Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (baptismal names, Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus)
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (baptismal names, Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus)
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (baptismal names, Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus), great Austrian composer whose works in every genre are unsurpassed in lyric beauty, rhythmic variety, and effortless melodic invention, son of (Johann Georg) Leopold Mozart, brother of Maria Anna Mozart, and father of Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart; b. Salzburg, Jan. 27, 1756; d. Vienna, Dec. 5, 1791. He and his sister, tenderly nicknamed “Nannerl,” were the only two among the seven children of Anna Maria and Leopold Mozart to survive infancy. Mozart’s sister was 4-1/2 years older; she took harpsichord lessons from her father, and Mozart as a very young child eagerly absorbed the sounds of music. He soon began playing the harpsichord himself, and later studied the violin. Leopold was an excellent musician, but he also appreciated the theatrical validity of the performances that Wolfgang and Nannerl began giving in Salzburg. On Jan. 17, 1762, he took them to Munich, where they performed before the Elector of Bavaria. In Sept. 1762 they played for Emperor Francis I at his palace in Vienna. The family returned to Salzburg in Jan. 1763, and in June 1763 the children were taken to Frankfurt am Main, where Wolfgang showed his skill in improvising at the keyboard. In Nov. 1763 they arrived in Paris, where they played before Louis XV; it was in Paris that Wolfgang’s first compositions were printed (4 sonatas for Harpsichord, with Violin ad libitum). In April 1764 they proceeded to London; there Wolfgang played for King George III. In London he was befriended by Bach’s son Johann Christian Bach, who gave exhibitions improvising 4-hands at the piano with the child Mozart. By that time Mozart had tried his ability in composing serious works; he wrote two syms. for a London performance, and the MS of another very early sym., purportedly written by him in London, was discovered in 1980. Leopold wrote home with undisguised pride:”Our great and mighty Wolfgang seems to know everything at the age of 7 that a man acquires at the age of 40.” Knowing the power of publicity, he diminished Wolfgang’s age, for at the time the child was fully nine years old. In July 1765 they journeyed to the Netherlands, then set out for Salzburg, visiting Dijon, Lyons, Geneva, Bern, Zürich, Donaueschingen, and Munich on the way. Arriving in Salzburg in Nov. 1766, Wolfgang alied himself to serious study of counterpoint under the tutelage of his father. In Sept. 1767 the family proceeded to Vienna, where Wolfgang began work on an opera, La finta semplice) his second theater work was a Singspiel, Bastien und Bastienne, which was produced in Vienna at the home of Dr. Franz Mesmer, the protagonist of the famous method of therapy by “animal magnetism,” which became known as Mesmerism. On Dec. 7, 1768, Mozart led a performance of his Missa solemnis in C minor before the royal family and court at the consecration of the Waisenhauskirche. Upon Mozart’s return to Salzburg in Jan. 1769, Archbishop Sigismund von Schrattenbach named him his Konzertmeister; however, the position was without remuneration. Still determined to broaden Mozart’s artistic contacts, his father took him on an Italian tour. The announcement for a concert in Mantua on Jan. 16,1770, just a few days before Mozart’s 14th birthday, was typical of the artistic mores of the time: “A Symphony of his own composition; a harpsichord concerto, which will be handed to him, and which he will immediately play prima vista; a Sonata handed him in like manner, which he will provide with variations, and afterwards repeat in another key; an Aria, the words for which will be handed to him and which he will immediately set to music and sing himself, accompanying himself on the harpsichord; a Sonata for harpsichord on a subject given him by the leader of the violins; a Strict Fugue on a theme to be selected, which he will improvise on the harpsichord; a Trio in which he will execute a violin part all’ improvviso; and, finally, the latest Symphony by himself.” Legends of Mozart’s extraordinary musical ability grew; it was reported, for instance, that he wrote out the entire score of Miserere by Allegri, which he had heard in the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican only twice. Young Mozart was subjected to numerous tests by famous Italian musicians, among them Giovanni Sammartini, Piccini, and Padre Martini; he was given a diploma as an elected member of the Accademia Filarmonica in Bologna after he had passed examinations in harmony and counterpoint. On Oct. 10, 1770, the Pope made him a Knight of the Golden Spur. He was commissioned to compose an opera; the result was Mitri-date, re di Ponto, which was performed in Milan on Dec. 26, 1770; Mozart himself conducted three performances of this opera from the harpsichord; after a short stay in Salzburg, they returned to Milan in 1771, where he composed the serenata Ascanio in Alba for the wedding festivities of Archduke Ferdinand (Oct. 17, 1771). He returned to Salzburg late in 1771; his patron, Archbishop Schrattenbach, died about that time, and his successor, Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo, seemed to be indifferent to Mozart as a musician. Once more Mozart went to Italy, where his newest opera, Lucio Siila, was performed in Milan on Dec. 26, 1772. He returned to Salzburg in March 1773, but in July of that year he went to Vienna, where he became acquainted with the music of Haydn, who greatly influenced his instrumental style. Returning to Salzburg once more, he supervised the production of his opera II Ré pastore, which was performed on April 23, 1775.
In March 1778 Mozart visited Paris again for a performance of his “Paris” Sym. at a Concert Spirituel. His mother died in Paris on July 3, 1778. Returning to Salzburg in Jan. 1779, he resumed his duties as Konzertmeister and also obtained the position of court organist at a salary of 450 gulden. In 1780 the Elector of Bavaria commissioned from him an opera seria, Idomeneo, which was successfully produced in Munich on Jan. 29, 1781. In May 1781 Mozart lost his position with the Archbishop in Salzburg and decided to move to Vienna, which became his permanent home. There he produced the operatic masterpiece Die Entführung aus dem Serail, staged at the Burgtheater on July 16,1782, with excellent success. On August 4, 1782, he married Constanze Weber, the sister of Aloysia Weber, with whom he had previously been infatuated. Two of his finest syms.—No. 35 in D major, “Haffner,” written for the Haffner family of Salzburg, and No. 36 in C major, the “Linz”—date from 1782 and 1783, respectively. From this point forward Mozart’s productivity reached extraordinary dimensions, but despite the abundance of commissions and concert appearances, he was unable to earn enough to sustain his growing family. Still, melodramatic stories of Mozart’s abject poverty are gross exaggerations. He apparently felt no scruples in asking prosperous friends for financial assistance. Periodically he wrote to Michael Puchberg, a banker and a brother Freemason (Mozart joined the Masonic Order in 1784), with requests for loans (which he never repaid); invariably Puchberg obliged, but usually granting smaller amounts than Mozart requested. In 1785 Mozart completed a set of 6 string quartets which he dedicated to Haydn; unquestionably the structure of these quartets owed much to Haydn’s contrapuntal art. Haydn himself paid a tribute to Mozart’s genius; Mozart’s father quoted him as saying, “Before God and as an honest man I tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by name.” On May 1, 1786, Mozart’s great opera buffa, Le nozze di Figaro, was produced in Vienna, obtaining a triumph with the audience; it was performed in Prague early in 1787 with Mozart in attendance. It was during that visit that Mozart wrote his 38th Sym., in D major, known as the “Prague” Sym.; it was in Prague, also, that his operatic masterpiece Don Giovanni was produced, on Oct. 29, 1787. It is interesting to note that at its Vienna performance the opera was staged under the title Die sprechende Statue, unquestionably with the intention of sensationalizing the story; the dramatic appearance of the statue of the Commendatore, introduced by the ominous sound of trombones, was a shuddering climax to the work. In Nov. 1787 Mozart was appointed Kammermusicus in Vienna as a successor to Gluck, albeit at a smaller salary: he received 800 gulden per annum as against Gluck’s salary of 2,000 gulden. The year 1788 was a glorious one for Mozart and for music history; it was the year when he composed his last three syms.: No. 39 in E-flat major; No. 40 in G minor; and No. 41 in C major, known under the name “Jupiter” (the Jovian designation was apparently attached to the work for the first time in British concert programs; its earliest use was in the program of the Edinburgh Festival in Oct. 1819). In the spring of 1789 Mozart went to Berlin; on the way he appeared as soloist in one of his piano concertos before the Elector of Saxony in Dresden, and also played the organ at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig. His visits in Potsdam and Berlin were marked by his private concerts at the court of Friedrich Wilhelm II; the King commissioned from him a set of 6 string quartets and a set of 6 piano sonatas, but Mozart died before completing these commissions. Returning to Vienna, he began work on his opera buffa Così fan tutte (an untranslatable sentence because tutte is the feminine plural, so that the full title would be “Thus do all women”). The opera was first performed in Vienna on Jan. 26,1790. In Oct. 1790 Mozart went to Frankfurt am Main for the coronation of Emperor Leopold II. Returning to Vienna, he saw Haydn, who was about to depart for London. In 1791, during his last year of life, he completed the score of Die Zauberflöte, with a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. It was performed for the first time on Sept. 30, 1791, in Vienna. There followed a mysterious episode in Mozart’s life; a stranger called on him with a request to compose a Requiem; the caller was an employee of Count Franz von Walsegg, who intended to have the work performed as his own in memory of his wife. Mozart was unable to finish the score, which was completed by his pupil Sussmayr, and by Eybler.
The immediate cause of Mozart’s death at the age of 35 has been the subject of much speculation. Almost immediately after the sad event, myths and fantasies appeared in the press; the most persistent of them all was that Mozart had been poisoned by Salieri out of professional jealousy; this particularly morbid piece of invention gained circulation in European journals; the story was further elaborated upon by a report that Salieri confessed his unspeakable crime on his deathbed in 1825. Pushkin used the tale in his drama Mozart and Salieri, which Rimsky-Korsakov set to music in his opera of the same title; a fanciful dramatization of the Mozart-Salieri rivalry was made into a successful play, Amadeus, by Peter Shaffer, which was produced in London in 1979 and in N.Y. in 1980; it subsequently gained wider currency through its award-winning film version of 1984. The notion of Mozart’s murder also appealed to the Nazis; in the ingenious version propagated by some German writers of the Hitlerian persuasion, Mozart was a victim of a double conspiracy of Masons and Jews who were determined to suppress the flowering of racial Germanic greatness; the Masons, in this interpretation, were outraged by his revealing of their secret rites in Die Zauberflöte, and allied themselves with plutocratic Jews to prevent further spread of his dangerous revelations. Another myth related to Mozart’s death that found its way into the majority of Mozart biographies and even into respectable reference works was that a blizzard raged during his funeral and that none of his friends could follow his body to the cemetery; this story is easily refuted by the records of the Vienna weather bureau for the day (see N. Slonim-sky, ’The Weather at Mozart’s Funeral,” Musical Quarterly, Jan. 1960). It is also untrue that Mozart was buried in a pauper’s grave; his body was removed from its original individual location because the family neglected to pay the mandatory dues.
The universal recognition of Mozart’s genius during the 2 centuries since his death has never wavered among professional musicians, amateurs, and the general public. In his music, smiling simplicity was combined with somber drama; lofty inspiration was contrasted with playful diversion; profound meditation alternated with capricious moodiness; religious concentration was permeated with human tenderness. Devoted as Mozart was to his art and respectful as he was of the rules of composition, he was also capable of mocking the professional establishment. A delightful example of this persiflage is his little piece Ein musikalischer Spass, subtitled “Dorf Musikanten,” a “musical joke” at the expense of “village musicians,” in which Mozart all but anticipated developments of modern music, two centuries in the future; he deliberately used the forbidden consecutive fifths, allowed the violin to escape upward in a whole-tone scale, and finished the entire work in a welter of poly tonal triads.
The variety of technical development in Mozart’s works is all the more remarkable considering the limitations of instrumental means in his time; the topmost note on his keyboard was F above the 3rd ledger line, so that in the recapitulation in the 1st movement of his famous C major Piano Sonata, the subject had to be dropped an octave lower to accommodate the modulation. The vocal technique displayed in his operas is amazing in its perfection; to be sure, the human voice has not changed since Mozart’s time, but he knew how to exploit vocal resources to the utmost. This adaptability of his genius to all available means of sound production is the secret of the eternal validity of his music.
In the list of Mozart’s works given below, the K. numbers represent the system of identification established by L. von Köchel in his Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichnis sämtlicher Tonwerke Wolfgang Amade Mozarts (Leipzig, 1862; 6th ed., rev. by F. Giegling, A. Weinmann, and G. Sievers, Wiesbaden, 1964); the rev. K. numbers of the 6th ed. are also included.
dramatic: Apollo et Hyacinthus, K.38, Latin intermezzo (Salzburg Univ., May 13, 1767); La finta semplice, K.51; 46a, opera buffa (Archbishop’s palace, Salzburg, May 1?, 1769); Bastien und Bastienne, K.50; 46b, Singspiel (Franz Mesmer’s residence, Vienna, Sept.?-Oct.? 1768); Mitridate, re di Ponto, K.87; 74a, opera seria (Regio Ducal Teatro, Milan, Dec. 26, 1770); Ascanio in Alba, K.lll, festa teatrale (Regio Ducal Teatro, Milan, Oct. 17, 1771); II sogno di Scipione, K.126, serenata (Archbishop’s palace, Salzburg, May? 1772); Lucio Siila, K.135, opera seria (Regio Ducal Teatro, Milan, Dec. 26, 1772); La finta giardiniera, K.196, opera buffa (Munich, Jan. 13, 1775; also produced as a Singspiel, Die verstellte Gärtnerin, Augsburg, May 1,1780); II Re pastore, K.208, dramma per musica (Archbishop’s palace, Salzburg, April 23, 1775); Semiramis, K.Anh. 11; 315e, duodrama (not extant); Thamos, König in Ägypten, K.345; 336a, music for Gebler’s play; Zaide, K.344; 336b, Singspiel (unfinished; dialogue rewritten and finished by Gollmick, with overture and finale added by Anton André, Frankfurt am Main, Jan. 27, 1866); Idomeneo, re di Creta, K.366, opera seria (Hoftheater, Munich, Jan. 29, 1781); Die Entführung aus dem Serail, K.384, Singspiel (Burgtheater, Vienna, July 16, 1782); L’oca del Cairo, K.422, opera buffa (unfinished); Lo Sposo deluso, K.430; 424a, opera buffa (unfinished); Der Schauspieldirektor, K.486, Singspiel (Schönbrunn Palace, Heitzing [suburb of Vienna], Feb. 7,1786); Le nozze di Figaro, K.492, opera buffa (Burgtheater, Vienna, May 1, 1786); II dissoluto punito, ossia II Don Giovanni, K.527, opera buffa (National Theater, Prague, Oct. 29, 1787); Così fan tutte, ossia La scuola degli amanti, K.588, opera buffa (Burgtheater, Vienna, Jan. 26, 1790); Der Stein der Weisen, Singspiel (1790; in collaboration with Schikaneder, B. Schack, F. Geri, and J.B. Henneberg); Die Zauberflöte, K.620, Singspiel (Theater auf der Wieden, Vienna, Sept. 30,1791); La clemenza di Tito, K.621, opera seria (National Theater, Prague, Sept. 6, 1791). arias and scenes for voice and orch.:Conservati fedele, K.23 (1765; rev. 1766); A Berenice...Sol nascente, K.70; 61c (1766); Per pietà, beli’idol mio, K.78; 73b (1766?); Cara se le mie pene (1769?); Misero tu non sei, K.A2; 73A (1770); Fra cento affarii, K.88; 73c (1770); O temerario Arbacc...Per quel paterno amplesso, K.79; 73d (1766?); Misero me...Misero pargoletto, K.77; 73e (1770); Seardire,e speranza, K.82; 73o (1770); Se tutti i mali miei, K.83; 73p (1770); Non curo l’affetto, K.74b (1771); Voi avete un cor fedele, K.217 (1775); Ah, lo previdi..Ah, t’invola agli’occhi miei, K.272 (1777); Alcandro lo confesso...Non sòo d’onde viene, K.294 (1778); Basta vincesti...Ah, non lasciarmi, K.486a; 295a (1778); Popoli di Tessaglia...Io non chiedo, K.316; 300b (1778–79); Scena, K.A3; 315b (1778); Warum, o Liebe...Zittre, töricht Herz, K.Alla; 365a (1780); Ma che vi fece...Sperai vicino, K.368 (1779–80); Misera! dove son...Ah! non son io, K.369 (1781); A questo seno...Or che il cielo, K.374 (1781); Der Liebe himmlisches Gefühl, K.119; 382h (1782); Nehmt meinen Dank, K.383 (1782); Mia speranza adorata...Ah, non sai qual pena, K.416 (1783); Ah, spiegarti, oh Dio, K.178; 417e (1783); Vorrei spiegarti, oh Dio, K.418 (1783); No, che non sei capace, K.419 (1783); Non più, tutti ascoltai...Non temer, amato bene, K.490 (1786); Ch’io mi scordi di te...Non temer, amato bene, K.505 (1786); Bella mia fiamma...Resta, o cara, K.528 (1787); Ah se in del, benigna stella, K.538 (1788); In quali eccessi.Mi tradi, K.540c (1788); Ohne Zwang, aus eignem Triebe, K.569 (1789); Al desio di chi ch’adora, K.577 (1789); Alma grande e nobil core, K.578 (1789); Un moto di gioia, K.579 (1789); Schon lacht der holde Frühling, K.580 (1789); Chi sa quai sia, K.581 (1789); Vado, ma dove?, K.583 (1789). alto and orch . :Ombra felice...Io ti lascio, K.255 (1776). tenor and orch.:Va dal furor portata, K.21; 19c (1765); Or che il dover...Tali e cotanti sono, K.36; 33i (1766); Ah più tremar non voglio, K.71 (1769–70); Si monstra la sorte, K.209 (1775); Con ossequio, con rispetto, K.210 (1775); Clarice cara, K.256 (1776); Se al labbro mio non credi, K.295 (1778); Müsst’ich auch durch tausend Drachen, K.435; 416b (1783); Per pietà non ricercate, K.420 (1783); Misero! o sogno...Aura che intorni spiri, K.431; 425b (1783); Dalla sua pace, K.540a (1788). bass and orch.:Così dunque tradisci...Aspri rimorsi atroci, K.432; 421a (1783); Alcandro, lo confesso...Non so d’onde viene, K.512 (1787); Mentre ti lascio, K.513 (1787); Ich möchte wohl der Kaiser sein, K.539 (1788); Un bacio di mano, K.541 (1788); Rivolgete a lui lo sguardo, K.584 (1789); Per questa bella mano, K.612 (1791); Io ti lascio, K.A245; 621a (1791). masses, oratorios, cantatas, etc.: Kyrie in F major, K.33 (1766); Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots, K.35, sacred drama (1767; part 1 by Mozart, part 2 by Michael Haydn, part 3 by Adlgasser; Salzburg, March 12,1767); Grabmusik, K.42; 35a, cantata (1767; Salzburg Cathedral, April 7, 1767); Missa solemnis in C minor, K.139; 47a, “Waisenhausmesse” (1768; Vienna, Dec. 7, 1768); Missa brevis in C major, K.49; 47d (1768; only fragments extant); Missa brevis in D minor, K.65; 61a (1769; Collegiate Church, Salzburg, Feb. 5, 1769); Missa in C major, K.66, “Dominicus” (1769; St. Peter, Salzburg, Oct. 15, 1769); La Betulia liberata, K.118; 74c, oratorio (1771); Missa brevis in G major, K.140; C 1.12 (1773; may not be by Mozart); Missa in C major, K.167, “In honorem Ssmae Trinitatis” (1773); Missa brevis in F major, K.192; 186f (1774); Missa brevis in D major, K.194; 186h (1774); Missa brevis in C major, K.220; 196b, “Spatzenmesse” (1775–76); Missa in C major, K.262; 246a (1775); Missa in C major, K.257, “Credo” (1776); Missa brevis in C major, K.258, “Spaur” (1776); Missa brevis in C major, K.259, “Organ Solo” (1776); Missa brevis in B-flat major, K.275; 272b (1777; St. Peter, Salzburg, Dec. 21, 1777); Missa in C major, K.317, “Coronation” (1779); Missa solemnis in C major, K.337 (1780); Kyrie in D minor, K.341; 368a (1780–81); Missa in C minor, K.427; 417a (1782–83; unfinished; Kyrie and Gloria, St. Peter, Salzburg, Oct. 25, 1783); Dir, Seele des Weltalls, K.429; 468a, cantata (1785; unfinished); Davidde penitente, K.469, oratorio (1785; music from the Missa in C minor, K.427; 417a, 2 arias excepted); Die Maurerfreude, K.471, cantata (1785; “Zur gekrönten Hoffnung” Lodge, Vienna, April 24,1785); Die ihr des unermesslichen Weltalls Schöpfer ehrt, K.619, cantata (1791); Eine kleine FreimaurerKantate, K.623 (1791; “Zur neugekronten Hoffnung” Lodge, Vienna, Nov. 18, 1791); Requiem in D minor, K.626 (1791; unfinished; completed by Franz Xavier Süssmayr). Also the following: God Is Our Refuge in G minor, K.20, motet (1765); Stabat Mater, K.33c (1766; not extant); Scande coeli limina in C major, K.34, offertory (1767); Veni Sancte Spiritus in C major, K.47 (1768); Benedictus sit Deus in C major, K.117; 66a, offertory (1768); Te Deum in C major, K.141; 66b (1769); Ergo interest in G major, K.143; 73a, motet (1773); Miserere in A minor, K.85; 73s (1770); Cibavit eos in A minor, K.44; 73u, antiphon (1770; may not be by Mozart); Quaerite primum in D minor, K.86; 73v, antiphon (1770); Regina coeli in C major, K.108; 74d (1771); Inter natos mulierum in G major, K.72; 74f, offertory (1771); Regina coeli in B-flat major, K.127 (1772); Exsultate, jubilate in F major, K.165; 158a, motet (1773; Milan, Jan. 17,1773); Tantum ergo in D major, K.197; C 3.05 (1774; may not be by Mozart); Sub tuum praesidium in F major, K.198; C 3.08, offertory (1774; may not be by Mozart); Misericórdias Domini in D minor, K.222; 205a, offertory (1775); Venite populi in D major, K.260; 248a (1776); Alma Dei creatoris in F major, K.277; 272a, offertory (1777); Sancta Maria, mater Dei in F major, K.273, gradual (1777); Miserere, K.Anh. 1; 297a (1778; not extant); Kommet her, ihr frechen Sünder in B-flat major, K.146; 317b, aria (1779); Regina coeli in C major, K.276; 321b (1779?); O Gottes Lamm; Als aus Aegypten, K.343; 336c, 2 German sacred songs (1787?); Ave verum corpus in D major, K.618, motet (1791). Additional works: Litaniae Lauretanae in B-flat major, K.109; 74e (1771); Litaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento in B-flat major, K.125 (1772); Litaniae Lauretanae in D major, K.195; 186d (1774); Dixit Dominus, Magnificat in C major, K.193; 186g (1774); Litaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento in E-flat major, K.243 (1776); Vesperae de Dominica in C major, K.321 (1779); Vesperae solennes de confessore in C major, K.339 (1780). orch.: syms.: No. 1 in E-flat major, K.16 (1764–65); A minor, K.Anh. 220; 16a “Odense” (1768?; considered lost until discovered in Odense in 1982; may not be by Mozart); No. 4 in D major, K.19 (1765); F major, K.Anh. 223; 19a (1765; considered lost until discovered in 1980); C major, K.Anh. 222; 19b (1765; not extant); No. 5 in B-flat major, K.22 (1765); No. 43 in F major, K.76; 42a (1767; may not be by Mozart); No. 6 in F major, K.43 (1767); No. 7 in D major, K.45 (1767); G major, K.Anh. 221; 45a, “Old Lambach” (1768); No. 55 in B-flat major, K.Anh. 214; 45b (1768); No. 8 in D major, K.48 (1768); D major, K.Anh. 215; 66c (1769; not extant); B-flat major, K.Anh. 217; 66d (1769; not extant); B-flat major, K.Anh. 218; 66e (1769; not extant); No. 9 in C major, K.73 (1772); No. 44 in D major, K.81; 731 (1770; may be by Leopold Mozart); No. 47 in D major, K.97; 73m (1770); No. 45 in D major, K.95; 73n (1770); No. 11 in D major, K.84; 73q (1770; may not be by Mozart); No. 10 in G major, K.74 (1770); No. 42 in F major, K.75 (1771); No. 12 in G major, K.110; 75b (1771); D major, K.120; Ilia (1771; finale only; perf. with the overture to Ascanio in Alba, K.111, forming a sym.); No. 46 in C major, K.96; 111b (1771); No. 13 in F major, K.112 (1771); No. 14 in A major, K.114 (1771); No. 15 in G major, K.124 (1772); No. 16 in C major, K.128 (1772); No. 17 in G major, K.129 (1772); No. 18 in F major, K.130 (1772); No. 19 in E-flat major, K.132 (1772; with alternative slow movements); No. 20 in D major, K.133 (1772); No. 21 in A major, K.134 (1772); No. 50 in D major, K.161, 163; 141a (1772); No. 26 in E-flat major, K.184; 161a (1773); No. 27 in G major, K.199; 161b (1773); No. 22 in C major, K.162 (1773); No. 23 in D major, K.181; 162b (1773); No. 24 in B-flat major, K.182; 173dA (1773); No. 25 in G minor, K.183; 173dB (1773); No. 29 in A major, K.201; 186a (1774); No. 30 in D major, K.202; 186b (1774); No. 28 in C major, K.200; 189k (1774); D major K.121; 207a (1774–75; finale only; perf. with the overture to La finta giardiniera, K.196, forming a sym.); D major (4 movements from the Serenade in D major, K.204; 213a); C major, K.102; 213c (1775; finale only; perf. with versions of the overture and 1st aria from II Ré pastore, K.208); D major (4 movements from the Serenade in D major, K.250; 248b); No. 31 in D major, K.297; 300a, “Paris” (1778: with 2 slow movements); No. 32 in G major, K.318 (1779; in 1 movement); No. 33 in B-flat major, K.319 (1779); D major (3 movements from the Serenade in D major, K.320, “Posthorn”); No. 34 in C major, K.338 (1780); C major, K.409; 383f (1782; minuet only; may have been intended for the Sym. No. 34 in C major, K.338); No. 35 in D major, K.385, “Haffner” (1782); No. 36 in C major, K.425, “Linz” (1783); No. 37 in G major, K.444; 425a (1783?; only the introduction is by Mozart; remainder by Michael Haydn); No. 38 in D major, K.504, “Prague” (1786); No. 39 in E-flat major, K.543 (1788); No. 40 in G minor, K.550 (1788); No. 41 in C major, K.551, “Jupiter” (1788). A sym. listed as K.Anh. 8; 311A was never composed. piano concertos: No. 5 in D major, K.175 (1773); No. 6 in B- flat major, K.238 (1776); No. 8 in C major, K.246 (1776); No. 9 in E-flat major, K.271 (1777); No. 12 in A major, K.414; 385p (1782); No. 11 in F major, K.413; 387a (1782–83); No. 13 in C major, K.415; 387b (1782–83); No. 14 in E-flat major, K.449 (1784); No. 15 in B-flat major, K.450 (1784); No. 16 in D major, K.451 (1784); No. 17 in G major, K.453 (1784); No. 18 in B-flat major, K.456 (1784); No. 19 in F major, K.459 (1784); No. 20 in D minor, K.466 (1785); No. 21 in C major, K.467 (1785); No. 22 in E-flat major, K.482 (1785); No. 23 in A major, K.488 (1786); No. 24 in C minor, K.491 (1786); No. 25 in C major, K.503 (1786); No. 26 in D major, K.537, “Coronation” (1788); No. 27 in B- flat major, K.595 (17887–91). Also No. 10 in E-flat major, for 2 Pianos, K.365; 316a (1779); No. 7 in F major, for 3 Pianos, K.242 (1776); Rondo in D major, K.382 (1782; new finale for No.
5 in D major, K.175); Rondo in A major, K.386 (1782). violin concertos: No. 1 in B-flat major, K.207 (1773?); No. 2 in D major, K.211 (1775); No. 3 in G major, K.216 (1775); No. 4 in D major, K.218 (1775); No. 5 in A major, K.219 (1775). Also the following: Concertone in C major for 2 Violins, K.90; 186e (1774); Adagio in E major for Violin, K.261 (1776; for Violin Concerto No. 5); Rondo in B-flat major for Violin, K.269; 261a (1776); Sinfonia concertante in E-flat major for Violin and Viola, K.364; 320d (1779); Rondo in C major for Violin, K.373 (1781); Andante in A major for Violin, K.470 (1785; not extant). wind instruments: Concerto for Trumpet, K.47c (1768; not extant); Concerto for Bassoon in B-flat major, K.191; 186e (1774); Concerto for Oboe, K.271k (1777; not extant; perhaps a version of K.314; 285d below); Concerto for Flute in G major, K.313; 285c (1778); Concerto for Oboe or Flute in C/D major, K.314; 285d (1778; oboe version may be for K.271k above); Andante for Flute in C major, K.315; 285e (1779–80); Sinfonia concertante for Flute, Oboe, Bassoon, and Horn, K.Anh. 9; 297B (1778?; not extant; may not have been composed); Sinfonia concertante in E-flat major for Oboe, Clarinet, Bassoon, and Horn, K.Anh. 9; C 14.01 (doubtful); Concerto for Flute and Harp in C major, K.299; 297c (1778); Sinfonia concertante in G major for 2 Flutes, 2 Oboes, and 2 Bassoons, K.320 (movements 3 and 4 of the Serenade in D major, K.320, “Posthorn”); Rondo for Horn in E-flat major, K.371 (1781; unfinished); concertos for Horn: No. 1 (old No. 2) in E-flat major, K.417 (1783); No. 2 (old No. 4) in E-flat major, K.495 (1786); No. 3 in E-flat major, K.447 (1783?); No. 4 (old No.l) in D major, K.412; 386b (1791; unfinished finale completed by Sussmayr, 1792); Concerto for Clarinet in A major, K.622 (1791). serenades, divertimentos, cassations, etc.:Gallimathias musicum, K.32 (1766); 6 divertimentos, K.41a (1767; not extant); Cassation in D major, K.100; 62a (1769); Cassation in G major, K.63 (1769); Cassation in C major (1769; not extant); Cassation in B-flat major, K.99; 63a (1769); Divertimento in E-flat major, K.113 (1771); Divertimento in D major, K.131 (1772); Divertimento in D major, K.136; 125a (1772); Divertimento in B-flat major, K.137; 125b (1772); Divertimento in F Major, K.138; 125c (1772); Divertimento in D major, K.205; 167a (1773?); Serenade in D major, K.185; 167a (1773); Serenade in D major, K.203; 189b (1774); Serenade in D major, K.204; 213a (1775); Serenata notturna in D major, K.239 (1776); Divertimento in F major, K.247 (1776); Serenade in D major, K.250; 248b, “Haffner” (1776); Divertimento in D major, K.251 (1776); Notturno in D major, K.286; 269a (1776–77); Divertimento in B-flat major, K.287; 271h (1777); Serenade in D major, K.320, “Posthorn” (1779); Divertimento in D major, K.334; 320b (1779–80); Serenade in B-flat major, K.361; 370a (1781–82?); Serenade in E-flat major, K.375 (1781–82); Serenade in C minor, K.388; 384a (1782); Maurerische Trauermusik in C minor, K.477; 479a (1785); Ein musikalischer Spass in F major, K.522 (1787); Eine kleine Nachtmusik in G major, K.525 (1787). Also 14 divertimentos for Wind Ensemble; 15 marches (2 not extant); 56 German dances, ländler, and 58 Contredanses (10 not extant, 9 doubtful); ballet, Les Petits Riens, K.Anh. 10; 299b (1778; Opéra, Paris, June 11, 1778); etc. CHAMBER: String Quartets: G major, K.80; 73f (1770); D major, K.155; 134a (1772); G major, K.156; 134b (1772); C major, K.157 (1772–73); F major, K.158 (1772–73); B-flat major, K.159 (1773); E-flat major, K.160; 159a (1773); F major, K.168 (1773); A major, K.169 (1773); C major, K.170 (1773); E- flat major, K.171 (1773); B-flat major, K.172 (1773); D minor, K.173 (1773); G major, K.387 (1782); D minor, K.421; 417b (1783); E-flat major, K.428; 421b (1783); B-flat major, K.458, “Hunt” (1784); A major, K.464 (1785); C major, K.465, “Dissonance” (1785); D major, K.499, “Hoffmeister” (1786); D major, K.575, “Prussian” (1789); B-flat major, K.589, “Prussian” (1790); F major, K.590, “Prussian”(1790); Adagio and Fugue in C minor, K.546 (1788). string quintets(2 Violins, 2 Violas, and Cello): B-flat major, K.174 (1773); C major, K.515 (1787); G minor, K.516 (1787); C minor, K.406; 516b (1788; an arrangement of K.388; 384a); D major, K.593 (1790); E-flat major, K.614 (1791). strings and wind instruments: Duo in B-flat major for Bassoon and Cello, K.292; 196c (1775); Quartet in D major for Flute, Violin, Viola, and Cello, K.285 (1777); Quartet in G major for Flute, Violin, Viola, and Cello, K.285a (1778); Quartet in C major for Flute, Violin, Viola, and Cello, K.Anh. 171; 285b (1781–82); Quartet in A major for Flute, Violin, Viola, and Cello, K.298 (1786–87); Quartet in F major for Oboe, Violin, Viola, and Cello, K.370; 368b (1781); Quintet in E-flat major for Horn, Violin, 2 Violas, and Cello, K.407; 386c (1782); Quintet in A major for Clarinet, 2 Violins, Viola, and Cello, K.581 (1789). string sonatas, duos, and trios: Solos for Cello and Bassoon, K.33b (1766; not extant); Nachtmusik for 2 Violins and Bassoon, K.41g (1767; not extant); Sonata in C major for Violin and Bassoon, K.46d (1768); Sonata in F major for Violin and Bassoon, K.46e (1768); Trio in B- flat major for 2 Violins and Bassoon, K.266; 271f (1777); 4 preludes for Violin, Viola, and Cello, K.404a (1782; may not be by Mozart); Duo in G major for Violin and Viola, K.423 (1783); Duo in B-flat major for Violin and Viola, K.424 (1783); Trio in E-flat major for Violin, Viola, and Cello, K.563 (1788). keyboard and other instruments: Divertimento in B-flat major for Piano, Violin, and Cello, K.254 (1776); Trio in D minor for Piano, Violin, and Cello, K.442 (17837–90; unfinished; completed by M. Stadler); Quintet in E-flat major for Piano, Oboe, Clarinet, Bassoon, and Horn, K.452 (1784); Quartet in G minor for Piano, Violin, Viola, and Cello, K.478 (1785); Quartet in E-flat major for Piano, Violin, Viola, and Cello, K.493 (1786); Trio in G major for Piano, Violin, and Cello, K.496 (1786); Trio in E-flat major for Piano, Clarinet, and Viola, K.498 (1786); Trio in B-flat major for Piano, Violin, and Cello, K.502 (1786); Trio in E major for Piano, Violin, and Cello, K.542 (1788); Trio in C major for Piano, Violin, and Cello, K.548 (1788); Trio in G major for Piano, Violin, and Cello, K.564 (1788); Adagio and Rondo in C minor for Glass Harmonica, Flute, Oboe, Viola, and Cello, K.617 (1791). keyboard and violin sonatas:c major, K.6 (1762–64); D major, K.7 (1762–64); B-flat major, K.8 (1763–64); G major, K.9 (1763–64); B-flat major, K.10 (1764); G major, K.ll (1764); A major, K.12 (1764); F major, K.13 (1764); C major, K.14 (1764); B-flat major, K.15 (1764); E-flat major, K.26 (1766); G major, K.27 (1766); C major, K.28 (1766); D major, K.29 (1766); F major, K.30 (1766); B-flat major, K.31 (1766); G major, K.301; 293a (1778); E-flat major, K.302; 293b (1778); C major, K.303; 293c (1778); A major, K.305; 293d (1778); C major, K.296 (1778); E minor, K.304; 300c (1778); D major, K.306; 3001 (1778); B-flat major, K.378; 317d (1779?); B-flat major, K.372 (1781; unfinished; completed by M. Stadler); G major, K.379; 373a (1781); F major, K.376; 374d (1781); F major, K.377; 374e (1781); E-flat major, K.380; 374f (1781); C major, K.403; 385c (1782; unfinished; completed by M. Stadler); C major, K.404; 385d (1782?; unfinished); A major, K.402; 385e (1782; unfinished; completed by M. Stadler); C minor, K.396; 385f (1782; 1 movement only; completed by M. Stadler); B-flat major, K.454 (1784); E-flat major, K.481 (1785); A major, K.526 (1787); F major, K.547, “für Anfänger” (1788); Variations in G major, K.359; 374a (1781); Variations in G minor, K.360; 374b (1781). sonatas for keyboard solo:G major, K.Anh. 199; 33d (1766; not extant); B-flat major, K.Anh. 200; 33e (1766; not extant); C major, K.201; 33f (1766; not extant); F major, K.202; 33g (1766; not extant); C major, K.279; 189d (1775); F major, K.280; 189e (1775); B-flat major, K.281; 189f (1775); E-flat major, K.282; 189g (1775); G major, K.283; 189h (1775); D major, K.284; 205b (1775); C major, K.309; 284b (1777); D major, K.311; 284c (1777); A minor, K.310; 300d (1778); C major, K.330; 300h (1781–83); A major, K.331; 300i (1781–83); F major, K.332; 300k (1781–83); B-flat major, K.333; 315c (1783–84); C minor, K.457 (1784); F major, K.533 (1786); C major, K.545, “für Anfänger” (1788); F major, K.Anh. 135; 547a (1788; may not be by Mozart); B-flat major, K.570 (1789); D major, K.576 (1789). variations for keyboard solo: Dutch song by C.E. Graaf, K.24 (1766); Willem van Nassau, Dutch national song, K.25 (1766); Mio caro Adone from Salieri’s La fiera di Venezia, K.180; 173c (1773); Minuet from the finale of J.C. Fischer’s Oboe Concerto No. 1, K.179; 189a (1774); Je suis Lindor from A.L. Baudron’s Le barbier de Seville, K.354; 299a (1778); Ah vous diri-je, maman, French song, K.265; 300e (1781–82); La belle françoise, French song, K.353; 300f (1781–82); Lison dormait from N. Dezède’s Julie, K.264; 315d (1778); Dieu d’amour from Grétry’s Les manages samnites, K.352; 374c (1781); Salve tu, Domine from Paisiello’s I filosofi immaginarii, K.398; 416e (1783); Come un agnello from Sarti’s Fra i due litiganti, K.460; 454a (1784); Les hommes pieusement from Gluck’s La rencontre imprévue, K.455 (1784); K.500 (1786); K.54; 547b (1788); Minuet from J.P. Duport’s Cello Sonata, Op.4, No.6, K.573 (1789); Ein Weib ist das herrlichste Ding by B. Schack or F. Geri, K.613 (1791). keyboard duo: K.501 (1786). keyboard duet: Sonata in C major, K.19d (1765); Sonata in D major, K.381; 123a (1772); Sonata in B-flat major, K.358; 186c (1773–74); Sonata in F major, K.497 (1786); Sonata in C major, K.521 (1787). Also: Sonata in D major for 2 Keyboards, K.448; 375a (1781); many miscellaneous pieces; 17 sonatas for Organ, most with 2 Violins and Bassoon; etc.
Since the publication of the Breitkopf & Härtel ed. of Mozart’s works, the list of doubtful and spurious compositions has grown extensively. The pioneering research of Wyzewa and Saint-Foix has been followed by the important studies of Plath, Tyson, and other scholars. For detailed information, see the bibliography below. A selected compilation of doubtful and spurious works follows (those noted in the list of works above are excluded): masss: F major, K.ll6; 90a, by Leopold Mozart; E-flat major, K.Anh. 235f; C 1.02, by B. Schack; G major, K.Anh. 232; C 1.04, “12th Mass”; G major, K.deest; C 1.18, “Missa solemnis pastorita”; D minor, K.Anh. 237; C 1.90, “Requiem brevis”; Kyrie in C major, K.340; C 3.06; Kyrie in C major, K.221; Al, by Eberlin. Also: Lacrimosa in C minor, K.Anh. 21; A2, by Eberlin; Justum deduxit Dominus, hymn, K.326; A4, by Eberlin; Adoramus te, hymn, K.327; AIO, by Q. Gasparini; De profundis clamavi, Psalm, K.93; A22, by Reutter; Salve Regina, K.92; C 3.01; Tantum ergo in B-flat major, K.142; C 3.04; Offertorium sub exposito venerabili, K.l 77 and 342; C 3.09, by Leopold Mozart. syms.: No. 2, in B-flat major, K.17; C 11.02; B-flat major, K.Anh. 216; C 11.03; No. 3, in E-flat major, K.18; A51, by CF. Abel; G major, “New Lambach” (1768; by L. Mozart); F major, K.98; C 11.04; B-flat major, K.311a; C 11.05, the “2nd Paris” Sym. Also: Fugue in D major, K.291; A52, by M. Haydn, finished by S. Sechter. piano concertos: The Ist 4 piano concertos, K.37, 39, 40, and 41, are arrangements of sonata movements by Raupach, Honauer, Schobert, Eckard, and C.P.E. Bach; the Piano Concerto, K.107, consists of arrangements of 3 sonatas by Johann Christian Bach. violin concerto s: Two violin concertos, 1 in D major, K.271a; 271i, the other in E-flat major, K.268; C 14.04, may contain some music composed by Mozart. The Violin Concerto in D major, K.Anh. 294a; C 14.05, the “Adelaide” Concerto, which was widely performed after its alleged discovery in 1931, was actually composed by the French violinist Marius Casadesus; it was supposedly dedicated to Princess Adelaide, the daughter of Louis XV, by the boy Mozart during his visit to Paris at the age of 10. Also: Sinfonia concertante in A major for Violin, Viola, and Cello, K.Anh. 104; 320e. sonatas for keyboard and violin: K.55–60; C23.01–6 and K.61, by Raupach.
collected editions, source material: The first collected edition of Mozart’s works was ed. by L. von Köchel et al. as W.A. M.s Werke; it was publ, by Breitkopf & Härtel (74 vols, in 24 series, Leipzig, 1877–83; 11 supplementary vols., Leipzig, 1877–1910). A new critical edition, W.A. M.: Neue Ausgabe Sämtlicher Werke, ed. by E. Schmid et al., began publishing in Kassel in 1955; it is sponsored by the Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum Salzburg. The standard thematic catalog is L. von Köchel, ed., Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichnis sämtlicher Tonwerke W. Amade M.s (Leipzig, 1862; 3rd ed., extensively rev. by A. Einstein, Leipzig, 1937; reprint, with supp., Ann Arbor, 1947; 6th ed., a major revision, by F. Giegling, A. Weinmann, and G. Sievers, Wiesbaden, 1964; the 6th ed. contains a rev. K. numbering system; further supplementary material is found in the M.-Jahrbuch 1971–2, as prepared by P. van Reijen). See also the following: Mozart’s own Verzeichnüss aller meiner Werke (facsimile ed. by O. Deutsch as W.A. M.: Verzeichnis aller meiner Werke: Faksimile der Handschrift mit dem Beiheft “M.s Werkverzeichnis 1784–1791,” Vienna, 1938; Eng. ed., 1956; also another ed. by E. Müller von Asow as W.A. M.: Verzeichnis aller meiner Werke und Leopold M.: Verzeichnis der Jugendwerke W.A. M.s, Vienna, 1943; 2nd ed., 1956); A. André, Thematischer Katalog wie M. solchen von 1784–91 eigenhändig geschrieben hat (Offenbach, 1805; 2nd ed., aug., 1828); K. Moyses, Systematischer Katalog der im M.eum befindlichen Autographe M.s(Salzburg, 1862); C. von Wurzbach, M.-Buch (Vienna, 1869); J. Horner, Katalog des M.s-Museums zu Salzburg (Salzburg, 1882; 2nd ed. by J. Engl, 1898); H. de Curzon, Essai de bibliographie mozartienne: Revue critique des ouvrages relatifs à W.A. M. et ses oeuvres (Paris, 1906); L. Schiedermair, W.A. M.s Handschrift in zeitlich geordneten Nachbildungen (Bückeburg and Leipzig, 1919); M. Blaschitz, Die Salzburger M.-Fragmente (diss., Univ. of Bonn, 1924); O. Keller, W.A. M.: Bibliographie und Ikonographie (Berlin, 1927); H. Farmer and H. Smith, New M.iana: The M. Relics in the Zavertal Collection at the University of Glasgow (Glasgow, 1935); A. Hyatt King, M. in the British Museum (London, 1956); O. Schneider and A. Algatzy, M.-Handbuch: Chronik, Werk, Bibliographie (Vienna, 1962); R. Angermüller and O. Schneider, M.Bibliographie 1971–1975 mit Nachträgen bis 1970 (Kassel, 1978); A. Hyatt King, A M. Legacy: Aspects of the British Library Collections (London, 1984); G. Haberkamp, Die Erstdrucke der Werke von W.A. M.: Bibliographie (Tutzing, 1986); R. Angermüller and O. Schneider, M.- Bibliographie, 1981–1985: Mit Nachträgen zur M.-Bibliographie bis 1980 (Kassel and N.Y., 1987); B. Hastings, WA. M.: A Guide to Research (N.Y., 1989); A. Rosenthal and A. Tyson, M’s Thematic Catalogue (British Library, Stefan Zweig MS 63: A Facsimile) (London, 1990); F. Ziegler, W.A. M.: Autographenverzeichnis (Berlin, 1990); C. Eisen, ed., M. Studies (Oxford, 1991); idem, ed., New M. Documents: A Supplement to O.E. Deutsch’s Documentary Biography (Stanford, 1991; rev. Ger. ed., Kassel, 1997, as Addenda zu M.: Die Dokumente seines Lebens, Neue Folge); W. Hildesheimer, M.: Bibliographie (Frankfurt am Main, 1991); R. Marshall, ed., M. Speaks: Views on Music, Musicians, and the World: Drawn from the Letters of W.A. M. and Other Early Accounts (N.Y., 1991); N. Zaslaw and F. Fein, eds., The M. Repertory: A Guide for Musicians, Programmers, and Researchers (Ithaca, N.Y., 1991); U. Konrad, M.s Schaffensweise: Studien zu den Werkautographen, Skizzen und Entwürfen (Göttingen, 1992); J. Morris, ed., On M.(Washington, D.C., 1994); C. Eisen, ed., M. Studies 2 (Oxford, 1997); W. Pieck, Die M.s: Porträt einer Familie (Hamburg, 1998). yearbooks and other publications:Jahresbericht des M.eums (Salzburg, 1880–1917); Mitteilungen für die M.gemeinde in Berlin (Berlin, 1895–1925); M.eums-Mitteüungen (Salzburg, 1918–21); M.Jahrbuch (3 vols., Munich, 1923, 1924, and 1929); Wiener Figaro (issued by the M.gemeinde of Vienna, 1931); Neues M.-Jahrbuch (3 vols., Regensburg, 1941–43); M.-Jahrbuch (Salzburg, 1950); Mitteilungen der Internationalen Stiftung M.eum (Salzburg, 1952); Acta M.iana (issued by the Deutschen M.-Gesellschaft of Augsburg, 1954). correspondence: L. Nohl, M.s Briefe nach den Originalen herausgegeben (Salzburg, 1865; Eng. tr. by Lady Wallace, London, 1866; 2nd Ger. ed., aug., Leipzig, 1877); H. de Curzon, Nouvelles lettres des dernières années de la vie de M.(Paris, 1898); K. Storck, M.s Briefe in Auswahl (Stuttgart, 1906); A. Leitzmann, M.s Briefe ausgewählt (Leipzig, 1910); M. Weigel, M.s Briefe (Berlin, 1910); H. Leichtentritt, M.s Briefe (Berlin, 1912); L. Schiedermair, Die Briefe W.A. M.s und seiner Familie: Erste kritische Gesamtausgabe (5 vols., Munich and Leipzig, 1914); E. Anderson, ed. and tr., Letters of M. and His Family (3 vols., London and N.Y, 1938; 2nd ed., rev. by A. Hyatt King and M. Carolan, 1966; 3rd ed., rev. by S. Sadie and F. Smart, 1985); E. Müller von Asow, ed., Gesamtausgabe der Briefe und Aufzeichnungen der Familie M.(5 vols., Berlin, 1942); W. Bauer, O. Deutsch, and J. Eibl, eds., M.: Briefe und Aufzeichnungen (7 vols., Kassel, 1962–75). biographical: F. Niemtschek, Leben des k. k. Kapellmeisters W. Gottlieb M. nach Originalquellen beschrieben (Prague, 1798; 2nd ed., aug., 1808; facsimile reprint of the latter, 1905; Eng. tr., London, 1956); I. Arnold, M.s Geist: Seine kurze Biographie und ästhetische Darstellung (Erfurt, 1803); idem, Galerie der berühmtesten Tonkünstler des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts...W.A. M. und Joseph Haydn: Versuch einer Parallele (Erfurt, 1810; 2nd ed., 1816); Stendhal, Lettres...sur le célèbre compositeur Haydn: Suivies d’une vie de M. et considérations sur Métastase (Paris, 1814; 2nd ed., rev., as Vies de Haydn, de M. et de Métastase; Eng. tr., 1972); P. Lichtenthal, Cenni biografici intorno al celebre maestro W.A.Ai. (Milan, 1816); G. von Nissen, Biographie W.A. M.s nach Originalbriefen (Leipzig, 1828); A. Oulibicheff, Nouvelle biographie de M., suivie d’un aperçu sur l’histoire générale de la musique (3 vols., Moscow, 1843; Ger. tr. by L. Gantter, Stuttgart, 1859; Russian tr. by M. Tchaikovsky, Moscow, 1890); E. Holmes, The Life of M.(London, 1845; 2nd ed., 1878); O. Jahn, W.A.M. (4 vols., Leipzig, 1856–59; 2nd ed., 1867; Eng. tr. by P. Townsend, London, 1882; Ger. revisions by H. Deiters, 3rd ed., 1891–93, and 4th ed., 1905–07; exhaustively rewritten and rev. by H. Abert as W.A. M.: Neu bearbeitete und erweiterte Ausgabe von Otto Jahns “M.,” 2 vols., Leipzig, 1919–21; further revision by A.A. Abert, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1955–56); L. Nohl, M. (Leipzig, 1863; 2nd ed., aug., as M.s Leben, 1877; Eng. tr. by Lady Wallace, London, 1877; 3rd Ger. ed., rev. by P. Sakolowski, Berlin, 1906); C. Pohl, M. und Haydn in London (Vienna, 1867); L. Nohl, M. nach den Schilderungen seiner Zeitgenossen (Leipzig, 1880); G. Nottebohm, M.iana (Leipzig, 1880); V. Wilder, M., L’Homme et l’artiste (Paris, 1880; 4th ed., 1889; Eng. tr., London, 1908); L. Meinardus, M.: Ein Künstlerleben (Leipzig, 1882); F. Gehring, M. (London, 1883; 2nded., 1911); L. Klasen, W.A. M.: Sein Leben und seine Werke (Vienna, 1897); O. Fleischer, M. (Berlin, 1899); R. Procházka, M. in Prag (Prague, 1899; rev. and aug. ed. by P. Netti as M. in Böhmen, Prague, 1938); E. Breakspeare, Aí. (London, 1902); E. Prout, M. (London, 1903); L. Mirow, M.s letzte Lebensjahre: Eine Künstlertragödie (Leipzig, 1904); C. Belmonte, Die Frauen im Leben M.s (Augsburg, 1905); C. Bellaigue, M. (Paris, 1906); F. Lentner, M.s Leben und Schaffen (Innsbruck, 1906); H. von der Pfordten, M. (Leipzig, 1908); K. Storck, M.: Sein Leben und Schaffen (Stuttgart, 1908); W. Flower, Stray Notes on M. and His Music (Edinburgh, 1910); L. Schmidt, W.A. M.(Berlin, 1912); T. de Wyzewa and G. de Saint- Foix, W.A. M.: Sa vie musicale et son oeuvre de l’enfance à la pleine maturité (5 vols., Paris, 1912–46; vols. 3–5 by Saint- Foix alone); A. Schurig, W.A. M.: Sein Leben und sein Werk (2 vols., Leipzig, 1913; 2nd ed., 1923; Fr. tr., 1925); H. de Curzon, M. (Paris, 1914; 2nd ed., 1927); E. Engel, W.A. M.(Vienna, 1914); J. Kreitmeier, W.A. M.: Eine Charakterzeichnung des grossen Meisters nach literarischen Quellen (Düsseldorf, 1919); L. Schiedermair, M.: Sein Leben und seine Werke (Munich, 1922; 2nd ed., rev, 1948); E. Blümml, Aus M.s Freundes und Familien Kreis (Vienna, 1923); O. Keller, W.A. M.(Berlin, 1926); B. Paumgartner, M. (Berlin, 1927; 10th ed., 1993); D. Hussey, W.A. M.(London, 1928; 2nd ed., 1933); M. Morold, M. (Vienna, 1931); R. Tenschert, M. (Leipzig, 1931); M. Davenport, M. (N.Y., 1932); H. Ghéon, Promenades avec M.(Paris, 1932; 7th ed., 1948; Eng. tr., 1934, as In Search of M.); S. Sitwell, M. (N.Y, 1932); R. Haas, W.A. M.(Potsdam, 1933; 2nd ed., 1950); E. Schmid, W.A. M.(Lübeck, 1934; 3rd ed., 1955); J. Talbot, Aí. (London, 1934); E. Blom, M. (London, 1935; 3rd ed., rev. by J. Westrup, 1975); A. Boschot, A4. (Paris, 1935; 2nd ed., 1949); C. Perriolat, M.: Révélateur de la beauté artistique (Paris, 1935); A. Kolb, M. (Vienna, 1937); W. Turner, M.: The Man and His Works (London and N.Y, 1938; 3rded., 1966); I. Gyomai, Le Coeur de M.(Paris, 1939); W. Goetz, AI: Sein Leben in Selbstzeugnissen, Briefen und Berichten (Berlin, 1941); E. Komorzynski, M. (Berlin, 1941; Vienna, 1955); G. Schaeffner, W.A. M.(Bern, 1941); A. Albertini, M,: La vita, le opere (Milan, 1942); E. Valentin, Wege zu M.(Regensburg, 1942); A. Einstein, M.: His Character, His Work (N.Y, 1945; Ger. ed., 1947; 4th ed., 1960); P. Espii, Les Voyages de Chérubin, ou L’Enfance de M. (Bayonne, 1946); M. Mila, WA. M.(Turin, 1946); E. Valentin, M. (Hameln, 1947); R. Tenschert, WA. M.(Salzburg, 1951; Eng. tr., London, 1952); M. Kenyon, M. in Salzburg (London, 1952); K. Röttger, WA. M.(Stuttgart, 1952); M. Brion, M. (Paris, 1955); J. Dalchow, WA. M.s Krankheiten, 1756–1763 (Bergisch Gladbach, 1955); N. Medici di Marignano and R. Hughes, A M. Pilgrimage: Being the Travel Diaries of Vincent and Mary Novello in the Year 1829 (London, 1955); A. Ostoja, M. e VItalia (Bologna, 1955); E. Schenk, WA. M.: Eine Biographie (Vienna and Zürich, 1955; 2nded., rev., 1975; Eng. tr. in an abr. ed., 1959, as M. and His Times); G. Barblan and A. Della Corte, M. in Italia (Milan, 1956); C. Fusero, M. (Turin, 1956); F. Hadamowsky and L. Nowak, M.: Werk und Zeit (Vienna, 1956); J. Burk, M. and His Music (N.Y., 1959); J. and B. Massin, WA. M.: Biographie, histoire de l’oeuvre (Paris, 1959; 2nd ed., 1970); C. Haldane, M. (London, 1960); O. Deutsch, M.: Die Dokumente seines Lebens, gesammelt und erläutert (Kassel, 1961; Eng. tr., 1965, as M.: A Documented Biography; 2nded., 1966; supp., 1978); S. Sadie, M. (London, 1965); C. Bär, M.: Krankheit, Tod, Begräbnis (Kassel, 1966; rev. ed., 1972); A. Hyatt King, M.: A Biography with a Survey of Books, Editions and Recordings (London, 1970); M. Levey, The Life and Death of M.(London, 1971); H. Schuler, Die Vorfahren W. M.s (Essen, 1972); A. Hutchings, M.: The Man, the Musician (London and N.Y., 1976); W. Hildesheimer, M. (Frankfurt am Main, 1977; Eng. tr., 1979); I. Keys, M.: His Life in His Music (St. Albans, 1980); R. Angermüller, ”Auf Ehre und Credit”L: die Finanzen des WA. M.(Munich, 1983); J. Féron, M.: L’Avenir d’un enfant prodige (Paris, 1983); K. Pahlen, Das M.-Buch: Chronik von Leben und Werk (Zürich, 1985); V. Braunbehrens, M. in Vienna, 1781–1791 (Munich, 1986; Eng. tr., N.Y., 1990); P. Autexier, M. (Paris, 1987); J. Hocquard, M.: L’Amour, la mort (Paris, 1987); P. Young, M. (N.Y., 1987); H.C. Robbins Landon, 1791: M.’s Last Year (London, 1988); P. Davies, M. in Person: His Character and Health (West-port, Conn., 1989); W. Ritter, Wurde M. ermordet?: Ein Psychog-raphische Studie (Frankfurt am Main, 1989); H.C. Robbins Landon, AI: The Golden Years (N.Y, 1989); V. Braunbehrens and K.-H. Jürgens, M.: Lebensbilder (Bergisch Gladbach, 1990); G. Carli Ballola and R. Parenti, M. (Milan, 1990); H. Gärtner, Folget der Heissgeliebten: Frauen um M.(Munich, 1990); B. Hamann, Nichts als Musik im Kopf: Das Leben von WA. M.(Vienna, 1990); H. Kröplin, WA. M., 1756–1791: Eine Chronik (Wiesbaden, 1990); K. Küster, M.: Eine musikalische Biographie (Stuttgart, 1990; Eng. tr., 1996, as Aí.: A Musical Biography); R. Mann, WA. M.: Triumph und frühes Ende: Biographie (Berlin, 1990); H.C. Robbins Landon, ed., The M. Compendium (N.Y., 1990); M. Becker, M.: Sein Leben und seine Zeit in Texten und Bildern (Frankfurt am Main, 1991); B. Cormican, M.’s Death—M/s Requiem: An Investigation (Belfast, 1991); N. Elias, M.: Zur Soziologie eines Genies (Frankfurt am Main, 1991; Eng. tr., 1993, as M.: Portrait of a Genius); G. Knepler, W.A. M.: Annäherungen (Berlin, 1991; Eng. tr., 1994); D. Leonhart, M.: Liebe und Geld: Ein Versuch zu seiner Person (Munich, 1991); M. Publig, M.: Ein unbeirrbares Leben: Biographie (Munich, 1991); M. Remus, M. (Stuttgart, 1991); H.C. Robbins Landon, M. and Vienna (N.Y, 1991); W. Stafford, The M. Myths: A Critical Reassessment (Stanford, 1991); J. Hocquard, M., de l’ombre à la lumière (Paris, 1993); R. Angermüller, Delitiae Italiae: M.s Reisen in Italien (Bad Honnef, 1994); W. Siegmund-Schultze, W.A. M.: Ideal-Idol-Idee (Trier, 1994); M. Solomon, M.: A Life (N.Y, 1994); N. Wenborn, M. (N.Y., 1994); P. Buscaroli, La morte di M.(Milan, 1996); D. Nardo, M. (San Diego, 1997); A Steptoe, M. (N.Y, 1997); W. Weiss, Auf den Spuren von WA. M.: Ein biographischer Reiseführer durch Salzburg, Prag und Wien (Vienna, 1997); R. Halliwell, The M. Family: Four Lives in a Social Context (Oxford, 1998); J. Rosselli, The Life of M.(Cambridge, 1998); R. Gutman, M.: A Cultural Biography (N.Y, 1999). iconography: R. Tenschert, W.A. M. 1756–1791: Sein Leben in Bildern (Leipzig, 1935); R. Bory, La Vie et l’oeuvre de W.-A. M. par l’image (Geneva, 1948; Eng. tr, 1948, as The Life and Works of W.A. M. in Pictures); G. Rech, W.A. M.: Ein Lebensweg in Bildern (Munich and Berlin, 1955); R. Petzoldt, W.A. M.: Sein Leben in Bildern (Leipzig, 1956); E. Valentin, M.: Eine Bildbiographie (Munich, 1959; Eng. tr., 1959); O. Deutsch, M. und seine Welt in zeitgenossischen Bildern (Kassel, 1961; in Ger. and Eng.). mozart and freemasonry: O. Deutsch, M. und die Wiener Logen: Zur Geschichte seiner Freimaurer-Kompositionen (Vienna, 1932); P. Netti, M. und die königliche Kunst: Die freimaurerische Grundlage der Zauberflöte (Berlin, 1932; 2nd ed., 1956); P. Netti, M. and Masonry (N.Y, 1957); J. Chailley, ”La Flûte enchantée,” opéra maçonnique: Essai d’explication du livret et de la musique (Paris, 1968; Eng. tr., 1971, as The Magic Flute, Masonic Opera); K. Thomson, The Masonic Thread in M.(London, 1977); H.C. Robbins Landon, M. and the Masons (London, 1983); H. Strebel, Der Freimaurer W.A. M.(Stäfa, 1991); H. Schuler, M. und die Freimaurerei: Daten, Fakten, Biographien (Wilhelmshaven, 1992); E. Nordmann and G. Schulle, Die freimaurersiche Idee in der Zauberflöte: Ein Spiegelbild antiker Mysterien (Münster, 1993); H.-J. Irmen, M.’s Masonry and The Magic Flute (Zülpich, 1996); G. Wagner, Bruder M.: Freimaurer im Wien des 18. Jahrhunderts (Vienna, 1996); P. Autexier, La lyre maçonne: Haydn, M., Spohr, Liszt (Paris, 1997). critical and analytical: genera1: A. Hammerle, M. und einige Zeitgenossen: Neue Beiträge für Salzburgische Geschichte, Literatur und Musik (Salzburg, 1877); K. Prieger, Urtheile bedeutender Dichter, Philosopher und Musiker über M.(Wiesbaden, 1885–86); E. Komorzyn-ski, M.s Kunst der Instrumentation (Stuttgart, 1906); A. Cametti, M. a Roma (Rome, 1907); G. Schünemann, ed., M. als achtjähriger Komponist: Ein Notenbuch Wolfgangs (Leipzig, 1909; Eng. tr., 1909); W. Nagel, M. und die Gegenwart (Langensalza, 1912); A. Leitzmann, M.s Persönlichkeit (Leipzig, 1914); R. Lach, W.A. M. als Theoretiker (Vienna, 1918); E. Lert, M. auf dem Theater (Berlin, 1918; 4th ed., 1922); H. Mersmann, M. (Vol. 4 of Kulturgeschichte der Musik in Einzeldarstellungen, Berlin, 1925); V. Heinrich, Komik und Humor bei M.(Vienna, 1931); W. Lüthy, M. und die Tonartencharakteristik (Strasbourg, 1931); C. Thieme, Der Klangstil des M.orchesters (Leipzig, 1936); H. Deininger, ed., Augsburger M.buch: Zeitschrift des historischen Vereins für Schwaben, LV-LVI (Augsburg, 1942–43); H. Socnik, Das Pedal beiM.(Danzig, 1943); M. Mila, Saggi M.iani (Milan, 1945); J. Chantavoine, M. dans M.(Paris, 1948); E. Schmid, Ein schwäbisches M.buch (Stuttgart, 1948); R. Elvers, Untersuchungen zu den Tempi in M.s Instrumentalmusik (diss., Univ. of Berlin, 1952); A. Hyatt King, M. in Retrospect: Studies in Criticism and Bibliography (London, 1955; 3rd ed., 1970); R. Giazotto, Annali M.iani (Milan, 1956); H.C. Robbins Landon and D. Mitchell, eds., The M. Companion (N.Y. and London, 1956; 2nd ed., 1965); P. Schaller and H. Kühner, eds., M.-Aspekte (Olten and Freiburg, 1956); H. Albrecht, ed., Die Bedeutung der Zeichen Keil, Strich, und Punkt bei M.(Kassel, 1957); A. Della Corte, Tutto il teatro di M.(Turin, 1957); W. Siegmund-Schultze, M.s Melodik und Stil (Leipzig, 1957); G. Massenkeil, Untersuchungen zum Problem der Symmetrie in der Instrumentalmusik W.A. M.s (Wiesbaden, 1962); Neues Augsburger M.buch: Zeitschrift des historischen Vereins für Schwaben, LXII-LXIII (Augsburg, 1962); P. Lang, ed., The Creative World of M.(N.Y, 1963); M.gemeinde Wien 1913 bis 1963: Forschung und Interpretation (Vienna, 1964); M. Flothuis, M.s Bearbeitungen eigener und fremder Werke (Salzburg, 1969); K. Marx, Zur Einheit der zyklischen Form bei M.(Stuttgart, 1971); M. Schmid, M. und die Salzburger Tradition (Tutzing, 1976); F. Holbock, W.A. M.: DerSalzburgerDomorganist und seine Beziehungen zur katholischen Kirche (Stein am Rhein, 1978); C. Floros, M. Studien I: Zu M.s Sinfonik, Opern- und Kirchenmusik (Wiesbaden, 1979); G. Pestelli, The Age of M. and Beethoven (Cambridge, 1984); G. Born, M.s Musiksprache: Schlüssel zu Leben und Werk (Munich, 1985); G. Gruber, M. und die Nachwelt (Salzburg, 1985; Eng. tr., 1994, as M. and Posterity); A. Tyson, M.: Studies of the Autograph Scores (Cambridge, Mass., 1987); J.-R Marty, The Tempo Indications ofM.(New Haven, 1988); J. Hocquard, M. l’unique (Paris, 1989); H. Gagelmann, M. hat nie gelebt—: Eine kritische Bilanz (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1990); G. Gruber, M. verstehen: Ein Versuch (Salzburg, 1990); T. Seedorf, Studien zur kompositorischen M.-Rezeption im frühen 20. Jahrhundert (Laaber, 1990); H. Küng, M.: Spuren der Transzendenz (Munich, 1991; Eng. tr., 1992, as M.; Traces of Transcendence); K. Küster, Formale Aspekte des ersten Allegros in M.s Konzerten (Kassel, 1991); C. de Nys, La musique religieuse de M.(Paris, 1991); E. Ruggieri, M., l’itinéraire sentimental (Paris, 1991); R. Larry Todd and P. Williams, ed., Perspectives on M. Performance (Cambridge, 1991); S. Jan, Aspects of M.’s Music in G Minor: Toward the Identification of Common Structural and Compositional Characteristics (N.Y., 1995); H.C. Robbins Landon, TheM. Essays (N.Y., 1995); S. Sadie, ed., W.A. M.: Essays on His Life and Work (London, 1995); J. Hocquard, M. musique de vérité (Paris, 1996); E. Rohmer, De M. en Beethoven: Essai sur la notion de profondeur en musique (Arles, 1996); D. Demuth, Des idealistische M.- Bild, 1785–1860 (Tutzing, 1997); W. Caplin, Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, M., and Beethoven (N.Y., 1998); E Ortega, Beauté et révélation en M.(Saint-Maur, 1998); G. Tichy, M.s unfreiwilliges Vermächtnis: Der Genius musicae aus unbekannten Perspektiven (Bonn, 1998); F. Degrada, Illusione e disincanto: M. e altri percorsi settecenteschi (Florence, 2000) opera and vocal music: A. Oulibicheff, M.s Opern: Kritische Erläuterungen (Leipzig, 1848); W. Pole, The Story of M.’s Requiem (London, 1879); C. Gounod, Le Don Juan de M.(Paris, 1890; Eng. tr., 1895); A. Farinelli, Don Giovanni: Note critiche (Turin, 1896); A. Weltner, M.s Werke und die Wiener Hoftheater: Statistisches und Historisches (Vienna, 1896); K. Sohle, M. Dramatisches Zeitbild (Leipzig, 1907); E. Dent, M.’s Operas: A Critical Study (London, 1913; 2nd ed., 1947); H. Cohen, Die dramatische Idee in M.s Operntexten (Berlin, 1916); H. von Waltershausen, Die Zauberflöte (Munich, 1920); R. Dumes-nil, Le “Don Juan” de M.(Paris, 1927; 2nd ed., 1955); O. Beer, M. und das Wiener Singspiel (Vienna, 1932); F. Brukner, Die Zauberflöte: Unbekannte Handschriften und seltene Drucke aus der Frühzeit der Oper (Vienna, 1934); P. Stefan, Die Zauberflöte: Herkunft, Bedeutung, Geheimnis (Vienna, 1937); P. Jouve, Le Don Juan de M.(Freiburg im Breisgau, 1942; 3rd ed., Paris, 1948; Eng. tr., London, 1957); L. Conrad, M.s Dramaturgie der Oper (Würzburg, 1943); C. Benn, M. on the Stage (London, 1946; 2nd ed., 1947); S. Levarie, M.’s “Le nozze di Figaro”: A Critical Analysis (Chicago, 1952); D. Lauener, Die Frauengestalten in M.s Opern (Zürich, 1954); K. Feilerer, M.s Kirchenmusik (Salzburg, 1955); A. Greither, Die sieben grossen Opern M.s: Versuche über das Verhältnis der Texte zur Musik (Heidelberg, 1956; 2nd ed., enl., 1970); B. Brophy, M. the Dramatist: A New View of M., His Operas and His Age (London and N.Y., 1964; new ed., 1988); A. Rosenberg, Die Zauberflöte: Geschichte und Deutung (Munich, 1964); R. Moberly, Three M. Operas: Figaro, Don Giovanni, The Magic Flute (London, 1967; N.Y., 1968); E. Batley, A Preface to The Magic Flute (London, 1969); A. Abert, Die Opern M.s (Wolfenbüttel, 1970; Eng. tr. in The New Oxford History of Music, vol. VII, London, 1973); H. Eggebrecht, Versuch über die Wiener Klassik: Die Tanzszene in M.s “Don Giovanni” (Wiesbaden, 1972); S. Kunze, Don Giovanni vor M.: Die Tradition der Don Giovanni-Opern im italienischen BuffoTheater des 18. Jahrhunderts (Munich, 1972); W. Mann, The Operas of M.(London, 1977); F. Noske, The Signifier and the Signified: Studies in the Operas of M. and Verdi (The Hague, 1977); C. Osborne, The Complete Operas of M.(London, 1978); C. Giant-urco, M.’s Early Operas (London, 1982); W. Allanbrook, Rhythmic Gesture in M.: Le nozze di Figaro and Don Giovanni (Chicago and London, 1984); S. Kunze, M.s Opern (Stuttgart, 1984); K. Feilerer, Die Kirchenmusik W.A.M.s (Laaber, 1985); S. Henze- Döhring, Opera seria, Opera buffa und M.s Don Giovanni: Zur Gattungskonvergenz in der italienischen Oper des 18. Jahrhunderts (Laaber, 1986); J. Hocquard, La Clemenza di Tito K. 621 (n.p., 1986); J. Kaiser, Who’s Who in M.’s Operas: From Alfonso to Zerlina (London, 1986); B. Blomhert, The Harmoniemusik of “Die Entführung aus dem Serail” by W.A. M.: Study about its Authenticity and Critical Edition (The Hague, 1987); S. Corse, Opera and the Uses of Language: M., Verdi, and Britten (London and Toronto, 1987); J. Kristek, ed., M.’s Don Giovanni in Prague (Prague, 1987); T. Bauman, W.A. M.: Die Entführung aus dem Serail (Cambridge, 1988); T. Carter, W.A. M.: Le Nozze di Figaro (Cambridge, 1988); R. Maunder, M/s Requiem: On Preparing a New Edition (Oxford, 1988); A. Steptoe, The M.-Da Ponte Operas: The Cultural and Musical Background to Le nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte (Oxford, 1988); D. Heartz, M’s Operas (Berkeley, 1990); P. Branscombe, W.A. M.: Die Zauberflöte (Cambridge, 1991); J. Eckelmeyer, The Cultural Context of M.’s Magic Flute: Social, Aesthetic, Philosophical (Lewiston, N.Y., 1991); C. Ford, Così?: Sexual Politics in M.’s Operas (Manchester, 1991); J. Rice, W.A. M.: La Clemenza di Tito (Cambridge, 1991); P. Alcalde, Strukturierung und Sinn: Die dramatische Funktion der musikalischen Form in Da Pontes and M.s Don Giovanni (Frankfurt am Main, 1992); N. Till, M. and the Enlightenment: Truth, Virtue and Beauty in M.’s Operas (London, 1992); J. Rushton, W.A. M.: Idomeneo (Cambridge, 1993); C. Wolff, M.’s Requiem: Historical and Analytical Studies, Documents, Score (Berkeley, 1993); B. Brown, W.A. M.: Così fan tutte (Cambridge, 1995); J. Hocquard, Les opéras de M.(Paris, 1995); P. Adlung, M.s Opera seria “Mitridate, ré di Ponto” (Eisenach, 1996); W. Osthoff and R. Wiesend, eds., M. und die Dramatik des Veneto (Tutzing, 1996); W. Willaschek, M. Theater: Vom “Idomeneo” bis zur “Zauberflöte” (Stuttgart, 1996); G. Splitt, M.s Musiktheater als Ort der Aufklärung: die Auseinandersetzung des Komponisten mit der oper im josephinischen Wien (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1998). orchestral: D. Schultz, M.s Jugendsinfonien (Leipzig, 1900); A. Dickinson, A Study of M.’s Last Three Symphonies (London, 1927; 2nd ed., 1940); G. de Saint-Foix, Les Sinfonies de M.(Paris, 1932; Eng. tr., 1947); C. Girdlestone, W.A. M. et ses concertos pour piano (2 vols., Paris, 1939; 3rd ed., 1978; Eng. tr., 1948); A. Hutchings, A Companion to M.’s Piano Concertos (London, 1948; 2nd ed., 1950); G. Hausswald, M.s Serenaden: Ein Beitrag zur Stilkritik des 18. Jahrhunderts (Leipzig, 1951; 2nded., rev., 1975); J. David, Die Jupiter-Sinfonie: Eine Studie über die thematisch-melodischen Zusammenhänge (Göttingen, 1953); H. Tischler, A Structural Analysis of M.’s Piano Concertos (N.Y., 1966); D. Forman, M.’s Concerto Form: The First Movements of the Piano Concertos (London, 1971); A. Hyatt King, M. Wind and String Concertos (London, 1978); R. Dearling, The Music of W.A. M.: The Symphonies (Rutherford, N.J., 1982); E. Smith, M. Serenades, Divertimenti and Dances (London, 1982); L. Ferguson, ”Col Basso” and “Generalbass” in M.’s Keyboard Concertos: Notation, Performance, Theory, and Practice (diss., Princeton Univ., 1983); C. Eisen, The Symphonies of Leopold M. and Their Relationship to the Early Symphonies of W.A. M.: A Bibliographical and Stylistic Study (diss., Cornell Univ., 1986); S. Sadie, M. Symphonies (London, 1986); J. Larsen and K. Wedin, eds., Die Sinfonie KV 16a “del Sigr. M. “: Bericht über das Symposium in Odense anlässlich der Erstauffiihrungfiihrung des wiedergefundenen Werkes Dezember 1984 (Odense, 1987); R. Levin, Who Wrote the M. Four-Wind Concertante? (Stuyvesant, N.Y., 1989); N. Zaslaw, M/s Symphonies: Context, Performance Practice, Reception (Oxford, 1990); E. Sisman, M.: The “Jupiter” Symphony (Cambridge, 1993); J. Brügge, Zum Personalstil W.A. M.s: Untersuchungen zu Modell und Typus am Beispiel der “Kleinen Nachtmusik,” KV 525 (Wilhelmshaven, 1996); C. Lawson, M.: Clarinet Concerto (Cambridge, 1996); P. Gülke, Im Zyklus eine Welt: M.s letzte Sinfonien (Munich, 1997). chamber Music: T. Dunhill, M/s String Quartets (London, 1927; 2nd ed., 1948); A. Hyatt King, M. Chamber Music (London, 1968); W. Hummeke, Versuch einer strukturwissenschaftlichen Darstellung der ersten und vierten Sätze der zehn letzten Streichquartette von W.A. M.(Münster, 1970); I. Hunkemöller, W.A. M.s frühe Sonaten für Violine und Klavier (Bern and Munich, 1970); C. Wolff, ed., The String Quartets of Haydn, M., and Beethoven: Studies of the Autograph Manuscripts (Cambridge, Mass., 1980); M. Flothuis, W.A. AI: Streichquintett G-moll, KV 516 (Munich, 1987); J. Stuber, M.s Haydn- Quartette: Intonationsanalyse (Bonn, 1990); W.-D. Seiffert, M.s frühe Streichquartett (Munich, 1992); M. Heinzel, Die Violinsonaten W.A. M.s (Karlsruhe, 1996); J. Irving, M.: The “Haydn” Quartets (Cambridge, 1998). keyboard: F. Lorenz, W.A. M. als Clavier--Componisi (Breslau, 1866); F. Marks, Questions on M/s Pianoforte-sonatas (London, 1929); H. Dennerlein, Der unbekannte M.: Die Welt seiner Klavierwerke (Leipzig, 1951); P. and E. Badura-Skoda, Al- Interpretation, Anregungen zur Interpretation der Klavierwerke (Vienna and Stuttgart, 1957; rev. ed. in Eng., 1962, as Interpreting M. on the Keyboard); R. Rosenberg, Die Klaviersonaten M.s: Gestalt- und Stilanalyse (Hofheim, Hesse, 1972); E. McKay, The Impact of the New Pianofortes on Classical Keyboard Style: M., Beethoven and Schubert (West Hagley, West Midlands, 1987); R. Forster, Die Kopfsätze der Klavierkonzerte M.s und Beethovens: Gesamtaufbau, Solokadenz und Schlussbildung (Munich, 1992); M. Mercado, The Evolution of M/s Pianistic Style (Carbondale, 111., 1992); M. Brück, Die langsamen Sätze in M.s Klavierkonzerten: Untersuchungen zur Form und zum musikalischen Satz (Munich, 1994); S. Rampe, M.s Ciaviermusik: Klangwelt und Aufführungspraxis: Ein Handbuch (Kassel, 1995); N. Zaslaw, ed., M/s Piano Concertos: Text, Context, Interpretation (Ann Arbor, 1996); J. Irving, M/s Piano Sonatas: Contexts, Sources, Style (Cambridge, 1997). miscellaneous: C. Roleff, ed., M.iana (Tutzing, 1988); G. Snell, ed., Viva M.: An Anthology of Appreciation (San Jose, Calif., 1989); R. Angermüller, Das Salzburger M.-Denkmal: Eine Dokumentation (bis 1845) zur 150-Jahre-Enthüllungsfeier (Salzburg, 1992); H. Schützeichel, ed., M.s Kirchenmusik (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1992); G. Sauder, ed., M.s Ansichten (St. Ingbert, 1995).
—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis Mclntire