1600-1754: Science and Medicine: Chronology
1600-1754: Science and Medicine: Chronology
- Sebastian Vizcaino sails from New Spain and explores the California coast as far north as Cape Mendocino.
- Englishman Bartholomew Gosnold explores the coast of New England from Maine to southern Massachusetts.
- Samuel de Champlain arrives in New France (Canada) and explores the Saint Lawrence River valley.
- Englishman Martin Pring explores Cape Cod.
- Edward Grimston’s translation of José de Acosta’s The Naturall and Morall Historie of the East and West Indies, a description of Central and South America, is published in England.
- Juan de Oñate leads a military expedition from New Spain and explores the Colorado River.
- Samuel de Champlain explores the northeast coast from Nova Scotia to Cape Cod.
- George Weymouth of England explores the coast of Maine and Saint Georges Bay, Newfoundland.
- Dr. Lawrence Bohun of Virginia sets up the first botanical garden in the British colonies.
- Henry Hudson sails into Hudson Bay.
- The viceroy of Mexico, Luis de Velasco, Marqués de Salinas, draws a map of the North American Atlantic coast.
- The first hospital in the British colonies is established at the James River.
- John Smith’s A Map of Virginia is published in England.
- William Strachey pens The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia, an account of the natural history of Virginia.
- Marc Lescarbot’s History of New France, a description of the Saint Lawrence River Valley, is published in Paris.
- Apr.–July John Smith explores the coast, observes the natural features, and studies the Algonquin tribes of New England.
- Ironworks are built at Falling Creek, Virginia.
- The first gristmill is built at Jamestown, Virginia.
- The population of Virginia is fifteen hundred.
- John Smith’s The Generall Historie of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles is published in England.
- The Brigg’s Map shows California as an island detached from the continent.
- Of the six thousand immigrants who have arrived in Virginia since 1607, only twelve hundred are still living.
- The first gristmill is built in Massachusetts.
- William Wood’s New England’s Prospect, an account of the topography and natural history of the region, is published in England.
- Frenchman Jean Nicolet explores Lake Michigan.
- Dutch explorer Härmen Van den Bogaert explores the Oneida country of upstate New York.
- Harvard College opens.
- The first American printing press begins operations in Boston, Massachusetts.
- June The first recorded earthquake occurs in New England.
- Darby Field and two Native American companions make the first ascent of Mount Washington, New Hampshire, the tallest peak in New England (6,288 feet).
- Ironworks are built at Saugus, Massachusetts.
- John Farrer publishes his Maff of Virginia, which erroneously shows the Pacific Ocean just west of the Appalachian Mountains.
- John Sherman and Jonathan Ince explore the Merrimack River and discover Lake Winnipesaukee in New Hampshire.
- A hospital for Dutch soldiers is established at New Amsterdam.
- The first argument in the British colonies for Nicolaus Copernicus’s heliocentric theory is published by Zechariah Brigden in his almanac.
- Frenchmen Pierre Radisson and Chouart des Groseilliers explore Lake Superior.
- The Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge is founded.
- John Winthrop Jr. becomes the first American elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London.
- Naturalist John Josselyn climbs Mount Washington, New Hampshire.
- Joseph West establishes an experimental garden in South Carolina on the Ashley River.
- John Lederer reaches the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains in Virginia.
- Thomas Batts and Robert Fallam are the first British colonists to explore the Appalachian Mountains.
- John Winthrop Jr. presents Harvard College with a three-and-one-half-foot telescope.
- French Jesuits Claude Dablon and Claude-Jean Allouez map the Lake Superior region.
- John Josselyn publishes New Englands Rarities Discovered.
- The French trader Louis Jolliet and the Jesuit priest Jacques Marquette explore the Mississippi River.
- John Josselyn publishes An Account of Two Voyages to New-England.
- Thomas Brattle uses the Harvard College telescope to study Newton’s Comet.
- 9 Apr. After voyaging down the Mississippi River, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier de La Salle reaches the Gulf of Mexico.
- Sept. Increase Mather and his sons Cotton and Nathaniel use a telescope to analyze Halley’s Comet.
- The Boston Philosophical Society is founded.
- Charles Morton publishes Compendium of Physics, the standard natural history text used at Harvard College.
- 18 Jan. The aurora borealis is seen in New England.
- Dutch explorer Arnout Viele explores the Ohio River valley.
- Louis Hennepin publishes the first engraving of Niagara Falls in his New Discovery of a Very Great Country.
- John Lawson explores upper North and South Carolina.
- Spanish priest Eusebio Francisco Kino explores the region of the Gila and Colorado Rivers.
- The first known copy of Sir Isaac Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) arrives in America.
- The Pennsylvania rifle is invented by German gunsmiths residing in Pennsylvania.
- A packet boat establishes regular communications between England and New York.
- French explorer Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont ascends the Missouri River.
- English explorer John Lawson publishes A History of Carolina.
- Frenchman Bénard de La Harpe explores as far westward as Oklahoma.
- Cotton Mather publishes The Christian Philosopher.
- The first successful smallpox inoculation occurs in Boston.
- New Englander Isaac Greenwood gives a series of sixteen public lectures on science.
- Earthquakes rattle New England.
- Benjamin Franklin’s junto, the forerunner of the American Philosophical Society, is established in Philadelphia.
- Danish explorer Vitus Jonassen Bering sails through the Bering Strait, proving that Asia and America are separate land masses.
- Cotton Mather dies.
- Frenchman Chaussegros de Léry explores the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers.
- Philadelphian Thomas Godfrey improves the mariner’s quadrant for determining latitude at sea.
- Benjamin Franklin publishes the first Poor Richard’s Almanack.
- Englishman Mark Catesby publishes the first edition of Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands.
- English agriculturist Jethro Tull publishes Horse-Hoeing Husbandry, advocating the use of the plow to keep fields fertile.
- An experimental garden is established near Savannah, Georgia, for testing the horticulture of such items as coffee and tea.
- Virginia physician John Tennent publishes the popular medical guide Everyman His Own Doctor: Or, the Poor Planter’s Physician.
- The Medical Society of Boston is founded.
- The Frenchman Sieur de La Verendrye explores North Dakota.
- A smallpox epidemic starts in South Carolina.
- Pierre and Paul Mallet reach the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in present-day Colorado and New Mexico.
- Benjamin Franklin invents the Franklin stove.
- Benjamin Franklin organizes the American Philosophical Society “for promoting useful knowledge.”
- Isaac Greenwood, the first Harvard Hollis Professor and a mathematician and physicist of note, dies.
- Benjamin Franklin coins the terms positive and negative to refer to electrical charges.
- New England physician William Douglass publishes A Summary, Historical and Political, of the... British Settlements in North America.
- Peter Kalm arrives in America as the scientific emissary of Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus.
- Dr. Timothy Walker crosses the Appalachian Mountains and reaches the Cumberland Gap.
- Parliament restricts colonial iron production in the Iron Act.
- Christopher Gist of Maryland crosses the Appalachian Mountains into Kentuck.
- American naturalist John Bartram publishes his natural history of upstate Pennsylvania and New York.
- English patron of science Peter Collinson publishes Benjamin Franklin’s letters to him about electricity as Experiments and Observations on Electricity, Made at Philadelphia in America, by Mr. Benjamin Franklin.
- Franklin writes Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind.
- Philadelphia scientist and patron of science James Logan dies.
- Benjamin Franklin’s kite experiment proves that lightning is electricity.
- Franklin proposes the use of the lightning rod on buildings.
- The American colonies adopt the New Style, or Gregorian, Calendar, making 1 January the first day of the year; in the Old Style, or Julian, Calendar the year started on 25 March.
- William Douglass, Boston physician and participant in the smallpox inoculation controversy, dies.
- The Pennsylvania Hospital, the first permanent American hospital, opens its doors at Philadelphia.
- Americans attempt to observe the transit of Mercury across the disk of the sun.
- Philippe Buache’s map of Louisiana appears.
- Benjamin Franklin publishes Some Account of the Pennsylvania Hospital.
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