Skip to main content
Select Source:

Saint Lawrence

Saint Lawrence, one of the principal rivers of North America, 744 mi (1,197 km) long. It issues from the northeastern end of Lake Ontario and flows northeast, first along the U.S.-Canadian border, then into S Que., Canada, past Montreal and Quebec City, to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, N of Cape Gaspé. It is the outlet of the Great Lakes and together with them forms a c.2,300-mi (3,700-km) waterway from the western end of Lake Superior to the Atlantic Ocean. The river is an integral part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway (opened 1959).

In its upper course the river cuts through a part of the Canadian Shield; there, just downstream from Lake Ontario, are the Thousand Islands. Below Cornwall, Ont., the river widens into Lake St. Francis. Shortly after, it widens again into Lake St. Louis then descends through the Lachine Rapids to Montreal, head of navigation for very large oceangoing vessels. Between Sorel and Trois Rivières is Lake St. Peter. Below the city of Quebec the river is tidal. It gradually increases in width to c.90 mi (140 km) at its mouth. The river's principal tributaries are the Richelieu (linking the St. Lawrence with Lake Champlain and the Hudson River), St. Francis, Ottawa, St. Maurice, and Saguenay rivers.

The St. Lawrence River is an important source of hydroelectric power; one of the world's largest facilities is the Beauharnois power plant near Montreal. Agreements between the United States and Canada govern power distribution and navigation in the international section of the river. The river's valley is an agricultural region; potatoes, grains, hay, vegetables, and dairy cattle are raised. The most important cities and ports along the St. Lawrence are Ogdensburg, N.Y.; Kingston, Brockville, and Cornwall, Ont.; and Montreal, Sorel, Trois Rivières, Quebec City, and Lévis, Que.

Canals have been constructed around the river's rapids, making the entire river navigable; however, the upper part is unnavigable during the winter months because of ice accumulation. The many bridges that cross the St. Lawrence River include the Thousand Islands International Bridge (1938), the Roosevelt International Bridge (1934), and the Seaway Skyway Bridge (1960), all between Ontario and New York; the Victoria Bridge (remodeled 1898) at Montreal; and the Quebec Bridge (1917), near Quebec City.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Saint Lawrence." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Saint Lawrence." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/saint-lawrence

"Saint Lawrence." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved February 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/saint-lawrence

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

St Lawrence

St Lawrence Second-longest river in Canada, flowing from the ne end of Lake Ontario to the Gulf of St Lawrence, Québec. The river forms the boundary between the USA and Canada for c.180km (110mi) of its total length of 1200km (750mi). Since the completion of the St Lawrence Seaway in 1959, the river has been navigable to all but the very largest vessels. The St Lawrence system of canals, locks and dams generates much of the hydroelectric power used in Ontario and New York.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"St Lawrence." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"St Lawrence." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/st-lawrence

"St Lawrence." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved February 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/st-lawrence

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Lawrence, St

Lawrence, St (d.258), Roman martyr and deacon of Rome. According to tradition, Lawrence was ordered by the prefect of Rome to deliver up the treasure of the Church; when in response to this order he presented the poor people of Rome to the prefect, he was roasted to death on a gridiron (see also Laurence). His traditional emblem is a gridiron, and his feast day is 10 August.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Lawrence, St." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Lawrence, St." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/lawrence-st

"Lawrence, St." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved February 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/lawrence-st

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.