views updated


CHIZHIK , family of Ereẓ Israel pioneers.

barukh chizhik (1884–1955), an Ereẓ Israel naturalist, was born in Tomashpol, Ukraine. He studied agriculture in the Crimea and the Caucasus, specializing in gardening and subtropical crops. He was a founding member of the *Po'alei Zion movement in Russia. In 1906 Chizhik went to Ereẓ Israel and settled in the moshavah Kinneret. He became head gardener for the Turkish authorities in Damascus in 1915. In 1922 he was appointed director of the Zionist Executive's agricultural museum, and taught citrus cultivation. Acquiring a farm in Herẓliyyah in 1932, he worked on improving strains of fruit trees and other crops. He published articles in agricultural journals, and his books include the encyclopedia of flora Oẓar ha-Ẓemaḥim (1956) and Ẓimḥi'el (1930), a collection of popular articles and legends on the flora of Palestine.

hannah chizhik (1889– ), founder of women's agricultural training in Israel. Born in Tomashpol, she went to Ereẓ Israel in 1906 with her brother Barukh. She worked as an agricultural laborer in various villages, as well as on her family's farm in Kinneret. In Tiberias (1917) and Ekron (1918) Ḥannah organized groups of young immigrant women as agriculturalists and was appointed agricultural instructor at the Neveh Ẓedek school in 1920. She founded a women workers' farm (meshek po'alot) in Naḥalat Yehudah in 1923 and one in northern Tel Aviv in 1926. The latter, under her directorship, became a center for Youth Aliyah training from 1940. Ḥannah was active in Po'alei Zion and Aḥdut ha-Avodah during their early years and became a leader in Mo'eẓet ha-Po'alot and of the Histadrut.

sarah chizhik (1897–1920), defender of *Tel Ḥai. Born in Tomashpol, Ukraine, another sister of Barukh, she was brought to Ereẓ Israel by her parents at the age of ten. She worked in agriculture. When the settlements in Upper Galilee came under Arab attack, she was among the volunteers at Kefar Giladi and Tel Ḥai. Fighting under the command of Joseph *Trumpeldor, she was killed in the surprise attack on Tel Ḥai.

efrayim chizhik (1899–1929), Haganah hero. Born in Tomashpol, Ukraine, a brother of Barukh, he was taken to Ereẓ Israel by his parents at the age of eight. During the riots of May 1921 he was among the defenders of the Neveh Shalom quarter of Jaffa. He worked on the construction of the power station at Naharayim, where he helped in establishing friendly relations with the local Arabs. During the 1929 riots he was among the defenders of Jerusalem and of the women's training farm in northern Tel Aviv. When the kevuẓah Ḥuldah was cut off by Arab rioters, Efrayim managed to reach the settlement, leading a group of 23 defenders against thousands of Arabs. He was killed in the subsequent retreat and was buried at the old site of Ḥuldah.

yiẒḤak chizhik (horpi; 1907–1958), Israel civil servant. The youngest brother of the family, he was born in Sejera. Under the Mandatory government he served as district officer in various parts of the country. With the founding of the State of Israel, he served as military commander of Jaffa, director general of the Minsitry of Police, director of Jaffa port, manager of the Negev development authority, and Israel's chargé d'affaires in Liberia. He died in Chicago, where he was Israel consul.


S. Chizhik, Barukh bi-Netivotav (1966); Dinur, Haganah, 2 pt. 1 (1959), index; Tidhar, 4 (1950), 1821–22, 1824–25, 1948–49; 3 (1958), 1372–4.

[Abraham Aharoni]