards, each of which has its own elected representative. In addition to voting for individual representatives from their wards, residents also vote for the party of their choice in elections for both the local and municipal councils.
Johannesburg is also the legislative capital of Gauteng Province (formerly called the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal triangle).
Violent crime is enough of a serious problem in Johannesburg, particularly in the downtown area, that many businesses have relocated to northern suburbs such as Rosebank and Sandton. Muggings and car-jackings are common occurrences in the central city, and travelers are routinely warned to exercise caution, whether walking, using public transportation, or driving. The government tourism office advises motorists to know their routes in advance, keep their doors and windows locked, lock valuables in the trunk, and park in well-lit areas.
Traffic control is handled by local police forces. Other aspects of public safety are under the jurisdiction of the South African Police Services.
Johannesburg is South Africa's major commercial, financial, and industrial center. It is home to the South African stock exchange, the leading banks, the country's mining companies, the Chamber of Mines, and the government regulatory agency in charge of mining. South Africa's major insurance, retail, engineering, and construction companies are also located in the city. Johannesburg is also a major manufacturing center whose factories produce a wide range of goods from steel to textiles. The city is also home to some 10,000 to 12,000 street traders whose operations in the central business district bring in an annual combined revenue of some 500 million rand.
The central city and some of the suburban areas suffer from a variety of environmental problems. These include water pollution from industrial effluents and sewer blockages, air pollution from industry and vehicle emissions, dust from mine sites, litter from the many street traders in the downtown area, and excess refuse caused by overcrowding (which also results in noise pollution). Soweto and the surrounding area have poor air quality due to the burning of coal and high levels of water pollution. Other than Soweto, the greatest environmental problems are found in Alexandra, the Klip River area, Roodepoort, Orange Farm, and Poortje.
Offering a great variety of consumer goods in its shops and malls, Johannesburg is one of the major retail centers in southern Africa and attracts shoppers from throughout the region. The thousands of informal street traders who operate in the central business district every day generate an estimated annual turnover of about 500 million rand.
Greater Johannesburg is home to some 20 shopping malls. Among its more popular malls are the Carlton Centre, the Smal Street Mall, and the upscale Hyde Park Mall. Further afield are the Randburg Waterfront, a shopping center built around an artificial lake; the Rosebank shopping complex, which is a series of interconnected malls; and the huge Sandton City Shopping Centre.
The city's shops, galleries, street vendors, and flea markets make it the country's premier shopping destination for arts and crafts, including wood carvings, jewelry, beadwork, and such traditional items as fertility dolls. Among the better-known crafts shops are Art Africa; Diagonal Street, which has a large selection of Sotho blankets; Jacana; Mai Mai Bazaar, which sells Zulu crafts, foods, and other items; and Zebra Crossing. A large array of crafts can also be found at the Rosebank Rooftop Market.
A good selection of recordings of African music can be found in numerous small shops in the central business district.
Although the legal framework for racial segregation has been dismantled, primary and secondary schools in Johannesburg, as elsewhere in South Africa, remain largely segregated in practice.
Johannesburg is home to two universities. The University of Witwatersrand, originally founded in 1896 as the South African School of Mines, is the country's largest English-speaking university, granting degrees in architecture, art, business, education, engineering, law, medicine, and dentistry. The university has a staff of about 4,000, including 1,250 faculty members, and enrolls around 18,000 students, conferring 4,500 degrees each year. Its main campus, at Milner Park, covers 68 hect-ares (168 acres). Rand Afrikaans University (RAU), founded in 1968, offers degree programs to Afrikaans speakers. Soweto is home to a branch of Vista University. Johannesburg also has several technical and teachers' training colleges.
13. Health Care
Decades of apartheid have left a legacy of substandard health conditions in Johannesburg's black townships, where the incidence of infant mortality is significantly higher than that for the city's white communities, and tuberculosis remains endemic.
Located in the center of Johannesburg, Johannesburg Hospital, a State Health Service Hospital operated by the Gauteng Provincial Administration, is a multidisciplinary teaching hospital affiliated with the University of the Witwatersrand Medical School. The hospital has approximately 1,200 teaching beds in all areas of medicine. Its Level I trauma center, staffed in conjunction with the Department of Surgery of the University of the Witwatersrand, is the only comprehensive unit of its kind in South Africa and receives patients from throughout Gauteng Province, neighboring provinces, and neighboring states. The unit provides all levels of trauma care, from treatment of minor injuries to major traumas, and its staff has full 24-hour-a-day access to diagnostic, laboratory, and therapeutic support facilities. Approximately 20,000 trauma patients per year are seen in the center, and some 1,500 major resuscitations are performed annually.
Besides Johannesburg Hospital, other publicly operated hospitals include the J. G. Strijdom Hospital, the Hillbrow Hospital, and Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto. The city's premier private health care facility is Morning-side Clinic. Millpark Hospital is another private facility.
Home to daily newspapers, major weeklies, and the country's national television broadcasting service, Johannesburg is a major media center. The Johannesburg Star (circulation 206,000) , an evening paper published seven days a week, is the major English-language daily. The Sowetan (circulation 225,000) , South Africa's top-selling daily newspaper, is targeted primarily to a black audience and is available throughout the country. The most authoritative news source is the Weekly Mail & Guardian (circulation 30,000). It is affiliated with and draws most of its international coverage from London's Guardian newspaper. Business Day (circulation 41,000) , also published in Johannesburg, is South Africa's major business daily. The Citizen is a conservative English-language daily. Afrikaans newspapers include Beeld and Rapport.
The government-supported South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) operates three public television channels. One broadcasts mostly in English while the other two divide their time among South Africa's remaining ten official languages. News and sports programming and movies are available to viewers who subscribe to the M-Net satellite television service. The SABC also offers both AM and FM radio programming. Voice of America English-language broadcasts can also be heard in Johannesburg. As part of a nationwide telecommunications expansion, licenses for over 30 new radio stations were granted for Gauteng Province in 1995, most of them in Johannesburg. Notable for their quality musical and/or public affairs programming are Johannesburg's Greek and Portuguese stations and stations in the black townships of Soweto and Alexandra.
With the end of apartheid, South Africa returned to international sports competition in the 1990s, most notably in the 1992 and 1996 Olympic Games. South Africa also hosted (and won) the 1995 Rugby Union World Cup tournament, giving the sport—traditionally considered a largely Afrikaaner pastime—a major boost in popularity. In Johannesburg. Rugby Union is played at Ellis Park in Doornfontein east of the central city. The main stadium there can accommodate as many as 100,000 fans. The South Africa Open tennis tournament also takes place there.
The Johannesburg area has two venues for soccer, the favorite spectator sport of black South Africans: Rand Stadium near Turffontein; and Soccer City, on Soweto Road, which can hold 130,000 spectators. The Johannesburg area is home to two of the nation's top local soccer teams, the Orlando Pirates (popularly known as the Bucs) and the Kaiser Chiefs. The traditionally white, English sport of cricket has attracted new fans through programs to promote the sport in the black townships. Wanderers in Melrose North is a top-notch cricket grounds; Elhak Ovel, a newer cricket site, is located in Soweto.
Auto racing takes place at Kyalami between Johannesburg and Pretoria, and Turffontein is the area's premier horseracing venue, with events scheduled nearly every week.
Greater Johannesburg has more than 600 parks and green spaces, mostly in suburban areas. The Braamfontein Spruit Trail, which winds for about 25 kilometers (15 miles) through Johannesburg, Randburg, and Sandton, links a number of municipal parks in the region, including the 100-hectare (250-acre) Florence Bloom Bird Sanctuary, which encompasses two dams and has special areas provided for bird watchers. Other self-guided walking trails include the Bloubos Trail, the Parktown Urban Walk, the Sandspruit Trail, and the Randlords Heritage Trail, which includes views of the mansions built by Johannesburg's early gold barons. The 60-hectare (148-acre) Johannesburg Botanical Garden in Roosevelt Park extension includes rose and bonsai gardens, pools, and fountains.
Over 3,000 species of mammals, birds, and reptiles are on view at the Johannesburg Zoological Gardens, where large animals including lions, tigers, giraffes, and elephants are enclosed in areas surrounded by moats rather than locked behind bars. The zoo also contains a lake, with a playground area and rowboat rentals. Snakes, reptiles, and fish can be seen at Johannes-burg's Aquarium and Reptile Park. De Wildt Cheetah Research Centre at Silkaatsnek, where cheetahs and hyenas are bred, is north of Johannesburg and open to the public, with two-hour guided tours available weekends. The Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, located on the Nigel/Kliprivier Road 40 kilometers (25 miles) from Johannesburg, is the most extensive nature reserve in Gauteng Province. It contains vegetation typical of the Highveld, as well as many bird and other wildlife species, and has hiking trails and facilities for picnicking and camping, as well as an educational center. Of archaeological interest are the Sterkfontein Caves and the Kromdraai Caves near the town of Krugersdorp west of the city. The nearby Rhino Nature Reserve has white rhinos, wildebeest, hartebeest, giraffes, and antelopes. The northern suburbs of Johannesburg have many parks and other open areas suitable for picnicking, bird watching, and other outdoor activities.
South Africans participate avidly in outdoor pursuits, including such sports as soccer, rugby, and cricket, as well as hiking, rock climbing, horseback riding, bird watching, canoeing and rafting, flying and other aerial sports, such as gliding and hot air ballooning.
17. Performing Arts
Johannesburg offers a variety of resources for those interested in the performing arts. The National Symphony Orchestra performs regularly at Linder Auditorium in Parktown. Mainstream musical theater and opera is staged at the 1,100-seat Civic Theatre in Braamfontein, the city's premier theatrical venue, which encompasses four stages. Experimental and ethnically oriented theater is offered at a variety of venues by small, innovative troupes. Johannesburg's other well-known multi-stage theater complex is the Johannesburg Market Theatre, located in the city's former produce market. It has three stages, and is the city's traditional home for protest theater. Alternative theater is offered at the Windybrow Theatre. Leaders on the city's dance scene are the Dance Factory and the Moving into Dance Academy, where many choreographers are trained.
Johannesburg is South Africa's premier locale for popular entertainment. Jazz, blues, and rock music are offered by both local groups and touring performers from all over the world. Major venues for large concerts are the Standard Bank Arena in Ellis Park and the FNB Stadium.
The Johannesburg Public Library, founded in 1889, has a wide network of branch libraries. Johannesburg has a diverse selection of museums and galleries. Established in the early twentieth century, the Johannesburg Art Gallery, in downtown Joubert Park, has South Africa's most extensive collection of paintings by the European Impressionists. In recent years representation of African artists has grown, and today its gardens are enhanced by the work of South African sculptors while local artists receive exposure in temporary exhibits. Commercial galleries, such as the Everard Read Gallery in Rosebank, also display a wide variety of works by African artists, ranging from landscapes to traditional tribal art.
Museum Africa, which dates back to the 1930s, has an outstanding section focusing on the history of Johannesburg, including such displays as reconstructed squatters' shacks and homemade weapons. The museum's other collections encompass geology, rock art, and the Bensusan Museum of Photography. Temporary exhibits are also displayed. The South African Transport Museum houses vintage steam engines and automobiles, ox wagons, and other items. Visitors to the South Africa Breweries Museum, in the Newtown district, explore the history of brewing, including the brewing of European ale and lager beer. The South Africa Museum of Military History displays weapons and war memorabilia dating back to the days of the Boer War (1899–1902). The Madiba Freedom Museum is dedicated to the life of national hero Nelson Mandela (b. 1918), affectionately nicknamed Madiba by his countrymen. Mandela's hero status is based on his position as a black nationalist leader, joint recipient of the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, and South Africa's first black president (1994–99). The Workers' Museum, located in a converted compound that once housed utility employees, is a national monument. Other museums in the Johannesburg area specialize in Africana, banking, archaeology, Judaica, and costumes.
As elsewhere in South Africa, Johannesburg has seen a dramatic rise in tourism since the end of apartheid, with the greatest number of tourists coming from Great Britain. With the variety of cultural and recreational attractions in the city and its environs, tourism is expected to play an important role in its economic future.
Chinese New Year
Castle Cup Cricket Final
Botanical Gardens Autumn Show
FNB Vita Dance Umbrella
Human Rights Day
Benson and Hedges Cricket Final
Windybrow Theatre Festival
Rand Easter Show
Guinness Jo'burg Jazz Festival
Arts Alive Festival
Currie Cup rugby final
Johannesburg Biennale art exhibition
SA Formula 1 Grand Prix
Day of Reconciliation
Day of Goodwill
21. Famous Citizens
Nadine Gordimer (b. 1923), Nobel Prize-winning novelist.
Miriam Makeba (b. 1932), internationally acclaimed vocalist.
Nelson Mandela (b. 1918), black nationalist leader, joint recipient of the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, and South Africa's first black president (1994–99).
Cecil Skotnes (b. 1926), painter and printmaker.
Oliver Tambo (b. 1917), political leader and president-in-exile of the African National Congress.
Desmond Tutu (b. 1931), religious and political leader.
Mail & Guardian home page. [Online] Available http://www.mg.co/za/mg (accessed December 30, 1999).
TimeOut Johannesburg. [Online] Available http://www.timeout.com/johannesburg (accessed December 30, 1999).
Tourism Board website. [Online] Available http://africa.com/satour (accessed December 30, 1999).
Virtual Africa. [Online] Available http://www.africa.com/docs/satravel.htm (accessed December 30, 1999).
Most government offices are located in the capital city of Pretoria.
Tourist and Convention Bureaus
Johannesburg Metropolitan Tourism Association 011–337–6650
South African Tourist Corporation (main office)
442 Rigel Ave. South
Pretoria, South Africa
4 Beirman Place
P.O. Box 1138
61 Commando Rd.
P.O. Box 6663
47 Sauer St.
P.O. Box 1014
Weekly Mail and Guardian
139 Smit St.
P.O. Box 32362
Chipkin, Clive M. Johannesburg Style: Architecture & Society, 1880s–1960s. Johannesburg: Thorold's Africana Books, 1993.
Kallaway, Peter, and Patrick Pearson. Johannesburg : Images and Continuities: A History of Working Class Life through Pictures, 1885–1935. Braamfontein, South Africa: Ravan Press, 1986.
McCrea, Barbara, Tony Pinchuck, and Greg Mthembu-Salter. South Africa, Lesotho & Swaziland. Rough Guides. London: Penguin, 1997.
Paton, Alan . Cry, the Beloved Country. New York: Scribner's, 1948.
Schadeberg, Jurgen. Sof'town Blues : Images from the Black ′50s. Hurlyvale, South Africa: African Book Centre, 1994.
Sepamla, Sydney Sipho. A Ride on the Whirlwind: A Novel. New York: Readers International, 1984.
Themba, Can. The Will to Die. Ed. Donald Stuart and Roy Holland. London: Heinemann, 1972.
Thompson, Leonard Monteath. A History of South Africa. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.
Johannesburg [videorecording]. Super cities. Johannesburg. San Ramon, California: International Video Network, 1995. 1 videocassette (30 min.): sd., col.; 1/2 in.
"Johannesburg." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cities. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/johannesburg
"Johannesburg." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cities. . Retrieved April 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/johannesburg
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Johannesburg (jōhăn´Ĭsbörg´, yōhä´nəsbörkh´), city, now part and seat of City of Johannesburg metropolitan municipality, Gauteng prov., NE South Africa, on the southern slopes of the Witwatersrand at an altitude of 5,750 ft (1,753 m). The capital of Gauteng, Johannesburg is the largest city in South Africa, the center of its important gold-mining industry, its manufacturing and commercial center, and the hub of its transportation network. Gold mining is the sprawling city's chief industry. Manufactures include cut diamonds, industrial chemicals, plastics, cement, electrical, electronic, and mining equipment, paper and paper products, glass, food products, and beer. South Africa's main stock exchange (founded 1887) is in the city.
Johannesburg was founded as a mining settlement in 1886, when gold was found on the Witwatersrand; by 1900 the city had a population of c.100,000. In accordance with apartheid law, racial groups were once restricted to separate residential areas; most blacks still live in Soweto. Formerly a group of townships southwest of the city, Soweto became an independent city in 1983; it is also now in the City of Johannesburg metropolitan municipality.
The Univ. of Johannesburg and the Univ. of the Witwatersrand are in Johannesburg, as is South Africa's Constitutional Court and the African Union's Pan-African Parliament. The city is also home to several museums, an art gallery, a planetarium, a zoo, a bird sanctuary, and numerous parks. Jan Smuts House is in the city. Nearby is Kyalami Circuit, where international motor races are held.
"Johannesburg." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/johannesburg
"Johannesburg." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/johannesburg
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
"Johannesburg." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/johannesburg
"Johannesburg." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved April 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/johannesburg
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The Chicago Manual of Style
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"Johannesburg." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/johannesburg
"Johannesburg." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved April 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/johannesburg