Nineteenth Century Holiness

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Nineteenth Century Holiness


American Rescue Workers (ARW)

℅ Robert N. Coles
National Field Office
1209 Hamilton Blvd.
Hagerstown, MD 21742-3340

Alternate Address: General Claude S. Astin, Jr., Commonderin-Chief, Operational Headquarters, 643 Elmira St., Williamsport, PA 17701.

Major Thomas E. Moore was national commander of the Salvation Army in the 1880s when a dispute flared between Moore and the armys founder General William Booth. Moore resigned his affiliation with Booth and, due to the fact that the Salvation Army was not at the time an incorporated body, was able to incorporate as the Salvation Army. The name of Moores organization was changed in 1890 to American Salvation Army and in 1913 the current name, American Rescue Workers, was adopted.

The early years of the organization were fraught with instability. Moore only stayed with the group he founded for nine months; he resigned and became a Baptist minister. Col. Richard Holz succeeded Moore, but never formally accepted the title of commander-in-chief. Shortly after taking control, he moved the headquarters from Mohawk to Saratoga Springs, New York. Holz had been leading the organization for only seven months when he was offered a position by Booth and, with some 150 officers, he left to return to the Salvation Army. The ARW then reorganized under Major Gratton, but he soon left and he was succeeded as commander-in-chief by William Duffin, then leader of a large center in Coatsville, Pennsylvania. The young Duffin would lead the organization for over a half of a century, until his death in 1948.

The American Rescue Workers emerged in 1913 as a national religions social service agency that operates on a quasimilitary basis. Membership includes officers (clergy), soldiers/adherents (laity), members of various activity groups, and volunteers who serve as advisors, associates, and committed participants in the organizations service functions.

Motivated by the love of God, the organization has a message based upon the Bible and expressed in its spiritual ministry. Members seek to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ and to meet human needs in His name without discrimination. As a branch of the Christian Church, it has established a diversified program of religious and social welfare services that are designed broadly to meet the needs of all people.

The American Rescue Workers is headed by a general, who holds the title of commander-in-chief, who is elected for a five-year term and can be re-elected. The present general, Claude S. Astin, Jr., is in his first term. Election takes place at the annual grand field councils. A board of managers administers the ongoing affairs of the organization. All properties are held in the name of the organization. Doctrinally, the organization is in agreement with the Salvation Army with the exception of the sacraments (which the army does not observe). The American Rescue Workers believes in equal rights for women.

Membership: In 1997 the American Rescue Workers reported approximately 1,000 members, 15 centers, and 75 officers in the United States.

Periodicals: The Rescue Herald.


Ritual and Manual. American Rescue Workers, n.d.


Association of Fundamental Ministers and Churches

Current address not obtained for this edition.

The Association of Fundamental Ministers and Churches, Inc. was formed in 1931 by Rev. Fred Bruffett, Hallie Bruffett (his wife), Rev. Paul Bennett, Rev. George Fisher, and six other former ministers of the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana). Bennett had been disfellowshipped because of his fellowshipping with other churches. The Association believes that the new birth is the only necessity for fellowship.

Doctrine is like that of the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana). Healing is stressed and the ordinances are not emphasized. The Association meets annually and elects four officers to handle business affairs. There are 25 state conventions. Missions are conducted in Guatemala, Hong Kong, and Alaska.

Membership: Not reported.

Periodicals: The Fundamental News.


Bible Fellowship Church

4404 W. Main St.
Terre Hill, PA 17581

The Bible Fellowship Church was formed in 1947 by churches withdrawing from the Mennonite Brethren in Christ when the Brethren changed their name to the United Missionary Church and dropped all Mennonite connections. Members of the Bible Fellowship Church see themselves as continuing the tradition of the Mennonite Brethren in Christ and date their origin to 1883. Their doctrine follows that of the parent body. They abide by the Dort Confession of Faith (common to most Mennonites), but add statements on sanctification as a second work of grace received instantaneously (the uniquely "holiness" doctrine), divine healing, and the millennium. Baptism is by immersion.

All the churches of the Bible Fellowship Church are in Pennsylvania and are organized into two districts, each headed by a superintendent. There is an annual conference of the entire church. Polity is congregational. Mission work is supported in Colombia, Venezuela, Kenya, and Sweden.

Membership: In 1995 there were 58 churches and 7,132 members and 121 ministers.


Bible Holiness Church (1995)

304 Camp Dr.
Independence, KS 67301

The Bible Holiness Church, known until 1995 as the Fire Baptized Holiness Church (Wesleyan), was established in 1890 by holiness people in the Methodist Episcopal Church of southeastern Kansas. The original name, the Southeast Kansas Fire Baptized Holiness Association, was changed in 1945. The church is organized in an episcopal mode taken from the Methodist Episcopal Church. A general assembly meets annually. The Wesleyan holiness doctrine is emphasized, and strong prohibitions exist against alcohol, tobacco, drugs, secret societies, television, immodest clothing, jewelry, and frivolous amusements. Members regularly tithe. The church is aggressively evangelistic. Missions are supported on Grenada, Windward Islands and New Guinea.

Membership: In 2002 the church reported 1,700 members, 45 churches and 83 ministers in the United States.

Educational Facilities: Independence Bible School, Independence, Kansas.

Troy Holiness School, Troy, Missouri.
Brothers School, Grenada.

Periodicals: Flaming Sword. • John Three Sixteen. Send orders to 370 W. College Ave., Independence, KS 67301.


Bible Holiness Movement

PO Box 223, Stn A.
Vancouver, BC, Canada V6C 2M3

The Bible Holiness Movement, formerly known as Bible Holiness Mission, was formed as a church in 1949. It grew out of the city mission work of the late Pastor William James Elijah Wake-field, an early-day Salvation Army officer, and his wife. Wakefield developed several doctrinal emphases distinct from those of the Salvation Army. He believed the sacraments were real means of grace and not just symbolic ordinances. The Salvation Army does not practice the sacraments at all. The Wakefields directed the mission until Wakefield's death in 1947. In 1949, his son, Wesley H. Wakefield, its bishop general, formed the Bible Holiness Mission and changed the name of the organization in 1971 to its current one. Wesley Wakefield continues to direct the church as its international leader.

Membership involves a life of Christian love, evangelistic and social activism, and disciplines of simplicity and separation. This includes total abstinence from liquor and tobacco, nonattendance at popular amusements, and no membership in secret societies. Home permanency is affirmed by forbidding divorce and remarriage while there is a living spouse. Similar to Wesley's Methodism, members are, under some circumstances, allowed to retain membership in other evangelical church fellowships.

Government and ordination withing the movement is open to both men and women and is fully interracial and international. A number of interchurch affiliations are maintained with other Wesleyan-Arminian Holiness denominations.

The movement is activist in both evangelism and social concern. Year-round evangelistic outreach is maintained through open-air meetings, visitation, literature, and other media. Noninstitutional welfare work, including addiction counseling, is conducted among minorities. There is direct overseas famine relief, as well as civil rights action, environmental protection, and antinuclearism. Sponsored organizations include a permanent committee on religious freedom and an active promotion of Christian racial equality.

In doctrine they are Methodists. The movement believes in the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, in the divine inspiration of the Holy Scriptures, in the deity, virgin birth, and sinless humanity of Jesus Christ, in a general atonement by his blood, in his bodily resurrection and ascension, in his intercession and personal second advent, in the deity and personality of the Holy Spirit, in the personality of Satan, in the total depravity of natural man, in the necessity of new birth, in the witness of the Spirit, in future rewards and punishments, and in the two sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper. It insists that it is the duty and privilege of every believer to be sanctified wholly, and to be preserved blameless unto the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ. Every one who is received into full connection, either professes to enjoy that perfect love that casts out fear or promises diligently to seek until it is obtained.

From its Vancouver headquarters, the movement has an international outreach. Mission work began as a result of the circulation of movement material around the world. In some cases, people were converted as a result of reading literature, and in others, leaders of independent holiness churches overseas contacted the movement for affiliation. Currently, the church conducts work in Egypt, Ghana, India, Kenya, Liberia, Malwai, Nigeria, the Philippines, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The movement belongs to the Christian Holiness Partnership, Evangelicals for Social Action, and the National Black Evangelical Association.

Membership: In 2001 the movement reported 563 members, 15 congregations, and 12 ministers in Canada and the United States. The two congregations in the United States are located in Phoenix, Arizona, and Kent, Washington. International membership is conservatively estimated at 90,881.

Periodicals: Hallelujah!. • On the March.


Triumph with Christ. Vancouver: Bible Holiness Movement, 1984.

Wakefield, Wesley H. Bible Doctrine. N.p., n.d.


Christ Holy Sanctified Church of America

5204 Willie St.
Fort Worth, TX 76105

Christ Holy Sanctified Church of America was founded in 1910 in Keatchie, Louisiana, by Sarah A. King and a Bishop Judge. It was incorporated the next year in Memsfield, Louisiana. It grew out of the same movement which had produced Christ's Sanctified Holy Church in Louisiana several years previously. Judge was succeeded by Bishop Ulysses King of Oakland, California, and more recently E. L. McBride, the present leader. The church supports Christ Holy Sanctified School, an industrial school. Headquarters is in Fort Worth, Texas.


Payne, Wardell J., ed. Directory of African American Religious Bodies: A Compendium by the Howard University School of Divinity. Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1991.


Christian and Missionary Alliance (C&MA)

8595 Explorer Dr.
Colorado Springs, CO 80920

The Christian and Missionary Alliance had its beginning during a summer conference at Old Orchard, Maine, in 1887. A number of Christian men and women connected with various evangelical denominations were organized under the leadership of Dr. A. B. Simpson, a Presbyterian minister. Simpson had begun publishing an interdenominational missionary magazine in 1882 to promote a deeper spiritual life for the support of an aggressive missionary ministry.

Through the magazine and its description of a Bible and missionary convention held in 1884 at the New York Gospel Tabernacle, of which A. B. Simpson was the pastor, there arose a popular demand for similar conventions in other cities. In 1885 five were held in other metropolitan areas. These spread and resulted in two organizations–The Christian Alliance and The Missionary Alliance. The Christian Alliance consisted of local organizations, called "branches," that grew to 300 within 10 years. More than 25 denominations were represented in branch auxiliaries for the support of The Missionary Alliance, the missionary-sending agency. It was a fraternal society with no intent of becoming another church or denomination, although the New York Gospel Tabernacle was organized as a regular independent church.

Again, within 10 years of operation, The Missionary Alliance had more than 200 missionaries on approximately 100 stations in India, China, Japan, Africa, Palestine, the West Indies, and five Latin American countries. A missionary institute, established in 1883, had graduated hundreds of students, many of whom were mature laymen and laywomen who felt they were called by God into the missionary ministry. In 1897, The Christian Alliance and The Missionary Alliance were united as "The Christian and Missionary Alliance."

In doctrine, The Christian and Missionary Alliance stresses the centrality of Christ and His all-sufficiency–Christ as Savior, Sanctifier, Healer, and Coming King. A formal statement of doctrine was adopted in 1965. As the alliance developed in overseas ministries and at home, indigenous policies gave rise to national churches, particularly after World War II. By 1974, the Alliance was completely reorganized in the United States and Canada and declared to be a church and a denomination. Canada, united with the United States until 1980, also became nationally autonomous. Each has its own General Council Assembly resembling a combination of congregational and presbyterian policies.

The United States is presently served by two graduate schools and four colleges. Canada has one college and one graduate school. The United States and Canada each have a seminary fully accredited by the American Association of Theological Schools. An office of alternative education serves 1,591 students.

Membership: Inclusive membership in the United States in 1991 was 267,853 in 1,901 churches. An unusual feature was that 313 of these churches were intercultural (Cambodian, Dega, Haitian, Hmong, Jewish, Korean, Lao, Native American, Spanish, and Vietnamese). Canada, with headquarters in Willowdale, Ontario, reported 76,119 inclusive members and 336 churches, 83 of which were ethnic. Overseas ministries reported 1,931,363 inclusive members in 14,941 churches in 53 countries. In overseas ministries, the United States and Canada are a joint organization with 1,185 missionaries.

Educational Facilities: Nyack College and Alliance Theological Seminary, Nyack, New York.

Simpson College and Simpson Graduate School, Redding, California.
Toccoa Falls College, Toccoa Falls, Georgia.
Crown College, St. Bonifacius, Minnesota.
Canadian Bible College and Canadian Theological Seminary, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Periodicals: Alliance Life.


Ayer, H. D. The Christian and Missionary Alliance: An Annotated Bibliography of Texual Sources. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2001.

Bailey, Keith. The Best of A. B. Simpson. Camp Hill, PA: Christian Publications, Inc., 1987.

Manual. New York: Christian and Missionary Alliance, 1965.

Niklaus, Robert L. John S. Sawin, and Samuel J. Stoesz. All for Jesus. Camp Hill, PA: Christian Publications, Inc. 1986.

Simpson, Albert B. The Four-fold Gospel. Harrisburg, PA: Christian Publications, n.d.

——. A Larger Christian Life. Harrisburg, PA: Christian Publications, n.d.


Christian Nation Church, U.S.A.

Current address not obtained for this edition.

In 1892, eight young evangelists who called themselves "equality Evangelists" began to work in central Ohio. Their efforts met with success, and in 1895 the Christian Nation Church was incorporated at Marion, Ohio. Doctrinally, the group is related to the Christian and Missionary Alliance, and preaches the four-fold gospel of its founder A. B. Simpson. It is very strict in forbidding worldly amusements, fashionable attire, Sabbath desecration, and divorce. Marriage with non-members is discouraged. Large families are encouraged as being divinely sanctioned.

The polity of the Christian Nation is congregational with district and annual conferences. The pastors' licenses are renewed annually. Camp meetings are an active part of the program.

Membership: In 1989 the church reported 200 members, five churches, and 23 ministers.


Christ's Sanctified Holy Church (Georgia)

Box 1376
CSHC Campgrounds and Home for the Aged
Perry, GA 31068

History. In the year 1887, Joseph Lynch, a member and class leader in the Methodist Episcopal Church, Chincoteague Island, Virginia, began to preach scriptural holiness, which at that time was in opposition to the direction being taken by the church. Following his conviction, he sought and obtained the experience of sanctification, the second blessing believed by holiness churches to make the believer perfect in love. Assisting him in his early labors was Sarah E. Collins. The resistance of the church to his preaching on this doctrine led Lynch and 58 members to withdraw from the church. In 1892, they established Christ's Sanctified Holy Church; 19 members operated as trustees and were designated Board No. 1. Succesors of Board No. 1 incorporated the church in Chatham County, Georgia, in 1932. The trustee established subservient boards of extension (1938) and a general conference (1950) but reserved the corporate church affairs and management in the hands of Board No. 1.

Beliefs. Christ's Sanctified Holy Church is Trinitarian in its beliefs and centered upon the experience of sanctification as the second work of grace, but differs from most Christians in serveral respects. It does not practice water baptism, but believes in the baptism of the Holy Ghost which is inward and spiritual. It also does not practice the Lords's supper as members believe that no act or ritual is necessary to establish a relationship between God and humans. It does not believe in a bodily resurrection but in a spiritual resurrection through sanctification of the Spirit and a belief in truth. There are no paid ministers, and women share equal participation in all church functions.

Organization. Christ's Sanctified Holy Church has no individual membership nor a congregational form of internal governance. It is governed by a non-congregational trusteeship whereby the church corporation draws from various separate corporate church entities and associations of like religious faith who may gain recognition under prescribed religious qualifications. Congregations are entitled to representation on the governing boards and use of the church's physical facilities for religious worship. At Perry, Georgia, the church owns a campground, a place for internment, and a home for the aged. Camp meeting is held the first Sunday in August of each year.

Membership: In 1995, the church reported approximately 1,500 members, 17 congregations, and 17 ministers.


Clelland, E. Joseph. The Writings of E. Joseph Clelland. N.p.: The Author, 1989.


Christ's Sanctified Holy Church (Louisiana)

S. Cutting Ave. at E. Spencer St.
Jennings, LA 70546

In 1903 members of Christ's Sanctified Holy Church (South Carolina) came to West Lake, Louisiana, and proselytized a group of black people, who in 1904 organized the Colored Church South. Among the leaders were Dempsey Perkins, A. C. Mitchell, James Briller, Sr., and Leggie Pleasant. The church soon changed its name to Christ's Sanctified Holy Church Colored. Over the years the church members dropped the word "Colored" from their title and returned to using the same name as their parent body, Christ's Sanctified Holy Church. The parent body is white and has headquarters in South Carolina, whereas the church under discussion here is headquartered in Louisiana. Organization and doctrine are as in the parent body, except that the ministers in Christ's Sanctified Holy Church (Louisiana) are salaried.

Membership: Not reported. At last report (1957) there were 600 members in 30 churches.


Church of God (Anderson, Indiana)

Box 2420
Anderson, IN 46018

Daniel Warner, a minister of the General Eldership of the Churches of God in North America, now called the Church of God, General Council, was affected by the holiness movement. He became an ardent advocate of sanctification as a second work of grace. For that belief, he was tried and expelled from the church. Warner argued that sanctification led to an identification of the invisible church with the visible church, the concrete embodiment of the spiritual body of Christ.

The new Church of God was organized in 1880 by Warner. Like its parent body, the Church of God has no creed, but it follows the holiness theological consensus. It believes in the inspiration of Scripture, the Trinity, the divinity of Jesus, the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, sin, repentance, and atonement in Christ. There is a distinctive eschatology. While the members look for the second coming of Christ, they hold that it has no connection with a millennial reign. The kingdom of God is here and now. There will be a judgment day with reward for the righteous and punishment for the wicked.

Three ordinances, symbolic of acts of obedience and experience with Christ, are commonly practiced: baptism, the Lord's Supper, and footwashing. Baptism is by immersion. The Communion is open to all believers. Footwashing is usually practiced on Maundy Thursday by separate groups of men and women. These symbolic acts are but highlights of a Christian life of stewardship and high moral and ethical conduct. Prayer for divine healing is practiced, as is tithing.

Warner's distinctive doctrine of the church led to a rejection of the presbyterial system. The church uses a congregational form of government as it allows only the authority of God to operate. No membership is held in a formal way: there is no formal initiation rite for members, and membership lists are not made.

Beyond the local church, there are state and regional associations, and each year a General Assembly is held in connection with the International Convention. Anderson, Indiana, is home to the church. Located there are its national offices, one of its colleges, theological school, and Warner Auditorium (site of the International Convention). There is an active outreach program conducted by the general church. The Christian Brotherhood Hour is heard over three hundred stations, including Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Portuguese, Indian, and Chinese-speaking stations. The Church is resident in 82 countries including Egypt, Lebanon, Greece, Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, England and Ireland, India, Korea, Japan, and throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean. Warner Press publishes many books, pamphlets and tracts, and most of the educational material used by the church. The church is represented in the National Association of Evangelicals and is associated with the Christian Holiness Association.

Membership: No formal membership figures are kept, but an informal count is made periodically.

Educational Facilities: Anderson College, Anderson, Indiana.

Warner Pacific College, Portland, Oregon.
Mid-America Bible College, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Warner Southern College, Lake Wales, Florida.
Gardner Bible College, Camrose, Alberta, Canada.
Bay Ridge Christian College, Kendleton, Texas.

Periodicals: Vital Christianity. • Leader Missions Shining Light. Available from Warner Press, Box 2499, Anderson, IN46018.


Callen, Barry L., ed. The First Century. 2 vols. Anderson, IN: Warner Press, 1979.

Miller, Milburn H. "Unto the Church of God". Anderson, IN: Warner Press, 1968.

Sterner, R. Eugene. We Reach Our Hands in Fellowship. Anderson, IN: Warner Press, 1960.


Church of God (Guthrie, Oklahoma)

℅ Faith Publishing House
7415 W. Monsur Ave.
Guthrie, OK 73044

The Church of God (Guthrie, Oklahoma) was formed by some ministers and laymen of the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana) who separated in 1910-1911 over what they felt had been compromises and changes in doctrine and practice, and drifting into worldliness. Among the new practices coming into the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana) were the segregation of the races and the wearing of neckties. In 1910 C. E. Orr began publishing The Herald of Truth in California, advocating the original position of Daniel Warner, founder of the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana). A movement supporting schism developed around Orr.

In doctrine and practice the Church of God (Guthrie, Oklahoma) is almost identical with the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), but it is stricter in its practice of holiness and refusal to compromise with the world. Like the members of the parent body, the members of the Church of God (Guthrie, Oklahoma) believe in healing and reject the idea of a literal millennium.

In 1923 Fred Pruitt moved from New Mexico to Guthrie and began to print Faith and Victory which continues as the organ of the movement. Today from the Faith Publishing House, Wayne Murphy continues his grandfather's work and also publishes many tracts and The Beautiful Way, a children's quarterly. A vigorous mission program is supported in the Philippines, Nigeria, Mexico, and India. A national camp meeting has been held each July since 1938. Lesser camp meetings are held across the United States and in Mexico and Canada.

Membership: Not reported.

Periodicals: Faith and Victory. • The Beautiful Way.


Pruitt, Fred. Past, Present and Future of the Church. Guthrie, OK: Faith Publishing House, n.d.

Speck, S. L., and H. M. Riggle. Bible Readings for Bible Students. Guthrie, OK: Faith Publishing House, 1975.

Susag, S. O. Personal Experiences. Guthrie, OK: Faith Publishing House, 1976.

Warner, Daniel S. The Church of God. Guthrie, OK: Faith Publishing House, n.d.


Church of God (Holiness)

7415 Metcalf
Overland Park, KS 66204

History. The origin of the Church of God (Holiness) dates to the very beginning of the "come-out" crisis of the early 1880s, a movement whose leaders advocated coming out of the mainline Protestant churches in order to establish independent holiness congregations. The ideal of the one New Testament church, a divine institution headed by Christ, was opposed in their thinking to what they saw as denominational, man-made organizations. Thus local congregations organized in conformity to the New Testament ideal became the movement's immediate goal. The first independent congregations which were established served primarily those holiness people with no previous church (denominational) affiliation, but eventually included people leaving the older churches.

During the decades when holiness advocates had been welcome in the mainline denominations, holiness associations had formed. These were not churches, but simply groups loosely affiliated with the non-holiness churches. As the come-out movement intensified, these associations fell into disfavor among many holiness proponents. Among those most strongly affected by come-outism were members of the Southwestern Holiness Association covering the states of Kansas, Missouri and Iowa. By 1882 six ministers, leaders of the association, had decided to withdraw from their parent denominational bodies as soon as it was convenient. A minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, A. M. Kiergan, emerged as their leader and spearheaded the drive toward independent holiness congregations. The dominance of the come-outers in the Southwestern Holiness Association caused its dissolution in 1887 and the formation of a new church, the Independent Holiness People, the following year. In 1895 the name was changed to Church of God (known as Independent Holiness People). The Good Way, formerly serving the Southwestern Holiness Association, became the church newspaper.

Almost as soon as the church formed, two factions arose. One wanted complete local congregational sovereignty. The other said the elders should interpret doctrine and be spiritual rulers for the church, and should in turn be subject to a presbytery of elders. Kiergan and John P. Brooks, an early leader of the come-outers in Illinois, led the sovereignty faction. The crux of the issue was representation in the annual convention. In 1897 a "Declaration of Principles" was published by the sovereignty faction. The local sovereignty supporters wanted representation of the congregations at the annual meeting, and the others wanted the elders represented. Following the publication of the Declaration, the church split into the Independent Holiness People (sovereignty faction) and Unity Holiness People (elder faction). A reunion of the two factions was accomplished in 1922. The name of the reunited church is Church of God (Holiness). The new church merged with the Missionary Bands of the World, now a contistuent part of the Wesleyan Church, but the merger fell through in 1938.

Beliefs. Four doctrines are central in the Church of God (Holiness)–the New Birth, Entire Sanctification, the one New Testament church, and the second coming followed by a literal millennium. The one New Testament church idea is a distinctive feature of the Church of God (Holiness). The doctrinal statement in the reunited church reads:

The New Testament Scriptures teach that there is one true Church, which is composed only of those who have savingly believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, and who willingly submit themselves to His divine order concerning the ministries of the church through the instrumentalities of God–chosen elders and deacons, ordained in the church by laying on of the hands of the presbytery. The attributes of the church are unity, spirituality, visibility, and catholicity. (Matt. 16:18; Eph 4:4; Col. 1:18; I Tim. 3: 1-7; Titus 1:5).

The government of the Church of God (Holiness) is congregational, but a delegated annual convention has responsibility for the election of individuals to serve on the various boards of church-wide ministries. The board of publications oversees Herald and Banner Press, the church's publishing house, which publishes the church magazine and a full line of church school materials, "The Way, Truth, & Life Series." The church has a worldwide missions program under the direction of the world mission board. Fields of service include Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, the Cayman Islands, American and British Islands of the Eastern Caribbean, Bolivia and Nigeria. The home missions board is responsible for encouraging church extension ministries in the United States, including ethnic group ministries among native American Indians, Hispanic, Asian and Haitian immigrants, and blacks. The home and world mission programs are each directed by an executive secretary who is appointed by their respective boards.

Membership: In 1988 the church reported 1,500 members and 120 congregations in the United States and a worldwide membership of 16,000.

Educational Facilities: Kansas City College and Bible School, Overland Park, Kansas.

Fort Scott Christian Heights, Fort Scott, Kansas.
oliness Bible School, Gravette, Arkansas.
Kirksville Bible School, Kirksville, Missouri.
Mount Zion Bible School, Ava, Missouri.
Mountain State Christian School, Culloden, West Virginia.
Overland Christian School, Overland Park, Kansas.

Periodicals: The Church Herald and Holiness Banner. • Opening the Word. Send orders to Box 4060, Overland Park, KS 66204.


Brooks, John P. The Divine Church. El Dorado Springs, MO: Witt Printing Company, 1960.

Cowen, Clarence Eugene. A History of the Church of God (Holiness). The Author, 1948.


Church of God (Northern Indiana Eldership)


The Church of God (Northern Indiana Eldership) originated as a schism from the Churches of God General Conference, which was generally known in the later-nineteenth century as the Churches of God in North America (General Eldership). It resulted from the influx of holiness experience and theology into the Churches of God. Among its prominent members was Daniel Warner, who served as editor for its newspaper. In 1880 Warner left the group, taking many members with him, and they became the core of the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana). The Church of God (Northern Indiana Eldership) is little heard of after that date and is presumed to have slowly dwindled away.


Jones, Charles Edwin. A Guide to the Study of the Holiness Movement. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1974.


Church of the Living God (Sandford)

Current address not obtained for this edition.

The Church of Living God (Sandford) was founded in 1894 by Frank Weston Sandford. It began in Brunswick, Maine, where Sandford opened a bible school in the winter of 1894-95. Sand-ford had been a Freewill Baptist minister, but had left that denomination in 1893 after being strongly affected by the teachings of A.B. Simpson and the Christian and Missionary Alliance and reading Hannah Whitall Smith's The Christian's Secret of a Happy Life (1870). Both were representative of the Keswick branch of the Holiness Movement, which called believers to a second experience with the Holy Spirit that granted them entire sanctification. In 1895 the group moved to new headquarters near Lisbon Falls, Maine, which was dubbed "Shiloh." The initial building, which would be greatly enlarged over the years and joined by adjacent buildings, would serve as headquarters of the church for the next quarter century. Shiloh was dedicated in a ceremony in July 1895 in which Sandford ordained his first ministerial assistant William Gleason.

The church followed a theology based on that of the Christian and Missionary Alliance. It was evangelistic and preached the higher sanctified life. There were four ordinances: baptism, healing, the Lord's Supper, and worship. Simpson had been one of the first to emphasize the recovery of divine healing in the church. Sandford deviated from much of the holiness movement by instituting sabbatarian worship (on Saturday). The Lord's Supper was closed to all but the members of the movement, a practice that indicated its separatist stance. In October 1895, without reference to any prior baptisms, Sandford rebaptized all of the members of the group, then some 218 in number.

As churches emerged around New England and, to a lesser extent, the rest of the country, Sandford initiated a system of membership based upon commitment levels. The most committed were those living at Shiloh, who gave up everything and worked full time for the movement. They lived by faith, relying upon God to supply their needs. At a minimum, members were required to tithe.

The most controversial belief of the movement, articulated in 1901, was the belief that Sandford was the prophet Elijah returned, the prophet who was to announce the return of Christ and the beginning of the millennial kingdom. The group began to see itself as the precursor group for the establishment of God's kingdom on earth.

Life at Shiloh was intense and subject to the occasional arbitrary change in direction articulated by Sandford. Some members left and joined forces with other religious leaders in the area to attack the school. However, the movement grew steadily and even developed a small following in Europe, through 1904. That year Sandford was indicted for manslaughter, legal authorities blaming him for several deaths that occurred during the winter of 1902-03. Initially found guilty, the verdict was overturned on appeal. Sanford had escaped momentarily. Then in 1911 he was arrested again and charged with being responsible for several deaths that occurred in the group's missionary ship while on a voyage to Greenland. He was convicted and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

Before leaving to serve his time, Sandford appointed seven ministers to take charge of Shiloh and the movement, but he kept in touch by way of regular letters and the visits of a member who moved to Atlanta and took stenographic notes of their conversations. Released in 1918, he immediately resumed control of the movement. Then in 1920, the state moved against Shiloh claiming that the parents living there were neglecting their children. Threatened with extensive legal proceedings as each family's case was abjudicated, Sandford disbursed the group and closed the center. From that time on, the movement he led has existed in a decentralized state. Sandford continued to lead the church until his death in 1947, but made few personal appearances. The small groups had kept a low profile in the succeeding half century. A small publishing concern, Kingdom Press, is operated from their headquarters in Amherst, New Hampshire.

Membership: Not reported.


Murray, Frank S. The Sublimity of Faith: The Life and Work of Frank W. Sandford. Amherst, NH: The Kingdom Press, 1981.

Nelson, Shirley. Fair Clear and Terrible: The Strange Story of Shiloh. Latham, NY: British American Publishing, 1989. 446 pp.

Sandford, Frank S. The Art of War for the Christian Soldier. 1906. Reprint. Amherst, NH: The Kingdom Press, 1966.

——. The Golden Light Upon the Two Americas. Amherst, NH: The Kingdom Press, 1974.

——. The Majesty of Snowy Whiteness. 1901. Rept.: Amherst, NH: The Kingdom Press, 1963.


Church of the Nazarene

6401 The Paseo
Kansas City, MO 64131

Most holiness advocates were originally members of the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, when the hostility of their leaders made the holiness people feel that a new church was their only option. Thus late in the nineteenth century a number of small schisms occurred, and independent holiness congregations and associations came into existence. By the turn of the century these smaller groups were seeking wider fellowship through mergers. The Church of the Nazarene is the result of a set of such mergers.

Phineas Bresee was a leading founder of the Church of the Nazarene. In 1885 Bresee, a former Methodist pastor and presiding elder, organized the First Church of the Nazarene in Los Angeles, California, after leaving the Peniel Missions where he had been preaching for a year. Coincident with Bresee's efforts, the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America was formed in New York. In 1896 this group united with the Central Evangelical Holiness Association (established in 1890) with member congregations located primarily in New England. In October 1907, the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America and the Church of the Nazarene, both having grown into small denominations, merged to form the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene. On October 13, 1908, the Holiness Church of Christ united with the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene in a joint assembly at Pilot Point, Texas; the merged body retained the name of Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene. The 1908 date is accepted as the official "anniversary" of the present-day Church of the Nazarene. In 1915 the Pentecostal Church of Scotland and the Pentecostal Mission of Nashville, Tennessee, united with the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene.

In 1919 the word "Pentecostal" was dropped to avoid confusion with the "speaking in tongues" sects. Over the years other groups have united with the Church of the Nazarene including the Laymen's Holiness Association (1922); the International Holiness Mission, an English group (1952); the Calvary Holiness Church, also British in origin (1955); the Gospel Workers Church of Canada (1958); and the indigenous Church of the Nazarene (Nigeria)(1988) whose founders were influenced by the 1944 Manual of the international Church of the Nazarene.

The Church of the Nazarene views itself as firmly Wesleyan in doctrine and practice and keeps in essence the Articles of Religion and General Rules as sent to America by Methodist founder, John Wesley. The church has, however, added statements on the plenary inspiration of Scripture, regeneration, entire sanctification, divine healing, and eschatology, and has changed completely Wesleys article on the church. The major emphasis is upon entire sanctification subsequent to regeneration and the personal holiness of the believer.

Government in the groups that formed the Church of the Nazarene was of all types: congregational, representative, and episcopal. The final outcome was a representative government. The highest law-making body is the General Assembly, composed equally of ministerial and lay delegates elected by the district assemblies. The general Board, elected by the General Assembly, has oversight of specialized General Assembly concerns: evangelism, missions, publication, education, and ministerial benevolences. The General Assembly, presided over by the general superintendents (who are elected every four years), has final authority in all matters except changes in the convention, which must also be approved by the district assemblies. The district assembly orders the work of the district and supervises the local churches and ministers. The local church calls its own pastor, subject to the district superintendents approval, and conducts its own affairs in accordance with General Assembly guidelines.

Mission in what became the Church of the Nazarene began in 1897 when Mr. and Mrs. M. D. Wood, Carrie Taylor, Lillian Sprague, and Mr. F. P. Wiley sailed for India to begin missionary work. The work has grown and the church is presently at work in more than 110 world areas under the Department of World Missions of the General Board.

Publishing began in 1888 with the Beulah Christian and in 1898 with the Nazarene Messenger. Early in 1900, the Nazarene Publishing Company was founded to carry on the work of the growing denomination. In 1911, after the merger, plans were made to establish a centrally located Nazarene publishing house. The new publishing concern–dnow Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City, Missouri–is the largest publisher of holiness literature in the world. The Church of the Nazarene is a member of the Christian Holiness Association and the National Association of Evangelicals.

Membership: Not reported.

Educational Facilities: Nazarene Theological Seminary, Kansas City, Missouri.

Southern Nazarene University, Bethany, Oklahoma.
Eastern Nazarene College, Quincy, Massachusetts.
Mid-America Nazarene College, Olatha, Kansas.
Mount Vernon Nazarene College, Mt. Vernon, Ohio.
Nazarene Bible College, Colorado Springs, Colorado.
Northwest Nazarene College, Nampa, Idaho.
Olivet Nazarene University, Kankakee, Illinois.
Point Loma Nazarene College, San Diego, California.
Trevecca Nazarene College, Red Deer, Alberta, Canada.
Nazarene Theological College, Manchester, United Kingdom.
Korea Nazarene Theological College, Chonan City, Korea.
Nazarene Theological College, Muldersdrift, South Africa.
Asia Pacific Nazarene Theological Seminary, Manila, Philippines.
Nazarene Bible College, Thornlands, Queensland, Australia.
Luzon Nazarene Bible College, Bagulo City, Philippines.
Caribbean Nazarene Theological College, Santa Cruz, Trinidad.
European Nazarene Bible College, Schaffhausen, Switzerland.
Sekolah Tinggi Theological Nazarene Indonesia, Yogakarta, Indonesia.
Japan Christian Junior College, Chiba Shi, Japan.
Seminario Teologico Nazareno do Brasil, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Universidad Nazareno de la Americas, San Jose, Costa Rica.
Seminario Nazareno Mexicano, Mexico City, Mexico.
Taiwan Nazarene Theological College, Taiwan, Republic of China.
Visayan Nazarene Bible College, Cabu City, Philippines.
India Nazarene Nurses Training College, Washim, India.
Instituto Teologico Nazareno, Guatemala City, Guatemala.
Nazarene College of Nursing, Mt. Hagen, Papua New Guinea.
Nazarene Nursing College, Manzini, Swaziland.
Seminario Teologico Nazareno Sudamericano, Quito, Ecuador.
Swaziland Nazarene Bible College, Siteki, Switzerland.

Periodicals: Herald of Holiness. • World Missions. • El Heraldo de Santidad. • Preachers Magazine. • Grow. • Arauto da Sabti-dade. • MinisterioCome Ye Apart.


Bangs, Carl. Phineas F. Bresee: His Life in Methodism, The Holiness Movement, and the Church of the Nazarene. Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill, 1995.

Brickley, Donald P. Man of the Morning. Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1960.

Girvin, E. A. Phineas F. Bresee: A Prince in Israel. Kansas City, MO: Pentecostal Nazarene Publishing House, 1916.

Price, Ross E. Nazarene Manifesto. Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press, 1968.

Purkiser, W. T. Called Unto Holiness, II. Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1983.

Redford, M. E. The Rise of the Church of the Nazarene. Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press, 1948.

Smith, Timothy. Called Unto Holiness. Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1962.

Tracy, Wesley D. What is a Nazarene?: Understanding Our Place in the Religious Community. Kansas City, MO: Becon Hill Press of KC, 1998.


Churches of God (Independent Holiness People)

Current address not obtained for this edition.

In 1922 the Church of God (Independent Holiness People) and the Church of God (Unity Holiness People) united to become the Church of God (Holiness). However, some members of the Church of God (Independent Holiness People), those often referred to as the sovereignty faction and most committed to the strong sovereignty of the local congregation, did not join the merger. They reorganized and established headquarters at Ft. Scott, Kansas. The continuing church has no doctrinal differences with the Church of God (Holiness), only distinctive by its firm allegiance to a congregational government. The church has stanchly advocated a pacifist position and has annually at its conventions passed resolutions against Christian participation in war. Membership is concentrated in the Southwest. Missionary work is conducted in Japan and Mexico and among American Indians in South Dakota and Wyoming.

Membership: Not reported. In 1972, 15 churches were represented at the annual convention.

Periodicals: The Church Advocate and Good Way.


Emmanuel Association

℅ Peoples Bible College
2713 W. Cucharas
Colorado Springs, CO 80904

The Emmanuel Association was formed in 1937 by Ralph G. Finch, a former general superintendent of Foreign Missions of the Pilgrim Holiness Church, now a constituent part of the Wesleyan Church. The Emmanuel Association was run by Finch until his death in 1949. Now, the Association is run by the general conference made up of all ordained and licensed ministers. It establishes all rules and elects the officers. Local churches function under the general conference. There is also a provision for affiliated membership for both ministers and congregations.

Doctrine is like that of the Pilgrim Holiness Church, but with a very rigid behavior code, the "Principles of Holy Living." Members are conscientious objectors, believing that war is murder. Foreign missionary work is carried on in Guatemala.

Membership: Not reported. In the 1970 there were 17 churches in the United States and Canada and an estimated membership of 400.

Educational Facilities: People's Bible College, Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Periodicals: Emmanuel Herald.


The Guidebook of the Emmanuel Association. Colorado Springs, CO: Emmanuel Association, 1966.

Ralph Goodrich French, the Man and His Mission. Colorado Springs, CO: Emmanuel Press, 1967.


Evangelical Christian Church (Wesleyan)

Box 277
Birdsboro, PA 19508

The Evangelical Christian Church was born in the holiness revival that occurred spontaneously in various parts of the United States during the latter part of the nineteenth century. In 1882 L. Frank Haas, along with four others, conducted open-air and hall meetings in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. These efforts resulted in the conversion of many people. Haas and his coworkers assumed spiritual leadership for this rapidly growing fellowship of new Christians.

While the organization of a church was not the original plan, the necessity of organizing was soon realized. The converts needed to be established in holiness of heart and life and opportunities were opening for the expansion of the work into other communities. The name Heavenly Recruit Association was chosen and the new organization was granted a charter by the city of Philadelphia in 1884.

The evangelistic ministry spread rapidly into the areas surrounding Philadelphia. Churches were soon established in Chester and West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, and Wilmington, Delaware. New missions were organized at other locations in eastern Pennsylvania and in the state of Indiana. At the Annual Conference held at Linwood, Pennsylvania, in 1889, resolutions were passed to establish an itinerant ministry, elect a presiding elder, and station pastors. Haas, president of the association was elected the first Presiding Elder.

Articles of Faith and Bylaws were adopted by the Annual Conference of 1892, which convened at Reading, Pennsylvania. At this time the publication of a church paper was approved. It was called The Crown of Glory, and it was first published in Pennsylvania but later was moved to Indiana and was succeeded in 1906 by a new publication, A Voice From Canaan. Previous to these publication efforts, Good News and The Heavenly Recruit had been printed and circulated by the association.

At the tenth Annual Conference, held at West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, in 1894, the denomination, which had outgrown the limitations of the original charter, voted to reorganize. At this time the church at Philadelphia withdrew, claiming the original charter and name. The conference then adopted the name Holiness Christian Association, elected Rev. C. W. Ruth as Presiding Elder and continued their sessions as the first Annual Conference of the reorganized denomination.

The Annual Conference of 1896, held at Reading, Pennsylvania, authorized the organization of a second Annual Conference in Indiana and a General Conference. The Indiana Conference was duly constituted that same year at Tipton, Indiana, under the direction of Rev. Jonas Trumbauer, the Presiding Elder. The first General Conference convened at Reading, Pennsylvania, in 1897. At this conference the organization modified its name to Holiness Christian Church.

In the period of 1907-1908, the Pennsylvania Conference considered consolidating with the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene (the word "Pentecostal" was dropped in 1919). Release was requested from the General Conference and was granted. In 1908 several of the churches and ministers did unite with the Church of the Nazarene, forming the nucleus for their Philadelphia District. About an equal number of churches and ministers declined merger, reorganized, and continued as the Pennsylvania Conference of the Holiness Christian Church. In 1916 this conference reunited with the general church then centered in Indiana.

In 1919 at the General Assembly convened in Cincinnati, Ohio, the Holiness Christian Church, with the exception of the Pennsylvania Conference, voted to merge with the International Apostolic Holiness Church. The Indiana Conference, which provided much of the strength of the new organization, was joined by the Kansas and Oklahoma Conference and the Illinois and Missouri Conference in the union, which selected the name International Holiness Church. A subsequent merger with the Pilgrim Church formed the Pilgrim Holiness Church, which in 1968 united with the Wesleyan Methodist Church to become the Wesleyan Church. The Pennsylvania Conference continued as the Holiness Christian Church.

Annual camp meetings were conducted at various locations throughout the church's history. In 1921 a camp meeting ground was purchased at Seyfert, near Reading, Pennsylvania. This continues to serve as the Conference Center for the denomination. The growth of the church led to the development of congregations beyond the original boundaries of the conference. Presently there are churches in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, New York, and Virginia, as well as Jamaica. A denominational camp meeting has also been held at Fruitland, Maryland, since 1950. Publication of a church periodical, first called The Holiness Christian Messenger, and now The Christian Messenger, was begun in 1937.

The church was incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1945. The corporate name, Holiness Christian Church of the United States of America was changed to Holiness Christian Church in 1969. The present name, Evangelical Christian Church (Wesleyan) was approved by the Annual Conference in 1976 and was legally authorized on January 1, 1977.

The Evangelical Christian Church is a member denomination of the Christian Holiness Association and the National Association of Evangelicals. Supportive and cooperative ministeries are also addressed through affiliation with the Evangelical Wesleyan Fellowship, an association of similar holiness denominations.

Throughout its history, the church has been involved in missionary endeavors. Work was conducted in Central and South America, Africa, and other world regions. In 1945, a movement which had begun in Jamaica twenty years previously, united with the Holiness Christian Church. The Jamaican church was incorporated in 1949 and was the focus of evangelistic and missionary activity through the years. Recognized as a District Conference in 1969, the Holiness Christian Church in Jamaica continues its ministry under that name while remaining fully a part of the Evangelical Christian Church.

Missionary outreach has also been accomplished through cooperation with selected international mission organizations. Through its present affiliation with World Gospel Mission, the Evangelical Christian Church is part of a global thrust to bring Christ's love to the nations.

Membership: In 1995 the church reported 1,200 members, 25 churches, and 54 ministers in the United States. There are 2,800 members worldwide.

Educational Facilities: The Church endorses Circleville Bible College, Circleville, Ohio.

Kentucky Mountain Bible College, Vancleve, Kentucky.

Periodicals: The Christian Messenger.


The Manual of the Evangelical Christian Church (Wesleyan). Birdsboro, PA: Evangelical Christian Church (Wesleyan), 1987.


Evangelical Missionary Church of Canada

550 1212-31st Ave. NE
Calgary, AB, Canada T2E 7S8

The Evangelical Missionary Church of Canada was founded in 1993 by the merger of the former Canadian branches of the Missionary Church and the Evangelical Church of North America. The Evangelical Church in North America was formed in 1968 by ministers and congregations of the former Evangelical United Brethren who refused to participate in the merger of that body with the Methodist Church to form the United Methodist Church. Its Canadian work, under the leadership of Supt. T. J. Jesske, became autonomous in 1970.

The Missionary Church emerged out of various groups in the Mennonite tradition that had been greatly affected by Wesleyan holiness ideas. It had been formed in 1969 by a merger of the United Missionary Church and the Missionary Church Association. Among the formative events in Missionary Church history was a revival among the Mennonites of Ontario in the 1870s. The Canadian conferences of the Missionary Church became autonomous in 1987 and reorganized as the Missionary Church of Canada.

The Evangelical Missionary Church of Canada retains strong fraternal relationships with the two parent bodies in the United States and cooperates with them in various areas, especially foreign missionary work.

Membership: In 1993 the church reported 145 congregations, 12,217 members, and 367 ministers. It is organized into two conferences, East Canada and West Canada.

Educational Facilities: Rocky Mountain College, Medicine Hat, Alberta.


Legeer, Eileen. Merging Streams: Story of the Missionary Church. Elkhart, IN: Bethel Publishing Company, 1979.


Faith Mission Church

1817 26th St.
Bedford, IN 47421

Faith Mission Church is a single, independent, holiness congregation founded in 1893. It was formed as a center of the Pentecost Bands, one of the original holiness associations, later renamed the Missionary Bands of the World. In 1958, the Missionary Bands merged into the Wesleyan Methodist Church (now a constituent part of the Wesleyan Church). Members of the congregation in Bedford, Indiana, which had been originally chartered in the early 1920s, rejected the merger and became independent. Under their pastor, the Rev. Ray Snow, the church adopted its present name in 1963. The church is currently pastored by Leonard Sankey.

Membership: Faith Mission Church is an independent congregation that had approximately 170 members in 2002.

Educational Facilities: God's Bible School and College, Cincinnati, Ohio, is supported by the Faith Mission Church.


Free Methodist Church of North America

PO Box 535002
Indianapolis, IN 46253

History. The Free Methodist Church of North America was organized in 1860 in western New York by ministers and lay people who had formerly been members of the Genesee Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The Rev. Benjamin Titus Roberts (1823-1893) was the leader of the group and elected general superintendent (later termed bishop). He and other leaders of the conference, both laity and clergy, had been expelled from the church for "insubordination." After an appeal of the case had been denied by the Methodist General Conference in 1860, those excommunicated men and others met to form a new Methodist institution.

Roberts and others had been calling the Methodists to return to what they considered to be the primitive doctrines and lifestyle of Methodism. They especially emphasized the Wesleyan teaching of the entire sanctification of life by means of grace through faith. In their writings and preaching they condemned with vigor their less radical brothers for worldliness and their departure from Methodist doctrine and experience. Because of their strong opposition to secret societies, the leaders of Free Methodism incurred the ill-will of members of the conference who held membership in such lodges and fraternal orders. Also, Roberts and most of his followers were radical abolitionists in the years immediately prior to the Civil War, at a time when many within the Methodist Episcopal Church were hesitant in their condemnation of the practice of slavery. Also important, the early Free Methodists condemned the growing practice of selling pews in Methodist churches and advocated free pews for all, an issue which in part gave them their name.

Beliefs. The Free Methodist Church had little doctrinal quarrel with the Methodist Episcopal Church and originally adopted a modified form of the 25 Articles of Religion. It added an article on entire sanctification and made a few minor changes. However, in 1974, an entirely new and expanded set of articles of religion were adopted by the church. Not only do they cover some issues not touched on in the earlier articles (such as eschatology), they have appended a lengthy set of biblical references which detail the scriptural underpinnings for each statement. The new articles do not in any way deviate in essential content from the earlier set.

From its beginning, the Free Methodist Church has made Christian holiness a significant distinctive of its teaching. The church has interpreted the Bible and the writings of John Wesley to teach that all Christians may be inwardly cleansed from sinful rebellion against God's will. It believes that the sanctification of the affections and will may be experienced instantly, in a moment of faith, when the wholly committed Christian accepts the atonement of Jesus Christ and the fullness of the Holy Spirit for the cleansing of his/her motives and the perfection of his/her love toward God and other persons. According to the church, the sanctification of life is a process of growth and development in holiness through the empowering of the Holy Spirit in the life of the Christian. The Free Methodist Church has endeavored to follow the teachings of Wesley regarding the sanctification of life by forming both general and special rules to guide Christians in the way of holiness. All adult members of the church commit to live wholesome and holy lives and show mercy to all, ministering to both their physical and spiritual needs. They must commit themselves to be free from activities and attitudes that defile the mind and harm the body or promote the same; commit themselves to practice the principles of Christian stewardship for the glory of God and the growth of the church; vow to keep themselves free from membership in secret societies, that their loyalities may not be divided; and disavow all racism and political and social discrimination against ethnic minorities. They promise to regard marriage and the family as sacred, and they avoid divorce except for the cause of adultery or desertion.

Organization. The government of the church is a modified episcopacy. From the beginning, when lay leaders and ministers met to form the new denomination, provision was made for equal representation of clergy and laity in all the councils of the church, both local and general. A general conference meets every four years to review and establish the polity and programs of the denomination and to elect the bishops. Annual conferences bring together the ministers and delegated representatives of the local congregations in 28 districts in the United States. Pastors are appointed by the annual conference, with the bishop serving as chairman of a ministerial appointments committee. All church property is held in trust for the denomination.

The church is a member of both the Christian Holiness Association and the National Association of Evangelicals.

Membership: In 2000, the church reported 71,117 members, 971 congregations, and 1,871 ministers in the United States. Worldwide membership including missions in 40 countries was 516,001.

Educational Facilities: Central Christian College of Kansas, McPherson, Kansas.

Greenville College, Greenville, Illinois.
Roberts Wesleyan College, Rochester, New York.
Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, Washington.
Spring Arbor University, Spring Arbor, Michigan.
The church is affiliated with Asbury Theological Seminary, Wilmore Kentucky.
George Fox Evangelical Seminary, Portland, Oregon.
Wesley Biblical Seminary, Jackson, Mississippi.
G.P. Haggard School of Theology, Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, California, and
Northeastern Seminary at Roberts Wesleyan College, Rochester, NY. It cooperates with, but does not sponsor, Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, California.

Periodicals: Light and Life Magazine. • Free Methodist World Mission People.


Hogue, William T. History of the Free Methodist Church. 2 vols. Chicago: Free Methodist Publishing House, 1918.

Marston, Leslie R. From Age to Age a Living Witness. Winona Lake, IN: Life and Light Press, 1960.

Roberts, B. T. Holiness Teachings. Salem, OH: H. E. Schmul, 1964.

Taylor, J. Paul. Holiness, the Finished Foundation. Winona Lake, IN: Life and Light Press, 1963.


Independent Holiness Church

Box 194
Sydenham, ON, Canada K0H 2T0

The Independent Holiness Church dates to the preaching activity of Ralph Cecil Horner (1854-1921). Horner, a member of the Montreal conference of the Methodist Church, Canada, refused to assume his pastoral appointments during the 1890s, preferring to engage in evangelistic activity. He was committed to a holiness perspective (an emphasis upon God's second work of grace which brings sanctification or perfect love to the believer) at a time when sanctification as a progressive process was becoming the dominant perspective in Methodism. In 1895 Horner was discharged from his ministerial duties and formed the Holiness Movement Church. In 1919 the church asked Horner to retire. Instead, he left the Holiness Movement Church and formed the Standard Church of America.

In 1959 the Holiness Movement Church merged into the Free Methodist Church. As the time of the merger approached, several congregations voiced their disapproval by breaking away and reconstituting themselves as the Independent Holiness Church. The doctrinal statement is similar to other holiness bodies, affirming belief in the Trinity, salvation in Christ, and the possibility of entire sanctification for every believer. Members are expected to live a holy life and give evidence of this by refraining from the use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, fasting once a week, avoiding worldly entertainments, and dressing modestly. The church promotes tithing and daily scripture reading and is against games of chance and secret societies. Divorce is frowned upon and remarriage after a divorce is not allowed within the voting membership. The church is congregational in organization and has a general conference which meets every two years.

Membership: In 1995 the church had 13 congregations (12 in Canada and one in the United States), and approximately 250 members.

Periodicals: Gospel Tidings. Send orders to 1564 John Quinn Rd., Rte. 1, Greecy, ON, Canada K4P 1J9.


Metropolitan Church Association

PO Box 156
Dundee, IL 60118

The Metropolitan Church Association was formed in 1894. It grew out of a holiness revival at the Metropolitan Methodist Episcopal Church in Chicago. It was first known as the Metropolitan Holiness Church and adopted its present name in 1899. Members had a reputation for emotional displays at worship and ascetic behavior patterns. Early in its life, it adopted a communal form of organization, a factor which slowed its growth in the long run.

Besides its early emphasis upon inner city missions, foreign missions were begun around the globe. The one in India has been most productive, and a school and hospital are supported there. Other missions are supported in Mexico and in Cape Town and Swaziland (South Africa). There is an annual camp meeting for revival and fellowship, held at their church in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Business is conducted by an annual general assembly.

Membership: Not reported.

Periodicals: The Burning Bush.


Henry, G. W. Shouting: Genuine and Spurious. Chicago: Metropolitan Church Association, 1903.


Missionary Christian and Soul Winning Fellowship

350 E. Market St.
Long Beach, CA 90805

The Missionary Christian and Soul Winning Fellowship was formed in 1957 by Rev. Lee Shelley, a minister of the Christian and Missionary Alliance. It continues the evangelistic and missionary interests of the Christian and Missionary Alliance, but its doctrinal statement has deleted any reference to healing, a particular interest of CMA founder, A. B. Simpson.

A missionary program has work in nineteen countries. In the United States there is a single congregation (Christian in Action Chapel) at Long Beach, California. A school provides vocational training for Christian workers. Within the United States a Jewish ministry in Los Angeles led by Abe Schneider is supported, as is an Apache Indian Mission.

Membership: There is a single congregation in California.


Missionary Church, Inc. (U.S.)

PO Box 9127
Fort Wayne, IN 46899-9127

Missionary Church, Inc. (U.S.) was formed in 1969 by the merger of the United Missionary Church and the Missionary Church Association.

From Defenseless Mennonite roots, the Missionary Church Association was formed in 1898 at Berne, Indiana, under the leadership of J. E. Ramseyer. The group had been influenced by the Christian and Missionary Alliance in both faith and practice.

The United Missionary Church dates to an evangelistic effort in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, among the Mennonites. In 1858 a conference was founded using the name Evangelical Mennonites. In 1869 Solomon Eby, a Canadian Mennonite minister from Port Elgin, influenced by the Methodist revivals, professed conversion after some years in the ministry and instituted protracted meetings in his effort to spread the new experience of grace. The movement spread and was embraced by a former Mennonite group centered in Elkhart, Indiana, led by Daniel Brenneman, who had also experienced personal conversion. In 1874 the two fellowships took the name Reformed Mennonites. The next year they were joined by a small body located in the Niagara area of Ontario, Canada, called the New Mennonites, and took the name United Mennonites. The United Mennonites and the Evangelical Mennonites merged in 1879 to form the United Evangelical Mennonites. This body merged with a small splinter of the River Brethren in Pennsylvania and Ohio (Brethren in Christ) in 1883 to become the Mennonite Brethren in Christ with churches in both the U.S. and Canada. The change of name in 1947 to United Missionary Church was a recognition of its move away from its Mennonite background.

In 1969 the United Missionary Church merged with the Missionary Church Association to form the Missionary Church, Inc. The Missionary Church Association had generally followed the four-fold gospel emphasis of A. B. Simpson, founder of the Christian and Missionary Alliance, presenting Christ as saviour, sanctifier, healer, and coming king. The United Missionary Church, influenced by Methodism, emphasized Wesleyan teaching. These have blended and without moving from the truths so held, the Missionary Church, Inc. adopted a more comprehensive presentation of its evangelical conservative and holiness faith.

Membership: In 2000 Missionary Church, Inc. (U.S.) reported 50,000 adherents, (of whom nearly 35,000 are members), 370 churches, and 715 active ministers.

Educational Facilities: Bethel College, Mishawaka, Indiana.

Periodicals: Emphasis. • Priority.


Lageer, Eileen. Merging Streams. Elkhart, IN: Bethel Publishing Company, 1979.


Missionary Church of Canada

89 Centre Ave.
North York, ON, Canada M2M 2L7

In 1987, the Canadian conferences of the Missionary Church separated and reorganized as an independent church. The separation, which followed a pattern of a number of their American-based denominations with work in Canada, was amicable and the two organizations still work together closely. One stream of Missionary Church history can be traced to the conversion of a Canadian Mennonite minister, Solomon Eby, of Ontario in 1869. The people affected by his message and experience became known as the Reformed Mennonites. In 1894 this group, having gone through several mergers and known as Mennonite Brethren in Christ, spread to Alberta. Eventually two districts, one centered in Ontario and Quebec and the other in Alberta and British Columbia, would emerge.

The Missionary Church in Canada is at one in faith and practice with the Missionary Church, the separation being entirely an administrative issue.

Membership: In 1987, there were 92 churches, 6,431 members, and 129 ministers.


Lageer, Eileen. Merging Streams: Story of the Missionary Church. Elkhart, IN: Bethel Publishing Company, 1979.


Missionary Methodist Church of America

Current address not obtained for this edition.

The Missionary Methodist Church was formed in 1913 in Forest City, North Carolina, by Reverend H. C. Sisk and four other former members of the Wesleyan Methodist Church. (The Wesleyan Methodist Church subsequently merged with the Pilgrim Holiness Church to form the Wesleyan Church.) The Missionary Methodist Church was originally called the Holiness Methodist Church, but the name was changed upon learning of another group with the same name. The original disagreement that led to the founding of the church was over the number of rules and regulations of the Wesleyan Methodist Church. A two-paragraph Creed includes belief in sanctification, which burns out all inbred sin; living every day above sin; keeping the self unspotted from the world; a personal devil; a literal, burning hell; and the premillennial return of Christ. "There are," states the Creed, "no hard man-made rules to bind one down, you can have freedom in the Missionary Methodist Church…." In 1939 the Oriental Missionary Society was adopted as the missionary agency of the church.

Membership: Not reported.


Doctrine, Creed and Rules for the Government of the Missionary Methodist Church of America. Morganville, NC, 1969.


New Testament Church of God

Box 611
Mountain Home, AR 72653

The New Testament Church of God, Inc. was founded in 1942 by G. W. Pendleton and Martha Pendleton, his wife, both former members of the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana). They opposed the Church of God's cooperation and financial support of the National Council of Churches, but kept the doctrines of the parent body. The members hold camp meetings and state and regional conventions, publish gospel literature, and have regular radio broadcasts.

Membership: Not reported. Congregations are found across the United States, but no membership count has been made.

Periodicals: Seventh Trumpet.


Peniel Missions


The first Peniel Mission was founded by T. P. Ferguson and his wife Manie Ferguson in Los Angeles in 1886. Ferguson had been influenced by the preaching of Charles G. Finney, an early nineteenth century holiness theologian and evangelist. In 1880 he experienced sanctification under some holiness evangelists. Given the success of the Los Angeles work, he established rescue missions in the urban areas of the West Coast in attempts to win the urban masses to Christ. The missions have been marked by intense evangelistic endeavor, spiritual guidance, and stress on sanctification and sinlessness. For a short time, Phineas Bresee, founder of the Church of the Nazarene, worked at the Los Angeles center. By 1900 work had spread north along the West Coast and in Alaska, Hawaii, and Egypt. In 1949 responsibility for the Egyptian mission was assumed by the National Holiness Missionary Society, currently known as the World Gospel Mission, located in Winona Lake, Indiana.


Salvation Army

615 Slaters Ln. Alexandria, VA 22313

The Salvation Army is an international religious and charitable movement organized and operated on a quasi-military model. Its juxtaposition of two strong motivations, love of God and a practical concern for humanity, results in a ministry dedicated to preaching the Christian gospel and disseminating its teaching while actively supplying basic human necessities. It offers personal counseling and a program of spiritual regeneration and physical rehabilitation. Its ministries in the secular community has made the Salvation Army one of the most respected agencies delivering social services to the community at large. The Salvation Army's USA National Mission statement reads: "The Salvation Army, an international movement, is an evangelical part of the Universal Christian Church. Its message is based on the Bible. Its ministry is motivated by the love of God. Its mission is to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ and to meet human needs in His name without discrimination."

History: In 1865 William Booth, an independent Methodist minister, began to preach in the slums at the East End of London, England. He organized the East London Christian Mission and began a magazine, the East London Evangelist. The mission met a genuine need; within a few years it had begun to reach beyond London. The name was changed to Christian Mission in 1868. As activities increased over the next decade, Booth began to see the need for a more disciplined core of workers to carry out the demanding program, and he started to think in terms of a "Salvation Army." The name of the mission was changed, the magazine became the Salvationist, the uniform was adopted, and Booth was transformed into "the General." Within two years the Army had spread through England.

As the work of the organization progressed, Booth became aware of the physical needs of the poor among whom the Army had been preaching. His broad investigation of their situation was published in a volume, now a classic of socially concerned Christianity, In Darkest England and the Way Out (1890). He proposed a total program of assistance and rehabilitation. This book set the emphases followed by the Army to this day. The Army was brought to America in 1880 when Commissioner George Scott Railton and seven female officers, known as the "Seven Hallelujah Ladies," arrived in New York City. Two years later, Jack Addie, a convert from Scottish Presbyterianism, together with Joseph Ludgate introduced the Army to Canada with an open-air mission in London, Ontario.

Beliefs: The Army's program of social services has made it famous and respected by many who are quite unaware of its existence as a holiness church body. The Salvation Army was founded as an evangelical organization, dedicated to bringing people into a right relationship with God through Christ. It emphasizes a balanced ministry of social and spiritual work. Its doctrinal basis is that of the Wesleyan-Arminian tradition. It also holds that it is the privilege of believers to be "wholly sanctified." Distinctive to Salvationists is their belief about the sacraments. Salvationists have looked upon the whole of life, the Gospel proclaimed, and the ministry in Christ's name as sacramental, both to the receiver and the giver. Hence, the traditional sacraments of baptism and communion have not been considered by the Army as a necessity to salvation and spiritual growth.

Organization: The Army is organized on a quasi-military model. The international leader of the Salvation Army, John Gowans, holds the rank of general and operates out of the international headquarters in London, England. The highest ranking officer in the United States is a commissioner. One commissioner serves in the capacity of a national commander over the four territorial headquarters, each operated by a commissioner as a territorial commander. Officers (ministers) begin with the rank of cadet and two years of training at one of the four officer's training schools. Upon graduation, the officer is commissioned (ordained) as a captain.

The Army also is distinguished by its early opening of the ranks of the ordained ministry to women. Catherine Booth, William Booth's wife, had actually been preaching in London before her husband joined her and wrote one of the earliest tracts defending an ordained female ministry. The American work was largely initiated by women, who have since served prominently at every rank.

The social program of the Army has become one of the most far-reaching of any church organization. It includes feeding and housing the homeless, disaster relief, alcohol and drug rehabilitation, youth camps and programs, senior citizen camps and programs, hospital and prison visitation, and support for unwed mothers, to mention only a few. These pioneering efforts have provided a model for many other churches.

Membership: In 2000, the Army reported 476,387 members, 1,372 churches, and 5,297 officers in the United States. There were 354 churches, 80,812 members, and 1,923 ministers in Canada. Affiliated centers were located in 107 countries.

Educational Facilities: Salvation Army College/Schools for Officer Training, Suffern, New York; Chicago, Illinois; Atlanta, Georgia; Palos Verdes Estates, California.

Periodicals: The War Cry. • Young Salvationist.


Agnew, Milton S. Manual of Salvationism. New York: Salvation Army, 1968.

Barnes, Cyril. God's Army. Elgin, IL: David C. Cook, 1968.

Brengle, Samuel Logan. The Way of Holiness. London: Salvationist Publishing and Supplies, 1960.

Chesham, Sallie. Born to Battle. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1965.

McKinley, Edward H. Marching to Glory. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.

The Sacraments, the Salvationist's Viewpoint. London: Salvationist Publishing and Supplies, 1960.

Sandall, Robert. The History of the Salvation Army. London: Thomas Nelson, 1947.

Watson, Bernard. A Hundred Years' War. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1964.


Standard Church of America

Box 488
Brockville, ON, Canada K6V 5V7

Ralph G. Horner had been an evangelist in both the Methodist Church in Canada and the Wesleyan Methodist Church, now a constituent part of the Wesleyan Church, in the late nineteenth century, but left them to found his own organization, the Holiness Movement Church, in 1895. As its bishop, he ruled with all the authority of both a bishop and charismatic personality, and within five years there were 118 places of worship. Churches were planted across Canada, into New York, with foreign work in Ireland, Egypt, and China. Then in 1918 the aging bishop was asked to retire. Not satisfied with the request of the church, he, with his supporters, left and founded the Standard Church of America, incorporated at Watertown, New York, in 1919. (The Holiness Movement Church eventually merged with the Free Methodist Church, which accounts for that church's large membership in Egypt.)

Like the Holiness Movement Church, the Standard Church of America is Methodist in doctrine with a strong emphasis on holiness and evangelism. Polity is episcopal. Pastors are stationed by the annual conferences for four-year terms. There are four conferences: Western, Kingston, New York, and Egyptian. A Bible School and printing establishment are maintained adjacent to the headquarters. There is missionary work in China and Egypt.

Membership: Not reported.

Educational Facilities: Brockville Bible College, Brockville, Ontario, Canada.

Periodicals: Christian Standard.


Undenominational Church of the Lord

Current address not obtained for this edition.

The Undenominational Church of the Lord was founded at Placentia, California in 1918 by Pastor Jesse N. Blakeley, a holiness minister. Previously, he had helped form the Pentecost Pilgrim Church at Pasadena (which merged into what became the Pilgrim Holiness Church, now a constituent part of the Wesleyan Church). Blakeley became pastor of the Independent Holiness Mission in Placentia following a revival in Santa Ana. He felt the Holy Spirit leading him south and discovered the pastorless congregation in Placentia praying for the Lord to send them the right person. The Independent Holiness Mission became the Undenominational Church of the Lord.

A second branch of the church was founded in 1920 in Anaheim and became the headquarters. In 1922 the Placentia church was consolidated with the Anaheim church. In 1930 Blakeley was succeeded by Elsie Heughan, and in 1941 the headquarters returned to Placentia.

Doctrine of the Undenominational Church of the Lord is holiness. Evangelism, especially by the printed word, is emphasized. Mission churches have been established in Nigeria, India, and Korea, all of which are now autonomous. Though there are fewer than 100 members in the United States, there are many thousands in the foreign fields.

Membership: At last report (1970s) there were 3 congregations: Placentia, California; Chillicothe, Ohio; and Sheridan, Oregon. There were less than 100 members.

Periodicals: The Second Comforter. Send orders to Box 291, Placentia, CA 92677.


Volunteers of America

3939 N. Causeway Blvd.
Metairie, LA 70002

The Volunteers of America was formed in 1896 by Ballington Booth and Maud Booth, the son and daughter-in-law of William Booth. While very much like the Salvation Army from which it sprang, it differs in several ways; it is more democratic, though keeping the quasi-military organization; it practices both baptism and the Lord's Supper; the early emphasis on sanctification and holiness has lessened in favor of a more general evangelical faith.

Membership: Not reported.

Periodicals: The Gazette.


Wesleyan Church

Box 50434
Indianapolis, IN 46250-0434

The Wesleyan Church was formed in 1968 by the merger of the Wesleyan Methodist Church and Pilgrim Holiness Church. In the merger two diverse streams of holiness tradition (one pre-Civil War and the other from the late nineteenth century) were brought together.

The Wesleyan Methodist church had been formed in 1843 by ministers and laymen who withdrew from the Methodist Church during the height of the slavery controversy. Reverends Orange Scott, LeRoy Sunderland (later to join the Unitarian Association), and L. C. Matlock were all abolitionists who continually fought the compromise on the slavery issue made by the Methodist Episcopal Church in the early nineteenth century. (A note on that compromise: the eighteenth-century Methodist Episcopal Church did not allow any of its members to have slaves. Over the years, the church reneged on that strong anti-slavery position and allowed slaveholders to membership in the church.) Along with slavery, the reformers also began to attack the abuses of the episcopacy and the failure to teach and practice various forms of piety. By 1843 tension had reached such a level that, feeling no redress of grievances was possible, the reformers withdrew and took twenty-two ministers and 6,000 members and formed the Wesleyan Methodist Church in America. In the first Discipline, their book of church order, statements were made against slavery, against the use of alcohol and tobacco, against secret societies, and for modesty in dress. The new structure provided for annual conferences with lay delegates and an elected president (instead of a bishop). There was also a General Conference.

The Pilgrim Holiness Church grew out of the holiness movement of the late nineteenth century. Martin Wells Knapp, a former minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and Rev. Seth Cook Rees organized the International Holiness Union and Prayer League in 1897 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The union was to be a fellowship, not a church. It was established as a completely Wesleyan movement with emphasis on holiness, healing the sick, the premillennial coming of Christ, and evangelization. From a small beginning, rapid growth ensued. The growth of the Union led to a change of character, and the fellowship became a church. It underwent several name changes and, in 1922, finally took the name of the Pilgrim Holiness Church. Other holiness groups that merged with the Union (later called the Pilgrim Holiness Church) were the following (with merger dates): Indiana Conference of the Holiness Christian Church (1919); Pilgrim Church of California (1922); Pentecostal Rescue Mission (1922); Pentecostal Brethren in Christ (1924); People's Mission Church (1925); and Holiness Church of California (1946).

The Wesleyan church has a modified episcopal government headed by the Board of General Superintendents. Globally, each local unit of the denomination serves under one of two general conferences–the North American General Conference or the Philippine General Conference. The general conferences are the supreme governing bodies and elect the general superintendents to four-year term(s). Each general conference has a General Board of Administration, which operates between general conference sessions. The church is divided into districts. North American headquarters of the Wesleyan Church are in Indianapolis, Indiana. The headquarters for the Philippine General Conference are in Manila. The Wesleyan Publishing House located in Indianapolis is responsible for a wide range of books, religious literature, and church school material. The Commission on World Missions oversees a vast foreign mission program, worldwide.

Membership: In 2001 the church reported 123,274 members, 1,614 churches, and 3,444 ministers in the United States. There were 89 congregations and 225 ministers in Canada. There were 287,524 members and 411,118 listed constituents in 70 countries worldwide.

Educational Facilities: Bartlesville Wesleyan College, Bartlesville, Oklahoma.

Southern Wesleyan University, Central, South Carolina.
Houghton College, Houghton, New York.
Indiana Wesleyan University, Marion, Indiana.
Wesleyan Seminary Foundation, Indianapolis, Indiana.
Bethany Bible College, Sussex, New Brunswick.

In addition to the schools listed, the church also approves the following ministerial training programs:

Asbury Theological Seminary, Wilmore, Kentucky.
Evangelical School of Theology, Pine Grove, Pennsylvania.
Nazarene Theological Seminary, Kansas City, Missouri.
Wesley Biblical Seminary, Jackson, Mississippi.
George Fox Evangelical Seminary, Portland, Oregon.

Periodicals: The Wesleyan Advocate. • Wesleyan World Wesleyan Woman.


Drury, Keith. Holiness for Ordinary People. Indianapolis: Wesley Press, 1994.

Knapp, Martin Wells. Holiness Triumphant or Pearls from Patmos. Cincinnati: God's Bible School Book Room, n.d.

McLeister, Ira Ford, and Roy S. Nicholson. History of the Wesleyan Methodist Church. Marion, IN: Wesley Press, 1959.

Thomas, Paul Westphal, and Paul William Thomas. The Days of Our Pilgrimage. Marion, IN, 1976.

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Nineteenth Century Holiness

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Nineteenth Century Holiness