Skip to main content

Chivington, John Milton

John Milton Chivington, 1821–92, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Lebanon, Ohio. Ordained a Methodist minister (1844), he served in Missouri and Nebraska before moving to Denver as presiding elder (1860–62) of the Rocky Mountain District. When the Civil War broke out, Chivington was commissioned a major in the 1st Colorado Volunteers. In 1862 his troops forced the Confederate retreat after the battle of Glorietta Pass by destroying the enemy supply train; he was made a colonel later that year. Politically ambitious and an advocate of Colorado statehood, Chivington opposed signing any treaty with the Cheyenne and in 1864 led an attack on Black Kettle's peaceful band at Sand Creek, brutally massacring hundreds. Initially acclaimed a victory, the attack was later denounced by an army investigation. Chivington had resigned his commission and could not be prosecuted, but his political career was ruined.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Chivington, John Milton." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 25 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Chivington, John Milton." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (April 25, 2019).

"Chivington, John Milton." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 25, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.