Cardinal, secretary of state; b. Recanati (Marches), Italy, May 12, 1812; d. Rome, July 25, 1885. After seminary studies in Recanati and Rome, he studied law at the University of Rome and was ordained in 1834. After enterin the service of the Roman curia, he became successively secretary of the rota; then, in the Congregation of the council, first auditor to the secretary and later under-secretary. Pius IX named him assessor of the Holy Office and cardinal (March 1877). leo xiii appointed him secretary of state (Aug. 9, 1878); ill health forced his retirement (Dec. 16, 1880). Although affable and prudent, he was less a diplomat than a theologian. He favored a settlement with the Kingdom of Italy. He had to deal in Belgium with the "school war" that led to the rupture of diplomatic relations (June 1880) and in France with the hostility of the Third Republic toward religious congregations. In both cases he urged Catholics to moderation. Through the nuncio to Vienna, Ludovico jacobini, he negotiated for a settlement of the kulturkampf.
[j. m. mayeur]