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Giustiniani

GIUSTINIANI

A celebrated family, which, according to Bernardo Giustiniani in his vita of his uncle St. Lawrence, was driven from Constantinople by sedition and migrated to Istria and Venice. The Venetian branch is found in Chioggia and Fermo. A Genoese branch spread to Corsica, Naples, Sicily, and Lipara, as well as to Chios, an Aegean island ruled by Genoa. The first member of whom there is record was Bl. Nicholas, a Benedictine monk (d. c. 1180). He entered the monastery of San Niccolò del Lido at Venice in 1153. When all the male members of his family perished in a disaster at sea, he was dispensed from his monastic vows by Pope Alexander III. He married Anna Michieli, daughter of the Doge of Venice, and fathered nine children. He returned to the monastery before his death. Although he is honored on November 21 in the Benedictine Order, there has been no formal beatification.

Venetian Branch. Lawrence (see lawrence justinian, st.), the most famous member of the family, an ascetical and mystical writer, entered the canons regular of st. augustine in 1400 and led a humble, mortified life, showing special love for the poor. From 1409 on, he served in various administrative posts in his order and in the Church, ultimately becoming superior general (142431), bishop of Castello (1433), and finally patriarch of Venice (145156). Beatified in 1524 by clement vii, Lawrence was canonized by alexander viii in 1690.

Leonardo, statesman and poet; b. Venice, c. 1388; d. there, Nov. 10, 1446. Leonardo was the brother of Lawrence. He became head of the Council of Ten (1443) and the procurator of saint mark's. He is noted for having restored the canzonetta as a popular lyric.

Bernardo, statesman and historian; b. Venice, Jan. 6, 1408; d. there, March 10, 1489. He was the son of Leonardo, and became ambassador to Louis XI of France, paul ii, and sixtus iv, as well as a member of the Council of Ten. He is known for his biography of his uncle St. Lawrence (Venice 1475) and for his history of Venice, the De origine urbis Venetiarum (Venice 1492).

Paolo, Bl., monk and spiritual author, known also as Tommaso; b. Venice, June 15, 1476; d. Abbey of St. Sylvester of Mt. Sorate, June 28, 1528. He studied philosophy and theology at the University of Padua and then c. 1505 took up a solitary existence at Murano near Venice. He was the founder of the Camaldolese Hermits of Monte Corona and in 1513 succeeded Pietro delfino as general of the order. Paolo is known also as the author of numerous ascetical works and the Regula vitae eremiticae (Camaldoli 1519). His cult has not been officially confirmed.

Innocenzio, scholar; d. Aug. 10, 1563. He was a Camaldolese monk, a noted theologian and the author of a vita of Bl. Paolo.

Nicolò Antonio, bishop; b. 1712; d. 1796. A Benedictine, he was named to the See of Torcello in 1754, Verona in 1759, and Padua in 1772. He also translated and edited the works of St. athanasius and of St. Lawrence Giustiniani. Two Jesuit authors, Fá brice (15301604) and Gerolamo (b. 1698), also are from this branch of the family.

Genoese Branch. Paolo de Moneglia, curialist and diplomat; b. Genoa, 1444; d. Budapest, Hungary, 1502. A Dominican since 1463, he became provincial for Lombardy in 1485, master of the Sacred Palace in 1490, and inquisitor general for Genoa in 1494 (see inquisition). In 1499 he became bishop of Chios and was named legate for Hungary by Pope alexander vi.

Agostino, bishop and Orientalist; b. Genoa, c. 1470;d. at sea off Liguria, Italy, 1536. He became a Dominican, was named bishop of Nebbio in Corsica in 1514 and participated in the Fifth lateran council (151617). In 1517 he became the first professor of Hebrew at the University of Paris. A friend of pico della mirandola, erasmus, and Thomas more, Agostino was the first in Europe to publish a polyglot bible (1516), and in it, commenting on Ps 18.5, he inserted a brief notice on Christopher columbus. Quétif ascribes 15 works to his authorship.

Vincenzo, a classicist; d. 1599. He took up residence at Valencia, Aragon, and was the author of Commentaria in universam logicam and editor of the works of vincent ferrer. Decio (15801642), another Dominican, came from Messana and was bishop of Aleria, Corsica, from 1612.

Benedetto, Jesuit exegete; b. Genoa, March 16, 1551; d. Rome, Dec. 19, 1622. He served seven years as rector of the Roman College and was appointed theologian of the Sacred penitentiary in 1606. Twelve works are ascribed to his authorship, of which his commentaries on the Epistles of St. Paul (2 v. Rome 161213) and on the Catholic Epistles (Lyon 1621) are best known.

Six other Giustiniani are numbered among the Jesuit writers: Agostino (155190), Giorgio (15691644), Vincenzo (15931661), Pietro (16281707), Gerolamo (16561734) and Ottaviano (16891768).

Giovanni, a military commander; d. Chios, 1453. He brought a Genoese contingent to Constantinople in 1453 and played a leading part in the brave but unsuccessful defense of that city against the Turkish attack.

Michele, (1612 c. 1680) was vicar to his cousin Decio, Bishop of Aleria, and also a historian of Italian affairs. Lorenzo (17611824 or 1825) was a distinguished scholar who became librarian of the Biblioteca Nazionale (1805) and professor of critical diplomatics at the University of Naples.

Members of the Hierarchy. There were five cardinals from the Giustiniani family.

Vincenzo of Chios, scholar; b. Chios, Aug. 28, 1519;d. Rome, Oct. 28, 1582. He was master general of the Dominican Order from 1558 to 1571 and participated in the Council of trent (156263). He was the legate of Pope Pius V in Spain and was created a cardinal in 1570. He edited the first complete edition of the works of St. thomas aquinas (17 v. Rome 1570).

Benedetto of Chios, bishop of Porto; b. 1554; d.1621. He served under the popes from gregory xiii to gregory xv and was noted for his zeal and charity to the poor of his diocese.

Orazio of Chios, scholar and curialist; b. Chios, Feb. 28, 1580; d. Rome, July 25, 1649. He was an oratorian and became librarian of the Vatican (see vatican library) under urban viii. He was made bishop of Montalto in 1640 and a cardinal in 1645. He also served as consultor of the Congregation for the propagation of the faith and of the Holy Office, as well as grand penitentiary.

Giacomo, curialist and papal diplomat; b. Rome, Dec. 29, 1769; d. Rome, Feb. 24, 1843. He was vice-legate at Ravenna in 1794, governor of Perugia in 1797, and vice-governor of Rome until he was forced to withdraw before Napoleon's troops. Reinstalled in Rome by pius vii, he was created archbishop of Tyre in 1817 and served as nuncio to Spain until raised to the cardinalate in 1826 by leo xii. He was among the candidates for the papacy after the death of pius viii but was opposed by the Spanish government.

Allesandro, papal diplomat; b. Genoa, Feb. 3, 1778;d. Genoa, Oct. 11, 1843. He was instrumental in the negotiation of the Concordat of 1818 with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and was in Naples during the revolution of 182021. He was created archbishop of Petra in 1822, named nuncio to Naples the same year, reassigned as nuncio to Lisbon in 1826, and raised to the cardinalate in 1832.

Two archbishops and four bishops are listed among the Giustiniani of Chios. Leonardo (c. 13951459), a Dominican, was vicar-general of the Congregation of Fratres Peregrinati until appointed archbishop of Mytilene in 1444. He is widely known through the account of the capture of Constantinople (Patrologia Graeca 159:923944) that he sent to Pope nicholas v. Antonio (150571) became archbishop of Naxos in 1562, assisted at the Council of Trent, and was later transferred to the See of Lipari. Timoteo (c. 150271), a Dominican, was bishop of Aria in Crete (1550), of Chios (1564), and later of Stromboli in Calabria. Angelo (152096), a famous Franciscan preacher, was bishop of Geneva (1568) and assisted with the edition of the Greek Fathers produced under Pope Gregory XIII. Gerolamo (15541618) was made bishop of Chios in 1597. Pietro Mario, a Benedictine, was bishop of Sagona in Corsica (1726) and of Ventimiglia (1741). He also composed a history of the Abbey of monte cassino to the 10th century.

Bibliography: General. j. kraus, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner (Freiburg 195765) 4:904905. m. l. fenoglio, Dizionario ecclesiastico 2:209. Nicholas. a. m. zimmerman, Kalendarium Benedictinum: Die Heiligen und Seligen des Benediktinerorderns und seiner Zweige 3:343. j. l. baudot and l. chaussin, Vies des saints et des bienheureux selon l'ordre du calendrier avec l'historique des fêtes, ed. by the Benedictines of Paris (Paris 193556) 11:703. Leonardo. m. t. dazzi, Leonardo Giustiniani, poeta popolare d'amore (Bari 1934). g. billanovich, "Alla scoperta di L. G.," Annali della R. Scuola normale superiore di Pisa 8 (1939) 99129. Bernardo. Enciclopedia ecclesiastica, ed. a. bernareggi (Milan 1942) 4:156. Paolo. p. lugano, ed., L'Italia benedettina (Rome 1929) 273279. a. des mazis, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques 11:519536. j. leclercq, "Le Bx. Paul Giustiniani et les ermites de son temps," Problemi di vita religiosa in Italia nel cinquecento: Atti del convegno di storia della chiesa in Italia (Bologna, 26 sett. 1958) (Padua 1960) 225240; Un Humaniste ermite: Le Bx. Paul Giustiniani, 14761528 (Rome 1951). Innocenzio. j. franÇois, Bibliothèque générale des écrivains de l'Ordre de Saint Benoît, 4 v. (Bouillon 177778; repr. Louvain 1961) 1:550. Nicolo Antonio. Enciclopedia ecclesiastica, op. cit. 4:156157. Fabrice and Gerolamo. c. sommervogel et al., Bibliothèque de la compagnie de Jésus (Brussels-Paris 18901932) 3:149194. Paolo de Moneglia. j. quÉtif and j. Échard, Scriptores ordinis Praedicatorum (Paris 171923) 2.1: 34. Agostino. ibid. 2.1:96100. r. a. vigna, I vescovi domenicani liguri ovvero in Liguria (Genoa 1887) 216244. Benedetto. Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus op. cit. 3:148991. p. bernard, a. vacant et al, ed. Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris 190350) 6.2:1381. Other Jesuits. Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus op. cit. 3:149194. Giovanni. s. runciman, The Fall of Constantinople, 1453 (New York 1965), passim. Michele and Lorenzo. n. cortese, Eruditi e giornali letterari nella Napoli del settecento (Naples 1922) 3659. Enciclopedia ecclesiastica, op. cit. 4:156. Vincenzo of Chios. j. quÉtif and j. Échard, Scriptores ordinis Praedicatorum (Paris 171923) 2.1:164165. Orazio. É. d' alenÇon, a. vacant et al, ed. Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris 190350) 6.2:138182. Giacomo. a. eisler, Das Veto der katholischen Staaten bei der Papstwahl (Vienna 1907) 240242. j. becker, Relaciones diplomáticas entre España y la Santa Sede durante el siglo XIX (Madrid 1908), passim. j. m. march, La exclusiva dada por España contra el cardinale Giustiniani (1932). Alessandro. w. maturi, Il Concordato del 1818 tra la Santa Sede e le due Sicilie (Florence 1929), passim. j. h. brady, Rome and the Neapolitan Revolution of 182021 (New York 1937), passim. g. m. monti, "Stato e Chiesa durante la rivoluzione napoletana del 182021," in Studi storici, v.1 of Chiesa e Stato, 2 v. (Milan 1939) 335405. Leonardo. s. runciman, op. cit., passim. r. loenertz, La Société des Frères Pérégrinants (Rome 1937) 1:6670. Angelo. l. wadding, Scriptores Ordinis Minorum (Lyons 162554) 23:275278. g. matteucci, Due illustri minoriti del sec. XVI (Venice 1949). Pietro-Mario. j. franÇois, op. cit. 1: 550551.

[m. g. mcneil]

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