Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger
Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger
Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (1825-1904) was a South African statesman. Maintaining the independence of the Transvaal for a quarter of a century, he gradually became the champion of the entire Afrikaner nation and the symbol of their dogged exclusiveness.
Paul Kruger was born on Oct. 10, 1825, in the Cradock district of the Cape Colony, the son of Casper and Elsie Steyn Kruger. In 1836 the Krugers joined a group of Voortrekkers led by Hendrik Potgieter. Soon afterward Paul took part in the battle of Vechtkop, where a handful of Voortrekkers repelled an attack by Matabele. February 1838 found him in Natal, where he was eyewitness of the massacre of the laagers by Zulu warriors. His family hereafter took up farming in the Rustenburg district of Transvaal.
Life as a Pioneer
The only real schooling Kruger had was a 3-month course with a wandering master. Otherwise, the Bible was his only textbook. At the age of 16 he was entitled to choose two farms, one for grazing and the other for crops. His first marriage, to Maria du Plessis, ended after 4 years, when his wife died in childbirth. He married again, to Gezina du Plessis.
Kruger went through the perils of the Great Trek as a boy and fought in three battles before he was 13. With his natural boyish fancies thus slain early by circumstance, he grew up firm-willed and stern of mind, keen in brain and fearless in person. Physically he was cast in Herculean mold, with muscles steeled by his hard frontier life. His human qualities, like those of his body, were elemental. His association with pioneers made him gruff and rather crude. That narrow passion for his people, which later shaped so much history, was acquired when, as a boy, he suffered with the Voortrekkers. He feared God with the implicitness of the simpleminded peasant. As president, he delivered speeches interspersed with quotations from the Bible. He was no orator, as was to be expected from his slender education, but his facts were always arranged and expressed clearly, logically, and forcibly.
Appointed field cornet at 17, Kruger distinguished himself many times by bravery in battle. In 1852 he fought against Secheli, a Bechuana captain. The next year, in expedition against the chiefs Mapela and Mankopane, he brought off two more exploits. One night he crept through the enemy sentries and into a cave occupied by a large number of natives. He harangued them in their own tongue, urging that surrender was better than death by famine. He finally led several hundred women and children out of the cave.
In a skirmish some days later, Kruger effected the rescue immortalized by Van Wouw in one of the panels of the Kruger Statue. Despite heavy fire from the natives, he retrieved the body of commandant Piet Potgieter and carried it back to the Boers.
Statesman and Constitutionalist
From 1857 Kruger's personal destiny was linked very closely with that of the Transvaal government. First he served as adviser to President M.W. Pretorius. In 1863 Kruger was elected commandant general. During disputes which gradually resulted in civil war, he did not hesitate to use force to uphold the constitution.
After the return of political stability, Kruger served on various government commissions in connection with border and diamond-field disputes. Although he remained loyal to the government, he gradually withdrew from active politics after the election of the liberal-minded president T.F. Burgers. Kruger's personal following increased as a result of Burgers's failures, and he became the favorite for the presidential election in 1877. Owing to the annexation by Britain, the election did not take place.
As negotiator, Kruger could now match his wits against British diplomacy. Twice (1877, 1878) he led deputations to London in protest against the annexation, but in vain. He then resorted to passive resistance and advised his people to take up arms only when all his attempts at peaceful solution had failed. As member of a triumvirate, he led Transvaal during the War of Independence, which ended with the Boer victory at Majuba (1881). Britain then conditionally restored the independence of Transvaal.
President of the Last Boer Republic
In 1883 Kruger was elected president with a large majority. He made it his special task to restore complete independence to the republic. Eventually, at the Convention of London (1884), Kruger succeeded in restoring the absolute independence of his "Zuid-Afrikaansche" republic.
Kruger found his country in financial troubles and resorted to the much-criticized concession policy to improve the fiscal position. Then, in 1886, the world's largest gold-bearing reef was discovered in Transvaal. Within a few years Kruger presided over the most prosperous state in Africa.
Kruger regarded the maintenance of the independence of Transvaal and the protection of the rights of the original inhabitants as a task to which God had called him. In all his negotiations he laid down as a firm condition the independence of Transvaal. This brought him in direct opposition to Cecil Rhodes, who devoted his abilities and fortune to expanding British influence from the Cape to Cairo.
Kruger versus Rhodes
Rhodes effected the geographical encirclement of the Boer republics by isolating Transvaal from the sea and the German territories. Kruger, however, succeeded in building his own railway line through Mozambique to Delagoa Bay. This thwarted Rhodes's attempts to incorporate Transvaal economically with the British territories. Rhodes now began interfering with the internal affairs of Transvaal with the intention of ending its independence. Aliens (Uitlanders), mostly British subjects, flocked to the goldfields and soon outnumbered the republicans. Because they were hostile to the Transvaal government, Kruger decided to give them full citizenship only after 14 years' residence. In order to placate them, a Second Volksraad was instituted, to which the aliens could be elected.
The Uitlanders remained dissatisfied, and Rhodes plotted with them to overthrow Kruger's government. The Jameson raid (1895) failed, however, and Kruger emerged stronger than before. Then Joseph Chamberlain, British Minister for Colonies, and Alfred Milner, British High Commissioner in South Africa, decided to champion the cause of the Uitlanders by demanding full franchise. Kruger in the end was willing to make concessions on condition that Britain would no longer interfere in the domestic affairs of Transvaal and that all disputes would be submitted to neutral arbitration. Britain rejected these conditions as well as a republican ultimatum to withdraw British troops from its borders. War followed.
During the initial stages of the war Kruger stayed in Pretoria, offering advice and encouragement to the Boer forces by telegram. When British troops advanced on Pretoria, he retreated to the eastern Transvaal. In 1900 the Executive granted him leave to proceed to Europe to promote the cause of the republic. Although he found sympathy, especially in France and Holland, no foreign power would interfere on behalf of the Boers. As an exile, Kruger heard of the surrender of the Boer forces in 1902. He died on July 14, 1904, in Clarens, Switzerland.
Biographies of Kruger include F. Reginald Statham, Paul Kruger and His Times (1898); Marjorie Juta, The Pace of the Ox: The Life of Paul Kruger (1937); and Manfred Nathan, Paul Kruger: His Life and Times (1941). Political aspects of Kruger's life are discussed in Willem J. Leyds, Kruger Days (1939), and Johannes Stephanus Marais, The Fall of Kruger's Republic (1962). Recommended for general historical background are Eric Walker, A History of Southern Africa (1928; 3d ed. 1962); M. S. Geen, The Making of South Africa (1947; 4th rev. ed. 1967); and D. W. Kruger, The Age of the Generals (1961). See also Stuart Cloete, African Portraits (1946).
Fisher, John, Paul Kruger: his life and times, London: Secker and Warburg, 1974.
Meintjes, Johannes, President Paul Kruger: a biography, London: Cassell, 1974. □
Known for his leadership of the Transvaal, significantly during the lead up to the South African War (1899–1902), Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger personified the Afrikaner independent spirit. This father of Afrikaner nationalism, he was born in the eastern Cape Colony in 1825. In 1835 his family joined the Great Trek. Kruger developed his beliefs in the crucible of a developing Afrikaner nationalism. He fought Ndebele forces led by Mzilikazi (1795?–1868) at Vegkop in 1836, and went on to become a veldkornet, or district law enforcement officer, for the local government.
In 1883 Kruger became president of the Transvaal, following upon the state's victory over the British in the Anglo-Transvaal War (1880–1881). Combining his spiritual beliefs with a clear notion of Boer independence from British imperial encroachment, Kruger secured what he considered to be the republic's clear sovereignty from Britain in the Treaty of London in 1884. In 1886 gold was discovered at Witwatersrand, south of the capital at Pretoria. This, the largest gold deposit in the world, enabled the Transvaal to enjoy a new economic lease on life.
The Treaty of London did not halt Britain's imperial expansion. In 1890 diamond magnate Cecil Rhodes (1853–1902) established the colony of Rhodesia north of the Transvaal. Rhodes envisioned building a British "road to the north" from Cape Town to Cairo. He also argued for the destruction of the two Boer republics by suffocation, surrounding them with British territory. Rhodes's actions served to increase the tension between Kruger's government and Britain. This was played out in the winter of 1895 to 1896, when Rhodes sanctioned a raid into the Transvaal to overthrow the state government. Although the raid failed, it did succeed in driving Kruger to arm the republic (using capital from the gold mines), complete with the construction of forts around the Pretoria.
In 1899, following a summer of heated debate, the two republics declared war. Early and important victories went to the Boers, forcing Britain to send more troops while implementing a crash recruiting program at home. The tide began to turn in 1900, however, as new leadership in the British army helped secure the fall of the Orange Free State in March and the Transvaal Republic in June. With British troops spilling into his country, Kruger went on the run, finally leaving his beloved nation in October 1900. He went to the Netherlands seeking international assistance for his war with Britain. He received sympathy, but little else. Britain won the war in 1902, but gave the Boers substantial aid as part of the peace agreement. Paul Kruger died in exile in Switzerland in 1904, having never returned to the Transvaal.
A man of solid faith and solid nationalism, Kruger's folksy demeanor helped endear him to his fellow Afrikaners, many of whom he received on the front porch of his house near the capitol building in Pretoria. "Oom Paul" (Uncle Paul) remained a beloved figure in the Afrikaner national memory, helping to strengthen the growing mythology of apartheid.
Fisher, John. Paul Kruger: His Life and Times. London: Secker and Warburg, 1974.
Shillington, Kevin. A History of Southern Africa. Harlow, U.K.: Longman, 1987.
Paul Kruger (Stephanas Johannes Paulus) (krōō´gər, Afrikaans stāfä´nəs yōhä´nəs pou´ləs krü´gər), 1825–1904, South African Transvaal statesman, known as Oom Paul. As a child he accompanied (1836) his family northward from the Cape Colony in the Great Trek that was eventually to cross the Vaal River and establish the Dutch-speaking republic of Transvaal (1852). Kruger's life was closely tied to the development of the country; he was a pioneer, soldier, farmer, and politician. The Transvaal was annexed by Great Britain in 1877. Kruger at first cooperated with the British but shortly thereafter was dismissed because of his demands for retrocession. He was one of the triumvirate (with Piet Joubert and Martinius Pretorius) who negotiated the Pretoria agreement with the British (1881) granting the Boers (Afrikaners) independence. Kruger was elected president in 1883 and reelected in 1888, 1893, and 1898. His policy was one of continual resistance to the British, who came to be personified in South Africa by Cecil Rhodes. Colonization of Rhodesia N of the Transvaal and the increasing importance of gold mining merely brought much greater resistance on Kruger's part to Rhodes's dream of a unified South Africa. In the 1890s, Kruger adopted a stringent policy against the enfranchisement of the Uitlanders who were settling in the Transvaal. The Jameson Raid (see Jameson, Sir Leander Starr) into the Transvaal (Dec., 1895), undertaken with Rhodes's knowledge, created an international crisis. The Kaiser congratulated Kruger (in the
) for the successful repulsion of the British, with the implication that Germany had a right to interfere in the Transvaal. The message caused great indignation in England. Kruger fought in the early stages of the South African War, but in 1900 he went to Europe on a Dutch cruiser in a vain effort to enlist aid for his country. He died an exile in Switzerland.
See his memoirs (tr. 1902, repr. 1969); biography by M. Nathan (1941); studies by J. S. Marais (1962), D. M. Schreuder (1969), and C. T. Gordan (1970).