Judah ben Nathan

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JUDAH BEN NATHAN (known as Rivan ; 11th–12th centuries), tosafist. Little is known of his life. He was one of Rashi's most eminent pupils and married his daughter Miriam. R. Yom Tov of Falaise was his son, and his daughter Elvina was known for the traditions which she transmitted from her mother. R. Judah wrote extensively, mainly elaborating on Rashi's teachings, but he did not arrive at a crystallized system of study, such as is found in the tosafot. For this reason he is to be regarded as occupying an intermediate stage between Rashi and the tosafot. Judah was the author of glosses to Rashi's Talmud commentary, and of independent commentaries to most of the talmudic tractares, extensively quoted in the tosafot and by other rishonim. He made frequent use of the commentaries of the sages of Mainz as well as that of R. *Hananel b. Ḥushi'el. Most editions of the Talmud include his commentary on Makkot from p. 19a onward. Judah also wrote the commentary, sometimes erroneously attributed to Rashi, on chapter ten of Sanhedrin. A large part of his commentary on Ketubbot has been preserved in Bezalel *Ashkenazi's Shitah Mekubbeẓet. Fragments of his commentaries on the tractate Yevamot have been printed by A.N.Z. Roth (see Bibliography). The suggestion that the commentary on Nazir, generally ascribed to Rashi, is by Judah is ill-founded. Some sources mention a commentary on the Pentateuch by him.


J.N. Epstein, Perushei Rabbenu Yehudah bar Natan li-Khetuvot (1933); idem, in: Tarbiz, 4 (1932/33), 11–34; S. Lieberman, Sheki'in (1939), 192ff.; Urbach, Tosafot, 36–38; A.N.Z. Roth, in: Sefer Yovel… S.L. Mirsky (1958), 285–312; M. Hirshler, in: Sinai, 63 (1968), 198–215.

[Israel Moses Ta-Shma]