Skip to main content

Paul II, Patriarch of Constantinople

PAUL II, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE

Reigned Oct. 1, 641, to Dec. 27, 653. Elevated at the accession of the Byzantine emperor Constans II, who succeeded heraclius, and just prior to the pontificate of Pope Theodore I, Paul became patriarch at a time when monophysitism was fragmenting the Byzantine Church. At first he declared his adherence to the orthodox Christology, then (646647) accepted the compromise position of monothelitism put forward by his predecessors, Patriarchs sergius and pyrrhus. In 648 he backed with his authority the decree of Constans, known as the typos, which simply forbade all further discussion of the Christological question. Then in 649, along with Sergius and Pyrrhus, he was excommunicated and anathematized by the Lateran Synod called by Pope martin i. This action, coupled with the fact that Martin's elevation had taken place without imperial sanction, resulted in the Emperor's seizing the pope and exiling him to the Chersonesus in 653, the year of Paul's death. Imperial attempts to solve the Monophysite controversy, either by compromise or enforced silence, lost their urgency by the end of Paul's tenure; by that time Arab conquests had overrun the most strongly Monophysitic provinces of the Byzantine Empire. The Monothelite compromise was abjured by the Byzantine Church itself at the sixth ecumenical council, constantinople iii (680681), which declared Paul, among others, heretical.

Bibliography: v. grumel, Les regestes des actes du patriarcat de Constantinople (Kadikoi-Bucharest 193247) 1.1:120121. Letter to Theodore, j. d. mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio (Graz 1960) 10:102026. c. j. von hefele Histoire des conciles d'après les documents originaux, tr. and continued by h. leclerq (Paris 190738) 3:398400, 426432. h. pargoire, L'eglise byzantine (Paris 1905) under "Monothéletisme." Histoire de l'église depuis les origines jusqu'à nos jours, ed. a. fliche and v. martin (Paris 1935) 5:165168. f. x. seppelt, Geschichte der Päpste von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des 20. Jh. (Munich 195459) 2:5963, 65ff. g. ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State (Oxford 1956, New Brunswick NJ 1957) 92, 97. h. g. beck, Kirche und theologische Literatur im byzantinischen Reich (Munich 1959) 55, 432433.

[d. a. miller]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Paul II, Patriarch of Constantinople." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Paul II, Patriarch of Constantinople." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/paul-ii-patriarch-constantinople

"Paul II, Patriarch of Constantinople." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved September 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/paul-ii-patriarch-constantinople

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.