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Monaco

MONACO

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT
TOPOGRAPHY
CLIMATE
FLORA AND FAUNA
ENVIRONMENT
POPULATION
MIGRATION
ETHNIC GROUPS
LANGUAGES
RELIGIONS
TRANSPORTATION
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL PARTIES
LOCAL GOVERNMENT
JUDICIAL SYSTEM
ARMED FORCES
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
ECONOMY
INCOME
LABOR
AGRICULTURE
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
FISHING
FORESTRY
MINING
ENERGY AND POWER
INDUSTRY
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DOMESTIC TRADE
FOREIGN TRADE
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
BANKING AND SECURITIES
INSURANCE
PUBLIC FINANCE
TAXATION
CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
HEALTH
HOUSING
EDUCATION
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS
MEDIA
ORGANIZATIONS
TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION
FAMOUS MONEGASQUES
DEPENDENCIES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Principality of Monaco

Principauté de Monaco

CAPITAL: The seat of government is at Monaco-Ville

FLAG: The national flag consists of a red horizontal stripe above a white horizontal stripe.

ANTHEM: Hymne Monégasque, beginning "Principauté Monaco, ma patrie" ("Principality of Monaco, my fatherland").

MONETARY UNIT: The euro replaced the French franc as the official currency in 2002. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. 1 = $1.25475 (or $1 = 0.79697) as of 2005. Monégasque coins also circulate; denominations are 10, 20, and 50 centimes, and 1, 2, 5, 10, and 50 francs. Fr1 = $0.184 (or $1 = Fr5.4) as of March 2006.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is the legal standard.

HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; St. Dévôte, 27 January; Labor Day, 1 May; Assumption, 15 August; All Saints' Day, 1 November; National Day, 19 November; Immaculate Conception, 8 December; Christmas, 25 December. Movable religious holidays include Easter Monday, Ascension, Pentecost Monday, and Fête-Dieu.

TIME: 1 pm = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

The second-smallest country in Europe and the world after the Vatican, Monaco is situated in the southeastern part of the French department of Alpes-Maritimes. The area, including recent reclamation, is 195 hectares (482 acres), or 1.95 sq km (0.75 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Monaco is about three times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC. The principality's length is 3.18 km (1.98 mi) ew, and its width is 1.1 km (0.68 mi) ns. Bounded on the n, ne, sw, and w by France and on the e and se by the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has a total border length of 8.5 km (5.3 mi), of which 4.1 km (2.5 mi) is coastline.

TOPOGRAPHY

There are four main areas (determined more by economic activity than geographic difference): La Condamine, the business district around the port; Monte Carlo, the site of the famous casino, which is at a higher elevation; Monaco-Ville, on a rocky promontory about 60 m (200 ft) above sea level; and Fontvieille, a 22-hectare (54-acre) industrial area of La Condamine that was reclaimed by landfill in the 1960s and 1970s.

CLIMATE

Winters are mild, with temperatures rarely falling below freezing and with a January average of about 8°c (46°f). Summer heat is tempered by sea breezes; the average maximum in July and August is 26°c (79°f). Rainfall averages about 77 cm (30 in) a year, and some 300 days a year have no precipitation whatsoever.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Palms, aloes, carobs, tamarisks, mimosas, and other Mediterranean trees, shrubs, and flowers are abundant. Monaco does not have a distinctive fauna.

ENVIRONMENT

Monaco is noted for its beautiful natural scenery and mild, sunny climate. The principality has sponsored numerous marine conservation efforts. Its own environment is entirely urban. According to UN reports, Monaco's environmental circumstances are very good. The nation has consistently monitored pollution levels in its air and water to ensure the safety of its citizens. One-fifth of the nation's land area (1.95 sq km) and two marine areas are protected by environmental statutes.

The government has also instituted a system of air pollution control facilities controlled by the Environmental Service. Citizens are encouraged to use public transportation to limit the amount of gas emissions. Similar techniques have been applied to the protection of Monaco's water supply. Noise levels from industry and transportation are also monitored to ensure safe levels.

Monaco also has a sea-farming area which annually produces 800 tons of fish grown in clean water. Monaco is known for its activity in the field of marine sciences. The Oceanographic Museum, formerly directed by Jacques Cousteau, is renowned for its work and exhibits on marine life.

According to a 2006 report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), threatened species included 26 species of marine life. Threatened species included the great white shark, the blue shark, striped dolphin, albacore tuna, and swordfish.

POPULATION

The population of Monaco in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 33,000, which placed it at number 188 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 22% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 13% of the population under 15 years of age. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 200510 was expected to be 0.6%, a rate the government viewed as satisfactory. The projected population for the year 2025 was 44,000. The population density was 16,988 per sq km (44,000 per sq mi), making Monaco the most densely populated nation in the world.

The UN reported that 100% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005. Most of the people in Monaco are resident foreigners.

MIGRATION

There is a long waiting list for Monégasque citizenship. A 1992 law allows Monégasque women to confer citizenship on their children. In 2005, the net migration rate was an estimated 7.71 migrants per 1,000 population. In 2000, more than two-thirds of the residents were noncitizens. The government views the migration levels as satisfactory.

ETHNIC GROUPS

On the evidence of certain place names, the native Monégasques are said to be of Rhaetian stock; they make up only 16% of the population. The foreign residents are a highly cosmopolitan group: 47% are French; 16% are Italian; and various other groups comprise the remaining 21%.

LANGUAGES

French is the official language. English and Italian are also widely spoken. Many inhabitants speak the Monégasque language, which has its origins in the Genoese dialect of Italian and the Provençal language of southern France.

RELIGIONS

About 90% of the population adheres to Roman Catholicism, which is the official state religion. Freedom of worship is guaranteed by the constitution. Monaco is also part of the diocese of Gibraltar of the Church of England. There are five Catholic churches and one cathedral in the principality, two Protestant churches, and one Jewish synagogue. Though there are a small number of Muslims, there are no mosques.

TRANSPORTATION

French national roads join Monaco to Nice toward the west, and to Menton and the Italian Riviera toward the east. In 2002 there were 50 km (31 mi) of roadways, all of them paved. There is frequent bus service. The principality itself is served by motorbuses and taxicabs. In 1995 there were 17,000 passenger cars and 4,000 commercial vehicles. The southeastern network of the French national railroad system serves Monaco with about 1.7 km (1 mi) of track. Express trains on the Paris-Marseille-Nice-Ventimiglia line pass through the principality. Monaco is only 10 km (6 mi) from the international airport at Nice and is connected with it by bus and by a helicopter shuttle service. In 2001 (the latest year for which data was available), 77,800 passengers were carried on domestic and international airline flights. The harbor provides access by sea.

HISTORY

The ruling family of Monaco, the house of Grimaldi, traces its ancestry to Otto Canella (c.10701143), who was consul of Genoa in 1133. The family name, Grimaldi, was adapted from the Christian name of Canella's youngest son, Grimaldo. The Genoese built a fort on the site of present-day Monaco in 1215, and the Grimaldi family secured control late in the 13th century. The principality was founded in 1338 by Charles I, during whose reign Menton and Roquebrune were acquired. Claudine became sovereign upon the death of her father, Catalan, in 1457. She ceded her rights to her husband and cousin, Lambert, during whose reign, in 1489, the duke of Savoy recognized the independence of Monaco. The first Monégasque coins were minted in the 16th century. Full recognition of the princely title was obtained by Honoré II in 1641.

The last male in the Grimaldi line, Antoine I, died in 1731. His daughter Louise-Hippolyte in 1715 had married Jacques-François-Léonor de Goyon-Matignon, Count of Thorigny, who adopted the name Grimaldi and assumed the Monégasque throne. France annexed the principality in 1793, but independence was reestablished in 1814. The following year, the Treaty of Stupinigi placed Monaco under the protection of the neighboring kingdom of Sardinia. In 1848, the towns of Roquebrune and Menton, which constituted the eastern extremity of Monaco, successfully rebelled and established themselves as a republic. In 1861, a year after the Sardinian cession of Savoy and Nice to France, Roquebrune and Menton also became part of that nation.

The economic development of Monaco proceeded rapidly with the opening of the railroad in 1868 and of the gambling casino. Since that time, the principality has become world famous as a tourist and recreation center. Gambling, operated by Société des Bains de Mer, a state controlled group, recorded a 30% increase in gambling receipts in 1998. Real estate and retail sales have also registered strong growth in recent years. As of 2005 Monaco has no unemployment and provides jobs for 25,000 Italian and French commuters. More than half of government revenues, however, come from value-added tax. The rate levied by France is also in effect in Monaco. France has the highest VAT in the European Union and has come under pressure to adjust its rate downward in conformity with the rest of the EU. However, Monaco is not an EU member. Light industry and banking have also become important. Monaco joined the United Nations on 28 May 1993. Monaco is the second-smallest independent state in the world, after the Holy See, and is almost entirely urban.

Prince Rainier III, once married to the American actress Grace Kelly, led the country 19492005 and is often credited for the country's impressive economic growth. Tourism, banking and other types of financial services augment the economy's former dependence on gambling. Rainier died in early 2005 and in July 2005, Prince Albert II, son of Rainier and Kelly, assumed the throne. The event was somewhat overshadowed by his admission of having a 22-month-old illegitimate child. His illegitimate son will not be able to inherit the throne, although Prince Albert has acknowledged paternity and assumed his financial responsibilities.

GOVERNMENT

Monaco is a constitutional monarchy ruled, until 2002, by the hereditary princes of the Grimaldi line. Prior to constitutional changes made in 2002, if the reigning prince were to die without leaving a male heir, Monaco, according to treaty, would be incorporated into France. Because Prince Rainier III's son Albert was a 43-year-old bachelor in 2002, without male heirs, and his own health was failing, Rainier changed Monaco's constitution to allow one of his two daughters, Caroline or Stephanie, to inherit the throne and preserve the Grimaldi dynasty.

On 7 January 1911, Monaco's first constitution was granted by Prince Albert I. On 29 January 1959, Prince Rainier III temporarily suspended part of the constitution because of a disagreement over the budget with the National Council (Conseil National), and decreed that the functions of that body were to be assumed temporarily by the Council of State (Conseil d'État). In February 1961, the National Council was restored and an economic advisory council established to assist it.

A new constitution was promulgated on 17 December 1962. It provides for a unicameral National Council of 18 (now 24) members elected every five years (now 16 by majority vote and 8 by proportional representation); it shares legislative functions with the prince. Executive operations are conducted in the name of the prince by a minister of state (a French citizen) with the assistance of the Council of Government, consisting of three civil servants who are in charge of finances, public works, and internal affairs, respectively. All are appointed by the prince.

Women were enfranchised for municipal elections in 1945, and participated in elections for the National Council for the first time in February 1963. Until 2003, suffrage was exercised only by trueborn Monégasques of 21 and over. Naturalized Monégasques were granted voting rights in 2003 and the voting age was reduced to 18.

POLITICAL PARTIES

Monaco does not have political parties as such, but candidates compete on the basis of various lists. Major political groups have been the National and Democratic Union (Union Nationale et DémocratiqueUND), founded in 1962; Communist Action (Action CommunaleAC); Évolution Communale (EC); and the Movement of Democratic Union (MUD). In the general election of February 1998, the UND took all 18 seats in the National Council. Elections held on 9 February 2003 were the first under a new electoral law establishing 24 seats in the National Council. A unified opposition list, the Union for Monaco, composed of the National Union for the Future of Monaco and the Rally for the Monégasque Family, took 58.5% of the vote and 21 seats, to the UND's 41.5% and 3 seats. The introduction of proportionality voting enabled the UND to obtain its seats. The next election was scheduled for 2008.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Municipal government is conducted by an elected council ( Conseil Communal) of 15 members, headed by a mayor. The council members are elected by universal suffrage for four-year terms, and the mayor is chosen by the Communal Council. The three communes that made up Monaco before 1917Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, and Monte Carloeach had its own mayor from 1911 to 1917. Since that date, they have formed a single commune, together with Fontvieille.

Anne Marie Campora became mayor of Monte Carlo in 1991 succeeding Jean-Louis Médecin who had served as mayor since 1971. Georges Marsan was elected mayor of Monte Carlo in 2003.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

A justice of the peace tries petty cases. Other courts are the court of first instance, the court of appeal, the court of revision, and the criminal court. The highest judicial authority is vested in the Supreme Court, established as part of the 1962 constitution, which interprets the constitution and sits as the highest court of appeals. It has five full members and two assistant members, named by the prince on the basis of nominations by the National Council and other government bodies.

The Code Louis, promulgated by Prince Louis I (d.1701) and based on French legal codes, was formally adopted in 1919. Under the 1962 constitution the prince delegates his authority to the judiciary to render justice in his name.

The legal guarantee of a fair and public trial for criminal defendants is respected in practice. Defendants have the right to counsel at public expense if necessary.

The constitution provides for freedom of speech, although the penal code prohibits denunciations of the royal family. The constitution differentiates between the rights of nationals and those of noncitizens; of the estimated 32,000 residents in the principality, only about 7,000 are actual Monégasques.

Monaco is a member of the United Nations and International Criminal Court.

ARMED FORCES

France assumed responsibility for the defense of Monaco as part of the Versailles Treaty in 1919. There is no army in the principality. A private guard protects the royal family, and a police force of 390 ensures public safety.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Monaco joined the United Nations on 28 May 1993 and is a member of the ECE and several nonregional specialized agencies, such as the FAO, IAEA, ICAO, IMO, ITU, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO, and WIPO. Monaco is also a member of the Council of Europe and the OSCE. The headquarters of the International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) is located in Monaco.

A treaty providing in detail for mutual administrative assistance between France and Monaco became operative on 14 December 1954. Fiscal relations between the two countries are governed by a convention signed on 18 May 1963. France may station troops in Monaco and make use of Monaco's territorial waters. As a result of a customs union with France and French control of Monaco's foreign policy, the principality operates within the European Union.

In environmental cooperation, Monaco is part of the Basel Convention; Conventions on Biological Diversity, Whaling, and Air Pollution; Ramsar; CITES; the London Convention; the Montréal Protocol; MARPOL; and the UN Conventions on the Law of the Sea, Climate Change, and Desertification.

ECONOMY

Monaco depends for its livelihood chiefly on income from tourism, real estate, financial services, and small, high value-added, nonpolluting industry. A substantial part of the principality's revenue from tourist sources comes from the operations of Sea-Bathing Co. (Société des Bains de MerSBM), in which the government holds a 69% interest. The SBM operates the gambling casino at Monte Carlo as well as four hotels, 19 restaurants, a cabaret, and the Thermos Margins spa. Its reported profits in 2002 were about $21 million, down from close to $30 million in 2001. The government also retains monopolies in telephone services, postal services and tobacco. A 22-hectare landfill project at Fontvielle increased Monaco's total land area. Land reclamation since Prince Rainier's accession to the throne in 1949 has increased Monaco's territory by 23%.

The principality does not publish statistics on its economy and all estimates are rough. The government's annual income was estimated at $586 million for 1997, about 25% derived from tourism. Monaco also serves as a tax haven for foreign non-French residents. In 2000 the OECD published a list of "uncooperative tax havens" that included Monaco. Two years later, Monaco was still on the list, though 31 other jurisdictions had been removed by promising to take corrective actions.

Estimate data put together by the United Nations Statistic Division shows that the economy of the principality has been expanding modestly. Similar to other countries in Europe, the GDP growth rate was 2.7% in 2001, falling to 1.9% and 1.4% in 2002 and 2003 respectively, and recuperating again in 2004, at 3%. Unemployment in 1998 was estimated to be around 3.1%.

INCOME

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005 Monaco's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $870.0 million. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The per capita GDP was estimated at $27,000. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 0.9%. The average inflation rate in 2000 was 1.9%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 17% of GDP.

LABOR

There is virtually no unemployment in Monaco, as the Prince guarantees all his subjects lifetime employment. The major employer of the working population is the SBM; others work in industry or in service establishments. As of January 1994 (the latest year for which data was available), the labor force totaled 30,540, of which 4,000 worked in the industrial sector, 2,200 in construction, and 1,500 in the financial sector.

Owners and workers are each grouped in syndicates. Less than 10% of the workforce in 2005 was unionized. However, most of these union workers commute from outside the principality. About two-thirds of all employees commute from France and Italy. Unions operate independently of the government and political parties. The rights to strike, organize, and bargain collectively are protected by law, although public government workers may not strike. Labor disruptions are infrequent.

The minimum working age is 16, although special restrictions apply until the age of 18. Employers who violate the minimum age laws can be criminally prosecuted. The standard workweek is 39 hours. The minimum wage is the French minimum plus an additional 5% to adjust for travel costs for commuters. In 2005, this wage was equivalent to $9.60 per hour. This provides a family with a decent standard of living, and most workers earn more than the minimum. Health and safety standards are rigorously enforced.

AGRICULTURE

There is no agriculture.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

There is a dairy industry serving local needs.

FISHING

Some fishing is carried on to meet domestic requirements. The annual catch was 3,000 tons in 2003. Monaco actively engages in marine science research, and in marine life preservation. The Oceanographic Institute has been studying the effects of radiation in the ocean since 1961.

FORESTRY

There are no forests.

MINING

There is no mining.

ENERGY AND POWER

Services are provided by the Monégasque Electric Co. and Monégasque Gas Co. In 1991, standby electrical capacity totaled 10,000 kW; power is supplied by France.

INDUSTRY

The tourist industry dominates Monaco's economic life, but smallscale industries produce a variety of items for domestic use and for export, contributing 11.6% of business turnover in the mid-1990s. Most industrial plants are located on Fontvieille. About 700 small businesses make pottery and glass objects, paper and cards, jewelry, perfumes, dolls, precision instruments, plastics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, machine tools, watches, leather items, and radio parts. There are flour mills, dairies, and chocolate and candy plants, as well as textile mills and a small shipyard. The chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics industries consisted of 23 companies with 1,000 employees that generated approximately 45% of the total industrial turnover in the 1990s. Due to territorial constraints, Monaco's industries are forced to expand their facilities upward; some industrial buildings rise as high as 13 stories. A new construction project begun in 2001 was extending the pier used by cruise ships in the main harbor.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Marine sciences have been the focus of scientific inquiry in the principality for several decades. Prince Albert (18481922), who reigned in Monaco during the early 1900s, was well-known internationally for his work as an oceanographer, and he inaugurated the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco at Monaco-Ville in 1910. His interest led to the establishment of a focus on oceanography for scientific pursuits in Monaco. Jacques-Yves Cousteau, a famous oceanographer and activist, was involved with Monaco's activities in marine life research.

In March 1961, in its first research agreement concluded with a member government, the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the government of Monaco and the Oceanographic Institute in Monaco, undertook to research the effects of radioactivity in the sea. The Oceanographic Institute put at the disposal of the project a number of valuable facilities, including marine-biology laboratories, oceanographic vessels, specialized fishing equipment, and a wide variety of electronic and monitoring equipment.

The Scientific Center of Monaco, founded in 1960 at Monte Carlo, conducts pure and applied research in oceanology and the environment. The Museum of Prehistoric Anthropology, founded in 1902 at Monte Carlo, is concerned with prehistory and quaternary geology.

DOMESTIC TRADE

Domestic trade practices are similar to those in other towns along the French Riviera. Specialty shops deal primarily in tourist souvenirs. The SBM controls most of the amusement facilities and owns most major hotels, sporting clubs, workshops, a printing press, and various retail shops. In the mid-1990s, commerce represented 21% of the economic turnover in Monaco. There is no personal income tax. Business taxes are low, but still account for about 50% of government income. Tourism and related services account for about 25% of revenues.

Advertising media include magazines, billboards, and motion pictures. General business hours are from 8:30 am to 12:30 pm and from 2 to 6 pm, MondayFriday. Banking hours are 9 am to 12 noon and 2 to 4 pm, MondayFriday.

FOREIGN TRADE

Statistical information is not available. Foreign trade is included in the statistics for France, with which Monaco has a customs union. France also collects the Monegasque trade duties, and serves as the principality's link to the EU market.

In 2003, the US Department of State estimated that Monaco's exports totaled $644 million, while its imports reached $513 million.

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

The economy is driven by such foreign currency-earning activities as banking and tourism. Since separate records are not kept of Monaco's foreign trade transactions, payment statistics are not available.

The United Nations Statistics Division has looked at the data available in France, and came up with some estimates of the exports and imports of goods and services in Monaco. Thus, exports totaled $299 million in 2004, up from $257 million in 2003 and $219 million in 2002. Imports grew from $205 million in 2002, to $246 million in 2003, and $296 million in 2004. Consequently, Monaco has, year to year, managed to keep a positive, although fragile, resource balance. In 2000, it was estimated that the country's external debt was $18 billionan impressive figure when compared to the size of the principality.

BANKING AND SECURITIES

Foreign currency circulates within Monaco under the supervision of the French government. The most important local bank is Crédit Foncier de Monaco, founded in 1922. As of 1994, there were 45 banks operating in Monaco. In 1999, an Monaco's banking industry had approximately 310,000 accounts and employed 1,700 people. The vast majority of customers were nonresidents. Total assets in 1998 were estimated at a little over $44 billion.

There is no securities exchange.

INSURANCE

Branches of French insurance companies provide life, fire, accident, and other forms of insurance. They include: CGRM-Compagnie Générale de Réassurance de Monte Carlo; Concorde; Mutuelle de Marseille Assurances Compagnie Générale de Réassurance; and the Shipowners' Mutual Strike Insurance Association (Bermuda)all located in Monte Carlo.

PUBLIC FINANCE

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that in 1995 Monaco's central government took in revenues of approximately $518 million and had expenditures of $531 million. Revenues minus expenditures totaled approximately -$13 million. Total external debt was $18 billion.

TAXATION

There are no personal income taxes. Indirect taxes include the following: a value-added tax of 19.6% (as of 2005); a service tax on compensation received by Monégasque firms for services rendered in Monaco and France; excise taxes on alcoholic beverages; registration fees; and warranty duties on gold, platinum, and silver jewelry. Monaco is treated as part of France for VAT purposes.

There is a tax of up to 33.3% on the profits of businesses that obtain more than 25% of their gross profits from operations outside Monaco. Corporations whose income is derived from royalties, licenses, trademarks, or other industrial or artistic property rights are subject to this tax, whether or not the income arises outside Monaco. Qualifying new companies may be assessed at reduced rates. There are no inheritance or gift taxes between spouses or between parents and children. Between brothers and sisters, the rate is 8%; between uncles or aunts and nephews or nieces, 10%; between other relatives, 13%; and between unrelated persons, 16%.

CUSTOMS AND DUTIES

By treaty, France and Monaco form a customs union that treats the Monaco coast as part of France. The French customs service collects the duties on cargoes discharged in Monaco and pays a share to the principality.

Monaco imposes a duty on all exports to places other than France; the levy applies whether the transfer of goods is actual or fictitious.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT

Monaco permits foreign businesses to establish their headquarters in its territory; ownership and management must be made a matter of public record. Although both corporations and limited partnerships with shares are allowed, in fact only corporations are in existence. Two persons may form a corporation; the minimum capital must be fully subscribed and at least one-fourth paid up front. Foreign companies may establish subsidiaries in Monaco. Low taxes on company profits are a considerable incentive for locating in Monaco.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The government strenuously promotes Monaco as a tourist and convention attraction. A government-financed International Convention Center offers large conference rooms, projection equipment, television and radio recording studios, telex communications, and simultaneous translation into five languages.

Two major development and reclamation projects were undertaken under Prince Rainier. These are the major landfill and reclamation project at Fontvieille, and the Monte Carlo Bord de Mer. At Fontvieille, the government financed the reclamation of 220,000 sq m (2,368,000 sq ft) of inundated shore, creating a "platform" for residential construction and new port facilities.

The Monte Carlo seashore scheme, also government-financed, involved the relocation of railroad tracks underground in order to create a man-made beach, with a boardwalk and other tourist attractions. The beach lies between two other land reclamation projects: the Larvotto, a sports complex financed by SBM, and the Portier, an entertainment complex developed by the government.

Near the Larvotto the government has reserved a zone for the construction of residential and tourist accommodations. In the 1980s, Monaco concentrated on the development of business tourism, with the construction of the Monte Carlo Convention Center and the International Conference Center.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

The social insurance system provides old age, survivorship and disability pensions. It is funded through employee and employer contributions. Sickness and maternity benefits are available to all employed persons with a special program for the self-employed. Workers and their dependents are reimbursed for medical expenses including primary and specialized care, pharmaceuticals, hospitalization, transportation, dental care and appliances. Employers are required to provide workers' compensation through private insurance plans. Unemployment benefits are provided through the French system. There is also a family allowance, a prenatal allowance and an education grant.

Women have become increasingly visible in public life, and are well represented in the professions. Equal pay for equal work is prevalent, although women are underrepresented in business. Reports of violence against women are rare, and domestic abuse is a criminal offense. Human rights are respected in Monaco.

HEALTH

In 2004, Monaco had the third most physicians per capita in the world. There were an estimated 586 physicians per 100,000 people in the country, as well as 1,430 nurses, 107 dentists, and 192 pharmacists per 100,000 people. The entire population has access to safe water and sanitation.

As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 9.6 and 12.9 per 1,000 people. In 2005, the infant mortality rate was estimated at 5.43 per 1,000 live births. Life expectancy for that year was 79.57. The immunization rates for children under one year of age were as follows: diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough, 99%; polio, 99%; measles, 98%; and tuberculosis, 90%.

AIDS cases, although present, are not considered a major problem.

HOUSING

In 2000, there were about 18,396 housing units in the nation. About 31% of the housing stock was built 191561; another 26% was built 196881. About 21% of the housing stock was built 19822000. About 25% of all dwellings are owner occupied. In recent years, the government has stressed the construction of luxury housing. All new construction or alteration of existing buildings requires government approval.

EDUCATION

Education is offered in Monaco from the preschool to the secondary and technical levels and is compulsory from age 6 to 16. There are five years of primary school and seven years of secondary school. Attendance is 90%, and virtually all adults are literate. In 2003, approximately 5.1% of total government expenditure was allocated to education.

In 2001, there were about 2,000 students enrolled in primary schools and 3,000 enrolled in secondary schools. The pupil-teacher ratio at the primary level was estimated at 15 to 1 in 2000; the ratio for secondary school was 8 to 1. In 2003, private schools accounted for about 30% of primary school enrollment and 24.7% of secondary enrollment.

The University of Southern Europe was renamed the International University of Monaco in 2002. The university offers degrees in business and business administration. Students may travel abroad for higher education. The adult literacy rate has been estimated at about 99%. In 2003, public expenditure on education was estimated 5.1% of total government expenditures.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

The palace archives include the private collections of the princes of Monaco, as well as a collection of money minted since 1640. The Louis Notari Library in Monaco (1909) has a collection of over 285,000 volumes. There is a Princess Grace Irish Library in Monaco featuring 1,500 pieces of Irish folk music and personal papers of Princess Grace and Prince Rainier.

The Oceanographic Museum in Monaco-Ville, founded in 1910 by Prince Albert I and previously directed by the noted Jacques-Yves Cousteau, contains a library of 50,000 volumes, an aquarium, and displays of rare marine specimens. In addition to the museum, the Oceanographic Institute conducts research in various marine areas, including the effects of radiation on the sea and its life forms.

The Exotic Gardens include thousands of varieties of cacti and tropical plants. The National Museum in Monte Carlo was established 1972. There is a Museum of Prehistoric Anthropology in Monte Carlo and a Wax Museum of the Princes of Monaco. There is a Napoleonic Museum in Monaco-Ville. The Museum of Stamps and Coins opened in 1996 to display the private collection of Prince Rainier.

MEDIA

Postal and telegraphic services are operated by France, but Monaco issues its own postage stamps. Local telephone service is controlled by Monaco, while France is responsible for international service. In 2002, there were 33,700 mainline phones and 19,300 mobile phones in use nationwide.

Radio Monte Carlo and Télé Monte Carlo provide radio and television services and have had broadcast programs since 1954. Radio Monte Carlo's home service is broadcast in French. The system also provides overseas service in 12 foreign languages and is majority owner of the Cyprus-based Radio Monte Carlo relay station, a privately funded religious broadcasting service in 35 languages under the name Trans World Radio. As of 1999, Monaco had 3 AM and 4 FM radio stations and 5 television stations. In 1997, there were 34,000 radios and 25,000 television sets throughout the country. In 2002, there were 16,000 Internet users in the country.

Two dailies in Nice, Nice-Matin and L'Espoir, publish special editions for Monaco. International publications are readily available. The Journal de Monaco, an official publication, appears once a week, and the Tribune de Monaco is published biweekly.

Freedom of expression is legally guaranteed. However, there is a Penal Code prohibition on public denunciations of the ruling family. Otherwise, the government is said to uphold free speech and a free press.

ORGANIZATIONS

Monaco is the seat of the International Academy of Tourism, which was founded in 1951 by Prince Rainier III. The academy publishes a quarterly, Revue Technique du Tourisme, and, in several languages, an international dictionary of tourism.

The International Hydrographic Bureau, which sponsors international conferences in its field, has its headquarters in Monaco. The following international organizations also have their headquarters in Monaco: International Commission for Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea, International Center for Studies of Human Problems, and the International Commission for Legal-Medical Problems.

National youth organizations include the Association of Scouts and Guides of Monaco, the Princess Stephanie Youth Center, and Catholic Youth of Monaco. There are several sports associations in Monaco; the country is home to the International Association of Athletics Federations.

Other organizations include the Monégasque Red Cross, Caritas, the St. Vincent de Paul Society, the Society of Monégasque Traditions, the Commission for the Monégasque language (established 1985), and the Union of French Interests.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

Monaco has been famous for attracting wealth and titled tourists since its gambling casino was established at Monte Carlo in 1856. In 2005, gambling accounted for almost 25% of the annual revenue. Among the many attractions are the Louis II Stadium, the many museums and gardens, and the beach. The Monte Carlo opera house was the site of many world premiere performances, including Massenet's Le Jongleur de Notre Dame (1902) and Don Quichotte (1910), Fauré's Pénélope (1913), and Ravel's L'Enfant et les sortilèges (1925). It was also the home of Serge Diaghilev's Russian Ballet (founded in 1911), later known as the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo.

The principality has excellent sports facilities. The Monte Carlo Rally, a world-famous driving championship, ends with a finish line in Monaco.

No restriction is placed on the entrance of French nationals into Monaco. A valid passport is required for citizens of other countries who visit. Visas are not required for tourist/business stays of up to 90 days.

About 235,000 visitors arrived in Monaco in 2003, about 25% of whom came from Italy. Hotel rooms numbered 2,191 in 2002 with an occupancy rate of 63%. The average length of stay that year was three nights.

In 2005, the US Department of State estimated the cost of staying in Monaco at $247 per day.

FAMOUS MONEGASQUES

Prince Albert (18481922), who reigned from 1889 to 1922, was famous as an oceanographer. In 1956, his great-grandson Rainier III (19232005), reigning monarch from 19492005, married Grace Patricia Kelly (192982), a US motion picture actress, whose death on 14 September 1982 following an automobile accident was mourned throughout Monaco. Their son, Prince Albert (b.1958) became Prince Albert II upon his father's death; Princess Caroline (b.1957) and Princess Stéphanie (b.1965) are the daughters of Rainier III and Grace.

DEPENDENCIES

Monaco has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annesley, Claire (ed.). A Political and Economic Dictionary of Western Europe. Philadelphia: Routledge/Taylor and Francis, 2005.

Duursma, Jorri. Self-Determination, Statehood, and International Relations of Micro-States: The Cases of Liechtenstein, San Marino, Monaco, Andorra, and the Vatican City. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Taraborrelli, J. Randy. Once Upon a Time: Behind the Fairy Tale of Princess Grace and Prince Rainier. New York: Warner Books, 2003.

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Monaco

MONACO

Principality of Monaco

Principauté de Monaco

COUNTRY OVERVIEW

LOCATION AND SIZE.

Monaco, a small independent hereditary principality in Western Europe, is located on the Mediterranean Sea along the southern coast of France, which is also known as the French Riviera or Côte d'Azur. Monaco is 18 kilometers (11 miles) east of the French city of Nice, near the border with Italy. The second smallest independent state in the world (after Vatican City), and almost entirely urban, it forms an enclave in southeastern France, surrounded on the north, east, and west by the French département (administrative division, or region) of Alpes-Maritimes. The country is only 1.95 square kilometers (0.75 square miles) in area, or about 3 times the size of the Mall in Washington, D.C. The terrain is hilly, rugged, and rocky, but very highly urbanized. The principality, a famous maritime resort, is composed of 4 quartiers (quarters): Monaco-Ville, the capital (an ancient fortified town located on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean); La Condamine (the section along the port); Monte Carlo (the principal residential and resort area); and Fontvieille (a newly constructed industrial park reclaimed from the sea). The name "Monaco," derived from the ancient Greek Monoikos (meaning "of the old town"), is usually associated with the mythical hero, Hercules.

POPULATION.

The population of Monaco was estimated at 31,693 in July 2000, with an average growth rate of 0.48 percent in the same year. The 2000 birth rate was estimated at 9.94 births per 1,000 population, the death rate at 13.06 deaths per 1,000 population, and the net migration rate was approximately 7.89 immigrants per 1,000 population.

With high life expectancy at birth, the Monegasque population is among the oldest populations in the world. The average life expectancy was 74.88 for men and 83 for women in 2000, indicating an overall life expectancy of 78.84. The total fertility rate in 2000 was 1.76 children born per woman. Approximately 15 percent of the population is younger than 15 years of age and 23 percent is age 65 or older. Monaco has also one of the highest population densities in the world, at 16,428 persons per square kilometer (42,549 per square mile).

Monegasques represented a mere 16 percent of the population in 2000. Other ethnic groups include the French (47 percent), Italian (16 percent), and other nationalities (21 percent). French is the official language; English, Italian, and Monegasque (a blend of French and Italian) are also widely spoken. The traditional Monegasque language is used by the older people and is taught in the schools. The economy of Monaco offers more than 30,000 jobs. Immigrant labor, especially from France and Italy, is heavily relied upon because the number of jobs available outnumbers the number of citizens in the labor force . Many affluent Americans, as well as French, Britons, Swiss, Belgians, and other Europeans, live in the principality. The prevailing religion is Roman Catholicism, accounting for 95 percent of the population. Roman Catholicism also is the official religion, though freedom of religion is guaranteed by the constitution. Education is free and compulsory for children ages 6 to 16.

OVERVIEW OF ECONOMY

Renowned as a tax haven for the rich, Monaco is thought to have one of the most affluent and liberal economies in the world, though the government does not publish economic figures or other relevant statistics. A tiny territory with few natural resourcesin some places stretching no more than 180 meters (600 feet) inland from the Mediterraneanthe Monegasque economy is primarily geared toward tourism, modern manufacturing, finance, and commerce. From the end of the 19th century, the government of Monaco has very actively encouraged economic growth and provided the framework for the development of private enterprise. It has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high value-added , nonpolluting industries.

Low corporate taxes (and no personal income or other direct taxes ) have drawn many foreign "letter box" companies, which operate overseas but have established their head offices nominally in Monaco because of the more favorable tax treatment. These types of companies account for about 50 percent of the $586 million annual government revenue in 1997. The residential real estate market also provides some considerable income for the principality; many wealthy aliens are actively pursuing Monegasque permanent residence and/or citizenship for tax purposes and are in constant need of local property for that matter. Similarly, tourism accounts for close to 25 percent of the principality's annual income, and Monaco has been a major tourist center ever since its famed gambling casino was established in 1856. The tourist industry is still considered the economic foundation of the state. The sale of picturesque postage stamps and tobacco, the banking and insurance sectors, and the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, electronic equipment, cosmetics, paper, textiles, and plastic goods are also of economic importance. Customs, postal services, telecommunications, and banking in Monaco are governed by the economic, monetary, and customs union with France and European Union (EU) rules. Although not an EU member, Monaco is closely associated with the economic structures of the EU. Some 1999 estimates placed the per capita gross domestic product (GDP) at about US$27,000, one of the highest in the world. The total turnover of the principality rose from the estimated 3.25 billion French francs in 1975 to 21.3 billion in 1988, 25.4 billion in 1989, 29 billion in 1990, 31 billion in 1991, 32.4 billion in 1992, and 33.2 billion in 1993.

POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND TAXATION

Monaco has been governed as a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the hereditary prince (presently, Prince Rainier III) as the head of state. Unlike other European monarchies, the Monegasque sovereign is the actual, and not symbolic, head of state. In the constitution of 1962, it is clearly stated that the executive power is responsible to the supreme authority of the reigning prince. The succession to the throne passes to the direct descendants of the prince under the principle of primogeniture (inheritance of the first born), with male descendants taking precedence over female descendants of the same degree of kin. The sovereign represents Monaco in its relations with foreign powers and signs and ratifies treaties. In 1956, Rainier III married American film star Grace Kelly, who died in a car crash in 1982. They have 2 daughters and a son, who is the heir apparent to the throne.

The executive branch consists of a minister of state (head of government, presently Michel Leveque), who presides over a 4-member cabinet, the Council of Government. The minister is primarily responsible for foreign relations and is traditionally a French citizen appointed by the prince for a 3-year term from among several candidates proposed by the French government. As the prince's representative, the minister also directs the executive services, commands the police, and presides (with voting powers) over the Council of Government. The 3 other members of the Council are locals, responsible for financial and economic affairs, internal affairs, and public works and social affairs, respectively.

Monaco is a parliamentary monarchy ruled according to its 1962 constitution, which stipulates that the hereditary prince shares his power with the unicameral National Council. There are 18 members of this legislative body, elected by universal suffrage (by citizens over age 21) for 5-year terms. They usually meet twice annually to vote on the budget and endorse laws proposed by the prince. If the prince dissolves the National Council, new elections must be held within 3 months. Ordinances passed by the National Council are debated in the Council of Government, as are the ministerial decrees signed by the Minister of State. Once approved by the Council, the ordinances are submitted to the prince within 80 days for his approval. Once approved, the ordinances become legally valid. If no opposition is voiced on his behalf within 10 days of receipt, they become enforceable.

Legal power is also vested in the monarch, who delegates all legal procedures to the courts dispensing justice in his name. The independence of the judges, however, is guaranteed by the 1962 constitution. Monaco's legal system is closely related to the French system and is designed after the French Napoleonic Code. Local affairsthe administration of the 4 quartersare directed by the Communal Council, which consists of 15 elected members and is presided over by a mayor. Monaco has its own local political groups that are not a part of the French political system and include the National and Democratic Union (UND), the Campora List, and the Medecin List.

The most crucial political issue in Monaco is, understandably, its bilateral relation with France. The geographical situation of Monaco as an enclave within France justifies the traditional customs and monetary union between the 2 countries, which dates back to 1861. Two major treaties in 1918 and 1919 established a reciprocal contractual basis for the relations between the 2 independent states (France recognized Monaco as a sovereign entity and undertook to build its relations on an equal footing with a limited protection over the principality). Under these arrangements, France is obligated to defend the independence and sovereignty of the principality and the integrity of Monegasque territory. In return, the government of Monaco is obligated to exercise its rights only in conformity with French interests. New bilateral agreements were signed in 1945, 1951, and 1963 with the aim of amending the earlier provisions in order to adapt them to the new economic and social conditions. Further changes and amendments arose from the development of European integration and the decision made by France in 1999 to adopt the single European currency, the euro.

Although small in size, Monaco actively participates in the United Nations (UN), which it joined in 1993, and maintains a permanent mission to the UN in New York. Monaco also is a member of many other international and intergovernmental organizations. The International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) is headquartered in the principality. The country has 10 diplomatic missions in Europe and maintains honorary consulates in 106 cities in 45 countries. Sixty-one countries have consulates general, consulates, or honorary consulates in or accredited to Monaco.

The government's role in the economy has been traditionally one of active promotion of private enterprise and creating the necessary infrastructure for development. The state and the ruling Grimaldi family personally own considerable real estate assets and equity in the economy. Monaco's tax policies concerning its citizens are among the most liberal ones in the world, as there is no direct taxation for local residents. In 1869, land tax, personal and goods taxes, and the business tax were abolished. Since that time, Monegasque citizens or foreigners residing in the principality have not been subject to any tax on their personal income, whatever its origin. For French citizens moving to the principality after 1962, an exception was introduced in 1963 under pressure from the French government. Under the new arrangement, French nationals who moved their residence to Monaco, or who could not prove 5 years of residence in Monaco before October 1962, were subject to French taxes under the same conditions as if they had their residence in France. Since 1963, companies of any type are required to pay a corporate tax rate of 33.33 percent on profits when at least 25 percent of their turnover comes from operations outside Monegasque territory. A value-added tax (VAT) of 5.5 percent and a real estate added value tax of 20.6 percent were also introduced, along with some special arrangements concerning banking and financial activities and indirect taxes .

INFRASTRUCTURE, POWER, AND COMMUNICATIONS

Monaco, as a small, highly urbanized enclave in the French territory, is part of the well-developed French infrastructure. Electricity is provided almost entirely by France. There are 1.7 kilometers (1.1 miles) of railroads

Communications
Country Telephones a Telephones, Mobile/Cellular a Radio Stations b Radios a TV Stations a Televisions a Internet Service Providers c Internet Users c
Monaco 31,027 (1995) N/A AM 1; FM NA; shortwave 8 34,000 5 (1998) 25,000 2 N/A
United States 194 M 69.209 M (1998) AM 4,762; FM 5,542; shortwave 18 575 M 1,500 219 M 7,800 148 M
France 34.86 M (1998) 11.078 M (1998) AM 41; FM about 3,500; shortwave 2 55.3 M 584 (1995) 34.8 M 62 9 M
San Marino 18,000 (1998) 3,010 (1998) AM 0; FM 3; shortwave 0 16,000 1 9,000 2 N/A
aData is for 1997 unless otherwise noted.
bData is for 1998 unless otherwise noted.
cData is for 2000 unless otherwise noted.
SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2001 [Online].

and 50 kilometers (31 miles) of paved roads, including the highway and railroad connecting southern France with Italy along the Mediterranean. There are 2 ports, including a busy merchant harbor and several tourist marinas, although the principality has no merchant fleet of its own. There is also a helicopter shuttle line between the heliport at Fontvieille and the nearby international airport in Nice, France. Telecommunications are incorporated within the French telephone system, and there were 9 radio stations and 5 television stations in 1997, while 4 Internet service providers were offering customers their services in 1999. The access to cellular phones and to the Internet was similar in numbers and quality of service to that of French urban areas. The cable television services were comparable to the highest western European standards.

ECONOMIC SECTORS

The backbone of the Monegasque economy is formed by high-end tourism and the services related to it, construction and the real estate market, small-scale industrial and consumer products manufacturing (chemicals, food products, plastics, precision instruments, cosmetics, and ceramics), and international trade. Of the 32,691 employed, as estimated in 1999, the private sector was responsible for 29,311 and the public sector for 3,380. Approximately 46 percent of the labor force was in services (other than tourism), 7 percent in banking, 17 percent in tourism and hotels, 12 percent in retail , 7 percent in construction and public works, and 11 percent in industry. No official data as to the distribution of GDP were available.

AGRICULTURE

There are no arable lands or other agriculturally suited areas in the principality; virtually 100 percent of the Monaco territory is heavily urbanized. Accordingly, there is no commercial agriculture in the country. All foods are imported and some of them are further processed and exported.

INDUSTRY

Industrial activity, often little known in Monaco, is an area that has undergone considerable development over the past century. From 1906, when the state financed the construction of the first industrial platform in Fontvieille, industrial firms such as the Monaco Brewery and companies involved in flour milling and the manufacture of chocolate began to develop. Currently, the chemical-pharmaceutical-cosmetics manufacturing sector appears to be the most widespread, but companies working in the areas of plastic materials processing and the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment are also present. Other sectors, while not on the same scale as these, are the manufactures of mechanical engineering, packaging, printing, and clothing. Since 1980, nearly 1,859 square meters (20,000 square feet) of new industrial floor-space has been built, mostly on areas reclaimed from the sea. The lack of space has led to the establishment of industrial premises in buildings that rise up to 13 floors. The government of the principality has adopted an industrial policy that operates in favor of the institution of enterprises having a high capital gain factor but that do not create any pollution. Industrial activity occupies about 4,000 members of the workforce. In 1993, they represented approximately 11.6 percent (excluding the construction and public works industry) of the total revenue in the principality.

SERVICES

The service sector has undergone spectacular growth in recent decades. It produced 49.1 percent of the total revenue of the country in 1993 and included banking, insurance, consulting agencies (technical, commercial, and financial), auxiliary services, and commercial middlemen. Banking and financial activities and business services, including those associated with the establishment of head offices and offices of non-financial companies of international size, are growing in importance in Monaco. The retail sector includes small, privately held stores, luxury boutiques, and international retail chains. Retail contributed approximately 21 percent to the principality's total revenue in 1993. The banking and retail sectors are closely integrated with the French economy through the monetary union between the 2 countries and the local branches of large French and international banks, insurance firms, and stock markets. Despite the increased competition resulting from the liberalization of financial services in the EU, the introduction of the single currency, and the revolution in information technology, the economic relationship between France and Monaco remains strong. Real estate activity plays a very important role in the economy, justifying the principality's extensive research and decision-making process in the field of city planning.

TOURISM.

Monaco is a popular world luxury resort, attracting affluent tourists to its casino, rich cultural schedule, and pleasant climate. Situated in the heart of the Rivierathe narrow coastal strip extending along the Mediterranean from Hyeres, France, to La Spezia, Italy it benefits from the proximity of the renowned French resorts of Saint Tropez, Antibes, Cannes, Nice, and Menton. The latter 2 cities are connected by 3 scenic highways, which run through or near the Monaco territory and its chief tourist quarter of Monte Carlo along the sheer cliffs of the Maritime Alps. Both private and business tourism are thriving in the principality, and there are about 2,500 hotel rooms, most of which are in the 4-star category or higher. In 1993, 601,111 rooms were occupied overnight, resulting in an average annual occupation rate of 48.3 percent. For several years, the government has been making considerable efforts to attract more business tourists in order to increase hotel occupation, since occupation by the private clientele is essentially seasonal. Among the points of interest in Monaco are a cathedral, a palace in the medieval and Renaissance styles, and a world-renowned oceanographic museum established in 1910. A major source of revenue is the famous gambling casino. The Monte Carlo Opera and Philharmonic Orchestra offer ballet and music events, and the museums, spas, beaches, flower gardens, marinas, fine dining spots, luxury boutiques, and vistas all contribute to the attractions of the principality. The Monaco Grand Prix and the Rally Monte Carlo are popular annual automobile-racing events. The Societe des Bains de Mer, a company partly owned by the government, operates the casino and most of the hotels, clubs, beaches, and other places of entertainment. There are also notable foreign direct investments in the Monaco tourist industry.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Monaco is a hub of international commerce, importing and exporting products and services from all over the world. It is in full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties . Monaco participates in the EU market system through France. No recent trade statistics for the principality have been made available.

MONEY

As an integral part of the French monetary and banking system, the country has a balanced budget with revenues of US$518 million and expenditures of US$531 million, including capital expenditures (1995 est.).

Recent exchange rates for the euro per US$1 are 1.1 (February 2001), 1.20 (November 2000), 0.99 (January 2000), and 0.94 (1999). French francs (F) were exchanged at a rate of F7.22 (August 1999), 6.16 (1999 average), 5.65 (January 1999), 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), and 4.9915 (1995) per US$1.

POVERTY AND WEALTH

Living standards in Monaco are high, comparable to those in the most prosperous French urban areas. Since one of the principality's priorities is to attract wealthy individuals from all over the world to acquire real estate and live and spend in the country, the government constantly uses its economic advantages to improve the quality of life and to combine work and leisure. Indeed, many of the world's rich buy property in Monaco to take advantage of Monaco's tax regime, although they seldom abide by the legal requirement to live 6 months of every year in the country, and often hire locals to maintain their

Exchange rates: Monaco
euros per US$1
Jan 2001 1.0659
2000 1.0854
1999 0.9386
1998 5.8995
1997 5.8367
1996 5.1155
Note: Rates prior to 1999 are in French francs per US$.
SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2001 [ONLINE].
GDP per Capita (US$)
Country 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Monaco 5,000 N/A N/A 27,000 N/A
United States 28,600 30,200 31,500 33,900 36,200
France 20,900 22,700 22,600 23,300 24,400
San Marino N/A 20,000 N/A N/A 32,000
Note: Data are estimates.
SOURCE: Handbook of the Nations, 17th,18th, 19th and 20theditions for 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999 data; CIA World Factbook 2001 [Online] for 2000 data.

property instead. There are many large local private fortunes in the principality as well and extreme poverty is virtually non-existent. The number of jobs in the country (32,691 in 1999; 29,311 in the private sector) outnumbers its total population (31,693 in 2000), and the majority of the workers, particularly in the lower-paying jobs, commute daily from neighboring France and Italy. Their scale of pay and benefits are commensurable with the ones in France, and the French workforce is reckoned to be among the most privileged in the world.

WORKING CONDITIONS

Economic prosperity and the proportionally large number of jobs available, along with the government's sensitivity to safety and environmental protection, create favorable working conditions in the principality. The unemployment rate, compared to French and EU standards, is very low at 3.1 percent in 1998. No major labor unrest has been reported recently.

COUNTRY HISTORY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

1215. Monaco is founded as a colony of the Italian trade and seafaring city, Genoa.

1297. The Grimmaldi family of Genoa and their supporters establish their rule over Monaco. A thriving economy based on trade develops.

1489. King Charles VIII of France recognizes the independence of Monaco.

1789-1814. During the French Revolution, Monaco is attached to the territory of the French Republic under the name of Fort Hercules. It becomes the chief town of the canton of Alpes-Maritimes.

1815. Monaco is made a protectorate of the Italian Kingdom of Sardinia.

1861. Monaco's sovereignty is recognized by a Franco-Monegasque Treaty.

1863. The Seabath Company is founded, which establishes a casino and several hotels in the quarter of the Spelugues, known as Monte-Carlo since 1866. Economic development is boosted in the late 19th century with a railroad link to France.

1911. Absolute monarchy gives way to the first constitution.

1918. A new treaty with France provides for limited French protection over Monaco. New agreements with France are signed in 1945, 1951, and 1963.

1962. Adoption of the current, more liberal constitution.

1993. Monaco joins the United Nations.

1999. Monaco and France both join the Euro Monetary Zone (EMZ).

FUTURE TRENDS

The Monegasque economy is closely related to that of the French, and therefore is dependent on the development trends of the EU. The liberalization of commerce, financial, and other services in the EU, the introduction of the single European currency, and the revolution in information technology will gradually increase competition, but the increasing wealth and dynamism of the EU economies will also boost demand for Monaco's unique services. Due to its size, the country is limited in its opportunities for extensive growth, but its strong ties to high-class tourism, services, and modern technology make it unlikely to endure any major negative changes in the near future. It is likely that the principality will preserve its sound economy, particularly in the areas of tourism, services, commerce, and modern manufacturing. The maintenance of its high living standards will continue to attract foreign companies, investment, and affluent tourists and residents in the foreseeable future.

DEPENDENCIES

Monaco has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Global Investment Business Center, Inc. Monaco: A Country Study Guide. USA International Business Publications, February 2000.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook 2000. <http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html>. Accessed January 2001.

U.S. Department of State. Background Notes: Europe: Monaco. <http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/eurbgnhp.html>. Accessed January 2001.

Valentin Hadjiyski

CAPITAL:

Monaco-Ville.

MONETARY UNIT:

French franc (F). One French franc equals 100 centimes. The franc comes in bank notes of 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500-franc denominations. There are coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 francs and 5, 10, 20, and 50 centimes. Monegasque coins, having the same value as the French coins, are also minted and circulated. Monaco is scheduled to switch to the new European currency, the euro, in January 2002.

CHIEF EXPORTS:

Cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, glassware, precision instruments, fine processed foods, cards and postal stamps, and various re-exported commodities (estimate, no official statistics are published).

CHIEF IMPORTS:

Energy, automobiles, equipment, and consumer goods (estimate, no official statistics are published).

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT:

US$870 million (1999 est., no official statistics are published).

BALANCE OF TRADE:

Exports: US$415,272 (1999 est.). Imports: US$415,272 (1999 est.). [Estimate by Monegasque government sources; no official statistics are published.]

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Monaco

Monaco (mŏn´əkō, mōnä´kō, Fr. mônäkō´), officially Principality of Monaco, independent principality (2005 est. pop. 32,400), c.370 acres (150 hectares), on the Mediterranean Sea, an enclave within Alpes-Maritimes dept., SE France, near the Italian border. It consists of four adjoining quarters—La Condamine, the business district; Monte Carlo, the site of the famous casino; Monaco-Ville, the capital, atop a rocky promontory; and Fontvieille, an area of light industry built largely on reclaimed land.

Land and People

Monaco's beautiful location, natural harbor, exceptionally mild climate, and gambling tables in Monte Carlo make it one of the best-known resorts of the Riviera. Almost half of the mainly Roman Catholic population are French, while about 16% are citizens of Monaco and an equal number are Italian. French is the official language, but English, Italian, and Monegasque (a Romance dialect similar to Provençal) are also widely spoken.

The casino contains a theater, which houses the Monte Carlo Opera. Monaco has a 16th-century palace, a 19th-century cathedral in the Byzantine style, and a noted oceanographic museum, founded in 1910 by Prince Albert I. Auto racing is popular, and Monaco is home to both the Monte Carlo Rally and the Monaco Grand Prix. The Monte Carlo Open is a major professional tennis tournament.

Economy

Monaco has a customs union with France, and its currency is interchangeable with the French. Excise, stamp, transfer, and estate taxes are an important source of state revenue. Contrary to popular belief, the gambling casino (which is managed as a concession by a private corporation) accounts for only a small portion of government revenue, although it contributes greatly to the economy by attracting tourists. In addition to tourism and the foreign businesses attracted to Monaco by low corporate taxes, shipping and the manufacture of perfumes, pharmaceuticals, processed food, and precision instruments are also important.

Government

Monaco is governed under the constitution of 1962. The heredity monarch is the head of state. The minister of state, selected by the monarch from three candidates nominated by France, is the head of goverment. The unicameral legislature is the National Council, which is elected by universal suffrage every five years. The monarch may initiate legislation, but all laws must be approved by the National Council.

By a treaty of 1918, the succession to the throne must be approved by the French government. A law had long stipulated that should the throne become vacant for any reason, including the death of a Grimaldi ruler without a direct blood heir, Monaco would become an autonomous state under French protection. In 2002 the constitution was amended so that any sibling of a ruler who died without issue could inherit the throne.

History

Probably settled by Phoenicians in ancient times, Monaco was annexed by Marseilles and Christianized in the 1st cent. AD In the 7th cent. it was part of the kingdom of the Lombards, and in the 8th cent. of the kingdom of Arles. It was under Muslim domination (8th cent.) after the Saracens invaded France.

Monaco was ruled by the Genovese Grimaldi family from the 13th cent. In 1731 the male line died out, but the French Goyon-Matignon family, which succeeded by marriage, assumed the name Grimaldi. Monaco was under Spanish protection from 1542 to 1641, under French protection from 1641 to 1793, annexed to France in 1793, and under Sardinian protection from 1815 to 1861. The districts of Menton and Roquebrune (long part of Monaco) were incorporated (1848) into Sardinia, which in turn ceded them to France in 1860.

Monaco again came under French protection in 1861. In the late 1800s income from gambling by very wealthy visitors became Monaco's primary source of revenue. Until 1911, when the first constitution was promulgated, the prince was an absolute ruler. Rainier III, succeeded his grandfather, Louis II, as ruler of Monaco in 1949. In 1956, Rainier married Grace Kelly (1929–82), an American motion-picture actress, and a male heir, Albert, was born in 1958. Rainier worked to diversify Monaco's economy and make Monaco attractive to middle-class tourists.

In 1962 serious economic disagreements arose between France and Monaco, and new fiscal agreements (1963) severely curtailed the right of French citizens to use Monaco as a tax haven. The Monaco government also came into conflict with Aristotle Onassis, who owned majority interests in most businesses there; Monaco purchased his interests in 1967. Relations with France again became acrimonious in 2000 when Monaco was accused of being a center for money-laundering and France threatened to force the principality to tighten the regulation of its banks. Rainier died in 2005 and was succeeded as ruler by his son, Albert II.

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Monaco

Monaco

Official name: Principality of Monaco

Area: 1.9 square kilometers (0.7 square miles)

Highest point on mainland: Mont Agel (140 meters/459 feet)

Lowest point on land: Sea level

Hemispheres: Northern and Eastern

Time zone: 1 p.m. = noon GMT

Longest distances: 3.18 kilometers (1.98 miles) from east to west; 1.10 kilometers (0.68 miles) from north to south

Land boundaries: 4.4 kilometers (2.7 miles) total boundary length, all with France

Coastline: 4.1 kilometers (2.5 miles)

Territorial sea limits: 22 kilometers (12 nautical miles)

1 LOCATION AND SIZE

An enclave lying entirely within the French department of Alpes-Mari-times, Monaco is the world's second-smallest country; only the Vatican is smaller. The entire principality occupies about three times the area of the Mall in Washington, D.C.

2 TERRITORIES AND DEPENDENCIES

Monaco has no territories or dependencies.

3 CLIMATE

Monaco's winters are mild, with temperatures rarely falling below freezing; January's average temperature is 8°C (46°F). The summer heat is comfortable because of the cooling breezes from the bordering Mediterranean Sea. The average high temperature in July and August is 26°C (79°F). Sea breezes moderate the summer heat. Monaco has a sunny climate, with only about sixty days of rain per year. On average, the sun shines for seven hours a day. Rainfall averages about 77 centimeters (30 inches) per year.

4 TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS

There is little geographic variation in this tiny country, but it is often divided into four regions based on economic activities: Monte Carlo is the northern entertainment district, site of the famous casino. La Condamine is the business district on the western side of the country's central bay. South of the bay, Monaco-Ville, the historic old city and site of the principality's lavish palace, is situated on a rocky projection about 60 meters (200 feet) above sea level. Fontvieille to the southwest is an industrial and port area that was developed on reclaimed land.

5 OCEANS AND SEAS

The Mediterranean Sea lies to the east and south of Monaco.

Coastal Features

Monaco's coastline contains several cliffs as well as the Monte Carlo and Larvotto beaches in Monte Carlo. The Port of Monaco is located off the central coast, and the Port of Fontvieille is in the south; the two ports are separated by the small peninsula on which Monaco-Ville is located.

6 INLAND LAKES

There are no lakes in Monaco.

7 RIVERS AND WATERFALLS

No rivers flow through Monaco.

8 DESERTS

There are no deserts in Monaco.

9 FLAT AND ROLLING TERRAIN

Much of Monaco is situated on thickly clustered hills.

10 MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES

Monaco's terrain includes rugged cliffs overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. The surrounding French countryside is mountainous.

11 CANYONS AND CAVES

There are caves in the rocky limestone cliffs on Monaco's coast.

12 PLATEAUS AND MONOLITHS

There are no plateaus or monoliths in Monaco.

13 MAN-MADE FEATURES

The Port of Fontvieille is built on land that was reclaimed from the sea between 1966 and 1973. The project enlarged the principality by 22 hectares (54 acres) and involved moving 7.5 million cubic meters (264.8 cubic feet) of rock and earth. The reclaimed land supports not only the port itself but also an industrial zone and retail and tourist facilities.

14 FURTHER READING

Books

Campbell, Siri. Inside Monaco. Glen Ellyn, IL: MCI, 1996.

Edwards, Anne. The Grimaldis of Monaco. New York: Morrow, 1992.

Hopkins, Adams. Essential French Riviera. Lincolnwood, IL: Passport Books, 1994.

Web Sites

"Monaco." LonelyPlanet. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/europe/monaco/ (accessed April 24, 2003).

Monte-Carlo Online. http://www.monte-carlo.mc/principalitymonaco/index.html (accessed April 24, 2003).

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Monaco

Monaco

Basic Data

Official Country Name: Principality of Monaco
Region (Map name): Europe
Population: 31,693
Language(s): French, English, Italian, Monegasque
Literacy rate: 99%

When infighting forced the Grimaldi family to leave the Holy Roman Empire in the late thirteenth century, they fled to a tiny patch of land along the French Mediterranean coast called Monaco. Francois Grimaldi became the first monarch, and his descendants have ruled the country ever since. Now a constitutional monarchy, the government is headed by a Minister of State, who presides over a unicameral, 18-seat National Council. The official language is French, but English and Italian are also widely spoken. Some older residents speak the native language, Montegasque, which is a mixture of French Provençal and Italian Ligurian. Approximately 35,000 people live within the country's single square mile. The famous casinos of capital Monte Carlo, combined with beautiful scenery and a mild climate, have made Monaco a popular destination, and tourism accounts for about 25 percent of its gross national product. Banking is also an important sector of the economy, employing approximately 5 percent of the workforce. Monaco levies no income tax and business taxes are low, making it a haven for individuals and companies, but also a magnet for money laundering and organized crime. English writer Somerset Maugham once called it "a sunny place for shady people."

Freedom of expression is guaranteed by the Montagasque constitution, but its penal code prohibits denunciations of the Grimaldi family. The Centre de Presse is the official, state-run distribution point for information and photographs. It also handles press credentials for journalists. Monaco's daily newspaper is the Nice-Matin. Al-though it is published in Nice, France, it dedicates two pages to news coverage in Monaco. It is available online. The Ministry of State publishes a weekly government journal called the Journal de Monaco. It was founded in 1898 and provides information about legislation.

There are no FM radio stations in Monaco, but there is one AM station serving the country's 34,000 radios. There are five television stations, 25,000 televisions and two Internet service providers.

Bibliography

"Country Profile," Worldinformation.com (2002). Available from http://www.worldinformation.com.

"Monaco," CIA World Fact Book (2001). Available from http://www.cia.gov.

"Monaco," Freedom House (2000). Available from http://www.freedomhouse.org.

Nice-Matin. (n.d.). Home Page. Available from http://www.nicematin.fr.

"Travel Guide-Europe-Monaco," Americanexpress.ca (2001). Available from www.americanexpress.canada.travel-guides.com.

Jenny B. Davis

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Monaco

Monaco

Basic Data
Official Country Name: Principality of Monaco
Region: Europe
Population: 31,693
Language(s): French, English, Italian, Monegasque
Literacy Rate: 99%


The nation of Monaco is a constitutional hereditary monarchy with close ties, by treaty and geography, with France. Monaco is only 1.95 square kilometers in total area with a population of 31,693 Monegasques, according to a 2000 estimate. The country has a literacy rate of 99 percent for the total population, including many well-trained workers from other countries who have come to work in a multitude of professions. Various economic interests (including tourism, technology, banking, and chemicals) have a direct impact on the principality's curriculum.

National Education, which is overseen by the government's Councilor for the Interior, is compulsory for all children in Monaco from the ages of 6 to 16. The course syllabi are identical to those used in France; this conforms to the deep relationship Monaco has with France, which extends to issues like trade and military protection. In addition, their curriculum covers the history of Monaco and the native Monegasque language. The three main languages in Monaco are French, Italian, and the indigenous tongue.

There are four public schools and two secondary schools in the principality. The secondary and higher education institutions more directly reflect the needs of Monaco's economy. The Lycée Albert I emphasizes secretarial studies and accounting, while the Technical Lycée of Monte Carlo centers on hotel management and hospitality, business, and specialized education. Charles III College and the privately run University of Southern Europe-Monaco (USE-M) offer undergraduate and graduate programs in Business Administration. USE-M has provided special programs for international students to study in Monaco and for students from the Monegasque region to study overseas, such as in the United States. Four other institutions with specialized missions are the Nursing School at the Princess Grace Hospital Complex, the Rainier III Academy of Music, the Princess Grace Academy of Classical Dance, and the Municipal School of Plastic Arts.

Bibliography

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The World Fact-book 2000. Directorate of Intelligence, 1 January 2000. Available from http://www.cia.gov/.


Michael W. Young

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Monaco

Monaco

Culture Name

Monegasque; Monacan

Orientation

Identification. Officially known as the Principality of Monaco, or the Principaute de Monaco.

Location and Geography. This small country is 0.8 square miles (1.95 square kilometers) in size, or approximately the same size as Central Park in New York City. It is the smallest state in the world after Vatican City. Located on the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco is surrounded by France on three sides. Nice, France, is the nearest large city at a distance of 11 miles (18 kilometers). Monaco is rocky and situated on steep hills that drop off into the Mediterranean. Part of the Côte d'Azur, Monaco's terrain and geography are typical of the northwestern area of the Mediterranean. The climate is mild year-round, with an average low temperature of 47 degrees Fahrenheit (8 degrees Celsius) and an average maximum high of 78 degrees Fahrenheit (26 degrees Celsius). Monaco is divided into four neighborhoods: Monaco-Ville, the old original city, which is on a rocky promontory extending into the sea; La Condamine, along the port; Monte-Carlo, the main resort, residential and tourist area; and Fontvieille, a newly constructed area on land reclaimed from the sea.

Demography. Recent surveys place the permanent population of Monaco at about 30,744. Approximately 22 percent are native Monegasque, 35 percent French, 18 percent Italian, and another 25 percent consist of various other nationalities. Roman Catholicism is the main religion, practiced by 95 percent of the population.

Linguistic Affiliation. French is the official language, but Italian and English are also spoken frequently. Monegasque, a language derived from both French and Italian, is spoken by native residents of Monaco, although only about 22 percent of the population claims direct Monegasque descent.

Symbolism. The Monegasque flag consists of two equal horizontal bands of red and white: red on top, white beneath. The state seal and emblem of the House of Grimaldi is made up of a shield with red and white diamonds flanked by two monks holding swords pointed upward, with a crown draped with red cloth in the background. The monks represent the legend of François Grimaldi, and who supposedly seized control of Monaco by disguising himself as a Franciscan monk, entering the fortress unnoticed during the night.

History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. The first inhabitants of Monaco were the Ligurians, an ancient Indo-European tribe. Monaco was located near an important coastal path that stretched from Spain through southern France and into Italy. The peoples living in this area were eventually absorbed into the Roman Empire and became part of the province of Maritime Alps. With the fall of the Roman Empire, Monaco and the surrounding coastal areas were perpetually attacked by various invaders, including the Saracens, and the native population fled inland. It was only after the final expulsion of the Saracens in about 1000 c.e., that people returned to living on the coast.

Monaco's recorded history began in 1215 when the Ghibellines of Genoa, led by Fulco del Cassello, colonized it after receiving sovereignty over the area from Emperor Henry VI. Attracted by Monaco's strategic location and harbor, the Genoese immediately began to construct a fortress, known as the Rock of Monaco, and a walled city. To attract permanent residents, the Genoese granted land and tax exemptions. As a result, Monaco quickly became an important city and over the next three centuries was frequently contested by rival political factions. In 1297 François Grimaldi, who was originally from a powerful Guelph family in Genoa, and a small army seized control of the Rock of Monaco. Although the Grimaldis were expelled in 1301, they returned thirty years later, and the House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco uninterrupted (except from 1789 to 1814, when it fell under French rule) since then.

Charles Grimaldi, known as Charles I, succeeded in reinstating the House of Grimaldi on 12 September 1331 and is considered the founder of the principality. However, it was not until 1489 that Monaco gained complete autonomy from French control when Lambert Grimaldi convinced King Charles VIII of France to grant the principality its independence. Monaco's sovereignty was officially recognized in 1512 by Louis XII in a signed document that also declared a perpetual alliance with the king of France. In 1524 Monaco was placed under the protection of Spain for political reasons. This caused long-term financial difficulties for Monaco, since the occupying Spanish military force was entirely supported by the Monegasques. In the early 1600s Monaco once again flourished, under the reign of Honoré II, who strengthened his country's alliance with France. Over the next two hundred years Monaco prospered under France's protection. In 1861,with the Treaty of 2 February, Charles III ceded Monaco's authority over the towns of Menton and Roquebrune to France in exchange for total independence from French political influence. However, in July 1919, after the end of World War I, Monaco was placed once again under limited French protection according to the Treaty of Versailles, a relationship that still exists today.

National Identity. The native Monegasques are proud of their country's unique history and position in the world. The name Monaco is believed to derive from the word "monoikos" associated both with the ancient Greeks and the Ligurians. The Ligurians settled along the Mediterranean coast, from Spain to Italy, before the age of the Roman Empire. The coastal road used by the Ligurians later came to be known as "The Road of Hercules." In Greek, Hercules was often called "Heracles Monoikos," or "Hercules Along" but it is possible that "monoikos" derives from an older Ligurian word. The Monegasque have managed to maintain their traditions, institutions, and dialect through the centuries despite the influence of their much-larger neighbors. This cultural identity is reflected in many of the local festivals and in Monaco's world prominence, which is disproportionate to the principality's size. However, only a small part of the population, less that 20 percent, can claim direct Monegasque heritage. The majority of the principality's citizens are French or of French descent (47 percent). People of Italian origin make up about 16 percent with the rest of the population consisting of a variety of nationalities.

Ethnic Relations. Monaco has close ethnic ties with France and Italy, and nationals of these countries account for more than half of the population. Some one-quarter of the population consists of people from a variety of other nationalities, reflecting a tolerance of different ethnic groups. However, immigration is very limited due to the principality's size, and citizenship is not easy to acquire.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

The steep, rocky hills and narrow coastline have influenced architecture and urban planning in Monaco. Streets are narrow and steep, and buildings must be constructed into the hills in limited amounts of space. The architecture in general reflects a Mediterranean influence, and local materials, including granite, marble, and terra-cotta tiles, are common. Recent-twentieth-century residential construction included numerous high-rise apartment buildings. Like many Mediterranean communities, Monaco has public squares, and its mild climate is favorable to outdoor living. Many buildings have balconies or terraces that face the sea. Some medieval structures survive in the old fortified city of Monaco-Ville on the Rock, where the royal palace is located. Monaco's most famous building is the Casino in Monte Carlo, built in 1866 and designed by French architect Charles Garnier.

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. Access to fresh, local produce and the sea has led to the development of a local cuisine and appreciation for good food. Monaco has many restaurants, and seafood is featured in many dishes. Daily eating habits reflect a Mediterranean heritage, and both French and Italian influences can be found in the local recipes. Breakfast is very small, but lunch and dinner often have several courses.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Holidays such as Christmas, Holy Week before Easter, and Carnival before Lent are occasions for special food. Some traditional Monegasque dishes include brandamincium, salt cod pounded with garlic, oil, and cream surrounded by cardoons, edible Mediterranean plants, in white sauce; barba-Giuan, or "Uncle John," stuffed fritters; and fougasses, flat, crunchy biscuits sprinkled with sugared anise seeds and flavored with rum and orange-flower water.

Basic Economy. Tourism and related businesses are the main components of the Monegasque economy today. The tourist industry began when the famous casino was opened in Monte Carlo. Banking and financial activities are the second most important part of the economy. The industrial sector is small but significant and includes pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, flour-milling, and food products. Investment in real estate and business services make up the fourth most important sector of the economy. Foreign companies receive special investment incentives that have led many to open offices in the principality. Monaco does not impose an income tax on its residents and consequently has attracted corporate and individual investment. A significant financial services industry has developed as a result.

Land Tenure and Property. Due to Monaco's small size, the availability of land and private space has always been limited. Significant economic growth and an increase in population since 1950 have greatly augmented this problem, forcing developers to build multistoried structures very close together. An increase in tourism and the necessity for hotels have put an added strain on available space. Property is expensive both to buy and maintain, but Monaco's real estate business continues to thrive. To create additional space, the Monegasque government has had to find innovative ways to satisfy the demand for construction: the use of land reclaimed from the sea. The most recent of these is the neighborhood of Fontvieille.

Commercial Activities. Business related to tourism accounts for the majority of commercial activities. Hotels, restaurants, shops, gambling, and services related to Monaco's port provide both employment and revenue for the principality. The real estate business has also become an important commercial concern since 1970.

Major Industries. Industry did not begin to significantly develop until the 1950s, and consists entirely of light industry, with no obvious adverse effects on other parts of the economy or Monegasque society. The first industries, which developed at the beginning of the twentieth century, included a brewery, a chocolate factory, and a flour mill. The chemical, pharmaceutical, parapharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries all developed after World War II and today consist of twenty-three separate businessesmany of which are leaders in their sectors in Europe. Plastics, electronics, printing, textiles, and construction also are significant industries.

Trade. Recent figures place the estimated value of Monegasque imports at U.S. $415,300 and exports at approximately the same figure. Monaco does not publish economic figures including gross domestic product, although recent estimates put it at about U.S. $800 million. Exports include a variety of Monegasque products, and imports include agricultural products and manufactured and consumer goods. Some of Monaco's most important exports include: cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, clothing, small electronics, and paper products.

Division of Labor. Of the estimated thirty thousand jobs existing in Monaco, two-thirds of them are held by workers commuting from neighboring French or Italian towns along the coast. Seasonal tourist work also accounts for an increase in non-native Monegasque workers to the principality, including workers who have immigrated to Europe from other parts of the world. Women make up slightly less than half the workforce, and recent statistics place unemployment at about 3.2 percent.

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. Monaco's high average income and individual wealth, as well as its very small size, make it a country with minimal class distinctions. The principality's status as a tax haven make it an attractive place to establish residence for wealthy people from all over the world. A significant number of residents are from a variety of nationalities, and several are celebrities, helping to make Monaco synonymous with wealth, power and prestige the world over.

Symbols of Social Stratification. Overall Monaco has one of the highest standards of living in the world. Differences in social stratification are not immediately obvious. The principality's popularity as an exclusive resort and tax haven has led to the development of a very wealthy social class. Material symbols of wealth such as luxury goods, expensive cars, and exclusive shops are visible everywhere. Monaco's coastal position has also made it a popular port for luxury yachts. The tourist industry necessitates a large workforce, as do Monaco's light industrial concerns, but more than half the people employed in these sectors do not live in Monaco.

Political Life

Government. Until 1910, the Principality of Monaco was governed by an absolute monarchy. In 1911 Prince Albert I promulgated the first constitution, which was modified in 1917. It was modified again in 1933 by Prince Louis II, and other reforms were made by Prince Rainier III in 1962. Monaco's refusal to impost tax on its residents and international businesses led to a severe crisis with France in 1962. This crisis led to a compromise in which it was agreed that French citizens with less than five years of residence in Monaco would be taxed at French rates and companies doing more than 25 percent of their business outside the principality. Another result of the crisis was the creation of a new, more liberal constitution ad the restoration of the National Council. The constitution provides that executive power is under the authority of the reigning prince. Succession to the throne passes to the direct and legitimate descendants of the prince, with male descendants taking precedence over female. The prince represents Monaco in its foreign relations and signs and ratifies treaties. The prince nominates a Council of Government, consisting of a minister of state and three government councilors, one each for finance and economy, the interior, and public works and social affairs. The Minister of State is a French Citizen, appointed by the prince, and selected for a three-year term a from a group of senior French civil servants selected by the French government. The Minister of State is in charge of foreign relations and, as the prince's representative, directs executive services, the police and the Council of Government. Under the Council of Government's authority is the eighteen-member National Council. Members of the National Council are elected for five years by direct vote based on a system of proportional representation. Eligible voters must be over the age of twenty-one and hold Monegasque citizenship for more than five years. The new constitution of 1962 gave the right to vote to women, established a Supreme Court to guarantee fundamental rights, and abolished the death penalty.

Leadership and Political Officials. Local affairs are directed by the Communal Council which administers the principality's four quarters: Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and Fontvieille. The Council of the Crown consists of seven members holding Monégasque nationality who are nominated by the prince. The president and three members are selected by the sovereign: the others are selected by the national Council. Current government officials include: the Chief of State, Prince Rainier III; the Minister of State, Michel Leveque; the Council of Government, ministers for: the Interior, Finance, and Economic Affairs, Public Works and Social Affairs, National Council President, President of the Supreme Court, and the Director of Judicial Services.

Social Problems and Control. Due to its small population and unique economic situation, Monaco does not face many of the social problems that larger countries must deal with, such as violent crime and poverty. After going through a period of economic growth and industrial development following World War II, a primary concern is the principality's ability to sustain its economy, attract new investments, and maintain the quality of life for its citizens. Current social problems include managing industrial growth and tourism, environmental concerns, and maintaining the quality of life. Alcoholism and illegal drug abuse are present but not widespread. Monaco has a very low crime rate, in part due to the high number of law enforcement officials in relation to the total population and the high standard of living. Widespread use of security cameras throughout the principality also further discourage open criminal activity. Excluding private security, there are around 400 permanent police officers, 95 percent of whom are French. Legal power belongs to the Sovereign, presently Prince Rainier III, who delegates full exercise of it to the courts and tribunals. The independence of the judges is guaranteed by the constitution. Monaco's legal organization includes all degrees of jurisdiction: a Court of First Instance, a Court of Appeal, a Higher Court of Appeal and a Criminal Court. There are also tribunals with specific competence, such as the Work Tribunal, the Rent Arbitration Commission, and the Higher Arbitration Court, for collective work disputes. The Supreme Court is at the top of the principality's legal organization.

Military Activity. Monaco does not have a military, although it does have a small police force. The French government is responsible for Monaco's defense.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

The government efficiently manages several social welfare and change programs. Some current programs include creating more affordable housing for workers by reclaiming land from the sea for new construction and promotion of Monegasque culture, brought about by a revived interest in the principality's history. Consequently, Monegasque language classes have now been instituted in all elementary schools. The Monegasque government also ensures generous pensions, maternity leave, vacation time, and welfare programs for all citizens.

Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations

Monaco has many nongovernmental organizations and cultural, academic, and professional associations. Among these are the Permanent International Association of Navigation Conventions, the International Committee of Military Medicine and Pharmacy, the Scientific Community for Oceanic Research, the International Music Council, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Sciences. Monaco joined the United Nations in 1993 and is an active participant. Other intergovernmental organizations of which Monaco is a member include Interpol, UNESCO, and WHO. The International Hydrographic Bureau has its headquarters in Monaco.

Gender Roles and Statuses

Monaco has a Mediterranean, Roman Catholic culture emphasizing the family. Until the second half of the twentieth century, women's roles revolved principally around family and household. Women were not active in politics until the 1960s when they first received the vote. Although fewer women than men are employed outside the home, Monegasque women work in a variety of fields and are politically active.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Not withstanding its status as a cosmopolitan resort, Monegasque society is based on centuries-old traditions. Immediate and extended family are the basic social units. Marriage is considered an important family event and the divorce rate is low, with less than a quarter of marriages ending in divorce.

Marriage. Marriage is an important family event, Church weddings, held according to Roman Catholic traditions, are popular. A civil ceremony, held at the city hall, is also required even when a religious ceremony is organized. Some couples choose only to have the civil ceremony.

Domestic Unit. The domestic unit consists of immediate family members. Before industrialization after World War II, the domestic unit also included extended family such as grandparents and other elderly relatives. The low divorce rate and general affluence help contribute to a stable average domestic unit in Monaco. Monegasque social activities frequently revolve around family events and gatherings.

Inheritance. Inheritance laws are based on those of France.

Socialization

Infant Care. Monaco provides excellent maternity and infant care. Women are guaranteed several months of maternity leave and there are high quality, low cost day care centers and nurseries available. National health and education programs ensure that Monegasque families have complete early childhood support and care.

Child Rearing and Education. A national health service and an excellent public education system provide Monegasque children with high-quality, low-cost education and with health care from infancy through adolescence. Monaco's small size, unique history, and high standard of living have helped the principality avoid many of the child social problems that face larger countries. The traditional Monegasque culture, based on family and kinship ties, has changed with twentieth-century industrialization and growth, but child welfare remains important. Grandparents often help in caring for young children, particularly when both parents work.

Education is compulsory from ages of six to sixteen. School curricula are identical to those of France but also include the study of Monegasque history, the institutions of the principality, and the Monegasque language. There are four public primary schools for study up to age fourteen and three specialized high schools: Lycée Albert I, the Technical Lycée of Monte Carlo, and the Charles II College. There are also four private schools through the high school level.

Higher Education. Monaco does not have a university, although there are several specialized institutions of higher learning, including the Rainier III Academy of Music and the Nursing School at the Princess Grace Hospital Complex. Monaco's literacy rate is 99 percent.

Etiquette

Etiquette in Monaco is influenced by the country's unusual blending of roles as an international tax haven, exclusive resort destination in combination with the Monegasque traditions. The Monegasque are proud of the country's history and residents strive to maintain the quality of life that exists there. The principality attracts people from a variety of nationalities who are nevertheless united by a high level of personal wealth. The rules of etiquette are much like those found in France with an emphasis on respect for privacy. The royal family of Monaco, the Grimaldi, frequently attract the attention of the press. Monaco's royal family became a popular subject of tabloid journalism when the American actress Grace Kelly married Prince Rainier III. Discretion and privacy are still emphasized in Monaco.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. Roman Catholicism is the state religion, although freedom of worship is guaranteed by Article 23 of the Constitution. However, 95 percent of the population claims to be Roman Catholic.

Religious Practitioners. Most Monegasque are Roman Catholic and the church plays an important role in Monegasque traditions, particularly on feast days and special holidays. Church attendance is not as high as a century ago and it is difficult to estimate the exact number of practicing Catholics.

Rituals and Holy Places. There are several traditional festivals and rituals in Monaco. Saint Devote, the patron saint of Monaco, is venerated in a ritual held on 27 January every year. A torchlight procession, a religious ceremony and blessing mark the day that Saint Dévoe is believed to have arrived in Monaco. Other religious rituals and ceremonies are held during Holy Week before Easter, and on the feast days of Saint Roman, 9 August, Saint John, 23 June and Saint Blaise.

Death and the Afterlife. Monegasque beliefs about death and the afterlife are in accordance with the teachings of the Roman Catholic church.

Medicine and Health Care

Monaco has a government-supported health system that provides high-quality medical care to all its citizens. Life expectancy is placed at 74 years for males and 81 for females. Infant mortality rate is approximately 7 per 1000 births. Monaco's birth-rate exceeds the number of deaths per year. For specialized care of serious care of serious health problems Monaco's residents may seek care in larger medical centers, such as the hospital in Nice.

Secular Celebrations

National Day, 19 November, celebrates Monaco's independence as a principality. A parade, a thanksgiving Mass held in the cathedral, and special events are organized. Other important celebrations have religious origins. The Feast of Saint Devote, the patron saint of Monaco, is celebrated on 27 January. The festival of Saint John, on 24 June, is another important Monegasque holiday. Religious holidays are celebrated with the closing of businesses, special church services, and traditional customs. The National Committee of Monegasque Traditions, established in 1924, is dedicated to the preservation and revival of Monegasque folk traditions and festivals.

The Arts and Humanities

Support for the Arts. The Monegasque government actively supports the arts, cultural institutions, and the humanities through a variety of programs and events. The Prince Pierre Foundation was founded to encourage culture in the letters and the arts, by the creation and awarding of prizes. These awards include the Grand Literary Prize, created in 1951; the Prince Rainier III Prize for Musical Composition, founded in 1960; and the International Contemporary Art Prize, awarded for the first time in 1965. The Princess Grace Foundation was established in 1964 with the aim of promoting charitable activities and provides support for the Princess Grace Dance Academy. Recent investments in the arts and humanities include the creation of a Cultural and Exhibition Center, which will contain an auditorium and other performance and event areas on the site of the old Centenary Hall. The Monte Carlo Ballet and the Monte Carlo Opera are world-renowned. The Monte Carlo Ballet gained international fame in the 1920s when the choreographer Sergey Diaghilev was based there with his Ballets Russes. Monaco is also home to the International Circus Festival held every February and the International Fireworks held in July. The Grand Prix de Monaco, a Formula 1 car race held in the streets of Monte Carlo, is one of the principality's most famous cultural events and attracts thousands of spectators.

Literature. The Great Literary Prize recognizes outstanding literary works annually. The Princess Grace Irish Library was established recently to hold a collection of over 8,000 volumes related to Irish history, culture and writing, in both Irish and English languages.

Graphic Arts. The Prince Pierre Foundation annually awards the International Prize for Art, established in 1965, to recognize outstanding achievement in the visual arts. The Municipal School of Decorative Arts provides education in the visual arts.

Performance Arts. The Monte Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra was established in 1863 and found its permanent home in the Garnier Palace in 1879. The Monte Carlo Ballet and the Monte Carlo Opera are internationally acclaimed. Since 1892 the Monte Carlo Opera has occupied Garnier Hall, named after its architect, who also designed the Paris Opera House. Many premier performances have been staged at the Monte Carlo Opera, including Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes in the 1920s. The International Circus Festival is also held annually in Monaco.

The State of Physical and Social Sciences

Monaco is particularly well known for its activity in the marine science field. The Oceanographic Museum, formerly directed by Jacques Cousteau, is the most famous institution devoted to marine science in the world. The Scientific Community for Oceanic Research is based in Monaco, and numerous other scientific and academic societies also have branch offices in the principality. Monaco's history of supporting oceanic and scientific studies dates to the 1860s when Prince Albert pursued his scientific interests by conducting numerous maritime expeditions. Throughout the twentieth century, Monaco has promoted scientific research. The Prehistory and Speleological Association was formed in 1951 and in 1960 Prince Rainier III inaugurated the Museum of Prehistoric Anthropology. Prince Rainier is also the president of the International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean. The Scientific Center of Monaco is host to a variety of activities including seismological, meteorological, and radioactivity studies. The Monaco Underwater Reserve, consisting of almost 50 hectares, was established by the Monégasque Association for the Protection of Nature to provide a protected environment for a wide variety of marine life. In 1971 the "Albert I of Monaco" Prize for Oceanography was created to recognize outstanding research.

Bibliography

Campbell, Siri. Inside Monaco, 2000.

Doyle, Stanton, and Ewing, Debra; Kelly, Robert; and Youngblood, Denise, ed. Country Review: Monaco 19981999, 1998.

The Magic Principality, 1994.

Rogatnick, Joseph H. "Little States in a World of Power: A Study of the Conduct of Foreign Affairs by Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco, and San Marino." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1976.

Web Sites

Monaco Government Tourist Office. www.monaco.mc

United States Department of State, Bureau of European Affairs. "Background Notes, Monaco." www.state.gov

M. Cameron Arnold

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Monaco

Monaco Principality in s Europe, on the Mediterranean coast, forming an enclave in French territory near the border with Italy; the capital is Monaco-Ville. Ruled by the Grimaldi family from the end of the 13th century, it came under French protection in 1860. The chief source of income is tourism, attracted by the casinos of Monte Carlo. There is some light industry, including printing, textiles and postage stamps. Area: 1.5sq km (0.6sq mi). Pop. (2000) 30,000.

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Monaco

Monaco

MONÉGASQUES 33

The people of Monaco are called Monégasques. The native-born population is about 15 percent of the total. Foreign-born residents include French (more than 50 percent) and Italians (about 17 percent).

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Monaco

Monacotacho, taco, tobacco, wacko •blanco, Franco •churrasco, fiasco, Tabasco •Arco, Gran Chaco, mako •art deco, dekko, echo, Eco, El Greco, gecko, secco •flamenco, Lysenko, Yevtushenko •alfresco, fresco, Ionesco •Draco, shako •Biko, Gromyko, pekoe, picot, Puerto Rico, Tampico •sicko, thicko, tricot, Vico •ginkgo, pinko, stinko •cisco, disco, Disko, Morisco, pisco, San Francisco •zydeco • magnifico • calico • Jellicoe •haricot • Jericho • Mexico • simpatico •politico • portico •psycho, Tycho •Morocco, Rocco, sirocco, socko •bronco •Moscow, roscoe •Rothko •coco, cocoa, loco, moko, Orinoco, poco, rococo •osso buco • Acapulco •Cuzco, Lambrusco •bucko, stucco •bunco, junco, unco •guanaco • Monaco • turaco • Turco

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Monaco

Monaco

PROFILE
GEOGRAPHY
PEOPLE
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
ECONOMY
FOREIGN RELATIONS
U.S.-MONACO RELATIONS
TRAVEL

Compiled from the June 2007 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:

Principality of Monaco

PROFILE

Geography

Area: 1.95 sq. km. (0.8 sq. mi); about the size of New York City's Central Park.

Cities: Capital—Monaco, pop. 32,409 (July 2005 est.).

Terrain: Hilly.

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective—Monegasque.

Population: (July 2006 est.) 32,543.

Annual growth rate: (2007 est.) 0.386%.

Ethnic groups: (2007) French 47%, Italian 16%, Monegasque 16%, other 21%.

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%.

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, and Monegasque.

Education: Years compulsory—10, ages 6-16. Attendance—99%. Literacy—99%.

Health: (2007 est.) Infant mortality—5.27 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy—75.99 yrs. male; 83.85 yrs. female. Birth rate (2007 est.)—9.12 births/1,000 population. Death rate (2006 est.)—12.92 deaths/ 1,000 population.

Government

Type: Constitutional monarchy.

Constitution: December 17, 1962 (amended in April 2002).

Government branches: Executive—Prince Albert II (chief of state), Minister of State Jean-Paul Proust (head of government), Council of Government (cabinet under authority of the monarch). Legislative—unicameral National Council (24 members). Judicial—Court of First Instance, Court of Appeal, High Court of Appeal, Criminal Court, Supreme Court.

Political subdivisions: Four quarters (quartiers)—Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte-Carlo, Fontvieille.

Political parties: Union pour Monaco (UPM), National and Democratic Union (UND), Parti Monegasque (PM).

Suffrage: Universal adult at age 18.

Economy

GDP: Monaco does not publish economic figures such as gross domestic product, though estimates placed purchasing power parity GDP at $976.3 million in 2006.

Avg. annual growth rate: (2003 est.) 1.89%.

Per capita purchasing power

parity GDP: (2006 est.) $30,000.

Work force: (2003, 41,708) Private sector—37,949. Public sector—3,759. Services—83.5%. Banking—23.43%. Tourism and hotel—11.64%. Retail—4.92%. Construction and public works—32.02%. Industry—6.98%.

Agriculture: None.

Industry: Types—tourism, construction, chemicals, food products, plastics, precision instruments, cosmetics, ceramics.

Trade: Imports (2005)—$916.1 million. Exports (2005)—$716.3 million. Note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France.

Currency: Monaco, along with France and the other 11 members of the European Monetary Union (EMU), adopted the euro ( ) as its official currency on January 1, 2002. As in other EMU states, euros minted in Monaco have special Monegasque features on one side of the coin.

GEOGRAPHY

The Principality of Monaco is the second-smallest independent state in the world, after the Holy See (Vatican City). It is located on the Mediterranean coast, 18 kilometers (11 mi.) east of Nice, France, and is surrounded on three sides by France. Monaco is divided into four sections: Monaco-Ville, the old city on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean; La Condamine, the section along the port; Monte-Carlo, the principal residential and resort area; and Fontvieille, a newly constructed area reclaimed from the sea.

The principality is noted for its beautiful natural scenery and mild, sunny climate. The average minimum temperature in January and February is 8°C (47°F); in July and August the average maximum temperature is 26°C (78°F).

PEOPLE

In July 2006, Monaco's population was estimated at 32,543, with an estimated average growth rate for 2007 of 0.386%.

French is the official language; English, Italian, and Monegasque (a blend of French and Italian) also are spoken. The literacy rate is 99%. Roman Catholicism is the official religion, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution.

HISTORY

Founded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa, Monaco has been ruled by the House of Grimaldi since 1297, except when under French control from 1789 to 1814. Designated as a protectorate of Sardinia from 1815 until 1860 by the Treaty of Vienna, Monaco's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. The Prince of Monaco was an absolute ruler until a constitution was promulgated in 1911.

In July 1918, a treaty was signed providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, formally noted in the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests.

A new constitution, proclaimed in 1962, abolished capital punishment, provided for female suffrage, and established a Supreme Court to guarantee fundamental liberties.

In 1993, Monaco became an official member of the United Nations with full voting rights. It joined the Council of Europe in 2004.

Three months after the death of his father, Prince Rainier III, on April 6, Prince Albert II formally acceded to the throne on July 12, 2005.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Monaco has been governed as a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Prince as chief of state. The executive branch consists of a Minister of State (head of government), who presides over a five-member Council of Government (cabinet). The Minister of State is responsible for foreign relations. As the Prince's representative, the Minister of State also directs the executive services, commands the police, and presides (with voting powers) over the Council of Government. The five members of the Council are respectively responsible for internal affairs, external affairs, the environment, finance and economy, and social affairs and health.

Under the 1962 constitution, the Prince shares his power with the unicameral National Council. Sixteen of the 24 members of this legislative body are elected by list majority system, and 8 by proportional representation to serve 5-year terms. The elections were last held on February 9, 2003, and will be held next in February 2008. If the Prince dissolves the National Council, new elections must be held within 3 months. Usually meeting twice annually, the Council votes on the budget and endorses laws proposed by the Prince.

Ordinances passed by the National Council are debated in the Council of Government, as are the ministerial decrees signed by the Minister of State. Once approved, the ordinances must be submitted to the Prince within 80 days for his signature, which makes them legally enforceable. If he does not express opposition within 10 days of submission, they become valid. Judicial power is invested in the Prince, who delegates judicial procedures to the various courts, which dispense justice in his name. The independence of the judges is guaranteed by the constitution. The Supreme Court is composed of five chief members and two assistant judges named by the Prince on the basis of nominations by the National Council and other government bodies. The Supreme Court is the highest court for judicial appeals and also interprets the constitution when necessary. Monaco's legal system, closely related to that of France, is patterned after the Napoleonic Code.

The principality's local affairs (the administration of the four quarters of Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and Fontvieille) are directed by the Communal Council, which consists of 15 elected members and is presided over by the Mayor.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 2/1/2008

Chief of State: ALBERT II, Prince

Min. of State: Jean-Paul PROUST

Min. of Economy & Finance: Franck BIANCHERI

Min. of Environmental Affairs & Town Planning: Gilles TONELLI

Min. of External Relations: Rainier IMPERTI

Min. of Social Affairs & Health: Denis RAVERA

Ambassador to the US: Gilles NOGHES

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Gilles NOGHES

ECONOMY

Monaco, located on the Mediterranean coast, has an economy primarily geared toward finance, commerce, and tourism. Low taxes have drawn many foreign companies to Monaco; the companies’ production accounts for around 50% of the 593 million annual government income (2002). The enterprises pay a 33.33% tax only if more than 25% of their revenue is generated abroad. Ever since Monaco's famed casino opened in 1856, the tourism industry has been booming. It currently accounts for close to 25% of the annual revenue.

Customs, postal services, telecommunications, and banking in Monaco are governed by an economic and customs union with France. The official currency is the euro.

Though official economic statistics are not published, 2006 estimates placed the gross domestic product at $976.3 million and the per capita income at $30,000. Monaco does not publish the figures for unemployment, but in 2005 the rate was estimated to be at 0%.

Monaco is noted for its activity in the field of marine sciences. Its Oceanographic Museum, formerly directed by Jacques Cousteau, is one of the most renowned institutions of its kind in the world. Monaco imports and exports products and services from all over the world. There is no commercial agriculture in Monaco.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Monaco actively participates in the United Nations, which it joined in 1993. Monaco joined the Council of Europe on October 4, 2004. Monaco also is a member of many international and intergovernmental organizations, including Interpol, the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the World Health Organization (WHO). The International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) is headquartered in Monaco.

The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent state, linked closely to France by the Treaty of July 1918, which was formally noted in Article 436 of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. The foreign policy of Monaco is one illustration of this accord: France has agreed to defend the independence and sovereignty of Monaco, while the Monegasque Government has agreed to exercise its sovereign rights in conformity with French

interests. Since then, the relations between the sovereign states of France and Monaco have been further defined in the Treaty of 1945 and the Agreement of 1963.

In 2002, Monaco renegotiated its 1918 treaty with France. In 2005, it was ratified by both parties and entered into force. The terms of the treaty:

  • Upgrade France's representation in Monaco from Consulate General to that of an embassy;
  • Permit, for the first time, other countries to accredit ambassadors to Monaco; and
  • Formally recognize the succession scheme set out in the 1962 Constitution, which extends eligibility to the Prince's daughters and other family members.

Although not a member of the European Union (EU), Monaco is closely associated with the economic apparatus of the EU through its customs union with France and its reliance upon the euro as its official currency.

Monaco has 10 diplomatic missions in Western Europe and permanent representation at the United Nations and the Council of Europe. It maintains honorary consulates in 106 cities in 45 countries. Seventy-six countries have consulates general, consulates, or honorary consulates in or accredited to Monaco.

U.S.-MONACO RELATIONS

The United States and Monaco enjoy excellent relations, which both countries seek to maintain and strengthen. From 1956 until her death in 1982, the American-born Grace Kelly was married to Prince Rainier III, Prince Albert's father. The United States does not yet have a diplomatic mission located in Monaco.

In December 2006, the United States and Monaco upgraded from consular to full diplomatic relations. Shortly after, Ambassador Craig Stapleton (France) was accredited to Monaco, and Ambassador Gilles Noghes became the first Monegasque ambassador to the United States.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Last Updated: 2/19/2008

PARIS (E) 2, avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08, APO/FPO PSC 116, APO/AE 09777-5000, (33) (1) 4312-2222, Fax 33-1-4266-9783, INMAR-SAT Tel 011-8816-4142-8701, 011-8816-4142-8702, 011-8816 -4142-8703, Workweek: Mon--Fri 9 a.m-6 p.m., Website: http://paris.usembassy.gov.

DCM OMS:(Vacant)
AMB OMS:Yvonne E. Deruiz
CDC:Paula Fujiwara
DHS/ICE:Lydia St. John-Mellado
ECO:Seth D. Winnick
FCS:Robert S. Connan
FM:Kenen Hunter
HRO:Douglas S. Dobson
MGT:An T. Le
AMB:Craig R. Stapleton
CG:Catherine Barry
DCM:Mark A. Pekala
PAO:James L. Bullock
GSO:Charles J. Hamblett
RSO:Jan D. Abbott
AFSA:Jerome Hohman
AGR:Elizabeth Berry
AID:George Carner
APHIS:Alejandro Thiermann
CLO:Sue Ann Giovengo
DAO:Raymond C. Hodgkins
DEA:Robert W. Houston
EEO:Lucia Keegan, Michele Bolin & Carrie Shirtz
EST:Robert W. Dry
FAA:Lirio Liu Nelson
FAA/CASLONouri Larbi
FMO:Barry L. Haney
ICASS:Chair Raymond C. Hodgkins
IMO:Charles Shuster
IPO:Richard T. Bowen, III
IRS:Kathy J. Beck
ISO:Susan L. Hullinger
ISSO:Michael Meaux
LAB:William H. Owen
LEGATT:Robin Gazawi
NAS:Bill Barry
POL:Josiah B. Rosenblatt
RAMC:Jamie Seale

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet—France

October 11, 2007

Country Description: France is a developed and stable democracy with a modern economy. Monaco is a developed constitutional monarchy. Tourist facilities are widely available.

Entry Requirements: A passport is required to enter France and Monaco. A visa is not required for tourist/business stays up to 90 days in France and Monaco. Anyone intending to stay more than 90 days must obtain the appropriate visa issued by one of the French Consulates in the U.S., prior to departure for France. This also applies to anyone considering marriage in France. The 90-day period begins when you enter any of the Schengen group of countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden.

For further information concerning entry requirements for France, travelers may contact the Embassy of France at 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007, tel. (202) 944-6000, Email: [email protected], or the French Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, or San Francisco. For further information on entry requirements to Monaco, travelers may contact the Embassy of the Principality of Monaco. 2314 Wyoming Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008, Tel: 202-234-1530, Email: [email protected], or the Consulate General of Monaco, 565 Fifth Avenue—23rd floor, New York, NY 10017, Tel: 212-286-0500, Email: [email protected] For more information visit the Embassy of France web site at www.consulfrance-washington.org or the Embassy of the Principality of Monaco web site at http://www.monaco-usa.org for the most current visa information.

Note: Although European Union regulations require that non-EU visitors obtain a stamp in their passport upon initial entry to a Schengen country; many borders are not staffed with officers carrying out this function. If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry. Under local law, travelers without a stamp in their passport may be questioned and asked to document the length of their stay in Schengen countries at the time of departure or at any other point during their visit, and could face possible fines or other repercussions if unable to do so.

Safety and Security: The Government of France maintains a threat rating system known locally as “Vigipirate” it is similar to the U.S. Homeland Security Advisory System. Under this plan, in times of heightened security concerns, the government augments police with armed forces and increases visibility at airports, train and metro stations, and other high-profile locations such as schools, major tourist attractions, and government installations. Over the last year, there have been numerous arrests of suspected Islamic militants involved in various terrorist plots. As with other countries in the Schengen area, France maintains open borders with its European neighbors, allowing the possibility of terrorist groups entering/exiting the country with anonymity.

In the past, political assassinations and bombings have occurred in France. The National Front for the Liberation of Corsica (FLNC), as part of its decades-long bombing campaign on the island of Corsica, continues to conduct limited operations in the south of France and on Corsica. In the 1990s there was a wave of bombings and attacks in Paris carried out by Algerian terrorists. Today, numerous radical Islamic groups claim sympathizers within France's large immigrant community, as evidenced by arrests over the last few years.

Although Americans have not been specifically targeted in terrorist attacks in France within the past few years, travelers should maintain vigilance. Immediately report unattended packages observed in public places or any other suspicious activities. French law enforcement authorities are proactive and will respond immediately. If there is a security incident or suspicious package, do not linger in the area to observe.

Although violent civil disorder is rare in France, in the past, student demonstrations, labor protests, and other demonstrations have developed into violent confrontations between demonstrators and police. This was the case in March/April 2006, when a series of large demonstrations took place in central Paris. Several weeks of unrest occurred in the suburbs of Paris, as well as in other French cities and towns, in November 2005. Neither of these periods of disorder exhibited any anti-U.S. sentiment, but it is important to remember that passersby can always suffer collateral damage should demonstrations devolve into violence. Americans are advised to avoid street demonstrations, particularly if riot police are on the scene.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affair's Internet site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Worldwide Caution Travel Alert, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.

Crime: While both France and Monaco have relatively low rates of violent crime, a limited number of neighborhoods in the larger French cities merit extra caution. Additionally, although the overall crime rate has fallen slightly in recent years, the violent crime rate has increased. Thieves commonly target vehicles with non-local license plates, and work in or near tourist attractions such as museums, monuments, restaurants, hotels, beaches, trains, train stations, airports, and subways. Americans in France and Monaco should be particularly alert to pickpockets in train stations and subways. Photocopies of travel documents and credit cards should be kept separate from the originals, and key telephone numbers maintained to contact banks if credit cards are stolen or lost.

Although thieves may operate anywhere, the U.S. Embassy in Paris receives frequent reports of theft from several areas in particular:

Paris: The Paris Police Prefecture has published a pamphlet entitled “Feeling Safe in Paris,” which provides practical advice and useful telephone numbers for visitors and can be accessed at http://www.prefecture-police-paris.interieur.gouv.fr/feeling_safe_in_paris.htm. Thieves operate on the rail link (RER) from Charles de Gaulle Airport to downtown Paris, where they prey on jetlagged, luggage-burdened tourists. In one common ruse, a thief distracts a tourist with a question about directions, while an accomplice steals a momentarily unguarded backpack, briefcase, or purse. Thieves also time their thefts to coincide with train stops so they may quickly exit the car just before the automatic doors close. Travelers may wish to consider taking an airport shuttle bus or taxi from the airport into the city. Reports of stolen purses, briefcases, and carryon bags at Charles de Gaulle Airport have been on the rise. Travelers should monitor their bags at all times and never leave them unattended. As thieves commonly target laptop bags, travelers should avoid carrying passports and other valuables in computer bags. One common method involves timing the theft so that while the traveler is busy at the ticket counter, the traveler's shoulder bag is picked up after being placed on the floor. Also be aware that unattended bags are subject to destruction by airport security.

There have been reports of robberies in which thieves on motorcycles reach into a moving car by opening the car door or accessing an open window or even breaking the window to steal purses and other bags visible inside. The same technique is used against pedestrians walking with purses/ bags/cameras slung over their street-side shoulder. Those traveling by car should remember to keep the windows up and the doors locked and items that may be attractive to thieves out of sight. Pedestrians are encouraged to walk as far from the street side as possible, and to keep bags slung across the body, with the bag hanging away from the street.

Many thefts occur on the Number One Subway Line, which runs through the center of Paris by many major tourist attractions (including the Grand Arch at La Defense, the Arc de Triomphe, the Champs Elysees, Place de la Concorde, the Louvre, and the Bastille). Pickpockets are especially active on this metro line during the summer months and use a number of techniques. The most common, and unfortunately the most successful, is the simple “bump and snatch,” where an individual bumps into the tourist while at the same time reaching into the pockets/purse/ bag. Visitors should be particularly careful when metro doors are closing, as this is a favored moment for the less-sophisticated pickpockets to simply grab valuables and jump through the closing doors, leaving the victim helplessly watching as the thief flees. Visitors are encouraged NOT to aggressively confront thieves, who often operate in groups and may become violent if cornered. Simply drawing attention to an attempted theft will most likely stop the operation and cause a tactical withdrawal by the thief.

Gare du Nord train station, where the express trains from the airport arrive in Paris, is also a high-risk area for pocket-picking and theft. Travelers should also beware of thefts that occur on both overnight and day trains, especially on trains originating in Spain, Italy, and Belgium. These involve the theft of valuables while passengers are sleeping, or when the bags are left unattended.

In hotels, thieves target lobbies and breakfast rooms, and take advantage of a minute of inattention to snatch jackets, purses, and backpacks. While many hotels do have safety latches that allow guests to secure their rooms from inside, this feature is not as universal as it is in the United States. If no chain or latch is present, a chair placed up against the door and wedged under the handle is usually an effective obstacle to surreptitious entry during the night. There are, however, reports of thieves breaking into hotel rooms on lower floors through open windows while the occupants are sleeping. To guard against this, hotel room windows should be kept locked at all times. Whenever possible, valuables should be kept in the hotel safe.

Many Americans have reported thefts occurring in restaurants and nightclubs/bars, where purses are stolen from the back of a chair or from under the table. Again, keep valuables on your person and do not leave them unattended or out of sight. Thefts also occur at the major department stores such as Galeries Lafayette and Printemps where tourists often place wallets, passports, and credit cards on cashier counters during transactions.

Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) are very common in France and provide ready access to cash, allowing travelers to carry as much money as they need for each day. The rates are competitive with local exchange bureaus, and an ATM transaction is easier than the cashing of travelers’ checks. However, crime involving ATMs is increasing. Travelers should not use ATMs in isolated, unlit areas or where loiterers are present. Travelers should be especially aware of persons standing close enough to see the Personal Identification Number (PIN) being entered into the machine. Thieves often conduct successful scams by simply observing the PIN as it is entered and then stealing the card from the user in some other location. If the card becomes stuck, travelers should immediately report it to the bank where the machine is located.

Large criminal operations in Paris involving the use of ATMs that “eat” the user's ATM card have been reported. This most often happens during a weekend or at night when the bank is closed. The frustrated traveler often walks away after unsuccessfully trying to retrieve the card, with plans to return the first day the bank is open. In such cases, a criminal gang has modified the machine using an add-on device equipped with a microchip that records the user's PIN when it is typed in, and also prevents the card from being ejected.

The criminal retrieves the card from the device once the visitor departs, downloads the recorded PIN and then goes to other ATMs and withdraws as much cash as possible. ATM users are strongly encouraged to carry a 24-hour emergency number for their ATM card and bank account that will enable the immediate prevention of withdrawals from the account if difficulties occur.

Pigalle is the “adult entertainment district” of Paris. Many entertainment establishments in this area engage in aggressive marketing and charge well beyond the normal rate for drinks. There have been reports of threats of violence to coerce patrons into paying exorbitant beverage tabs. There have also been several violent confrontations between rival gangs in the district, including one in August 2007 one block from the famous Moulin Rouge cabaret. Visitors are encouraged to avoid this area unless touring with a well-organized and reputable tour company.

Normandy: There has been an increase in break-ins and thefts from vehicles in the parking lots at the Normandy beaches and American cemeteries. Valuables should not be left unattended in a car, and locking valuables in the trunk should not be considered a safeguard. Thieves often pry open car trunks to steal bags inside.

Southern France: Thefts from cars with unlocked doors or open windows stopped at red lights or caught in slow traffic are very common, particularly along the Riviera of the Nice-Antibes-Cannes area, and in Marseille. Car doors should be kept locked and windows raised at all times to prevent incidents of “snatch-and-grab” thefts. In this type of scenario, the thief is usually a passenger on a motorcycle. Break-ins of parked cars are also fairly common. Valuables should not be left in the car, not even in the trunk, when the vehicle is unattended.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. Under French law, compensation is available to victims of crime committed on French soil under certain circumstances.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Medical care comparable to that found in the United States is widely available. Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning France and Monaco is provided for general reference only, and it may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Roads in France are generally comparable to those in the United States, but traffic engineering and driving habits pose special dangers. Usually, lane markings and sign placements are not as clear as in the United States. Drivers should be prepared to make last-minute maneuvers, as most French drivers do. The French typically drive more aggressively and faster than Americans, and tend to exceed posted speed limits. Right-of-way rules in France may differ from those in the United States. Drivers entering intersections from the right have priority over those on the left (unless specifically indicated otherwise), even when entering relatively large boulevards from small side streets. Many intersections in France are being replaced by traffic circles, where the right-of-way belongs to drivers in the circle.

On major highways, service stations are situated at least every 25 miles. Service stations are not as plentiful on secondary roads in France as they are in the United States. Paris, the capital and largest city in France, has an extensive and efficient public transportation system. The interconnecting system of buses, subways, and commuter rails serves more than 4 million people a day with a safety record comparable to or better than the systems of major American cities. Similar transportation systems are found in all major French cities. Between cities, France is served by an equally extensive rail service, which is reliable. High-speed rail links connect the major cities in France. Many cities are also served by frequent air service.

Visit the web site of the French and Monegasque National Tourist Office at http://franceguide.com. The website contains specific information concerning French and Monegasque driver's permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, and mandatory insurance.

Aviation Safety Oversight: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of France's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of France's air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov.

Special Circumstances: French and Monegasque customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from France of items such as firearms, antiquities, medications, business equipment, sales samples, and other items. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of France in Washington, D.C., one of France's consulates in the United States, or the Consulate General of Monaco in New York for specific information regarding customs requirements.

The emergency numbers in France for police, fire, and medical assistance are as follows: 17 (police emergency), 18 (fire department) and 15 (emergency medical/paramedic team/ ambulance). In Monaco, the numbers are 17 (police emergency), 18 (fire department) and 9375-2525 (medical/ paramedic team/ambulance).

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating French or Monegasque laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in France or Monaco are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Registration and Embassy and Consulate Locations: Americans living or traveling in France or Monaco are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within France and Monaco.

Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in cases of emergency.

The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Paris is located at 4 avenue Gabriel, 75008 Paris (Place de La Concorde, Metro Stop Concorde), tel. 011-33-1-43-12-22-22 or (in France) 01-43-12-22-22; fax: 011-33-1-42-96-28-39 for Passport Services, or fax 011-33-1-42-61-61-40 for Special Consular Services (emergencies). Further information can be obtained at the U.S. Embassy's web site at http://france.usembassy.gov.

The Consulate General in Marseille is located at Place Varian Fry, 13006 Marseille, tel. 011-33-4-91-54-92-00, or (in France) 04-91-54-92-00; fax 011-33-4-91-55-55-56-95 or 011-33-4-91-55-09-47. Web site: http://france.usembassy.gov/marseille/default.htm

The Consulate General in Strasbourg is located at 15 Avenue d’Alsace, 67082 Strasbourg, tel. 011-33-3-88-35-31-04 or (in France) 03-88-35-31-04; fax 011-33-3-88-24-06-95.

The Consulate General in Strasbourg does not produce passports on the premises. American citizens in this area whose passports are lost or stolen and have urgent travel needs should contact the U.S. Embassy in Paris. Web site: www.ambusa.fr/strasbourg

The Consular Agency in Nice is located at 7, Avenue Gustave V, 3rd floor, 06000 Nice, tel. 011-33-4-93-88-89-55 or (in France) 04-93-88-89-55; fax 011-33-4-93-87-07-38. Web site: http://france.usembassy.gov/marseille/nic.htm.

The U.S. Government also has consular representation in Bordeaux, Lille, Lyon, Rennes, and Toulouse that provide some services to Americans, by appointment only.

The post in Bordeaux is located at 10 place de la Bourse, 33076 Bordeaux (entry on rue Fernand Philippart); tel. 011-33-5-56-48-63-85 or 05-56-48-63-85 in France; fax: 011-33-5-56-51-61-97. Web site: http://france.usembassy.gov

The post in Lille is located at 107, rue Royale, 59000 Lille; tel. 011-33-3-28-04-25-00 or 03-28-04-25-00 in France; fax: 011-33-3-20-74-88-23. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/lille/default.htm.

The post in Lyon is located at 1, quai Jules Courmont, 69002 Lyon; tel. 011-33-4-78-38-33-03 or 04-78-38-33-03 in France; fax: 011-33-4-72-41-71-81. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/lyon/default.htm

The post in Rennes is located at 30, quai Duguay Trouin, 35000 Rennes; tel. 011-33-2-23-44-09-60 or 02-23-44-09-60 in France; fax: 011-33-2-99-35-00-92. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/rennes/default.htm

The post in Toulouse is located at 25, Allée Jean Jaures, 31000 Toulouse; tel. 011-33-5-34-41-36-50 or 05-34-41-36-50 in France; fax: 011-33-5-34-41-16-19. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/toulouse/default.htm

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Monaco

MONACO

Compiled from the October 2005 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Principality of Monaco


PROFILE

Geography

Area:

1.95 sq. km. (0.8 sq. mi); about the size of New York City's Central Park.

City:

Capital—Monaco, pop. 32,409 (July 2005 est.).

Terrain:

Hilly.

Climate:

Mediterranean.

People

Nationality:

Noun and adjective—Monegasque.

Population:

32,409 (July 2005 est.).

Annual growth rate (2005 est.):

0.43%.

Ethnic groups (2003):

French 31.95%, Italian 20.02%, Monegasque 19.02%, British 5.32%, Swiss 2.78%, German 2.54%, Belgian 2.46%, American 1.22%, and other 14.7%.

Religion:

Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%.

Language:

French (official), English, Italian, and Monegasque (a blend of French and Italian).

Education:

Years compulsory—10, ages 6-16. Attendance—99%. Literacy—99%.

Health (2005 est.):

Infant mortality—5.43/1,000. Life expectancy—75.7 yrs. male; 83.63 yrs. female. Birth rate (July 2005 est.)—9.26 births/1,000 population. Death rate (July 2005 est.)—12.71 deaths/1,000 population.

Work force (2003, 41,708):

Private sector—37,949. Public sector—3,759. Services—83.5%. Banking—23.43%. Tourism and hotel—11.64%. Retail—4.92%. Construction and public works—32.02%. Industry—6.98%.

Government

Type:

Constitutional monarchy.

Constitution:

December 17, 1962 (amended in April 2002).

Branches:

Executive—Prince Albert II (chief of state). Legislative—National Council (24 members). Judicial—Court of First Instance, Court of Appeal, High Court of Appeal, Criminal Court, Supreme Court.

Subdivisions:

Four quarters (quartiers)—Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte-Carlo, Fontvieille.

Political parties:

Union pour Monaco (UPM), National and Democratic Union (UND), Parti Monégasque (PM).

Suffrage:

Universal adult at age 18.

Economy

GDP:

Monaco does not publish economic figures such as gross domestic product, though estimates placed purchasing power parity GDP at $870 million in 2000.

Avg. annual growth rate (2003 est.):

1.89%.

Per capita purchasing power parity GDP (2000 est.):

$27,000.

Agriculture:

None.

Industry:

Types—tourism, construction, chemicals, food products, plastics, precision instruments, cosmetics, ceramics.

Trade:

Imports (2003)—about $513 million (416,348,096 euros). Exports (2003)—about $644 million (522,976,329 euros).

Currency:

Monaco, along with France and the other 11 members of the European Monetary Union (EMU), adopted the euro as its official currency on January 1, 2002. As in other EMU states, Euros minted in Monaco have special Monegasque features on one side of the coin.


GEOGRAPHY

The Principality of Monaco is the second-smallest independent state in the world, after the Holy See (Vatican City). It is located on the Mediterranean coast, 18 kilometers (11 mi.) east of Nice, France, and is surrounded on three sides by France. Monaco is divided into four sections: Monaco-Ville, the old city on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean; La Condamine, the section along the port; Monte-Carlo, the principal residential and resort area; and Fontvieille, a newly constructed area reclaimed from the sea.

The principality is noted for its beautiful natural scenery and mild, sunny climate. The average minimum temperature in January and February is 8ºC (47ºF); in July and August the average maximum temperature is 26ºC (78ºF).


PEOPLE

In July 2005, Monaco's population was estimated at 32,409, with an estimated average growth rate of 0.43%.

French is the official language; English, Italian, and Monegasque (a blend of French and Italian) also are spoken. The literacy rate is 99%. Roman Catholicism is the official religion, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution.


HISTORY

Founded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa, Monaco has been ruled by the House of Grimaldi since 1297, except when under French control from 1789 to 1814. Designated as a protectorate of Sardinia from 1815 until 1860 by the Treaty of Vienna, Monaco's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. The Prince of Monaco was an absolute ruler until a constitution was promulgated in 1911.

In July 1918, a treaty was signed providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, formally noted in the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests.

A new constitution, proclaimed in 1962, abolished capital punishment, provided for female suffrage, and established a Supreme Court to guarantee fundamental liberties.

In 1993, Monaco became an official member of the United Nations with full voting rights. It joined the Council of Europe in 2004.

Three months after the death of his father, Prince Rainier III, on April 6, Prince Albert II formally acceded to the throne on July 12, 2005.


GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Monaco has been governed as a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Prince as chief of state. The executive branch consists of a Minister of State (head of government), who presides over a five-member Council of Government (cabinet). The Minister of State, who is a French citizen appointed by the Prince for a 3-year term from among several senior French civil servants proposed by the French Government, is responsible for foreign relations. As the Prince's representative, the Minister of State also directs the executive services, commands the police, and presides (with voting powers) over the Council of Government. The five members of the Council are respectively responsible for internal affairs, external affairs, the environment, finance and economy, and social affairs and health.

Under the 1962 constitution, the Prince shares his power with the unicameral National Council. Sixteen of the 24 members of this legislative body are elected by list majority system, and 8 by proportional representation to serve 5-year terms. The elections were last held on February 9, 2003, and will be held next in February 2008. If the Prince dissolves the National Council, new elections must be held within 3 months. Usually meeting twice annually, the Council votes on the budget and endorses laws proposed by the Prince.

Ordinances passed by the National Council are debated in the Council of Government, as are the ministerial decrees signed by the Minister of State. Once approved, the ordinances must be submitted to the Prince within 80 days for his signature, which makes them legally enforceable. If he does not express opposition within 10 days of submission, they become valid.

Judicial power is invested in the Prince, who delegates judicial procedures to the various courts, which dispense justice in his name. The independence of the judges is guaranteed by the constitution. The Supreme Court is composed of five chief members and two assistant judges named by the Prince on the basis of nominations by the National Council and other government bodies. The Supreme Court is the highest court for judicial appeals and also interprets the constitution when necessary. Monaco's legal system, closely related to that of France, is patterned after the Napoleonic Code.

The principality's local affairs (the administration of the four quarters of Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and Fontvieille) are directed by the Communal Council, which consists of 15 elected members and is presided over by the Mayor.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 8/5/2005

Chief of State: ALBERT II, Prince
Min. of State: Jean-Paul PROUST
Min. of Economy & Finance: Franck BIANCHERI
Min. of Environmental Affairs & Town
Planning: Gilles TONELLI
Min. of External Relations: Rainier IMPERTI
Min. of Social Affairs & Health: Denis RAVERA
Permanent Representative to the UN: Gilles NOGHES


ECONOMY

Monaco, located on the Mediterranean coast, has an economy primarily geared toward finance, commerce, and tourism. Low taxes have drawn many foreign companies to Monaco; the companies' production accounts for around 50% of the 593 million annual government income (2002). The enterprises pay a 33.33% tax only if more than 25% of their revenue is generated abroad. Ever since Monaco's famed casino opened in 1856, the tourism industry has been booming. It currently accounts for close to 25% of the annual revenue.

Customs, postal services, telecommunications, and banking in Monaco are governed by an economic and customs union with France. The official currency is the euro.

Though official economic statistics are not published, 2000 estimates placed the national product at $870 million and the per capita income at $27,000. Monaco does not publish the figures for unemployment, but in 1998 the rate was estimated to be at 3.1%.

Monaco is noted for its activity in the field of marine sciences. Its Oceanographic Museum, formerly directed by Jacques Cousteau, is one of the most renowned institutions of its kind in the world. Monaco imports and exports products and services from all over the world. There is no commercial agriculture in Monaco.


FOREIGN RELATIONS

Monaco actively participates in the United Nations, which it joined in 1993. Monaco joined the Council of Europe on October 4, 2004. Monaco also is a member of many international and intergovernmental organizations, including Interpol, the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the World Health Organization (WHO). The International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) is headquartered in Monaco.

The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent state, linked closely to France by the Treaty of July 1918, which was formally noted in Article 436 of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. The foreign policy of Monaco is one illustration of this accord: France has agreed to defend the independence and sovereignty of Monaco, while the Monegasque Government has agreed to exercise its sovereign

rights in conformity with French interests. Since then, the relations between the sovereign states of France and Monaco have been further defined in the Treaty of 1945 and the Agreement of 1963.

In 2002, Monaco renegotiated its 1918 treaty with France. The revised treaty has not yet been ratified by the French Senate and entered into force. The terms of the new treaty would:

  • Upgrade France's representation in Monaco from Consulate General to that of an embassy;
  • Permit, for the first time, other countries to accredit ambassadors to Monaco; and
  • Formally recognize the succession scheme set out in the 1962 Constitution, which extends eligibility to the Prince's daughters and other family members.

Although not a member of the European Union (EU), Monaco is closely associated with the economic apparatus of the EU through its customs union with France and its reliance upon the euro as its official currency.

Monaco has 10 diplomatic missions in Western Europe and permanent representation at the United Nations and the Council of Europe. It maintains honorary consulates in 106 cities in 45 countries. Seventy-four countries have consulates general, consulates, or honorary consulates in or accredited to Monaco.


U.S.-MONACO RELATIONS

The United States and Monaco enjoy excellent relations, which both countries seek to maintain and strengthen. From 1956 until her death in 1982, the American-born Grace Kelly was married to Prince Rainier III, Prince Albert's father. The United States does not have a diplomatic mission located in Monaco. The U.S. Consul General in Marseille, France, under the authority of the U.S. Ambassador to France, is formally accredited to Monaco.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

MARSEILLE (CG) Address: Place Varian Fry, 13286 Marseille France; APO/FPO: PSC 116 MARS APO AE 09777; Phone: 33 491 54 9200; Fax: 33 491 55 09 47; Workweek: Monday-Friday, 8:30-5:00.

po:Leslie W. McBee
CON:Ellen B. Thorburn
CLO:Leslie W. McBee
Last Updated: 10/4/2003

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet–France

June 21, 2005

Country Description:

France is a developed and stable democracy with a modern economy. Monaco is a developed constitutional monarchy. Tour-ist facilities are widely available.

Entry/Exit Requirements:

A passport is required for entry to France and Monaco. A visa is not required for tourist/business stays up to 90 days in France and Monaco. That period begins when you enter any of the Schengen group of countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. For further information concerning entry requirements for France, travelers may contact the Embassy of France at 4101 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007, tel. (202) 944-6000, or the French Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, or San Francisco. For further information on entry requirements to Monaco, travelers may contact the Consulate General of Monaco at 565 5th Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017, tel. (212) 759-5227. The Consulate General's web site is http://www.monaco-consulate.com.

Safety and Security:

The Government of France maintains a threat level program called "Vigipirate" which is similar to the U.S. Homeland Security Advisory System. Under this plan, in times of heightened security concerns, the government mobilizes police and armed forces at airports, train and metro stations, and other high-profile locations such as schools, embassies, and government installations. Over the last year, arrests have been made in France in connection with various possible Islamic extremist terrorist plots. Like other countries that are members of the Schengen Agreement of free cross-border movement, France's open borders with its European neighbors allow the possibility for terrorist groups to enter/exit the country with anonymity. American citizens should remain alert and vigilant, and report any suspect packages or suspicious activities to local police. All passengers on subways and trains are urged to be aware of their surroundings and to report any unattended baggage to the nearest authority.

In the past, political assassinations and random bombings have occurred in France. The National Front for the Liberation of Corsica (FLNC), as part of its decades long bombing campaign on the island of Corsica, continues to conduct limited operations in the south of France and on Corsica. Corsican groups occasionally detonate small bombs at government institutions, banks, travel agencies, etc. Americans have not been specifically targeted in Corsican bombing incidents.

Although violent civil disorder is rare in France, in the past, student demonstrations, labor protests, and other routine demonstrations have turned into violent confrontations between demonstrators and police. Americans are advised to avoid street demonstrations.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Crime:

While both France and Monaco have relatively low rates of violent crime, a limited number of neighborhoods in the larger French cities merit extra caution. Additionally, although the overall crime rate has fallen slightly in recent years, the volume of crimes involving violence has increased in France. Thieves commonly target vehicles with non-local license plates and work in or near tourist attractions such as museums, monuments, restaurants, hotels, beaches, trains, train stations, airports, and subways. Americans in France and Monaco should be particularly alert to pickpockets in train stations and subways. Photocopies of travel documents and credit cards should be kept separate from the originals.

Although thieves may operate anywhere, the U.S. Embassy in Paris receives frequent reports of theft from several areas in particular.

Paris:

The Paris Police Prefecture has published a pamphlet entitled "Feeling Safe in Paris," which provides practical advice and useful telephone numbers for visitors and can be accessed at http://www.prefecture-police-paris.interieur.gouv.fr/feeling_safe_in_paris.htm. Gangs of thieves operate on the rail link (RER) from Charles de Gaulle Airport to downtown Paris, where they prey on jet-lagged, luggage-burdened tour-ists. In one common ruse, a thief distracts a tourist with a question about directions, while an accomplice steals a momentarily unguarded backpack, briefcase, or purse. Thieves also time their thefts to coincide with train stops so they may quickly exit the car. Travelers may wish to consider taking a bus or taxi from the airport into the city.

Reports of stolen purses, briefcases and carry-on bags at Charles de Gaulle Airport have been on the rise. Travelers should monitor their bags at all times and never leave them unattended. As thieves commonly target laptop bags, travelers should avoid carrying passports and other valuables in computer bags. Unattended bags are subject to destruction by airport security.

There have been reports of robberies in which thieves on motorcycles reach into a moving car by opening the car door or reaching through an open window to steal purses and other bags visible inside. The same technique is used against pedestrians walking with purses/bags/cameras slung over their street-side shoulder. Those traveling by car should remember to keep the windows up and the doors locked.

Many thefts occur on the Number One Subway Line, which runs through the center of Paris by many major tourist attractions (including the Grand Arch at La Defense, the Arc de Triomphe, the Champs Elysees, Place de la Concorde, the Louvre, and the Bastille). Pickpockets are especially active on this metro line during the summer months and use a number of techniques. The most common, and unfortunately the most successful, is the simple "bump and snatch," where an individual bumps into the tourist while at the same time reaching into the pockets/purse/bag. Visitors should be particularly careful when metro doors are closing, as this is a favored moment for the less-sophisticated pickpockets to simply grab valuables and jump through the closing doors, leaving the victim helplessly watching as the thief flees. Visitors are encouraged NOT to aggressively confront thieves, who often operate in groups and may become violent if cornered. Simply drawing attention to an attempted theft will most likely stop the operation and cause a tactical withdrawal by the thief.

Gare du Nord train station, where the express trains from the airport arrive in Paris, is also a high-risk area for pickpocketing and theft. Travelers should also beware of thefts that occur on both overnight and day trains, especially on trains originating in Spain, Italy, and Belgium. Additionally, several sexual assaults involving American citizens have occurred in recent years in the immediate vicinity of the Gare du Nord train station.

Thefts also occur at the major department stores (Galeries Lafayette, Printemps, and Samaritaine) where tourists often place wallets, passports, and credit cards on cashier counters during transactions.

In hotels, thieves target lobbies and breakfast rooms, and take advantage of a minute of inattention to snatch jackets, purses, and backpacks. While many hotels do have safety latches that allow guests to secure their rooms from inside, this feature is not as universal as it is in the United States. If no chain or latch is present, a chair placed up against the door and wedged under the handle is usually an effective obstacle to surreptitious entry during the night. There are, however, reports of thieves breaking into hotel rooms on lower floors through open windows while the occupants are sleeping. To guard against this, hotel room windows should be kept locked at all times. There have been reports of thieves stealing safes from rooms in Parisian hotels. Whenever possible, valuables should be kept in the hotel safe behind the reception desk rather than in the room safe.

Many Americans have reported thefts occurring in restaurants and nightclubs/bars, where purses are stolen from the back of a chair or from under the table.

ATMs (Automatic Teller Machines) are very common in France and provide ready access to cash, allowing travelers to carry as much money as they need for each day. The rates are competitive with local exchange bureaus and an ATM transaction is easier than the cashing of travelers' checks. However, crimes committed around ATMs have been reported. Travelers should not use ATMs in isolated, unlit areas or where loiterers are present. Travelers should be especially aware of persons standing close enough to see the PIN (Personal Identification Number) being entered into the machine. Thieves often conduct successful scams by simply observing the PIN as it is entered. If the card becomes stuck, travelers should be wary of persons who offer to help or ask for the PIN to "fix" the machine. Legitimate bank employees never have a reason to ask for the PIN.

Large criminal operations in Paris involving the use of ATM machines that "eat" the user's ATM card have been reported. This most often happens during a weekend or at night when the bank is closed. The frustrated traveler often walks away after unsuccessfully trying to retrieve the card, with plans to return the first day the bank is open. In such cases, a criminal gang has modified the machine using an add-on device equipped with a microchip that records the user's PIN number when it is typed in and also prevents the card from being ejected. The criminal retrieves the card from the device once the visitor departs, downloads the recorded PIN number and then goes to other ATMs and withdraws as much cash as possible. ATM users are strongly encouraged to carry a 24-hour emergency number for their ATM card and bank account that will enable the immediate prevention of withdrawals from the supporting account.

Pigalle is the "adult entertainment district" of Paris. Many entertainment establishments in this area engage in aggressive marketing and charge well beyond the normal rate for drinks. There have been reports of threats of violence to coerce patrons into paying exorbitant beverage tabs. Visitors are encouraged to avoid this area unless touring with a well-organized and reputable tour company.

Normandy:

There has been an increase in break-ins and thefts from vehicles in the parking lots at the Normandy beaches and American cemeteries. Valuables should not be left unattended in a car, and locking valuables in the trunk should not be considered a safeguard. Thieves often pry open car trunks to steal bags inside.

Southern France:

Thefts from cars with open windows stopped at red lights are fairly common, particularly in the Nice-Antibes-Cannes area, and in Marseille. Car doors should be kept locked and windows raised at all times to prevent incidents of "snatchand-grab" thefts. In this type of scenario, the thief is usually a passenger on a motorcycle. Similar incidents also have occurred at tollbooths and rest areas. Special caution is advised when entering and exiting a car, as this presents an opportunity for purse-snatchers. Break-ins of parked cars are also fairly common. Valuables should not be left in the car, not even in the trunk, when the vehicle is unattended.

Information for Victims of Crime:

The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while over-seas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. Under French law, compensation is available to victims of crime committed on French soil under certain circumstances.

Medical Facilities and Health Information:

Medical care comparable to that found in the United States is widely available. Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance:

The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions:

While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning France and Monaco is provided for general reference only, and it may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Roads in France are generally comparable to those in the United States, but traffic engineering and driving habits pose special dangers. Usually, lane markings and sign placements are not as clear as in the United States. Drivers should be prepared to make last-minute maneuvers, as most French drivers do. The French typically drive more aggressively and faster than Americans and tend to exceed posted speed limits. Right-ofway rules in France may differ from those in the United States. Drivers entering intersections from the right have priority over those on the left (unless specifically indicated otherwise), even when entering relatively large boulevards from small side streets. Many intersections in France are being replaced by traffic circles, where the right-of-way belongs to drivers in the circle.

On major highways, service stations are situated at least every 25 miles. Service stations are not as plentiful on secondary roads in France as they are in the United States. Paris, the capital and largest city in France, has an extensive and efficient public transportation system. The interconnecting system of buses, subways, and commuter rails serves more than 4 million people a day with a safety record comparable to or better than the systems of major American cities. Similar transportation systems are found in all major French cities. Between cities, France is served by an equally extensive rail service, which is reliable. High-speed rail links connect the major cities in France. Many cities are also served by frequent air service.

Visit the website of the French and Monegasque National Tourist Office at: http://franceguide.com. The web-site contains specific information concerning French and Monegasque driver's permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, and mandatory insurance.

Aviation Safety Oversight:

The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of France's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards for oversight of France's air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's internet web site at www.faa.gov/avr/iasa/index.cfm.

Special Circumstances:

French and Monegasque customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from France of items such as firearms, antiquities, medications, business equipment, sales samples, and other items. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of France in Washington, D.C., one of France's consulates in the United States, or the Consulate General of Monaco in New York for specific information regarding customs requirements.

The emergency numbers in France for police, fire, and medical assistance are as follows: 17 (police emergency), 18 (fire department) and 15 (emergency medical/paramedic team/ambulance). In Monaco, the numbers are 17 (police emergency), 18 (fire department) and 9375-2525 (medical/paramedic team/ambulance).

Criminal Penalties:

While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating French or Monegasque laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in France or Monaco are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues:

For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family/family_1732.html.

Registration/Embassy and Consulate Locations:

Americans living or traveling in France or Monaco are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website, https://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within France and Monaco. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in cases of emergency.

The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Paris is located at 2 Rue St. Florentin, 75001 Paris (Place de La Concorde, Metro Stop Concorde), tel. 011-33-1-43-12-22-22 or (in France) 01-43-12-22-22; fax 011-33-1-42-61-61-40. Further information can be obtained at the U.S. Embassy's web site at http://france.usembassy.gov.

The Consulate General in Marseille is located at Place Varian Fry, 13086 Marseille, tel. 011-33-4-91-54-92-00, ext. 304, or (in France) 04-91-54-92-00, ext. 304; fax 011-33-4-91-55-09-47. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/marseille/default.htm.

The Consulate General in Strasbourg is located at 15 Avenue d'Alsace, 67082 Strasbourg, tel. 011-33-3-88-35-31-04 or (in France) 03-88-35-31-04; fax 011-33-3-88-24-06-95. The Consulate General in Strasbourg does not produce passports on the premises. American citizens in this area whose passports are lost or stolen and who have urgent travel needs should contact the U.S. Embassy in Paris. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/strasbourg/default.htm.

The Consular Agency in Nice is located at 7, Avenue Gustave V, 3rd floor, 06000 Nice, tel. 011-33-4-93-88-89-55 or (in France) 04-93-88-89-55; fax 011-33-4-93-87-07-38. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/marseille/nice.htm.

The U.S. Government also has consular representation in Bordeaux, Lille, Lyon, Rennes, and Toulouse that provide some services to Americans, by appointment only.

The post in Bordeaux is located at 10, place de la Bourse, 33076 Bordeaux (entry on rue Fernand Philippart); tel. 011-33-5-56-48-63-80 or 05-56-48-63-80 in France; fax: 011-33-5-56-51-61-97. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/bordeaux/default.htm.

The post in Lille is located at 107, rue Royale, 59000 Lille; tel. 011-33-3-28-04-25-00 or 03-28-04-25-00 in France; fax: 011-33-3-20-74-88-23. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/lille/default.htm.

The post in Lyon is located at 1, quai Jules Courmont, 69002 Lyon; tel. 011-33-4-78-38-36-88 or 04-78-38-36-88 in France; fax: 011-33-4-72-41-71-81. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/lyon/default.htm.

The post in Rennes is located at 30, quai Duguay Trouin, 35000 Rennes; tel. 011-33-2-23-44-09-60 or 02-23-44-09-60 in France; fax: 011-33-2-99-35-00-92. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/rennes/default.htm.

The post in Toulouse is located at 25, Allee Jean Jaures, 31000 Toulouse; tel. 011-33-5-34-41-36-50 or 05-34-41-36-50 in France; fax: 011-33-5-34-41-16-19. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/toulouse/default.htm.

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Monaco

Monaco

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environment

6 Population

7 Migration

8 Ethnic Groups

9 Languages

10 Religions

11 Transportation

12 History

13 Government

14 Political Parties

15 Judicial System

16 Armed Forces

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Foreign Trade

27 Energy and Power

28 Social Development

29 Health

30 Housing

31 Education

32 Media

33 Tourism and Recreation

34 Famous Monegasques

35 Bibliography

Principality of Monaco
Principauté de Monaco

CAPITAL: The seat of government is at Monaco-Ville

FLAG: The national flag consists of a red horizontal stripe above a white horizontal stripe.

ANTHEM: Hymne Monégasque, beginning “Principauté Monaco, ma patrie” (“Principality of Monaco, my fatherland”).

MONETARY UNIT: The euro replaced the French franc as the official currency in 2002. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. €1 = $1.25475 (or $1 = €0.79697) as of 2005. Monégasque coins also circulate; denominations are 10, 20, and 50 centimes, and 1, 2, 5, 10, and 50 francs. Fr1 = $0.184 (or $1 = Fr5.4) as of March 2006.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is the legal standard.

HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; St. Dévôte, 27 January; Labor Day, 1 May; Assumption, 15 August; All Saints’ Day, 1 November; National Day, 19 November; Immaculate Conception, 8 December; Christmas, 25 December. Movable religious holidays include Easter Monday, Ascension, Pentecost Monday, and Fête-Dieu.

TIME: 1 pm = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

The second-smallest country in both Europe and the world (after the Vatican), Monaco is situated in the southeastern part of the French administrative district of Alpes-Maritimes. Its area is 1.95 square kilometers (1 square mile), about three times the size of the mall in Washington, D.C. Monaco shares a border with France with a boundary length of 5.4 kilometers (3.4 miles). The country has a Mediterranean coastline of 4.1 kilometers (2.5 miles). The capital city, Monaco-Ville, is located near the southern coast of the nation.

2 Topography

There are four main areas in Monaco, which are determined more by economic activities than by geographic conditions: La Condamine, the business district around the port; Monte Carlo, the site of the famous casino, which is at a higher elevation; Monaco-Ville, on a rocky promontory about 60 meters (200 feet) above sea level; and

GEOGRAPHICAL PROFILE

Geographic Features

Area: 1.95 sq km (1 sq mi)

Size ranking: 193 of 194

Highest elevation: 140 meters (459 feet) at Mont Agel

Lowest elevation: Sea level at the Mediterranean Sea

Land Use*

Arable land: 0%

Permanent crops: 0%

Other: 100%

Weather**

Average annual precipitation: 77 centimeters (30.3 inches)

Average temperature in January: 8°c (46°f)

Average temperature in July: 26°c (79°f)

* Arable Land: Land used for temporary crops, like meadows for mowing or pasture, gardens, and greenhouses.

Permanent crops: Land cultivated with crops that occupy its use for long periods, such as cocoa, coffee, rubber, fruit and nut orchards, and vineyards.

Other: Any land not specified, including built-on areas, roads, and barren land.

** The measurements for precipitation and average temperatures were taken at weather stations closest to the country’s largest city.

Precipitation and average temperature can vary significantly within a country, due to factors such as latitude, altitude, coastal proximity, and wind patterns.

Fontvieille, a 22-hectare (54-acre) industrial area that was reclaimed by landfill in the 1960s and 1970s. The highest point in the country is Exotic Garden on Mont Agel, with an elevation of 140 meters (459 feet). The lowest point is at sea level (Mediterranean Sea).

3 Climate

Winters are mild, with temperatures rarely below freezing and a January average of about 8°c (46°f). Summer heat is tempered by sea breezes; the average maximum in July and August is 26°c (79°f). Rainfall averages about 77 centimeters (30.3 inches) a year and about 300 days a year have no precipitation whatsoever.

4 Plants and Animals

Palms, aloes, carobs, tamarisks, mimosas, and other Mediterranean trees, shrubs, and flowers are abundant. Monaco does not have any distinctive native animals.

5 Environment

Monaco is noted for its beautiful natural scenery and mild, sunny climate. The principality has sponsored numerous marine conservation efforts. Its own environment is entirely urban. According to UN reports, Monaco’s environmental circumstances are very good.

Monaco is known for its activity in the field of marine sciences. The Oceanographic Museum, formerly directed by Jacques Cousteau, is renowned for its work and exhibits on marine life.

As of 2006, threatened species included 26 species of marine life. Threatened species included the great white shark, the blue shark, striped dolphin, albacore tuna, and swordfish.

6 Population

The resident population was estimated at 33,000 in 2005. The estimated population for 2025 is 44,000. The residential population density in 2005 was estimated at 16,923 per square kilometer (43,830 per square mile), making Monaco the most densely populated country in the world. It is believed that 100% of the population lives in urban areas.

7 Migration

There is a long waiting list for Monégasque citizenship. A 1992 law allows Monégasque women to confer citizenship on their children. In 2000, more than two-thirds of the residents were non-citizens. In 2005, the estimated net migration rate was 7.71 migrants per 1,000 population.

8 Ethnic Groups

The native Monégasques are said to be of Rhaetian stock. They make up only 16% of the population. The foreign residents are a highly cosmopolitan group, including more than 47% French, 16% Italians, and 21% others.

9 Languages

French is the official language. English and Italian also are widely spoken. Many inhabitants speak the Monégasque language, which has its origins in the Genoese dialect of Italian and the Provençal language of southern France.

10 Religions

About 90% of the population adhere to Roman Catholicism, which is the official state religion. There are five Catholic churches and one cathedral in the principality, two Protestant churches, and one Jewish synagogue. Though there are a small number of Muslims, there are no mosques.

Freedom of worship is guaranteed by the constitution.

11 Transportation

In 2002 there were 50 kilometers (31 miles) of paved roadways. In 1995 there were 17,000 passenger cars and 4,000 commercial vehicles. There is frequent bus service. The southeastern network of the French national railroad system serves Monaco with about 1.7 kilometers (1 mile) of track. Monaco is only 10 kilometers (6 miles)

BIOGRAPHICAL PROFILE

Name: Prince Albert II

Position: Chief of State of a constitutional monarchy

Took Office: 6 April 2005

Birthplace: Palais Princier, Monaco

Birthdate: 14 March 1958

Education: Degree in political science from Amherst College in Massachusetts

Spouse: Never married

Children: Two children, Jazmin and Eric

Of interest: Because Prince Albert has never married the Monaco constitution was changed to allow a female to succeed him in order to continue the family line.

from the international airport at Nice, France. In 2001 (the latest year for which data was available), 77,800 passengers were carried on domestic and international airline flights. The harbor provides access by sea.

12 History

The ruling family of Monaco, the house of Grimaldi, secured control late in the 13th century. The principality was founded in 1338 by Charles I. The first Monégasque coins were minted in the 16th century.

France annexed the principality in 1793, but independence was reestablished in 1814. In 1848, the towns of Roquebrune and Menton, which constituted the easternmost part of Monaco, successfully rebelled and established themselves as a republic and, in 1861, became part of France.

The economic development of Monaco proceeded rapidly with the opening of the railroad in 1868 and of the gambling casino. Since that time, the principality has become world famous as a tourist and recreation center.

Monaco has been a constitutional monarchy since the early 20th century. In 1956, Prince Rainier III married the popular American actress Grace Kelly, with whom he had three children: Princess Caroline, Prince Albert, and Princess Stephanie. Princess Grace was killed in a car accident in 1982.

Monaco joined the United Nations on 28 May 1993. That year, Prince Rainier ordered an investigation of Monaco′s principal state-owned company. There had been complaints about threats used to recover loans from gamblers at the casinos.

Prince Rainier died in early 2005 and in July 2005, Prince Albert II assumed the throne. The event was overshadowed by his admission of having an illegitimate child. His illegitimate son will not be able to inherit the throne, although Prince Albert II acknowledged paternity and assumed his financial responsibilities.

13 Government

Monaco is a constitutional monarchy ruled by the hereditary princes or princesses of the Grimaldi line. Originally, the constitution stated that if the reigning prince were to die without leaving a male heir, Monaco would be incorporated into France. In 2002, because Prince Rainier III′s son, Albert, was a 43-year-old bachelor without male heirs, Prince Rainier changed Monaco′s constitution to allow one of his two daughters, Caroline or Stephanie, to inherit the throne and preserve the Grimaldi dynasty in the event of Albert′s death without heirs.

There is a single-chamber national council of 24 members elected by direct popular vote every five years; it shares legislative functions with the prince. Until 2003, suffrage was exercised only by true-born Monégasques of 21 and over. Naturalized Monégasques were granted voting rights in 2003 and the voting age was reduced to 18.

Municipal government is conducted by an elected council (Conseil Communal) of 15 members, headed by a mayor. The three communes that made up Monaco before 1917—Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, and Monte Carlo—each had its own mayor from 1911 to 1917. Since that date, they have formed a single commune, together with Fontvieille.

14 Political Parties

Monaco does not formally have political parties, but candidates compete on the basis of various lists. The major political groups have been the National and Democratic Union (Union Nationale et Démocratique—UND); Communist Action (Action Communale—AC); Évolution Communale (EC); and the Movement of Democratic Union (MUD).

Elections held on 9 February 2003 were the first under a new electoral law establishing 24 seats in the National Council. A unified opposition list, the Union for Monaco, composed of the National Union for the Future of Monaco and the Rally for the Monégasque Family, took 58.5% of the vote and 21 seats, to the UND′s 41.5% and 3 seats.

15 Judicial System

A justice of the peace tries petty cases. Other courts are the court of first instance, the court of appeal, the court of revision, and the criminal court. The highest judicial authority is vested in the supreme court.

16 Armed Forces

France assumed responsibility for the defense of Monaco as part of the Versailles Treaty in 1919. There is no army in the principality. A private guard protects the royal family and a police force of 390 ensures public safety.

17 Economy

For its livelihood, Monaco depends chiefly on income from tourism, real estate, financial services, and light industry. A substantial part of the principality′s revenue from tourist sources comes from the operations of Sea-Bathing Company (Société des Bains de Mer—SBM), of which the government owns 69%. The SBM operates the gambling casino at Monte Carlo as well as several luxury hotels and motion-picture theaters. Monaco is known as a tax haven.

18 Income

In 2005, the gross domestic product (GDP) was $870 million, or about $27,000 per person. The average inflation rate in 2002 was 1.9%.

19 Industry

The tourist industry dominates Monaco′s economic life, but small-scale industries produce a variety of items for domestic use and for export. About 700 small businesses make pottery and glass objects, paper and cards, jewelry, perfumes, dolls, precision instruments, plastics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, machine tools, watches, leather items, and radio parts. There are flour mills, dairies, and chocolate and candy plants, as well as textile mills and a small shipyard.

20 Labor

There is virtually no unemployment in Monaco, as the Prince guarantees all his subjects lifetime employment. The major employer of the working

population is the SBM (Société des Bains de Mer); others work in industry or in service establishments. As of 1994 (the latest year for which data was available), the labor force was approximately 30,000. About two-thirds of all employees commute from France and Italy. Less than 10% of the labor force was unionized in 2005. The minimum working age is 16, although special restrictions apply until the age of 18.

21 Agriculture

There is no major agricultural activity in Monaco.

22 Domesticated Animals

There is a small dairy industry serving local needs.

23 Fishing

Some fishing is carried on to meet domestic requirements. In 2003, the total catch was 3,000 tons. Monaco actively engages in marine science research and in marine life preservation.

24 Forestry

There are no major forests in Monaco.

25 Mining

There is no commercial mining.

26 Foreign Trade

Foreign trade is included in the statistics for France, with which Monaco has a customs union.

27 Energy and Power

Power is supplied by France. In 1991, standby electrical capacity totaled 10,000 kilowatts.

28 Social Development

Social security benefits are financed by both employers and employees. Benefits include old age, survivorship, and disability pensions, sickness and maternity benefits, reimbursement for medical expenses, workers′ compensation, unemployment benefits, family allowances, and education grants. There is equal legal treatment of men and women who are born in Monaco.

Selected Social Indicators

The statistics below are the most recent estimates available as of 2006. For comparison purposes, data for the United States and averages for low-income countries and high-income countries are also given. About 15% of the world′s 6.5 billion people live in high-income countries, while 37% live in low-income countries.

IndicatorMonaco Low-income countriesHigh-income countriesUnited States
sources: World Bank. World Development Indicators. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2006; Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2006; World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.
Per capita gross national income (GNI)*$27,000 $2,258$31,009$39,820
Population growth rate0.4% 2%0.8%1.2%
People per square kilometer of land16,923 803032
Life expectancy in years: male76 587675
female84 608280
Number of physicians per 1,000 people5.8 0.43.72.3
Number of pupils per teacher (primary school)n.a. 431615
Literacy rate (15 years and older)99% 65%>95%99%
Television sets per 1,000 peoplen.a. 84735938
Internet users per 1,000 peoplen.a. 28538630
Energy consumed per capita (kg of oil equivalent)n.a. 5015,4107,843
CO2 emissions per capita (metric tons)n.a. 0.8512.9719.92
* The GNI is the total of all goods and services produced by the residents of a country in a year. The per capita GNI is calculated by dividing a country′s
GNI by its population and adjusting for relative purchasing power.
n.a.: data not available >: greater than <: less than

Women are well represented in the professions, but underrepresented in business.

29 Health

In 2004, Monaco had the third most physicians per person in the world. There were an estimated 586 physicians per 100,000 people in the country, as well as 1,430 nurses, 107 dentists, and 192 pharmacists per 100,000 people. The estimated life expectancy in 2005 was 79.57 years.

In 2000, there were about 18,396 housing units in the nation. In recent years, the government has stressed the construction of luxury housing.

31 Education

Education is compulsory from ages 6 to 16. Attendance for school-age children is at 90%. In 2001, there were about 2,000 students enrolled in primary schools and 3,000 enrolled in secondary schools.

The University of Southern Europe was renamed the International University of Monaco in 2002. The university offers degrees in business and business administration. Students may travel abroad for higher education.

32 Media

Postal and telegraphic services are operated by France, but Monaco issues its own postage stamps. As of 2002, there were 33,700 mainline telephones and 19,300 mobile phones in use nationwide. As of 1999, Monaco had 3 AM and 4 FM radio stations and 5 television stations. In 1997, there were 34,000 radios and 25,000 televisions throughout the country.

Two dailies in Nice, Nice-Matin and L′Espoir, publish special editions for Monaco. International publications are readily available. The Journal de Monaco, an official publication, appears once a week, and the Tribune de Monaco is published biweekly.

33 Tourism and Recreation

Monaco has been famous for attracting wealthy and titled tourists since its gambling casino was established at Monte Carlo in 1856. In 2005, gambling accounted for almost 25% of the annual revenue.

Among the many attractions are the Louis II Stadium, several museums and gardens, and the beach. The Monte Carlo opera house has been the site of many world-premiere performances. The principality has excellent sports facilities. The Monte Carlo Rally, a world-famous driving championship, ends with a finish line in Monaco.

In 2003, approximately 235,000 visitors arrived in Monaco. The principality had 2,191 hotel rooms in 2002 with an overall occupancy rate of 63%.

34 Famous Monegasques

Prince Albert (1848–1922), who reigned from 1889 to 1922, was famous as an oceanographer. In 1956, his great-grandson, Rainier III (1923– 2005), married Grace Patricia Kelly (1929– 1982), a U.S. film actress, whose death on 14 September 1982 following an automobile accident was mourned throughout Monaco. Their son, Albert (b.1958), became Prince Albert II upon his father′s death; Princess Caroline (b.1957) and Princess Stephanie (b.1965) are their daughters. Olivier Beretta (b.1969) is a famous racecar driver from Monaco.

35 Bibliography

BOOKS

Campbell, Siri. Inside Monaco. Glen Ellyn, IL: MCI, 1996.

Edwards, Anne. The Grimaldis of Monaco. New York: Morrow, 1992.

Englund, Steven. Grace of Monaco: An Interpretive Biography. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1984.

Hopkins, Adam. Essential French Riviera. Lincolnwood, IL: Passport Books, 1994.

WEB SITES

Country Pages. www.state.gov/p/eur/ci/mn/. (accessed on January 15, 2007).

Government Home Page. www.monaco.gouv.mc.. (accessed on January 15, 2007).

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Monaco

Monaco

Compiled from the December 2006 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Principality of Monaco

PROFILE

GEOGRAPHY

PEOPLE

HISTORY

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

ECONOMY

FOREIGN RELATIONS

U.S.–MONACO RELATIONS

TRAVEL

PROFILE

Geography

Area: 1.95 sq. km. (0.8 sq. mi); about the size of New York City’s Central Park.

Cities: Capital—Monaco, pop. 32,409 (July 2005 est.).

Terrain: Hilly.

Climate: Mediterranean.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective—Monegasque.

Population: 32,543 (July 2006 est.).

Annual growth rate: (2006 est.) 0.4%.

Ethnic groups: (2006) French 47%, Italian 16%, Monegasque 16%, other 21%.

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, and Monegasque.

Education: Years compulsory—10, ages 6-16. Attendance—99%. Literacy—99%.

Health: (2005 est.) Infant mortality—5.43/1,000. Life expectancy—75.85 yrs. male; 83.74 yrs. female. Birth rate (2006 est.)—9.19 births/1,000 population. Death rate (2006 est.)—12.91 deaths/1,000 population.

Work force: (2003, 41,708) Private sector—37,949. Public sector—3,759. Services—83.5%. Banking—23.43%. Tourism and hotel—11.64%. Retail—4.92%. Construction and public works—32.02%. Industry—6.98%.

Goverment

Type: Constitutional monarchy.

Constitution: December 17, 1962 (amended in April 2002).

Government branches: Executive—Prince Albert II (chief of state). Legislative—National Council (24 members). Judicial—Court of First Instance, Court of Appeal, High Court of Appeal, Criminal Court, Supreme Court.

Political subdivisions: Four quarters (quartiers)—Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte-Carlo, Fontvieille.

Political parties: Union pour Monaco (UPM), National and Democratic Union (UND), Parti Monégasque (PM).

Suffrage: Universal adult at age 18.

Economy

GDP: Monaco does not publish economic figures such as gross domestic product, though estimates placed purchasing power parity GDP at $870 million in 2000.

Avg. annual growth rate: (2003 est.) 1.89%.

Per capita purchasing power parity GDP: (2000 est.) $27,000.

Agriculture: None.

Industry: Types—tourism, construction, chemicals, food products, plastics, precision instruments, cosmetics, ceramics.

Trade: Imports (2003)—about $513 million (416,348,096 euros). Exports (2003)—about $644 million (522,976,329 euros).

Currency: Monaco, along with France and the other 11 members of the European Monetary Union (EMU), adopted the euro as its official currency on January 1, 2002. As in other EMU states, Euros minted in Monaco have special Monegasque features on one side of the coin.

GEOGRAPHY

The Principality of Monaco is the second-smallest independent state in the world, after the Holy See (Vatican City). It is located on the Mediterranean coast, 18 kilometers (11 mi.) east of Nice, France, and is surrounded on three sides by France. Monaco is divided into four sections: Monaco-Ville, the old city on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean; La Condamine, the section along the port; Monte-Carlo, the principal residential and resort area; and Fontvieille, a newly constructed area reclaimed from the sea.

The principality is noted for its beautiful natural scenery and mild, sunny climate. The average minimum temperature in January and February is 8°C (47°F); in July and August the average maximum temperature is 26°C (78°F).

PEOPLE

In July 2005, Monaco’s population was estimated at 32,409, with an estimated average growth rate of 0.43%.

French is the official language; English, Italian, and Monegasque (a blend of French and Italian) also are spoken. The literacy rate is 99%. Roman Catholicism is the official religion, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution.

HISTORY

Founded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa, Monaco has been ruled by the House of Grimaldi since 1297, except when under French control from 1789 to 1814. Designated as a protectorate of Sardinia from 1815 until 1860 by the Treaty of Vienna, Monaco’s sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. The Prince of Monaco was an absolute ruler until a constitution was promulgated in 1911.

In July 1918, a treaty was signed providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, formally noted in the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests.

A new constitution, proclaimed in 1962, abolished capital punishment, provided for female suffrage, and established a Supreme Court to guarantee fundamental liberties.

In 1993, Monaco became an official member of the United Nations with full voting rights. It joined the Council of Europe in 2004.

Three months after the death of his father, Prince Rainier III, on April 6, Prince Albert II formally acceded to the throne on July 12, 2005.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Monaco has been governed as a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Prince as chief of state. The executive branch consists of a Minister of State (head of government), who presides over a five-member Council of Government (cabinet). The Minister of State is responsible for foreign relations. As the Prince’s representative, the Minister of State also directs the executive services, commands the police, and presides (with voting powers) over the Council of Government. The five members of the Council are respectively responsible for internal affairs, external affairs, the environment, finance and economy, and social affairs and health.

Under the 1962 constitution, the Prince shares his power with the unicameral National Council. Sixteen of the 24 members of this legislative body are elected by list majority system, and 8 by proportional representation to serve 5-year terms. The elections were last held on February 9, 2003, and will be held next in February 2008. If the Prince dissolves the National Council, new elections must be held within 3 months. Usually meeting twice annually, the Council votes on the budget and endorses laws proposed by the Prince.

Ordinances passed by the National Council are debated in the Council of Government, as are the ministerial decrees signed by the Minister of State. Once approved, the ordinances must be submitted to the Prince within 80 days for his signature, which makes them legally enforceable. If he does not express opposition within 10 days of submission, they become valid.

Judicial power is invested in the Prince, who delegates judicial procedures to the various courts, which dispense justice in his name. The independence of the judges is guaranteed by the constitution. The Supreme Court is composed of five chief members and two assistant judges named by the Prince on the basis of nominations by the National Council and other government bodies. The Supreme Court is the highest court for judicial appeals and also interprets the constitution when necessary. Monaco’s legal system, closely related to that of France, is patterned after the Napoleonic Code.

The principality’s local affairs (the administration of the four quarters of Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and Fontvieille) are directed by the Communal Council, which consists of 15 elected members and is presided over by the Mayor.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 8/5/2005

Chief of State: ALBERT II, Prince

Min. of State: Jean-Paul PROUST

Min. of Economy & Finance: Franck BIANCHERI

Min. of Environmental Affairs & Town Planning: Gilles TONELLI

Min. of External Relations: Rainier IMPERTI

Min. of Social Affairs & Health: Denis RAVERA

Permanent Representative to the UN: Gilles NOGHES

ECONOMY

Monaco, located on the Mediterranean coast, has an economy primarily geared toward finance, commerce, and tourism. Low taxes have drawn many foreign companies to Monaco; the companies’ production accounts for around 50% of the 593 million annual government income (2002). The enterprises pay a 33.33% tax only if more than 25% of their revenue is generated abroad. Ever since Monaco’s famed casino opened in 1856, the tourism industry has been booming. It currently accounts for close to 25% of the annual revenue.

Customs, postal services, telecommunications, and banking in Monaco are governed by an economic and customs union with France. The official currency is the euro.

Though official economic statistics are not published, 2000 estimates placed the national product at $870 million and the per capita income at $27,000. Monaco does not publish the figures for unemployment, but in 1998 the rate was estimated to be at 3.1%.

Monaco is noted for its activity in the field of marine sciences. Its Oceano-graphic Museum, formerly directed by Jacques Cousteau, is one of the most renowned institutions of its kind in the world. Monaco imports and exports products and services from all over the world. There is no commercial agriculture in Monaco.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Monaco actively participates in the United Nations, which it joined in 1993. Monaco joined the Council of Europe on October 4, 2004. Monaco also is a member of many international and intergovernmental organizations, including Interpol, the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the World Health Organization (WHO). The International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) is headquartered in Monaco.

The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent state, linked closely to France by the Treaty of July 1918, which was formally noted in Article 436 of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. The foreign policy of Monaco is one illustration of this accord: France has agreed to defend the independence and sovereignty of Monaco, while the Monegasque Government has agreed to exercise its sovereign rights in conformity with French interests. Since then, the relations between the sovereign states of France and Monaco have been further defined in the Treaty of 1945 and the Agreement of 1963.

In 2002, Monaco renegotiated its 1918 treaty with France. In 2005, it was ratified by both parties and entered into force. The terms of the treaty:

  • Upgrade France’s representation in Monaco from Consulate General to that of an embassy;
  • Permit, for the first time, other countries to accredit ambassadors to Monaco; and
  • Formally recognize the succession scheme set out in the 1962 Constitution, which extends eligibility to the Prince’s daughters and other family members.

Although not a member of the European Union (EU), Monaco is closely associated with the economic apparatus of the EU through its customs union with France and its reliance upon the euro as its “official currency.

Monaco has 10 diplomatic missions in Western Europe and permanent representation at the United Nations and the Council of Europe. It maintains honorary consulates in 106 cities in 45 countries. Seventy-six countries have consulates general, consulates, or honorary consulates in or accredited to Monaco.

U.S.–MONACO RELATIONS

The United States and Monaco enjoy excellent relations, which both countries seek to maintain and strengthen. From 1956 until her death in 1982, the American-born Grace Kelly was married to Prince Rainier III, Prince Albert’s father. The United States does not yet have a diplomatic mission located in Monaco.

In December 2006, the United States and Monaco upgraded from consular to full diplomatic relations. Shortly after, Ambassador Craig Stapleton (France) was accredited to Monaco, and Ambassador Gilles Noghes became the first Monegasque ambassador to the United States.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

PARIS (E) Address: 2, avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08; APO/FPO: PSC 116, APO AE 09777-5000; Phone: (33) (1) 4312-2222; Fax: 33-1-42 66 97 83; INMARSAT Tel: 011-8816-4142-8701, 011-8816-4142-8702, 011-8816-4142-8703; Workweek: Mon--Fri 9 a.m–6 p.m.; Website: www.amb-usa.fr.

AMB:Craig R. Stapleton
AMB OMS:Yvonne E. DeRuiz
DCM:Karl W. Hofmann
DCM OMS:Bridget C. Kissinger
CG:Donald E. Wells
CG OMS:Terri Lindsey
POL:Josiah B. Rosenblatt
MGT:Elizabeth J. Agnew
AFSA:Kenan H. Hunter
AGR:Elizabeth Berry
AID:George Carner
APHIS:Alejandro Thiermann
CDC:Paula Fujiwara
CLO:Veronique Turner
CUS:Lydia St. John-Mellado
DAO:Raymond C. Hodgkins
DEA:Robert W. Houston
ECO:Thomas J. White
EEO:Brian A. Jablon, Lucia Keegan & Michele Bolin
EPA:Keith D. Mason
EST:Robert W. Dry
FAA:Lirio Liu Nelson
FAA/CASLO:Nouri Larbi
FCS:Robert S. Connan
FMO:Barry L. Haney
GSO:Charles J. Hamblett
ICASS Chair:Donald E. Wells
IMO:Howard Keegan
IPO:Larry D. Carson, Jr.
IRS:Kathy J. Beck
ISO:Susan Hullinger
ISSO:Carlos Zapata
LAB:William H. Owen
LEGATT:Robin Gazawi
PAO:James L. Bullock
RAMC:Jamie Seale
RSO:Jan D. Abbott
State ICASS:Donald E. Wells

Last Updated: 1/17/2007

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet—France & Monaco : July 6, 2006

Country Description: France is a developed and stable democracy with a modern economy. Monaco is a developed constitutional monarchy. Tourist facilities are widely available.

Entry/Exit Requirements: A passport is required for entry to France and Monaco. A visa is not required for tourist/business stays up to 90 days in France and Monaco. That period begins when you enter any of the Schengen group of countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. For further information concerning entry requirements for France, travelers may contact the Embassy of France at 4101 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007, tel. (202) 944-6000, or the French Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, or San Francisco.

For further information on entry requirements to Monaco, travelers may contact the Consulate General of Monaco at 565 5th Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017, tel. (212) 759-5227. The Consulate General’s web site is http://www.monaco-consulate.com. Visit the Embassy of France web site at http://www.consulfrance-washington.org for the most current visa information.

Note: Although European Union regulations require that non-EU visitors obtain a stamp in their passport upon initial entry to a Schengen country; many borders are not staffed with officers carrying out this function. If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry. Under local law, travelers without a stamp in their passport may be questioned and asked to document the length of their stay in Schengen countries at the time of departure or at any other point during their visit, and could face possible fines or other repercussions if unable to do so.

Safety and Security: The Government of France maintains a threat rating system known locally as “Vigipirate”; it is similar to the U.S. Homeland Security Advisory System. Under this plan, in times of heightened security concerns, the government augments police with armed forces and increases visibility at airports, train and metro stations, and other high-profile locations such as schools, major tourist attractions, and government installations. Over the last year, there have been numerous arrests of suspected Islamic militants involved in various terrorist plots. As with other countries in the Schengen area, France maintains open borders with its European neighbors, allowing the possibility of terrorist groups entering/exiting the country with anonymity.

In the past, political assassinations and bombings have occurred in France. The National Front for the Liberation of Corsica (FLNC), as part of its decades long bombing campaign on the island of Corsica, continues to conduct limited operations in the south of France and on Corsica. In the 1990’s there was a wave of bombings and attacks in Paris carried out by Algerian terrorists. Today, numerous radical Islamic groups claim sympathizers within France’s large immigrant community, as evidenced by arrests over the last few years.

Although Americans have not been specifically targeted in terrorist attacks in France within the past few years, travelers should maintain vigilance. Immediately report unattended packages observed in public places or any other suspicious activities. French law enforcement authorities are pro-active and will respond immediately. If there is a security incident or suspicious package, do not linger in the area to observe.

Although violent civil disorder is rare in France, in the past, student demonstrations, labor protests, and other demonstrations have developed into violent confrontations between demonstrators and police. This was the case in March/April 2006, when a series of large demonstrations took place in central Paris. Several weeks of unrest occurred in the suburbs of Paris, as well as in other French cities and towns, in November 2005. Americans are advised to avoid street demonstrations particularly if riot police are on the scene.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet web site where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Crime: While both France and Monaco have relatively low rates of violent crime, a limited number of neighborhoods in the larger French cities merit extra caution. Additionally, although the overall crime rate has fallen slightly in recent years, the volume of crimes involving violence has increased in France. Thieves commonly target vehicles with nonlocal license plates and work in or near tourist attractions such as museums, monuments, restaurants, hotels, beaches, trains, train stations, airports, and subways. Americans in France and Monaco should be particularly alert to pickpockets in train stations and subways.

Photocopies of travel documents and credit cards should be kept separate from the originals and key telephone numbers maintained to contact banks if credit cards are stolen or lost.

Although thieves may operate anywhere, the U.S. Embassy in Paris receives frequent reports of theft from several areas in particular:

Paris: The Paris Police Prefecture has published a pamphlet entitled “Feeling Safe in Paris,” which provides practical advice and useful telephone numbers for visitors and can be accessed at http://www.prefecture-police-paris.interieur.gouv.fr/feeling_safe_in_paris.htm. Thieves operate on the rail link (RER) from Charles de Gaulle Airport to downtown Paris, where they prey on jetlagged, luggage-burdened tourists. In one common ruse, a thief distracts a tourist with a question about directions, while an accomplice steals a momentarily unguarded backpack, briefcase, or purse. Thieves also time their thefts to coincide with train stops so they may quickly exit the car just before the automatic doors close. Travelers may wish to consider taking an airport shuttle bus or taxi from the airport into the city.

Reports of stolen purses, briefcases, and carry-on bags at Charles de Gaulle Airport have been on the rise. Travelers should monitor their bags at all times and never leave them unattended. As thieves commonly target laptop bags, travelers should avoid carrying passports and other valuables in computer bags. One common method involves timing the theft so that while the traveler is busy at the ticket counter, the traveler’s shoulder bag is picked up after being placed on the floor. Also be aware that unattended bags are subject to destruction by airport security.

There have been reports of robberies in which thieves on motorcycles reach into a moving car by opening the car door or reaching through an open window to steal purses and other bags visible inside. The same technique is used against pedestrians walking with purses/bags/cameras slung over their street-side shoulder. Those traveling by car should remember to keep the windows up and the doors locked. Pedestrians are encouraged to walk as far from the street side as possible.

Many thefts occur on the Number One Subway Line, which runs through the center of Paris by many major tourist attractions (including the Grand Arch at La Defense, the Arc de Triomphe, the Champs Elysees, Place de la Concorde, the Louvre, and the Bastille). Pickpockets are especially active on this metro line during the summer months and use a number of techniques. The most common, and unfortunately the most successful, is the simple “bump and snatch,” where an individual bumps into the tourist while at the same time reaching into the pockets/purse/bag. Visitors should be particularly careful when metro doors are closing, as this is a favored moment for the less-sophisticated pickpockets to simply grab valuables and jump through the closing doors, leaving the victim helplessly watching as the thief flees. Visitors are encouraged NOT to aggressively confront thieves, who often operate in groups and may become violent if cornered. Simply drawing attention to an attempted theft will most likely stop the operation and cause a tactical withdrawal by the thief.

Gare du Nord train station, where the express trains from the airport arrive in Paris, is also a high-risk area for pickpocketing and theft. Travelers should also beware of thefts that occur on both overnight and day trains, especially on trains originating in Spain, Italy, and Belgium. These involve the theft of valuables while passengers are sleeping or when the bags are left unattended.

In hotels, thieves target lobbies and breakfast rooms, and take advantage of a minute of inattention to snatch jackets, purses, and backpacks. While many hotels do have safety latches that allow guests to secure their rooms from inside, this feature is not as universal as it is in the United States. If no chain or latch is present, a chair placed up against the door and wedged under the handle is usually an effective obstacle to surreptitious entry during the night. There are, however, reports of thieves breaking into hotel rooms on lower floors through open windows while the occupants are sleeping. To guard against this, hotel room windows should be kept locked at all times. Whenever possible, valuables should be kept in the hotel safe.

Many Americans have reported thefts occurring in restaurants and nightclubs/bars, where purses are stolen from the back of a chair or from under the table. Again, keep valuables on your person and do not leave them unattended or out of sight. Thefts also occur at the major department stores such as Galeries Lafayette and Printemps where tourists often place wallets, passports, and credit cards on cashier counters during transactions.

ATMs (Automatic Teller Machines) are very common in France and provide ready access to cash, allowing travelers to carry as much money as they need for each day. The rates are competitive with local exchange bureaus and an ATM transaction is easier than the cashing of travelers’ checks. However, crimes involving ATMs are increasing. Travelers should not use ATMs in isolated, unlit areas or where loiterers are present. Travelers should be especially aware of persons standing close enough to see the PIN (Personal Identification Number) being entered into the machine. Thieves often conduct successful scams by simply observing the PIN as it is entered and then stealing the card from the user in some other location. If the card becomes stuck, travelers should immediately report it to the bank where the machine is located.

Large criminal operations in Paris involving the use of ATM machines that “eat” the user’s ATM card have been reported. This most often happens during a weekend or at night when the bank is closed. The frustrated traveler often walks away after unsuccessfully trying to retrieve the card, with plans to return the first day the bank is open. In such cases, a criminal gang has modified the machine using an add-on device equipped with a microchip that records the user’s PIN number when it is typed in and also prevents the card from being ejected. The criminal retrieves the card from the device once the visitor departs, downloads the recorded PIN number and then goes to other ATMs and withdraws as much cash as possible. ATM users are strongly encouraged to carry a 24-hour emergency number for their ATM card and bank account that will enable the immediate prevention of withdrawals from the account if difficulties occur.

Pigalle is the “adult entertainment district” of Paris. Many entertainment establishments in this area engage in aggressive marketing and charge well beyond the normal rate for drinks. There have been reports of threats of violence to coerce patrons into paying exorbitant beverage tabs. Visitors are encouraged to avoid this area unless touring with a well-organized and reputable tour company.

Normandy: There has been an increase in break-ins and thefts from vehicles in the parking lots at the Normandy beaches and American cemeteries. Valuables should not be left unattended in a car, and locking valuables in the trunk should not be considered a safeguard. Thieves often pry open car trunks to steal bags inside.

Southern France: Thefts from cars with unlocked doors or open windows stopped at red lights or caught in slow traffic are very common, particularly along the Riviera of the Nice-Antibes-Cannes area, and in Marseille. Car doors should be kept locked and windows raised at all times to prevent incidents of “snatch-and-grab” thefts. In this type of scenario, the thief is usually a passenger on a motorcycle. Break-ins of parked cars are also fairly common. Valuables should not be left in the car, not even in the trunk, when the vehicle is unattended.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. Under French law, compensation is available to victims of crime committed on French soil under certain circumstances.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Medical care comparable to that found in the United States is widely available.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning France and Monaco is provided for general reference only, and it may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Roads in France are generally comparable to those in the United States, but traffic engineering and driving habits pose special dangers. Usually, lane markings and sign placements are not as clear as in the United States. Drivers should be prepared to make last-minute maneuvers, as most French drivers do. The French typically drive more aggressively and faster than Americans and tend to exceed posted speed limits. Right-ofway rules in France may differ from those in the United States. Drivers entering intersections from the right have priority over those on the left (unless specifically indicated otherwise), even when entering relatively large boulevards from small side streets. Many intersections in France are being replaced by traffic circles, where the right-of-way belongs to drivers in the circle.

On major highways, service stations are situated at least every 25 miles. Service stations are not as plentiful on secondary roads in France as they are in the United States. Paris, the capital and largest city in France, has an extensive and efficient public transportation system. The interconnecting system of buses, subways, and commuter rails serves more than 4 million people a day with a safety record comparable to or better than the systems of major American cities. Similar transportation systems are found in all major French cities. Between cities, France is served by an equally extensive rail service, which is reliable. High-speed rail links connect the major cities in France. Many cities are also served by frequent air service.

Visit the website of the French and Monegasque National Tourist Office at http://franceguide.com. The website contains specific information concerning French and Monegasque driver’s permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, and mandatory insurance.

Aviation Safety Oversight: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of France’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards for oversight of France’s air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s Internet web site at http://www.faa.gov.

Special Circumstances: French and Monegasque customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from France of items such as firearms, antiquities, medications, business equipment, sales samples, and other items. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of France in Washington, D.C., one of France’s consulates in the United States, or the Consulate General of Monaco in New York for specific information regarding customs requirements.

The emergency numbers in France for police, fire, and medical assistance are as follows: 17 (police emergency), 18 (fire department) and 15 (emergency medical/paramedic team/ambulance). In Monaco, the numbers are 17 (police emergency), 18 (fire department) and 9375-2525 (medical/paramedic team/ambulance).

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country’s laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.

Persons violating French or Monegasque laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in France or Monaco are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children’s Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family/family_1732.html.

Registration/Embassy and Consulate Locations: Americans living or traveling in France or Monaco are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within France and Monaco. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in cases of emergency.

The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Paris is located at 2 Rue St. Florentin, 75001 Paris (Place de La Concorde, Metro Stop Concorde), tel. 011-33-1-43-12-22-22 or (in France) 01-43-12-22-22; fax 011-33-1-42-61-61-40. Further information can be obtained at the U.S. Embassy’s website at http://france.usembassy.gov.

The Consulate General in Marseille is located at Place Varian Fry, 13086 Marseille, tel. 011-33-4-91-54-92-00, ext. 304, or (in France) 04-91-54-92-00, ext. 304; fax 011-33-4-91-55-09-47. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/marseille/default.htm.

The Consulate General in Strasbourg is located at 15 Avenue d’Alsace, 67082 Strasbourg, tel. 011-33-3-88-35-31-04 or (in France) 03-88-35-31-04; fax 011-33-3-88-24-06-95. The Consulate General in Strasbourg does not produce passports on the premises.

American citizens in this area whose passports are lost or stolen and who have urgent travel needs should contact the U.S. Embassy in Paris. Web site: http://france.usembassy.govstrasbourg/default.htm. The Consular Agency in Nice is located at 7, Avenue Gustave V, 3rd floor, 06000 Nice, tel. 011-33-4-93-88-89-55 or (in France) 04-93-88-89-55; fax 011-33-4-93-87-07-38. Web site: http://france.usembassy.gov/marseille/nice.htm.

The U.S. Government also has consular representation in Bordeaux, Lille, Lyon, Rennes, and Toulouse that provide some services to Americans, by appointment only. The post in Bordeaux is located at 10, place de la Bourse, 33076 Bordeaux (entry on rue Fernand Philippart); tel. 011-33-5-56-48-63-85 or 05-56-48-63-85 in France; fax: 011-33-5-56-51-61-97. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/bordeaux/default.htm. The post in Lille is located at 107, rue Royale, 59000 Lille; tel. 011-33-3-28-04-25-00 or 03-28-04-25-00 in France; fax: 011-33-3-20-74-88-23. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/lille/default.htm. The post in Lyon is located at 1, quai Jules Courmont, 69002 Lyon; tel. 011-33-4-78-38- 33-03 or 04-78-38- 33-03 in France; fax: 011-33-4-72-41-71-81. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/lyon/default.htm. The post in Rennes is located at 30, quai Duguay Trouin, 35000 Rennes; tel. 011-33-2-23-44-09-60 or 02-23-44-09-60 in France; fax: 011-33-2-99-35-00-92. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/rennes/default.htm. The post in Toulouse is located at 25, Allée Jean Jaures, 31000 Toulouse; tel. 011-33-5-34-41-36-50 or 05-34-41-36-50 in France; fax: 011-33-5-34-41-16-19. Website: http://france.usembassy.gov/toulouse/default.htm.

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Monaco

Monaco

Type of Government

The principality of Monaco has been a constitutional monarchy since 1911, but the ruling house of Grimaldi has controlled the territory since 1297, which makes it one of the oldest royal dynasties in Europe still in power in the twenty-first century. Significant changes to its constitution were made by the prince in 1962, including the establishment of a legislative body, the National Council. The prince’s handpicked ministers make up the Council of Government, which debates ordinances passed by the National Council. Local government in Monaco is administered by the Communal Council, comprising fifteen members directly elected from each of its four quartiers of Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville and Monte-Carlo.

Background

Monaco takes up three-quarters of a mile on the coastline of the Mediterranean Sea between France and Italy and is anchored by the landmark Rock of Monaco. This promontory served as a shelter for the first human inhabitants, an ancient Italic tribe called the Ligures. Around 600 BC it became a colony of Greeks from nearby Marseille, and in the first century BC it passed to Roman control. After Rome fell, it came under Arabic Saracen control for a time before Henry VI (1165–1197), the Holy Roman emperor, granted control to the Ligurians of nearby Genoa in 1191. Fourteen years later, construction began on a fortress to enclose the famous Rock of Monaco.

In a famous tale from Monegasque history, a wealthy Genoese merchant named François Grimaldi disguised himself as a Franciscan monk to gain entry to the fort, which he and his contingent then took by force. The date January 8, 1297, is the beginning of Grimaldi rule over Monaco. Except for a few periods when Monaco came under Genoese, French, Spanish, and Sardinian control, the Grimaldis have remained in power ever since.

Government Structure

Monaco was an absolute monarchy until its first constitution in 1911. Before that, the Grimaldi rulers exercised supreme control over all domestic policy and law. Its first constitution continued to grant them autocratic rule, but this was abolished by Prince Rainier III (1923–2005) as one of several significant reforms he enacted in 1962. His amendments, which came after a three-year suspension of the constitution, were intended to ensure an orderly succession and to provide for a more democratic form of government in Monaco.

Even though a Grimaldi prince or princess serves as head of state and head of the executive branch, the minister of state is the head of Monaco’s government and is appointed by the prince. The minister of state is also a member of the prince’s Council of Government, which functions as an advisory body and cabinet. Its individual members are responsible for public works, finance, and social affairs; a fourth councilor aides the prince in overseeing foreign policy.

The most significant of the 1962 changes Rainier made to the constitution involved the concessions of some of his power to the National Council, Monaco’s unicameral legislature. It votes on legislation submitted by the Council of Government. Its twenty-four members are elected to five-year terms; sixteen win their seats by majority vote, with the remaining eight elected according to proportional representation. The ordinance it passes must be submitted for the prince’s signature within eighty days; there is a ten-day period during which he may initiate his formal opposition to a decision. By law, the prince can dissolve the National Council at any time, but new legislative elections must occur within ninety days.

While the prince retains supreme legal authority in Monaco, he delegates this to the judiciary system. At its head is the seven-member Supreme Court. The National Council as well as other government entities recommend names to the prince to appoint to its bench. There are also four other types of courts: of First Instance, of Appeal, the Higher Court of Appeal, and the Assize (criminal court).

Political Parties and Factions

Political parties in Monaco first emerged in the 1960s. The country’s elections were long dominated by the Rally for Monaco–National and Democratic Union, a conservative group. It lost heavily, however, in the 2003 elections, when voters chose a slate comprising candidates from three other parties: Union for the Principality, the National Union for the Future of Monaco, and the Promotion of the Monegasque Family. The new coalition won twenty-one out of the twenty-four available seats in the 2003 ballots, and ended 40 years of NPD rule. Monaco retains a strict hold on granting citizenship, however, and the voting rights that come with it; of the population of 35,000, fewer than 6,000 are eligible to cast ballots in national elections.

Major Events

In 1489 the Duke of Savoy formally recognized Monegasque independence. The principality was annexed in 1793 by France in the midst of the French Revolution, but regained its independence in 1814. In 1848 two large towns that had been part of Monaco since the mid-1300s, Roquebrune and Menton, seceded from Monaco. Together, they comprised nearly 90 percent of Monaco’s land, and the debate over their status raged for the next thirty years until the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. This treaty formally recognized Monegasque sovereignty, and in return the Grimaldi dynasty abandoned all claims on the two towns and received compensation of four million francs.

In 1865 the Monte Carlo Casino opened its doors and was soon luring European royals to gamble their inheritances at its famed tables; the immense landmark building that became the symbol of Monaco dates back to 1878. In the years following World War II (1939–1945), the aristocratic family fortunes that had once made Monaco a resort spot had all but vanished, but Rainier sought new sources of revenue from tourism. His 1956 marriage to the American actress Grace Kelly (1929–1982) boosted the public-relations profile of the tiny principality around the world.

Twenty-First Century

In 2002 Rainier initiated a few more critical changes to the Monegasque constitution to ensure both its future stability and the Grimaldi legacy. The document had formerly decreed that if Monaco’s reigning sovereign died without a male heir, control of the principality would revert back to France. Rainier amended this to permit one of his two daughters, Caroline (1957–) or Stéphanie (1965–), to inherit the throne should their brother, Albert (1958–), die without producing an heir; both princesses are mothers of children who could also be considered legitimate heirs. Rainier died in 2005, and in the months between the funeral and his only son’s formal investiture as Prince Albert II of Monaco, the never-married, American-educated prince admitted to having quietly paid financial support to a son born in 2003 to a former girlfriend, a Togoan woman. Several months later, a California teenager was revealed to be a daughter of Albert as well. Because both were born out of wedlock, neither is eligible to assume the Monegasque throne.

Eccardt, Thomas M. Secrets of the Seven Smallest States of Europe: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City . New York: Hippocrene Books, 2005.

Edwards, Anne. The Grimaldis of Monaco . New York: Morrow, 1992.

Glatt, John. The Royal House of Monaco: Dynasty of Glamour, Tragedy, and Scandal . New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

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Monaco

Monaco

  • Area: 0.7 sq mi (1.9 sq km) / World Rank: 206
  • Location: Northern and Western Hemispheres in southern Europe; bordered by France on all sides except the Mediterranean coast to the south and southeast
  • Coordinates: 43°44′N, 7°24′E
  • Borders: 2.7 mi (4.4 km) total, all with France
  • Coastline: 2.5 mi (4.1 km)
  • Territorial Seas: 12 NM
  • Highest Point: Mont Agel , 459 ft (140 m)
  • Lowest Point: Sea level
  • Longest Distances: 1.98 mi (3.18 km) E-W / .68 mi (1.1 km) N-S
  • Longest River: None of significant length
  • Natural Hazards: None
  • Population: 31,842 (July 2001 est.) / World Rank: 198
  • Capital City: Monaco-Ville, located in the southern area of the country
  • Largest City: Monte Carlo, 12,300 (2000 est.)

OVERVIEW

Monaco is the the second-smallet country in Europe and the world. The entire country is urbanized, there are no forests or agricultural lands. There is little geographic variation in this tiny country but it is often divided into four regions based on economic activities: La Condamine is the central business district around the port. Monte Carlo is the northern entertainment district, site of the famous casino. Monaco-Ville is the location of the palace, it is situated on a rocky projection about 200 ft (60 m) above sea level. Fontvieille is an industrial area south of La Condamine.

Having a sunny climate, Monaco only receives rain about 60 days out of the year. Winters are mild, and the summer heat is comfortable because of the cooling breezes from the bordering Mediterranean Sea.

MOUNTAINS AND HILLS

Most of the country is hilly, rugged and rocky, with various sea cliffs. Elevations rise away from the coast; the surrounding area of France is mountainous.

INLAND WATERWAYS

Monaco has no inland waterways of note, due to its small size.

THE COAST, ISLANDS, AND THE OCEAN

The Mediterranean Sea lies to the east and south of Monaco. Monaco's coastline contains several cliffs as well as the Monte Carlo and Larvotto beaches in Monte Carlo. The Port of Monaco is located off the central coast, and the Port of Fontvieille is in the south. They are separated by the small peninsula where Monaco-Ville is located.

CLIMATE AND VEGETATION

Temperature

Monaco's winters are mild, with temperatures rarely falling below freezing; January's average temperature is 46°F (8°C). The average temperature high in July and August (the summer months) is 79°F (26°C). Sea breezes moderate the summer heat. On average, the sun shines for 7 hours a day.

Rainfall

About 300 days of the year have no precipitation. Rainfall averages about 30 in (77 cm) per year.

HUMAN POPULATION

Owing in part to its small size, Monaco is the most densely populated nation in the world. Most of the people in Monaco are resident foreigners; native Monégasques make up only 16 percent of the population. One hundred percent of Monaco's population lives in urban areas.

NATURAL RESOURCES

Monaco does not have any natural resources or agriculture. It imports all of its energy from France. Its economy is based primarily on tourism, and Monaco's casino and resorts are world famous. Real estate, light industry, and financial services are also important parts of the economy.

FURTHER READINGS

Campbell, Siri. Inside Monaco. Glen Ellyn, IL: MCI, 1996.

Edwards, Anne. The Grimaldis of Monaco. New York: Morrow, 1992.

Hopkins, Adams. Essential French Riviera. Lincolnwood, Ill.: Passport Books, 1994.

LonelyPlanet.com. Monaco. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/europe/monaco/ (Accessed March 1, 2002).

Monte-Carlo Online. Monte-Carlo.http://www.montecarlo.mc/principalitymonaco/index.html (Accessed March 1, 2002).

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Monaco

Monaco

At a Glance

Official Name: Principality of Monaco

Continent: Europe

Area: 0.77 square miles (2 sq km)

Population: 31,842

Capital City: Monaco

Largest City: Monaco (30,400)

Unit of Money: French franc

Major Languages: French (official), English

Literacy: 99%

Land Use: 100% urban area

Natural Resources: None

Government: Constitutional monarchy

Defense: France responsible for defense

The Place

Monaco is one of the smallest countries in the world. Only Vatican City is smaller. Monaco is on the Cote d'Azur (French Riviera) of the Mediterranean Sea and is bordered by France. It is about 9 miles (15 km) from Nice and 5 miles (8 km) from Italy.

Monaco is at the base of 3,600-foot (1,100-m) Mount Agel. Its land is rugged and hilly. The country can be divided into four main parts. Monaco, the capital, is on a rocky crest that rises 200 feet (61 meters), and is the location of the royal palace. Monte Carlo is known for its casino, opera house, luxury hotels, beaches, and shops. La Condamine is the country's main port area. Fontvieille is Monaco's industrial zone.

Monaco has a mild climate with temperatures averaging 50° F (10° C) in January. Summers are hotter with an average temperature of 75° F (24° C). Temperatures occasionally reach 90° F (32° C). The country has many days with 12 hours of sunshine. Rain falls about 60 days of the year.

The People

About one-seventh of Monaco's population is Monegasque—native to Monaco. More than half of the people are French, while the rest are Americans, Belgians, British, and Italians. Life expectancy is 78 years.

Many wealthy people from other countries move to Monaco because it has no income tax. Monaco has an annual population growth rate of 0.4%.

Monaco's state religion is Roman Catholicism, and the church runs its primary schools, a high school, and a music academy.

Tourism is important to Monaco's economy. About 600,000 tourists visit the country each year. Commerce and manufacturing are also important industries and account for two-thirds of Monaco's income. Many foreign companies have their headquarters in Monaco because of its low taxes.

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Monaco

MONACO

Compiled from the March 2003 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.


Official Name:
Principality of Monaco


PROFILE
GEOGRAPHY
PEOPLE
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
ECONOMY
FOREIGN RELATIONS
U.S.-MONACO RELATIONS
TRAVEL


PROFILE


Geography

Area: 1.95 sq. km. (0.8 sq. mi); about the size of New York City's Central Park.

Cities: Capital—Monaco-Ville, pop. 1,151 (1990).

Terrain: Hilly.

Climate: Mediterranean.


People

Nationality: Noun and adjective—Monegasque.

Population: (2000 census) 32,020.

Annual growth rate: (2001 est.) 0.46%.

Ethnic groups: (2000 census) Monegasque 19%, French 32%, Italian 20%, other 29%.

Religion: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%.

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, and Monegasque (a blend of French and Italian).

Education: Years compulsory—10, ages 6-16. Attendance—99%. Literacy—99%.

Health (2001 est.): Infant mortality—5.83/1,000. Life expectancy—75.04 yrs male; 83.12 yrs female. Number of births per year (July 2001 est.) 310. Number of deaths per year (July 2001 est.) 414.

Work force: (2000, 38,595) Private sector—35,168. Public sector—3,427. Services—46%. Banking—7%. Tourism and hotel—17%. Retail—12%. Construction and public works—7%. Industry—11%.


Government

Type: Constitutional monarchy.

Constitution: December 17, 1962.

Branches: Executive—Prince Rainier III (chief of state). Legislative—National Council (18 members). Judicial—Court of First Instance, Court of Appeal, High Court of Appeal, Criminal Court, Supreme Court.

Subdivisions: Four quarters (quartiers)—Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte-Carlo, Fontvieille.

Political parties: National and Democratic Union (UND), Campora List, Medecin List.

Suffrage: Universal adult at age 25.


Economy

GDP: Monaco does not publish economic figures such as gross domestic product, though estimates placed GDP at $870 million in 1999.

Avg. annual growth rate: Not available.

Per capita GDP: (1999 est.) $27,000.

Natural resources: None.

Industry: Types—tourism, construction, chemicals, food products, plastics, precision instruments, cosmetics, ceramics.

Trade: Imports (2000)—about $472 million. Exports (2000)—about $492 million.

Currency: Monaco, along with France and the other 11 members of the European Monetary Union, adopted the Euro as its official currency on January 1, 2002. As in other EMU states, Euros minted in Monaco will have special Monegasque features on one side of the coin.




GEOGRAPHY

The Principality of Monaco is the second-smallest independent state in the world, after Vatican City. It is located on the Mediterranean coast, 18 kilometers (11 mi.) east of Nice, France, and is surrounded on three sides by France. Monaco is divided into four sections: Monaco-Ville, the old city on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean; La Condamine, the section along the port; Monte-Carlo, the principal residential and resort area; and Fontvieille, a newly constructed area reclaimed from the sea.


The principality is noted for its beautiful natural scenery and mild, sunny climate. The average minimum temperature in January and February is 8°C (47°F); in July and August the average maximum temperature is 26°C (78°F).


PEOPLE

In 2001, Monaco's population was estimated at 32,020, with an estimated average growth rate of 0.46%.


French is the official language; English, Italian, and Monegasque (a blend of French and Italian) also are spoken. The literacy rate is 99%. Roman Catholicism is the official religion, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution.




HISTORY

Founded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa, Monaco has been ruled by the House of Grimaldi since 1297, except when under French control from 1789 to 1814. Designated as a protectorate of Sardinia from 1815 until 1860 by the Treaty of Vienna, Monaco's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. The Prince of Monaco was an absolute ruler until a constitution was promulgated in 1911.


In July 1918, a treaty was signed providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, formally noted in the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests.


Prince Rainier III, the ruler of Monaco, acceded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II, in 1949. The heir apparent, Prince Albert, was born in 1958.


A new constitution, proclaimed in 1962, abolished capital punishment, provided for female suffrage, and established a Supreme Court to guarantee fundamental liberties.


In 1993, Monaco became an official member of the United Nations with full voting rights.



GOVERNMENT

Monaco has been governed as a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Prince as chief of state. The executive branch consists of a Minister of State (head of government), who presides over a four-member Council of Government (cabinet). The Minister of State, who is a French citizen appointed by the Prince for a 3-year term from among several senior French civil servants proposed by the French Government, is responsible for foreign relations. As the Prince's representative, the Minister of State also directs the executive services, commands the police, and presides (with voting powers) over the Council of Government. The three other members of the Council are responsible for financial and economic affairs, internal affairs, and public works and social affairs, respectively.

Under the 1962 constitution, the Prince shares his power with the unicameral National Council. The 24 members of this legislative body are elected from lists by universal suffrage for 5-year terms. If the Prince dissolves the National Council, new elections must be held within 3 months. Usually meeting twice annually, the Council votes on the budget and endorses laws proposed by the Prince.


Ordinances passed by the National Council are debated in the Council of Government, as are the ministerial decrees signed by the Minister of State. Once approved, the ordinances must be submitted to the Prince within 80 days for his signature, which makes them legally enforceable. If he does not express opposition within 10 days of submission, they become valid.


Judicial power is invested in the Prince, who delegates judicial procedures to the various courts, which dispense justice in his name. The independence of the judges is guaranteed by the constitution. The Supreme Court is composed of five chief members and two assistant judges named by the Prince on the basis of nominations by the National Council and other government bodies. The Supreme Court is the highest court for judicial appeals and also interprets the constitution when necessary. Monaco's legal system, closely related to that of France, is patterned after the Napoleonic Code.


The principality's local affairs (i.e., the administration of the four quarters of Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and Fontvieille) are directed by the Communal Council, which consists of 15 elected members and is presided over by the Mayor.


Principal Government Officials
Last Updated: 8/6/03


Chief of State: Rainier III, Prince

Min. of State: Leclercq, Patrick

Govt. Councilor for Finance & Economics: Biancheri, Franck

Govt. Councilor for the Interior: Deslandes, Philippe

Govt. Councilor for Public Works & Social Affairs: Badia, Jose

Pres., National Council: Valeri, Stephane

Permanent Representative to the UN: Borghini, Michel




ECONOMY

Monaco, located on the Mediterranean coast, has an economy primarily geared toward finance, commerce, and tourism. Low taxes have drawn many foreign companies to Monaco and account for around 50% of the $518 million annual government income (2001). Similarly, tourism accounts for close to 25% of the annual revenue, as the Principality of Monaco also has been a major center for tourism ever since its famed casino was established in 1856.

Customs, postal services, telecommunications, and banking in Monaco are governed by an economic and customs union with France. The official currency is the euro.


Though official economic statistics are not published, 1999 estimates place the national product at $870 million and the per capita income at $27,000. The unemployment rate is low, at 3.1% (1998).


Monaco is noted for its activity in the field of marine sciences. Its Oceanographic Museum, formerly directed by Jacques Cousteau, is one of the most renowned institutions of its kind in the world. Monaco imports and exports products and services from all over the world. There is no commercial agriculture in Monaco.




FOREIGN RELATIONS

Monaco actively participates in the United Nations, which it joined in 1993. Monaco also is a member of many international and intergovernmental organizations, including Interpol, UNESCO, and WHO. The International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) is headquartered in Monaco.


The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent state, linked closely to France by the Treaty of July 1918, which was formally noted in Article 436 of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. The foreign policy of Monaco is one illustration of this accord: France has agreed to defend the independence and sovereignty of Monaco, while the Monegasque Government has agreed to exercise its sovereign rights in conformity with French interests. Since then, the relations between the sovereign states of France and Monaco have been further defined in the Treaty of 1945 and the Agreement of 1963.


Monaco is renegotiating its treaty with France. The revised treaty is expected to be completed in 2003. It is reported that the terms of the new treaty would assist Monaco in joining the Council of Europe as a full member, and would

Upgrade France's representation in Monaco from Consulate General to that of an embassy;


Permit, for the first time, other countries to accredit ambassadors to Monaco; and


Formally recognize the succession scheme set out in the 1962 Constitution, which extends eligibility to the Prince's daughters and other family members.


Although not a member of the European Union (EU), Monaco is closely associated with the economic apparatus of the EU through its customs union with France and its reliance upon the euro as its official currency.


Monaco has 10 diplomatic missions in western Europe and permanent representation at the United Nations. It maintains honorary consulates in 106 cities in 45 countries. Sixty-one countries have consulates general, consulates, or honorary consulates in or accredited to Monaco.




U.S.-MONACO RELATIONS

The United States and Monaco enjoy excellent relations, which both countries seek to maintain and strengthen. From 1956 until her death in 1982, the American-born Grace Kelly was married to Prince Rainier III. The United States does not have a diplomatic mission located in Monaco. The U.S. Consul General in Marseille, France, under the authority of the U.S. Ambassador to France, is formally accredited to Monaco.


Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Marseille, France (CG), Place Varian Fry, 13006 Marseille, France • PSC 116 (MAR), APO AE 09777, Tel
[33] (4) 9154-9200, Telex 430597, Fax 9155-0947. E-mail: [email protected]: www.amb-usa.fr/consul/marseilleb.ht

CG: Leslie W. McBee
DPO: Ellen B. Thorburn
NCIS: Dwight E. Clayton
NCIS: Janice Grandmaire



TRAVEL


Consular Information Sheet
November 14, 2003


Country Description: France is a developed and stable democracy with a modern economy. Monaco is a developed constitutional monarchy.


Entry Requirements: A passport is required for entry to France and Monaco. A visa is not required for tourist/business stays up to 90 days in France and Monaco. For further information concerning entry requirements for France, travelers may contact the Embassy of France at 4101 Reservoir Road, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20007, tel. (202) 944-6000, or the French Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, or San Francisco. The website for the Consular Section of the French Embassy in the United States is: http://www.consulfrance-washington.org. For further information on entry requirements to Monaco, travelers may contact the Consulate General of Monaco at 565 5th Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017, tel. (212) 759-5227. The Consulate General's website is http://www.monaco-consulate.com.


In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated procedures at entry/exit points. These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for the child's travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian not present. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure.

Dual Nationality: Dual nationals, who are French or Monegasque citizens as well as U.S. citizens, are subject to all French and Monegasque laws that affect U.S. citizens. Moreover, dual nationals also may be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on French and Monegasque citizens. In some instances, dual nationality may hamper U.S. Government efforts to provide protection abroad. For additional information, please see the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page on the Internet at http://travel.state.gov for our Dual Nationality flyer.


Safety and Security: The Government of France maintains a national anti-terrorism plan, "Vigipirate Renforce." Under this plan, in times of heightened security concerns, the government mobilizes police and armed forces at airports, train and metro stations, and other high-profile locations such as schools, embassies, and government installations. In recent months, arrests have been made in France in connection with various possible terrorist plots. American citizens should remain alert and vigilant, and report any suspect packages or suspicious activities to local police. In the past, political assassinations and random bombings have occurred in France. One U.S. citizen was injured incidentally in these attacks, but none have been killed. All passengers on subways and trains are urged to be aware of their surroundings and to report any unattended baggage to the nearest authority.


The Basque Separatist Party (ETA) and the National Front for the Liberation of Corsica (FLNC) continue to operate in the south of France and occasionally bomb local government institutions, banks, travel agencies, etc. There have been numerous politically motivated bombings on the island of Corsica. While no deaths were caused by any of these acts of terrorism, Americans should remain vigilant when traveling to Corsica.

Violent civil disorder is rare in France. In the past, however, student demonstrations, labor protests and other routine demonstrations have turned into violent confrontations between demonstrators and police. Americans are advised to avoid street demonstrations, and can obtain current travel information at the State Department's Consular Affairs website at http://travel.state.gov.


Crime: Both France and Monaco have relatively low rates of violent crime, and the crime rate in both countries has fallen slightly in recent years. Thieves commonly target vehicles with non-local license plates and tourist attractions such as museums, monuments, restaurants, hotels, beaches, trains, train stations, airports and subways. Americans in France and Monaco should be particularly alert to pickpockets in train stations and subways. Photocopies of travel documents and credit cards should be kept separate from the originals.


Although thieves may operate anywhere, the U.S. Embassy in Paris receives frequent reports of theft from several areas in particular:


Paris: Gangs of thieves operate on the rail link (RER) from Charles de Gaulle Airport to downtown Paris, where they prey on jet-lagged, luggage-burdened tourists. In one common ruse, a thief distracts a tourist with a question about directions, while an accomplice steals their momentarily unguarded backpack, briefcase or purse. Thieves also time their thefts to coincide with train stops so they may quickly exit the car. Travelers may wish to consider taking a bus or taxi from the airport into the city.


Reports of stolen purses, briefcases and carry-on bags at Charles de Gaulle Airport have been on the rise. Travelers should monitor their bags at all times and never leave them unattended. As thieves commonly target laptop bags, travelers should avoid carrying passports and other valuables in computer bags.

There have been a number of violent armed robberies, including knife attacks that have taken place late at night, in the vicinity of the Eiffel Tower.


There have been reports of robberies in which thieves on motorcycles reach into a moving car by opening the car door or reaching through an open window to steal purses and other bags visible inside. Those traveling by car should remember to keep the windows up and the doors locked.


There have also been reports of bags stolen from pedestrians by thieves on motorcycles. In some of these cases, victims who did not release their bags were dragged by the motorcyclist and suffered serious injury.


Many thefts occur on the Number One Subway Line, which runs by many major tourist at tractions (including the Grand Arch at La Defense, the Arcde Triomphe, the Champs Elysees, Place de la Concorde, the Louvre and the Bastille). Pickpockets are especially active on this metro line during the summer months.


Gare du Nord train station, where the express trains from the airport arrive in Paris, is also a high-risk area for pickpocketing and theft. Travelers should also beware of thefts that occur on both overnight and day trains, especially on trains originating in Spain, Italy and Belgium. Additionally, several sexual assaults involving American citizens have occurred recently in the immediate vicinity of the Gard du Nord train station.


Many thefts occur at the major department stores (Galeries Lafayette, Printemps and Samaritaine) where tourists often place wallets, passports and credit cards on cashier counters during transactions.


In hotels, thieves target lobbies and breakfast rooms, and take advantage of a minute of inattention to snatch jackets, purses and backpacks. While many hotels do have safety latches that allow guests to secure their rooms from inside, this feature is not as universal as it is in the United States. If no chain or latch is present, a chair placed up against the door is usually an effective obstacle to surreptitious entry during the night. There are, however, reports of thieves breaking into hotel rooms on lower floors through open windows while the occupants are sleeping. To guard against this, hotel room windows should be kept locked at all times.

There have been reports of thieves stealing hotel safes from hotel rooms in a broad range of Parisian hotels. Whenever possible, valuables should be kept in the hotel safe behind the reception desk rather than in the room safe.


Many Americans have reported thefts occurring in restaurants, where purses are stolen from the back of a chair or from under the table during the meal.


ATMs (Automatic Teller Machines) are very common in France and provide ready access to cash, allowing travelers to carry as much money as they need for each day. The rates are competitive with local exchange bureaus and an ATM transaction is easier than the cashing of travelers' checks. However, crimes committed around ATMs have been reported. Travelers should not use ATMs in isolated, unlit areas or where loiterers are present. Travelers should be especially aware of persons standing close enough to see the PIN (Personal Identification Number) being entered into the machine. Thieves often conduct successful scams by simply observing the PIN as it is entered. If the card becomes stuck, travelers should be wary of persons who offer to help or ask for the PIN to "fix" the machine. Legitimate bank employees never have a reason to ask for the PIN.


Pigalle is the red-light district of Paris. Many entertainment establishments in this area engage in aggressive marketing and charge well beyond the normal rate for drinks. There have been reports of threats of violence to coerce patrons into paying exorbitant beverage tabs.

Normandy: There has been an increase in break-ins and thefts from vehicles in the parking lots at the Normandy beaches and American cemeteries. Valuables should not be left unattended in a car, and locking valuables in the trunk should not be considered a safeguard. Thieves often pry open car trunks to steal bags inside.


Southern France: Thefts from cars stopped at red lights are common, particularly in the Nice-Antibes-Cannes area, and in Marseille. Car doors should be kept locked at all times to prevent incidents of "snatchand-grab" thefts. In this type of scenario, the thief is usually a passenger on a motorcycle. Similar incidents also have occurred at tollbooths and rest areas. Special caution is advised when entering and exiting a car, as this presents an opportunity for purse-snatchers.


Purse-snatching and pickpocketing occur throughout southern France. Passports should be carried on one's person when necessary, and shoulder bags should be worn bandolier-style across the chest, not on the shoulder.


Break-ins of parked cars are also common. Locking valuables in the trunk is not a safeguard. Valuables should not be left unattended in a car.


The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to local police and the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate, where you may obtain information about passport replacement. U.S. citizens may refer to the Department of State's pamphlet, A Safe Trip Abroad, for ways to promote a more trouble-free journey. The pamphlet is available by mail from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402, or via the Internet at http://www.gopaccess.gov/index.html, or via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov.


Medical Facilities: Medical care comparable to that found in the United States is widely available.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and if it will cover emergency expenses such as medical evacuation. U.S. medical insurance plans seldom cover health costs incurred outside the United States unless supplemental coverage is purchased. Further, U.S. Medicare and Medicaid programs do not provide payment for medical services outside the United States. However, many travel agents and private companies offer insurance plans that will cover health care expenses incurred overseas, including emergency services such as medical evacuations.


When making a decision regarding health insurance, Americans should consider that many foreign doctors and hospitals require payment in cash prior to providing service and that a medical evacuation to the United States may cost well in excess of $50,000. Uninsured travelers who require medical care overseas often face extreme difficulties, whereas travelers who have purchased overseas medical insurance have found it to be lifesaving when a medical emergency has occurred. When consulting with your insurer prior to your trip, please ascertain whether payment will be made to the overseas healthcare provider or if you will be reimbursed later for expenses that you incur. Some insurance policies also include coverage for psychiatric treatment and for disposition of remains in the event of death.


Useful information on medical emergencies abroad, including overseas insurance programs, is provided in the Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs brochure, Medical Information for Americans Traveling Abroad, available via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page or autofax: (202) 647-3000.


Other Health Information: Information on vaccinations and other health precautions may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or via CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning France and Monaco is provided for general reference only, and it may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.


Safety of Public Transportation: Good
Urban Road Conditions/Maintenance: Good
Rural Road Conditions/Maintenance: Good
Availability of Roadside Assistance: Good


Roads in France are generally comparable to those in the United States, but traffic engineering and driving habits pose special dangers. Usually, lane markings and sign placements are not as clear as in the United States. Drivers should be prepared to make last-minute maneuvers, as most French drivers do. French drivers usually drive more aggressively and faster than Americans and tend to exceed posted speed limits. Right-of-way rules in France may differ from those in the United States. Drivers entering intersections from the right have priority over those on the left (unless specifically indicated otherwise), even when entering relatively large boul evards from small side streets. Many intersections in France are being replaced by circles, where the right-of-way belongs to drivers in the circle.


On the major highways, service stations are situated every 25 miles or less. Service stations are as plentiful on secondary roads as in the United States.


Paris, the capital and largest city in France, has an extensive and efficient public transportation system. The interconnecting system of buses, subways, and commuter rails serves more than 4 million people a day with a safety record comparable to or better than the systems of major American cities. Similar transportation systems are found in all major French cities. Between cities, France is served by an equally extensive rail service, which is safe and reliable. High-speed rail links connect the major cities in France. Many cities are also served by frequent air service.

For additional general information about road safety, including links to foreign government sites, please see the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov/road_safety.html. For specific information concerning French and Monegasque driver's permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, please contact the French and Monegasque National Tourist Office hotline at New York at (202) 659-7779 or via the Internet at: http://www.franceguide.com.


Aviation Safety Oversight: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of France's Civil Aviation Authority as Category 1 — in compliance with international aviation safety standards for oversight of France's air carrier operations.


For further information, travelers may contact the Department of Transportation within the United States at tel. 1-800-322-7873, or visit the FAA's Internet website at http://www.faa.gov/avr/iasa/. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) separately assesses some foreign air carriers for suitability as official providers of air services. For information regarding the DOD policy on specific carriers, travelers may contact the DOD at tel. (618) 256-4801.


Customs Regulations: French customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from France of items such as firearms, antiquities, medications, business equipment, sales samples, and other items. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of France in Washington, D.C., or one of France's consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.

French customs authorities encourage the use of an ATA (Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission) Carnet for the temporary admission of professional equipment, commercial samples, and/or goods for exhibitions and fair purposes. ATA Carnet Headquarters, located at the U.S. Council for International Business, 1212 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10036, issues and guarantees the ATA Carnet in the United States. For additional information, please call (212) 354-4480, or send an e-mail to [email protected], or visit http://www.uscib.org for details.


Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating French or Monegasque laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in France or Monaco are strict, and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.

Currency: The official unit of currency in France and Monaco is the Euro. Emergency Numbers: The emergency numbers in France for the police, fire and medical assistance are as follows: 17 (police emergency), 18 (fire department) and 15 (emergency medical/paramedic team/ambulance). In Monaco, the numbers are 17 (police emergency), 18 (fire department) and 9375-2525 (medical/paramedic team/ambulance).


Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction please refer to our Internet site at http://travel.state.gov/children's_issues.html or telephone (202) 736-7000.


Registration/Embassy and Consulate Locations: Americans living in or visiting France or Monaco are encouraged to register at the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Paris or the nearest Consulate and to obtain updated information on travel and security with in France and Monaco.


The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Paris is located at 2 Rue St. Florentin, 75001 Paris (Place de La Concorde, Metro Stop Concorde), tel. 011-33-1-43-12-22-22 or (in France) 01-43-12-22-22; fax 011-33-1-42-61-61-40. Further information can be obtained at the U.S. Embassy's website at http://www.amb-usa.fr.

The Consulate General in Marseille is located at Place Varian Fry, 13086 Marseille, tel. 011-33-4-91-54-92-00, ext. 304, or (in France) 04-91-54-92-00, ext. 304; fax 011-33-4-91-55-09-47.


The Consulate General in Strasbourg is located at 15 Avenue d'Alsace, 67082 Strasbourg, tel. 011-33-3-88-35-31-04 or (in France) 03-88-35-31-04; fax 011-33-3-88-24-06-95. The Consulate General in Strasbourg does not produce passports on the premises. American citizens in this area whose passports are lost or stolen and who have urgent travel needs should contact the U.S. Embassy in Paris.


The Consular Agency in Nice is located at 7, Avenue Gustave V, 3rd floor, 06000 Nice, tel. 011-33-4-93-88-89-55 or (in France) 04-93-88-89-55; fax 011-33-4-93-87-07-38.


The U.S. Government also has consular representation in Bordeaux, Lille, Lyon, Rennes, and Toulouse that provide some emergency services to Americans. However, their primary focus is economic and commercial.

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Monaco

Monaco

POPULATION 31,987
ROMAN CATHOLIC 90 percent
OTHER 10 percent

Country Overview

INTRODUCTION

With an area of just 0.73 square miles, the Principality of Monaco is the second smallest independent state in the world, after Vatican City. It is located on the Mediterranean coast 11 miles east of Nice, France, and is surrounded on three sides by France. The Grimaldi family, which has ruled almost continuously since 1297, made Roman Catholicism the official state religion in 1848, and in 1911 religious freedom to all residents was made part of the constitution.

Only 19 percent of the population are citizens of Monaco. The majority are French, and Monaco maintains extensive economic and other ties to France.

RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE

The constitution of Monaco provides for freedom of religion, and the government generally respects this right. In practice, however, there are some restrictions. No missionaries operate in Monaco, and proselytizing is discouraged, but religious organizations that are registered formally with the minister of state may recruit members. Organizations regarded as religious sects, however, are routinely denied registration. There are amicable relationships among the officially recognized religions in Monaco.

Major Religion

ROMAN CATHOLICISM

DATE OF ORIGIN 1061 c.e.
NUMBER OF FOLLOWERS 28,800

HISTORY

From 58 to 51 b.c.e the region came under the influence of the Roman Empire and Julius Caesar. There is evidence of religious life from 1061, when Monaco came under the Catholic diocese of Nice. During the Middle Ages the Genoese, Monaco's nearest large neighbor, considered Monaco to be a part of their domain and obtained formal ownership from the German emperor Henry VI in 1191. The Genoese then built a fortress in Monaco to protect their interests. In 1247 Pope Innocent IV granted permission to the Republic of Genoa to build a chapel in Monaco. The Parish of Monaco was founded in 1252–53 and called Saint Nicolas.

The Grimaldis were one of the aristocratic families of Genoa and were considered the defenders of the pope's authority. They were forced out of Genoa by supporters of the German emperor. On 8 January 1297 Francois Grimaldi disguised himself as a monk, and seeking shelter from the night with his band of men, he took control of the fortress. The Grimaldis have since ruled Monaco for more than 700 years (with a few hiatuses). Prince Honoré II, who ruled in the 1600s, was the first prior of the Brotherhood of the Black Penitents, and he founded the Misericorde Chapel (Chapel of Mercy). The diocese of Monaco was established in 1887.

While the minister of state must be a French citizen, the leader of the country is always a member of the Grimaldi family, which is devoutly Catholic.

EARLY AND MODERN LEADERS

The first bishop of Monaco was Monsignor Bonaventure Theuret (appointed 1887), who had previously been the apostolic administrator. Since 1981 there have been three archbishops: Charles-Amarin Brand (served 1981–84), Joseph-Marie Sardou (served 1985–2000), and Monsignor Bernard Barsi (appointed 2000).

MAJOR THEOLOGIANS AND AUTHORS

Monaco has not produced any notable Roman Catholic authors or theologians.

HOUSES OF WORSHIP AND HOLY PLACES

The Church of Saint Dévote, the patron saint of Monaco, is the most important to the Monegasques (the 19 percent of the population who are citizens of Monaco). The Misericorde Chapel is the home of the White and Black Penitents. The Monaco Cathedral, built in 1875 in the Romanesque-Byzantine style, sits on the site of the former Saint Nicolas Church. The bell from the old church, dating from the 1200s, hangs on the outside of the northwestern nave. The cathedral contains the tombs of the royalty of Monaco. The royal family worships in the seventeenth-century Palatine Chapel, located in the palace.

WHAT IS SACRED?

Anything to do with Saint Dévote is sacred. According to legend, in 304 c.e. the governor of Corsica, which was under Roman rule, tortured a young girl named Dévote. Christians put her in a small fishing boat and prayed that favorable winds would take her to safety. A storm came up, driving the boat to the shores of Monaco. As the boat landed, out of the mouth of Dévote came a dove. The inhabitants saw this as a miracle and erected a chapel in her honor.

HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS

In addition to traditional Catholic holidays, Monaco has a number of local celebrations. On 26 and 27 January Monaco celebrates its patron saint with the Feast of Saint Dévote. To commemorate the legend, on the evening of 26 January a fishing boat is set ablaze by the reigning prince, and on 27 January a Te Deum is sung in the cathedral, followed by a procession through the streets of the Old Town.

In June is the Fête Dieu, which has been celebrated since 1260. The Corpus Christi procession goes through the streets of the Old Town and culminates at the palace, where the archbishop of Monaco gives his blessing.

Also in June Monaco celebrates Saint John's Feast. A salute to the Holy Sacrament is sung in the presence of the sovereign family and Monegasque authorities, followed by the lighting of a huge bonfire in the Palace Square. The Palladienne folk group dresses in native costumes to sing and dance to traditional songs.

The prince's saint day celebration takes place on 19 November. It is the saint day of the historical Saint Rainier d'Arezzo and also the country's national holiday (Principality National Day). It is celebrated the night before with fireworks and on the day itself with Mass in the cathedral for the prince's invited guests.

MODE OF DRESS

Religion has little or no influence on everyday dress. Religious dress is casual, except for special holidays such as the prince's saint day celebration, when participants dress in their finest attire, with the women generally wearing hats and men in tuxedos, dark suits, or uniforms. This is an occasion when the Knights of Malta, distinguished ambassadors, consuls, and state officials wear their medal-laden uniforms.

DIETARY PRACTICES

At Christmas a sweet bread, pain de natale, is made and blessed by the church. Sometimes it is prepared in the shape of a cross, and sometimes it is also made with walnuts. At Easter Catholics bake an unleavened bread with an egg in the center, which may never be cut with a knife and which must be broken by the head of the household.

RITUALS

For the prince's saint day celebration, he chooses the music for the Mass. On 26 January every year, during the Feast of Saint Dévote, the prince sets a boat on fire.

RITES OF PASSAGE

Religious weddings in Monaco are not legally binding. Only those people holding a resident's card may marry legally in Monaco, and the marriage ceremony must take place at the mayor's office.

MEMBERSHIP

The catechism is an integral part of public school studies. The church also organizes activities, subsidized by the state, for young people in Monaco and in neighboring areas. These include leisure pursuits, cultural events, educational events, and moral guidance through the F.A.R. Association.

Since 1957 the Catholic Church has been involved in broadcasting The Church Today each Sunday on Radio Monte Carlo. Since 1958 the church has participated in presenting the UNDA (Association Catholique Internationale pour la Radio et la Télévision) Award at the International Television Festival of Monte Carlo. The criteria for the award are based on the human and cultural values of a film, not specifically on religion.

SOCIAL JUSTICE

The Roman Catholic Church in Monaco espouses the principles outlined by Rome concerning education, human rights, poverty, and reproduction. The church, through voluntary associations, helps the handicapped and those in distress.

SOCIAL ASPECTS

Marriage and family among Catholics in Monaco function as in the rest of Europe, especially France.

POLITICAL IMPACT

Virtually all Monegasques are Catholic, and only Monegasques can be elected to the national assembly. Other government posts are also filled by Monegasques or by French citizens who are Catholic and appointed by the prince.

CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES

The church in Monaco follows the teaching of the church in general and is strongly opposed to contraception and abortion. Most people in Monaco, however, practice contraception in opposition to church teachings.

CULTURAL IMPACT

At the beginning of the seventeenth century, Prince Honoré II ordered a Spanish-style walnut altar decorated with gold leaf for Saint Nicolas Church. The altar is now located in the Blessed Sacrament Chapel in the cathedral. The chapel also owns an important collection of religious art, such as painted-wood Madonnas, damask chasubles, and gilded wood reliquaries. In the cathedral there are several reredoses of Saint Nicolas and Saint Dévote by the Nice painter Louis Brea dating to the 1500s. There are also two sixteenth-century paintings and a procession canopy bearing the coat of arms of Antoine I.

Under Antoine I (reigned 1701–31) the first vocal group with children's voices in Monaco was started and sang the liturgies at the Palatine Chapel. The Choir of Monaco (including children) became famous for its revival of early sacred musical works. In 1973 Prince Rainier III created the boy's choir Les Petits Chanteurs of Monaco (The Little Singers of Monaco), a part of the Monaco Cathedral Choir (which supplanted the Choir of Monaco). Because they travel around the world giving concerts, the prince refers to them as "his little singing ambassadors."

Other Religions

Other places of worship in Monaco include an Anglican church, an Orthodox synagogue, and a nondenominational Protestant church. There are several hundred practicing Episcopalians and other Protestants who have services in English, and several hundred practicing Orthodox or Conservative Jews have services in French.

Siri Campbell

See Also Vol. 1: Christianity, Roman Catholicism

Bibliography

Decaux, Alain. Monaco and Its Princes: Seven Centuries of History. Translated by Sylvia Carter and Anne Brav. Paris: Perrin, 1997.

Le Diocèse de Monaco, ses origines historiques. Monaco: Imprimerie Testa, 1987.

Duursma, J.C. Fragmentation and the International Relations of Micro-States: Self-Determination and Statehood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Edwards, Anne. The Grimaldis of Monaco. New York: Morrow, 1992.

"Monaco et la legende ou passion de Sainte Dévote." In Contes, Legendes et Nouvelles d'Europe. Strasbourg, France: Council for Cultural Cooperation, Council of Europe, 1998.

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Monaco

MONACO

Compiled from the April 2005 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Principality of Monaco


PROFILE

Geography

Area: 1.95 sq. km. (0.8 sq. mi); about the size of New York City's Central Park.

Cities: Capital—Monaco, pop. 32,020 (2000).

Terrain: Hilly.

Climate: Mediterranean.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective—Monegasque.

Population: 32,100.

Annual growth rate: (2001 est.) 0.46%.

Ethnic groups: (2000 census) Monegasque 19%, French 32%, Italian 20%, other 29%.

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%.

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, and Monegasque (a blend of French and Italian).

Education: Years compulsory—10, ages 6-16. Attendance—99%. Literacy—99%.

Health: (2001 est.) Infant mortality—5.83/1,000. Life expectancy—75.04 yrs male; 83.12 yrs female. Number of births per year (July 2001 est.)—310. Number of deaths per year (July 2001 est.)—414.

Work force: (2000, 38,595) Private sector—35,168. Public sector—3,427. Services—46%. Banking—7%. Tourism and hotel—17%. Retail—12%. Construction and public works—7%. Industry—11%.

Government

Type: Constitutional monarchy.

Constitution: December 17, 1962 (amended in April 2002).

Branches: Executive—Prince Albert (Crown Prince, Regent, chief of state). Legislative—National Council (24 members). Judicial—Court of First Instance, Court of Appeal, High Court of Appeal, Criminal Court, Supreme Court.

Administrative subdivisions: Four quarters (quartiers)—Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte-Carlo, Fontvieille.

Political parties: Union pour Monaco (UPM), National and Democratic Union (UND), Parti Monégasque (PM).

Suffrage: Universal adult at age 18.

Economy

GDP: Monaco does not publish economic figures such as gross domestic product, though estimates placed GDP at $870 million in 1999.

Avg. Annual growth rate: Not available.

Per capita GDP: (1999 est.) $27,000.

Agriculture: None.

Industry: Types—tourism, construction, chemicals, food products, plastics, precision instruments, cosmetics, ceramics.

Trade: Imports (2000)—about $472 million. Exports (2000)—about $492 million.

Currency: Monaco, along with France and the other 11 members of the European Monetary Union (EMU), adopted the euro as its official currency on January 1, 2002. As in other EMU states, Euros minted in Monaco have special Monegasque features on one side of the coin.


GEOGRAPHY

The Principality of Monaco is the second-smallest independent state in the world, after the Holy See (Vatican City). It is located on the Mediterranean coast, 18 kilometers (11 mi.) east of Nice, France, and is surrounded on three sides by France. Monaco is divided into four sections: Monaco-Ville, the old city on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean; La Condamine, the section along the port; Monte-Carlo, the principal residential and resort area; and Fontvieille, a newly constructed area reclaimed from the sea. The principality is noted for its beautiful natural scenery and mild, sunny climate.

The average minimum temperature in January and February is 8ºC (47ºF); in July and August the average maximum temperature is 26ºC (78ºF).


PEOPLE

In 2001, Monaco's population was estimated at 32,020, with an estimated average growth rate of 0.46%.

French is the official language; English, Italian, and Monegasque (a blend of French and Italian) also are spoken. The literacy rate is 99%. Roman Catholicism is the official religion, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution.


HISTORY

Founded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa, Monaco has been ruled by the House of Grimaldi since 1297, except when under French control from 1789 to 1814. Designated as a protectorate of Sardinia from 1815 until 1860 by the Treaty of Vienna, Monaco's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. The Prince of Monaco was an absolute ruler until a constitution was promulgated in 1911.

In July 1918, a treaty was signed providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, formally noted in the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests.

Prince Rainier III acceded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II, in 1949. His son, Prince Albert, was born in 1958.

A new constitution, proclaimed in 1962, abolished capital punishment, provided for female suffrage, and established a Supreme Court to guarantee fundamental liberties.

In 1993, Monaco became an official member of the United Nations with full voting rights.


GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Monaco has been governed as a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Prince as chief of state. The executive branch consists of a Minister of State (head of government), who presides over a four-member Council of Government (cabinet). The Minister of State, who is a French citizen appointed by the Prince for a 3-year term from among several senior French civil servants proposed by the French Government, is responsible for foreign relations. As the Prince's representative, the Minister of State also directs the executive services, commands the police, and presides (with voting powers) over the Council of Government. The three other members of the Council are responsible for financial and economic affairs, internal affairs, and public works and social affairs, respectively.

Under the 1962 constitution, the Prince shares his power with the unicameral National Council. The 24 members of this legislative body are elected from lists by universal suffrage for 5-year terms. If the Prince dissolves the National Council, new elections must be held within 3 months. Usually meeting twice annually, the Council votes on the budget and endorses laws proposed by the Prince.

Ordinances passed by the National Council are debated in the Council of Government, as are the ministerial decrees signed by the Minister of State. Once approved, the ordinances must be submitted to the Prince within 80 days for his signature, which makes them legally enforceable. If he does not express opposition within 10 days of submission, they become valid.

Judicial power is invested in the Prince, who delegates judicial procedures to the various courts, which dispense justice in his name. The independence of the judges is guaranteed by the constitution. The Supreme Court is composed of five chief members and two assistant judges named by the Prince on the basis of nominations by the National Council and other government bodies. The Supreme Court is the highest court for judicial appeals and also interprets the constitution when necessary. Monaco's legal system, closely related to that of France, is patterned after the Napoleonic Code.

The principality's local affairs (the administration of the four quarters of Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and Fontvieille) are directed by the Communal Council, which consists of 15 elected members and is presided over by the Mayor.

Just prior to Prince Rainier III's death on April 6, 2005, his son Albert assumed power. He will formally replace his father in late April.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 4/7/05

Chief of State: Albert , Prince
Min. of State: Leclercq , Patrick
Min. of Economy & Finance: Biancheri , Franck
Min. of the Interior: Deslandes , Philippe
Min. of Environmental Affairs & Town Planning: Tonelli , Gilles
Min. of External Affairs: Imperti , Rainier
Public Works & Social Affairs: Badia , Jose
Pres., National Council: Valeri , Stephane
President of Supreme Court: Drago , M. Roland
Director of Judicial Services: Guillou , Alain
Permanent Representative to the UN: Borghini , Michel


ECONOMY

Monaco, located on the Mediterranean coast, has an economy primarily geared toward finance, commerce, and tourism. Low taxes have drawn many foreign companies to Monaco and account for around 50% of the $593 million annual government income (2002). Similarly, tourism accounts for close to 25% of the

annual revenue, as the Principality of Monaco also has been a major center for tourism ever since its famed casino was established in 1856.

Customs, postal services, telecommunications, and banking in Monaco are governed by an economic and customs union with France. The official currency is the euro.

Though official economic statistics are not published, 1999 estimates place the national product at $870 million and the per capita income at $27,000. The unemployment rate is low, at 3.1% (1998).Monaco is noted for its activity in the field of marine sciences. Its Oceanographic Museum, formerly directed by Jacques Cousteau, is one of the most renowned institutions of its kind in the world. Monaco imports and exports products and services from all over the world. There is no commercial agriculture in Monaco.


FOREIGN RELATIONS

Monaco actively participates in the United Nations, which it joined in 1993. Monaco joined the Council of Europe on October 4, 2004. Monaco also is a member of many international and intergovernmental organizations, including Interpol, the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the World Health Organization (WHO). The International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) is headquartered in Monaco.

The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent state, linked closely to France by the Treaty of July 1918, which was formally noted in Article 436 of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919.

The foreign policy of Monaco is one illustration of this accord: France has agreed to defend the independence and sovereignty of Monaco, while the Monegasque Government has agreed to exercise its sovereign rights in conformity with French interests. Since then, the relations between the sovereign states of France and Monaco have been further defined in the Treaty of 1945 and the Agreement of 1963.

As of 2004, Monaco was renegotiating its treaty with France. The revised treaty was expected to enter into force in 2004. It was reported that the terms of the new treaty would assist Monaco in joining the Council of Europe as a full member, and would:

  • Upgrade France's representation in Monaco from Consulate General to that of an embassy;
  • Permit, for the first time, other countries to accredit ambassadors to Monaco; and
  • Formally recognize the succession scheme set out in the 1962 Constitution, which extends eligibility to the Prince's daughters and other family members.

Although not a member of the European Union (EU), Monaco is closely associated with the economic apparatus of the EU through its customs union with France and its reliance upon the euro as its official currency.

Monaco has 10 diplomatic missions in Western Europe and permanent representation at the United Nations. It maintains honorary consulates in 106 cities in 45 countries. Seventy-four countries have consulates general, consulates, or honorary consulates in or accredited to Monaco.


U.S.-MONACO RELATIONS

The United States and Monaco enjoy excellent relations, which both countries seek to maintain and strengthen. From 1956 until her death in 1982, the American-born Grace Kelly was married to Prince Rainier III. The United States does not have a diplomatic mission located in Monaco. The U.S. Consul General in Marseille, France, under the authority of the U.S. Ambassador to France, is formally accredited to Monaco.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

MARSEILLE (CG) Address: Place Varian Fry, 13286 Marseille France; APO/FPO: PSC 116 MARS APO AE 09777; Phone: 33 491 54 9200; Fax: 33 491 55 09 47; Workweek: Monday-Friday, 8:30-5:00

PO:Leslie W. McBee
CON:Ellen B. Thorburn
CLO:Leslie W. McBee
Last Updated: 10/4/2003

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet—France

December 7, 2004

Country Description: France is a developed and stable democracy with a modern economy. Monaco is a developed constitutional monarchy. Tourist facilities are widely available.

Entry/Exit Requirements: A passport is required for entry to France and Monaco. A visa is not required for tourist/business stays up to 90 days in France and Monaco. That period begins when you enter any of the Schengen group of countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. For further information concerning entry requirements for France, travelers may contact the Embassy of France at 4101 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007, tel. (202) 944-6000, or the French Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, or San Francisco.

For further information on entry requirements to Monaco, travelers may contact the Consulate General of Monaco at 565 5th Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017, tel. (212) 759-5227. The Consulate General's web site is http://www.monco-consulate.com. See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on France and Monaco. Visit the Embassy of France web site at http://www.consulfrance-washington.org for the most current visa information.

Safety and Security: The Government of France maintains a threat level program called "Vigipirate" which is similar to the U.S. Homeland Security Advisory System. Under this plan, in times of heightened security concerns, the government mobilizes police and armed forces at airports, train and metro stations, and other high-profile locations such as schools, embassies, and government installations.

Over the last year, arrests have been made in France in connection with various possible Islamic extremist terrorist plots. Like other countries that are members of the Schengen Agreement of free cross-border movement, France's open borders with its European neighbors allow the possibility for terrorist groups to enter/exit the country with anonymity. American citizens should remain alert and vigilant, and report any suspect packages or suspicious activities to local police. All passengers on subways and trains are urged to be aware of their surroundings and to report any unattended baggage to the nearest authority.

In the past, political assassinations and random bombings have occurred in France. The Basque Separatist Party (ETA) and the National Front for the Liberation of Corsica (FLNC) continue to operate in the south of France and occasionally bomb local government institutions, banks, travel agencies, etc. There have been numerous politically motivated bombings on the island of Corsica and there have been two bombings on the mainland near Nice following the conviction and sentencing of several prominent separatists in France.

While no deaths were caused by any of these acts of terrorism, Americans should remain vigilant when traveling to Corsica. Violent civil disorder is rare in France. In the past, however, student demonstrations, labor protests, and other routine demonstrations have turned into violent confrontations between demonstrators and police. Americans are advised to avoid street demonstrations.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, Travel Warnings and Public Announcements can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-317-472-2328. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Crime: Both France and Monaco have relatively low rates of violent crime. Nevertheless, while the overall crime rate has fallen slightly in recent years, the volume of crimes involving violence has increased in France. Thieves commonly target vehicles with non-local license plates and work in or near tourist attractions such as museums, monuments, restaurants, hotels, beaches, trains, train stations, airports, and subways. Americans in France and Monaco should be particularly alert to pick-pockets in train stations and subways. Photocopies of travel documents and credit cards should be kept separate from the originals.

Although thieves may operate anywhere, the U.S. Embassy in Paris receives frequent reports of theft from several areas in particular:

Paris: Gangs of thieves operate on the rail link (RER) from Charles de Gaulle Airport to downtown Paris, where they prey on jet-lagged, luggage-burdened tourists. In one common ruse, a thief distracts a tourist with a question about directions, while an accomplice steals a momentarily unguarded backpack, briefcase, or purse. Thieves also time their thefts to coincide with train stops so they may quickly exit the car. Travelers may wish to consider taking a bus or taxi from the airport into the city.

Reports of stolen purses, briefcases and carry-on bags at Charles de Gaulle Airport have been on the rise. Travelers should monitor their bags at all times and never leave them unattended. As thieves commonly target laptop bags, travelers should avoid carrying passports and other valuables in computer bags.

There have been reports of robberies in which thieves on motorcycles reach into a moving car by opening the car door or reaching through an open window to steal purses and other bags visible inside. The same technique is used against pedestrians walking with purses/bags/cameras slung over their street-side shoulder. Those traveling by car should remember to keep the windows up and the doors locked.

Many thefts occur on the Number One Subway Line, which runs through the center of Paris by many major tourist attractions (including the Grand Arch at La Defense, the Arc de Triomphe, the Champs Elysees, Place de la Concorde, the Louvre, and the Bastille). Pickpockets are especially active on this metro line during the summer months and use a number of techniques. The most common, and unfortunately the most successful, is the simple "bump and snatch," where an individual bumps into the tourist while at the same time reaching into the pockets/purse/bag. Visitors should be particularly careful when metro doors are closing, as this is a favored moment for the less-sophisticated pickpockets to simply grab valuables and jump through the closing doors, leaving the victim helplessly watching as the thief flees. Visitors are encouraged NOT to aggressively confront thieves, who often operate in groups and may become violent if cornered. Simply drawing attention to an attempted theft will most likely stop the operation and cause a tactical withdrawal by the thief.

Gare du Nord train station, where the express trains from the airport arrive in Paris, is also a high-risk area for pickpocketing and theft. Travelers should also beware of thefts that occur on both overnight and day trains, especially on trains originating in Spain, Italy, and Belgium. Additionally, several sexual assaults involving American citizens have occurred recently in the immediate vicinity of the Gare du Nord train station.

Thefts also occur at the major department stores (Galeries Lafayette, Printemps, and Samaritaine) where tourists often place wallets, passports, and credit cards on cashier counters during transactions.

In hotels, thieves target lobbies and breakfast rooms, and take advantage of a minute of inattention to snatch jackets, purses, and backpacks. While many hotels do have safety latches that allow guests to secure their rooms from inside, this feature is not as universal as it is in the United States. If no chain or latch is present, a chair placed up against the door and wedged under the handle is usually an effective obstacle to surreptitious entry during the night. There are, however, reports of thieves breaking into hotel rooms on lower floors through open windows while the occupants are sleeping. To guard against this, hotel room windows should be kept locked at all times. There have been reports of thieves stealing safes from rooms in Parisian hotels. Whenever possible, valuables should be kept in the hotel safe behind the reception desk rather than in the room safe.

Many Americans have reported thefts occurring in restaurants and nightclubs/bars, where purses are stolen from the back of a chair or from under the table.

ATMs (Automatic Teller Machines) are very common in France and provide ready access to cash, allowing travelers to carry as much money as they need for each day. The rates are competitive with local exchange bureaus and an ATM transaction is easier than the cashing of travelers' checks. However, crimes committed around ATMs have been reported. Travelers should not use ATMs in isolated, unlit areas or where loiterers are present. Travelers should be especially aware of persons standing close enough to see the PIN (Personal Identification Number) being entered into the machine. Thieves often conduct successful scams by simply observing the PIN as it is entered. If the card becomes stuck, travelers should be wary of persons who offer to help or ask for the PIN to "fix" the machine. Legitimate bank employees never have a reason to ask for the PIN.

Large criminal operations in Paris involving the use of ATM machines that "eat" the user's ATM card have been reported. This most often happens during a weekend or at night when the bank is closed. The frustrated traveler often walks away after unsuccessfully trying to retrieve the card, with plans to return the first day the bank is open. In such cases, a criminal gang has modified the machine using an add-on device equipped with a microchip that records the user's PIN number when it is typed in and also prevents the card from being ejected. The criminal retrieves the card from the device once the visitor departs, downloads the recorded PIN number and then goes to other ATMs and withdraws as much cash as possible. ATM users are strongly encouraged to carry a 24-hour emergency number for their ATM card and bank account that will enable the immediate prevention of withdrawals from the supporting account.

Pigalle is the "adult entertainment district" of Paris. Many entertainment establishments in this area engage in aggressive marketing and charge well beyond the normal rate for drinks. There have been reports of threats of violence to coerce patrons into paying exorbitant beverage tabs. Visitors are encouraged to avoid this area unless touring with a well-organized and reputable tour company.

Normandy: There has been an increase in break-ins and thefts from vehicles in the parking lots at the Normandy beaches and American cemeteries. Valuables should not be left unattended in a car, and locking valuables in the trunk should not be considered a safeguard. Thieves often pry open car trunks to steal bags inside.

Southern France: Thefts from cars with open windows stopped at red lights are fairly common, particularly in the Nice-Antibes-Cannes area, and in Marseille. Car doors should be kept locked and windows raised at all times to prevent incidents of "snatchand-grab" thefts. In this type of scenario, the thief is usually a passenger on a motorcycle. Similar incidents also have occurred at tollbooths and rest areas. Special caution is advised when entering and exiting a car, as this presents an opportunity for purse-snatchers. Break-ins of parked cars are also fairly common. Valuables should not be left in the car, not even in the trunk, when the vehicle is unattended.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. Under French law, compensation is available to victims of crime committed on French soil. See our information on Victims of Crime at http://travel.state.gov/travel/brochure_victim_assistance.html.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Medical care comparable to that found in the United States is widely available.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and if it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning France and Monaco is provided for general reference only, and it may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Roads in France are generally comparable to those in the United States, but traffic engineering and driving habits pose special dangers. Usually, lane markings and sign placements are not as clear as in the United States. Drivers should be prepared to make last-minute maneuvers, as most French drivers do. The French typically drive more aggressively and faster than Americans and tend to exceed posted speed limits. Right-of-way rules in France may differ from those in the United States. Drivers entering intersections from the right have priority over those on the left (unless specifically indicated otherwise), even when entering relatively large boulevards from small side streets. Many intersections in France are being replaced by traffic circles, where the right-of-way belongs to drivers in the circle.

On major highways, service stations are situated at least every 25 miles. Service stations are not as plentiful on secondary roads in France as they are in the United States. Paris, the capital and largest city in France, has an extensive and efficient public transportation system. The interconnecting system of buses, subways, and commuter rails serves more than 4 million people a day with a safety record comparable to or better than the systems of major American cities. Similar transportation systems are found in all major French cities. Between cities, France is served by an equally extensive rail service, which is reliable. High-speed rail links connect the major cities in France. Many cities are also served by frequent air service.

Visit the website of the French and Moneqasque National Tourist Office at: http://franceguide.com. Also visit the website for specific information concerning French and Monegasque driver's permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, and mandatory insurance.

Aviation Safety Oversight: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of France's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards for oversight of France's air carrier operations.

For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's internet web site at www.faa.gov/avr/iasa/index.cfm.

Special Circumstances: French and Monegasque customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from France of items such as firearms, antiquities, medications, business equipment, sales samples, and other items. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of France in Washington, D.C., one of France's consulates in the United States, or the Consulate General of Monaco in New York for specific information regarding customs requirements.

The emergency numbers in France for police, fire, and medical assistance are as follows: 17 (police emergency), 18 (fire department) and 15 (emergency medical/paramedic team/ambulance). In Monaco, the numbers are 17 (police emergency), 18 (fire department) and 9375-2525 (medical/paramedic team/ambulance).

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating French or Monegasque laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.

Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in France or Monaco are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family/index.html.

Registration/Embassy and Consulate Locations: Americans living or traveling in France or Monaco are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website, https://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within France and Monaco. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in cases of emergency.

The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Paris is located at 2 Rue St. Florentin, 75001 Paris (Place de La Concorde, Metro Stop Concorde), tel. 011-33-1-43-12-22-22 or (in France) 01-43-12-22-22; fax 011-33-1-42-61-61-40. Further information can be obtained at the U.S. Embassy's web site at http://www.amb-usa.fr.

The Consulate General in Marseille is located at Place Varian Fry, 13086 Marseille, tel. 011-33-4-91-54-92-00, ext. 304, or (in France) 04-91-54-92-00, ext. 304; fax 011-33-4-91-55-09-47.

The Consulate General in Strasbourg is located at 15 Avenue d'Alsace, 67082 Strasbourg, tel. 011-33-3-88-35-31-04 or (in France) 03-88-35-31-04; fax 011-33-3-88-24-06-95. The Consulate General in Strasbourg does not produce passports on the premises. American citizens in this area whose passports are lost or stolen and who have urgent travel needs should contact the U.S. Embassy in Paris.

The Consular Agency in Nice is located at 7, Avenue Gustave V, 3rd floor, 06000 Nice, tel. 011-33-4-93-88-89-55 or (in France) 04-93-88-89-55; fax 011-33-4-93-87-07-38.

The U.S. Government also has consular representation in Bordeaux, Lille, Lyon, Rennes, and Toulouse that provide some services to Americans, by appointment only.

The post in Bordeaux is located at 10, place de la Bourse, 33076 Bordeaux (entry on rue Fernand Philippart); tel. 011-33-5-56-48-63-80 or 05-56-48-63-80 in France; fax: 011-33-5-56-51-61-97.

The post in Lille is located at 107, rue Royale, 59800 Lille; tel. 011-33-3-28-04-25-00 or 03-28-04-25-00 in France; fax: 011-33-3-20-74-88-23.

The post in Lyon is located at 1, quai Jules Courmont, 69002 Lyon; tel. 011-33-4-78-38-36-88 or 04-78-38-36-88 in France; fax: 011-33-4-72-41-71-81.

The post in Rennes is located at 30, quai Duguay Trouin, 35000 Rennes; tel. 011-33-2-23-44-09-60 or 02-23-44-09-60 in France; fax: 011-33-2-99-35-00-92.

The post in Toulouse is located at 25, Allee Jean Jaures, 31000 Toulouse; tel. 011-33-5-34-41-36-50 or 05-34-41-36-50 in France; fax: 011-33-5-34-41-16-19.

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