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Communications

Communications. From the Revolutionary War to the present, the American military has used communications in order to command and control its forces and other assets, but the technology has changed dramatically. Methods employed during the nation's war for independence (messengers, signal lights, and voice commands) differed little from those used by ancient armies.

During the Civil War, visual signaling remained the primary communications method. The utility of the electric telegraph (invented 1837) had been amply demonstrated by European armies since the 1850s; but Albert J. Myer gave it little attention when designing the nation's first military communications organization, the U.S. Army Signal Corps. Established by an act of Congress on 21 June 1860, the Signal Corps employed Myer's “wigwag” system. Using an adaptation of the Bain telegraph code, movements of flags (and at night, torches) transmitted tactical communications within visual range. Although army signalers operated “telegraph trains” (communications wagons with telegraphs and field wire), fixed wire communications were beyond Myer's purview. With regular trips to the War Department, President Lincoln read the latest telegraphic reports on the progress of the war. The conduit for that information, more than likely, was the rival U.S. Military Telegraph, a contract firm that used commercial lines and civilian employees to meet the administrative and strategic needs of the army.

After the war, the Signal Corps assumed responsibility for the electric telegraph and used it to create a national weather service as well as a military communications network. Although visual signaling—wigwag, sun‐powered heliograph, and observation balloons—remained important to the U.S. military, the Spanish‐American War found commercial and military telegraph enjoying extensive use. Commanders in widely dispersed theaters of war—Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines—made use of both military and commercial telegraph. Telegraph and ocean cable connected the front lines of Cuba with defense planners in Washington. Wire communications facilities across the Philippine Islands linked the archipelago by submarine cable. At the same time, Adolphus W. Greely (chief signal officer 1887–1906) adapted and equipped the army with emerging late nineteenth‐century technology, such as the telephone (invented 1876), to command and control its forces. Its use was demonstrated by the telephone system in Cuba that enabled Gen. William Shafter's Fifth Army to communicate within yards of the front line, as well as with the admiral of the U.S. Fleet.

While providing a communications network and trying to quell the Philippine War (1899–1902), the Signal Corps simultaneously supported the army on another frontier. Signal Corps celebrities such as then Lt. Billy Mitchell helped to construct the Washington‐Alaska Military Cable and Telegraph System (WAMCATS). The network, which connected the region's isolated military posts, helped the army coordinate its peacekeeping efforts in the territory during the Alaska gold rush. Renamed the Alaska Communication System in 1936, it remained under military control for over sixty years. Radio replaced Alaska's telegraph system in 1928, owing much to the efforts of George Owen Squier (chief signal officer 1917–24), who tested Marconi's invention, the wireless (1895), for military use.

The U.S. Army and the U.S. Navy both employed the wireless. In 1904, a radio station in the Boston Navy Yard transmitted the first official Naval Observatory time. Although experimentation continued and the navy employed wireless to transmit time and weather reports, the navy's admirals had little faith in its tactical uses.

The Army Signal Corps introduced the first portable wireless sets into the field in 1906, and began experimenting with radio telephony (voice radio) the following year. In 1914, it tested a radio set mounted in an automobile. Parallel efforts by the navy during this period included in‐house experimentation and support of the commercial development of radio. Regarded as a novelty, however, radio remained largely unused. Army land forces in World War I relied on the telephone, telegraph, and even homing pigeons for communications in the era of trench warfare.

Supporting the American Expeditionary Forces, the army was also responsible for combat photography and aviation. Nevertheless, the Signal Corps' grandest achievement was the establishment of a massive wire communications system that ran from the seacoast to the American battle zone in France. The system consisted of literally thousands of miles of administrative and combat lines: 134 permanent telegraph offices and 273 telephone exchanges, facilitated by 200 bilingual American telephone operators. Multiplex printing telegraph equipment linked Tours, Chaumont, Paris, and London.

The army's communications arm also oversaw the adaptation of the airplane to military use. With its genesis in Civil War and Spanish‐American War observation balloons, the Signal Corps purchased a Wright brothers' flying machine in 1908. James Allen (chief signal officer 1906–13) and his immediate successors perceived the airplane as an observation platform and vehicle for courier service. When aviation's role as a fighting and bombing force expanded during World War I, the army created the Army Air Service (1918), separating aviation from the Signal Corps.

Experimentation before and during World War I contributed to the Signal Corps' development of radio for military purposes. Stepping stones included the achievements of Signal Corps captain (later major) Edwin H. Armstrong. Armstrong invented a major component of amplitude modulated (AM) radio—the superhetrodyne circuit—during World War I. His next invention, frequency modulated (FM) radio, came during the interwar years. Chief Signal Officer Squier facilitated the standardization and mass production of vacuum tubes. He established the first Signal Corps Laboratory at Camp Alfred Vail, New Jersey. Introduction of the SCR‐68, an airborne radio telephone, and its companion ground set, the SCR‐67, were significant steps in the development of radio communications.

During the interwar years, developments in both wire and radio technology set the stage for communications support for World War II. Naval research included experimentation with the radio compass, airborne radio, and radio remote control. The teletype, remarkable for its accuracy, speed, and simplicity of operation, came into the arsenal in the 1930s. The battery‐powered field telephone was developed as the Germans improved both the switchboard and communications cable. The War Department Radio Net (established 1922) became the genesis for an elaborate command and control communications system that enveloped both army forces and navy ships during World War II. About the same time, the International Radio Convention (1927) adopted the navy's plan for worldwide frequency allocation.

A 25‐pound army walkie‐talkie, developed in 1934, made its debut in the army maneuvers of 1939. A truck‐mounted long‐range radio, with a 100‐mile voice range and several times greater range for Morse Code, was introduced in the 1940 Louisiana maneuvers. Captain Armstrong helped Col. Roger Colton develop his invention into the army's first FM pushbutton, crystal‐controlled, tactical radio in the Signal Corps Laboratory at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. Although the army's armor and artillery branches communicated via FM radio (proven feasible by 1936), the infantry (as well as the navy) failed to integrate the new technology until after World War II.

Numerous countries claimed ownership of radar, developed during the 1930s. Its significance in World War II communications cannot be overstated. By 1943, the Germans were effectively using radar as an early warning and weapons‐directional device. In the United States, navy research and development paralleled that of the Army Signal Corps. Prewar, the navy installed it on ships (1940), while the army used it as a short‐range radio locator for directing searchlights. A new, long‐range aircraft detector radar, on Oahu, Hawaii, issued a warning (unfortunately ignored) when Japanese aircraft approached the island on 7 December 1941. By early 1942, the Signal Corps SCR‐517 microwave radar was used in aircraft to search for ships in the Atlantic. In 1944, a microwave SCR‐584 helped aim U.S. weapons in combat at Anzio, Italy. By the end of the war, such communications advances as the bi‐service advancement of radar, navy perfection of sonar, army development of FM radio, and overall miniaturization of electronic components laid the groundwork for the electronics and space ages to follow.

The Signal Corps used a modified SCR‐271 long‐range radar set (1946) to bounce radar signals off the Moon to test the properties of radio communications in space. Postwar navy technological achievements included over‐horizon VHF radio communications, the use of radar waves to reflect signals off the Moon (1951), and Moon‐relayed messages between Honolulu, Hawaii, and Washington (1956). Both services contributed to the development of artificial space satellites and communications. By the 1960s, rockets of the U.S. Air Force were sending manned and unmanned vehicles into space.

Improved radar supported land and air forces and naval batteries in the conduct of the Korean War. The Signal Corps played a major supporting role in that conflict. Although doctrine dictated wire as the primary means of communication, the exigencies of Korea—distance, terrain, primitive roads—led to a dependence on very high frequency (VHF) radio. VHF, effective far beyond its 25‐mile range, carried teletype as well as voice traffic. It proved adaptable to the frequent infantry moves characteristic of the fighting in the first two years of the conflict. But line‐of‐sight properties restricted its usage; VHF station components, weighing hundreds of pounds, often required transportation to—and operation and maintenance from—high, remote communication sites. In spite of the difficulties, army communicators proclaimed VHF the backbone of communications during the Korean War.

Between Korea and Vietnam, military efforts again focused on the peaceful uses of communications. The army, in 1958, used its technology to explore outer space. The Signal Corps' Space Sentry bounced signals from the Moon, developing the ability to ensure the close tracking of satellites. The same year, Vanguard II's infrared scanning devices mapped the cloud cover over the Earth.

Technological advances in communications during the Vietnam War were the end product of twenty years of research and experimentation by the army, navy, and air force. Miniaturized electronic components increased the payloads of U.S. communications satellites propelled into space by air force boosters. One notable benefit was initiation of the first operational satellite communications system in history when the Army Satellite Communications Command established two clear channels from Tan Son Nhut, South Vietnam, to Hawaii (1964).

Radio transmission had improved as well. Line‐of‐sight wave transmission was surpassed by tropospheric scatter or troposcatter propagation radio with a maximum 400‐mile range. The new technology enabled radio waves to travel long distances by using special antennas to bounce them off clouds of ionized particles in the higher ionosphere before they returned to Earth hundreds of miles away.

Military communications support in Southeast Asia proved that advanced electronics could master the geography. Although Vietnam's Integrated Wideband Communications System (established and funded by the air force and operated jointly with the army) never fulfilled the promise of a regional civil‐military network, it demonstrated the need and effectiveness of a high‐capacity area telecommunications system in an undeveloped region. More important, the wideband system reflected a permanent move to an area‐oriented communications doctrine. Improved technology was directly responsible for the shift in focus.

As a joint‐services endeavor, Vietnam communications included numerous examples of inter‐service cooperation. For example, army field commanders enjoyed rapid aircraft response because of connectivity with air force support centers. Joint army‐navy mobile riverine forces, using command and communications boats, had well established internal as well as external communications with the South Vietnamese army. A continuing problem in Vietnam, security was addressed first by the navy's “Talk Quick” system which preceded the army's automatic secure voice system (1967).

Major communications systems in Vietnam included the 1st Signal Brigade's Southeast Asia Defense Communications System and the Southeast Asia Automatic Telephone Service (1968). The latter comprised 9 switches connected to 54 automatic army, navy, and air force dial exchanges. Overall, communications support for the Vietnam war could be characterized as the beginning of an ongoing trend toward the use of commercial‐type facilities for both strategic and tactical communications. While mobile multichannel radios, switchboards, and teletype centers linked headquarters throughout the chain of command, strategic and administrative networks comprised a variety of commercial sets.

Changes in military strategy and tactics such as the long‐range and heavy logistical requirements of modern weapons, and reliance on coordinated air‐ground operations, both prevalent in Vietnam, dictated more flexible and extensive communications support than that offered by traditional chains of command. Technical advances in communications made it possible—indeed, imperative—to create interconnecting area networks. The merger of tactical and strategic communications became official in 1966 with the formation of the 1st Signal Brigade. As part of the Strategic Communications Command, area networks linked fighters with intelligence, personnel, and logistical centers in the United States. At the same time, combat commanders kept organic tactical communications to respond to military requirements.

Higher‐echelon advances did little to change Vietnam's combat communications from those of previous conflicts. Field telephones connected by single‐strand wire linked artillery battery, guns, fire direction centers, and commanders. Infantry platoon command posts used small field switchboards and wire lines to connect squads, sentries, and listening posts. The 173rd Airborne Brigade, in 1965, deemed the PRC‐25 (transistorized FM voice radio) its greatest communications device. Hand‐held, vehicle‐, and aircraft‐mounted PRC‐25s were the primary means of combat communication for army units from squads through division level.

The Vietnam conflict demonstrated the interdependence of the army, navy, and air forces in the conduct of mid‐twentieth‐century warfare. The secretary of defense acknowledged this fact in such cooperative efforts as the Joint Tactical Satellite Research and Development Program (1965). At the same time, the communications arms of the various military branches continued to invest in their own unique information systems.

Post‐Vietnam technology further changed the face of military communications. The 1970s development of the semiconductor dramatically decreased size and power requirements of communications systems. The microprocessor revolution, in turn, led to the development of modules rather than discrete systems. Miniaturization, greater standardization, and modules all made commercial equipment cheaper, more adaptable, mobile, and secure.

The U.S. military's post–Cold War operations revealed major weaknesses in the Department of Defense's (DoD) efforts to weld its various communications assets into a cohesive whole. Communicators in Operation Urgent Fury (Grenada, 1983) encountered major obstacles in the coordination and provision of support for the Joint Task Force. Both the DoD and Congress took positive steps to strengthen cooperation among the various service components—DoD through the establishment of the Joint Tactical Command Control and Communications Agency (1984) and Congress with the Goldwater‐Nichols Act (1986). The positive results of these and other actions became clear in Operation Just Cause (Panama, 1989–90).

Operation Desert Storm (1990–91), a major joint operation directed by the U.S. Central Command, provided a true test of service cooperation. The Persian Gulf War demonstrated that military communications had expanded and transformed into information technology. In the few years between Panama and the gulf, joint training had become the rule.

As information systems achieved equal footing with military hardware in the conduct of the Gulf War, all of the services incorporated numerous commercially produced systems. The Army Signal Corps' network, connected with those of the other services and Allied Coalition forces, spanned the geographic area with commercially developed cellular telephone and a single‐channel ground and airborne radio system.

Operation Desert Storm left little doubt that late twentieth‐century military communications embraced all aspects of information management. Using multimedia sources, communicators need to get the right information to the right people almost instantaneously. At the end of the twentieth century, information activities in war have equaled and in some cases supplanted industrial activities.

Military communication—or more accurately, information management—presents a seamless network on the late twentieth‐century battlefield. As a result of technological advancements, the centerpiece of the battlefield is no longer simply the weapons platforms but also an information grid into which weapons are plugged.

Information technology will continue to transform military communications. Because the value of information increases exponentially through dissemination, its potential is virtually limitless.
[See also Combat Support; Command and Control; Satellites, Reconnaissance.]

Bibliography

U.S. Naval Communications Chronological History, 1961.
Carroll V. Glines, Jr. Compact History of the United States Air Force, 1973.
Paul J. Scheips , Military Signal Communications, 2 vols., 1980.
John D. Bergen , A Test For Technology, 1986.
John G. Westover , Combat Support in Korea, 1987.
Kathy R. Coker and and Carol E. Stokes , A Concise History of the U.S. Army Signal Corps, 1995.
Rebecca Robbins Raines , Getting the Message Through, 1996.

Carol E. Stokes

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Communications in Business

COMMUNICATIONS IN BUSINESS

Communication, stated simply, is the act of conveying a message, through a channel, from one person to another; that is, connecting or sharing thoughts, opinions, emotions, and intelligence. Communication is a mechanism for all types of interaction and connectivity: communication can instantaneously bring people together, link ideas and things, deliver news and facts, and impart knowledge. Because communication can be expressed as words, letters, pictures, gestures, signals, colors, and so forth, it is credited with being the single element that has brought the world closer together.

People communicate for one of four reasons: to inform, influence, persuade, or entertain. In business, effective communication will influence outcomes and it is the critical backbone of an organization's ability to operate internally and externally as well as nationally and internationally.

COMMUNICATION BASICS

Communication, in its most basic definition, involves a sender (encoder) and a receiver (decoder). The sender encodes a message, deciding what content and relationship codes to use, and sends it via a communication channel such as face to face (verbal and nonverbal) and written (frequently using electronic technology). The receiver takes the message and, in the decoding process, attempts to understand its content and relationship meaning. After decoding, the receiver then may respond, via a communication channel, to the sender with a new message based on the receiver's perception of what the message imparted in terms of information and the relationship with the sender. It is at this point that one-way communication becomes two-way communication.

To be most effective, the feedback loop (the receiver's decoded interpretation of the original message) should go forward; that is, the receiver should respond to the sender. The feedback loop provides the sender with two vital pieces of information: (1) if the original message was correctly understood as sent and (2) the new message. The feedback loop allows for early correction of incorrectly decoded messages. The decoding, encoding, and feedback loop continue as the parties communicate.

In the decoding of a message, miscommunication and/or missed communication can occur. In the feedback loop, the receiver must clarify how that message was perceived. The greater the number of people involved in the message exchange process and the greater their differences in values, beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge of the subject matter, the greater are the chances that the message will be decoded improperly and a communication breakdown will occur.

Communication is most successful when it is understood by all persons involved in the process. That is, good communication is free from social colloquialisms, cultural mores, and gender biases. Because communication may be conveyed in many forms, it is frequently described in two general categories: verbal and nonverbal. Nonverbal communication includes body language, gestures, and signals. In general, successful communication depends on how well a sender conveys a message to a receiver relying on the six senses (seeing, speaking/hearing, intuition, smelling, touching, and tasting) and feedback.

COMMUNICATION RULES

Several rules facilitate successful communication. The following checklist provides a guide to creating successful communication:

  • Make messages clear, correct, comprehensive, and concise
  • In messages that require a response, include an action step with a deadline
  • Select correct channels of communication based on message content and relationship components
  • Structure the message so as not to overload the receiver with information
  • Develop sensitivity to the receiver's communication style and create the message accordingly
  • Be aware of how cultural patterns affect communication style and take this into consideration when sending and receiving messages
  • aware that people operating in a second language may still encode/decode messages based on their first culture's communication patterns
  • Enhance listening skills as an aspect of effective use of the feedback loop
  • Recognize that a positive attitude enhances the effectiveness of the communication process

COMMUNICATION TRANSMISSION MODES

Technology-mediated communication has become the norm in today's worldwide business environment. Messages are communicated regularly via easy access to a wide variety of sophisticated electronic technologies, including electronic mail (e-mail), fax, and phones. People still meet face to face, but they also use express mail and courier services, messaging and paging systems, caller identification and transfer/forwarding telephony systems, and many other combinations of message transfer and delivery methods. Signaling, biometrics, scanning, imagery, and holography also have a place in business communication.

Additionally, many professionals work in virtual groups using satellite uplink/downlinks, video streaming, videoconferencing, and computer groupware. In using these technologies, one should recognize the limits of the channel of communication selected. For example, e-mail is efficient but does not convey the nuances of a message that can be gained from facial expressions, gestures, or tone of voice. The use of multiple channels of communication may be critical if the content is quite complex; thus, an oral message may not be sufficient.

The importance of using the feedback loop becomes more critical as the content and/or relational aspects of the messages expand. Also, as more workgroups operate globally in a virtual medium, cultural patterns must be considered in the quest for clear and effective communication. The expansion of global business, combined with advances in technology, has created more cross-cultural opportunities. When working in a cross-cultural, multinational/multicultural environment, it is necessary to understand that culture influences people's behavior as well as their attitudes and beliefs. People encode and decode messages with perceptions learned from their cultural filters. In intercultural situations, the professional must use the feedback loop to clarify understanding of the received message. Just because a message has been received rapidly or with use of high-level technology does not mean that the receiver has decoded it properly.

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION

Written communication usually takes such forms as letters, memos, e-mails, reports, manuscripts, notes, forms, applications, résumés, and legal and medical documents. Spoken communication includes presentations, oral exchanges (e.g., one on one or to a group), and voice messaging. Speaking distinctly, with appropriate speed, as well as paying attention to voice inflection, tone, resonation, pitch clarity, and volume are important to the way a spoken message is received. Frequently, the way a spoken message is delivered is as important or even more important than the content of the message (a good example is a joke that has perfect timing). More than 90 percent of what a message conveys may actually be based on nonverbal elements; communicating a positive attitude also is helpful.

Nonverbal communication includes body language (e.g., facial expression, eye contact, posture, standing or sitting position, distance between sender and receiver, and gesturing), which can send signals to the receiver that may be much stronger than the message itself. If a picture truly speaks louder than a thousand words, communication by means other than the spoken and written wordsuch as clothing, signals or mannerisms reflecting personality or preferences, and gesturingcan make a big difference in the message that is conveyed.

COMMUNICATION CHANNELS

Communication in a society, whether it is personal or business communication, is essential. Individuals and organizations depend on it to function. Most businesses need both internal and external communication to be productive. Internal communication is communication that is exchanged within an organization. Usually it is less formal than communication that goes to those outside the business. Informal communication may range from chats in the hallway and lunchroom, team and group meetings, casual conversations over the phone or e-mail, and memos and preliminary reports to teleconferencing, brainstorming idea sessions, department or division meetings, and drafting documents. Informal communication also includes gossip, which relies on people passing on messages to coworkers, friends, and others outside of the organizational hierarchy.

External communication usually refers to messages that extend beyond the business organization. Because it reflects the organization's image, external communication is usually more formal. External communication is an extension of the organization and can be an important channel for marketing the company's image, mission, products, and/or services.

COMMUNICATION PARAMETERS

The selection or type of business communication takes many factors into consideration, including (1) the nature of the business (e.g., government, commerce, industry, private or public organization, manufacturing or marketing firm); (2) the mission and the philosophy of the organization (open versus limited or closed communication patterns); (3) the way the business is organized (small or large company, branch offices, subsidiaries); (4) the leadership styles of the organization's managers and supervisors (democratic, authoritarian, dictatorial, pragmatic); (5) the number and types of personnel as well as the levels of employees (hierarchy or status of positions, managerial or laborers, supervisors or team leaders); (6) the proximity of work units (closeness of departments, divisions, or groups that depend on information from each other); and (7) the need for communication (who needs to know what, when, why, where, and how for informed decision making to take place.

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Every group (whether it is formal or informal, and regardless of its size) has a communication system or network. Some are very effective and efficient while others are just the opposite. Even if communication appears to be (or is) dysfunctional within an organization or group, the group has a communication system. That is, poor or dysfunctional communication still conveys a message. When dysfunctional communication is taking place, there is a lack of exchange of information or messages within the group.

COMMUNICATION STYLES

Without realizing it, most people communicate with others (verbally as well as nonverbally) according to a dominant style. Essentially, people communicate in one of four basic styles: (1) directly or authoritatively (an in-charge person or one who is a driving force to get things done); (2) analytically or as a fact finder (a person who plans, researches, and analyzes the facts and weighs the alternatives carefully); (3) amiably or as a coach (a supportive team builder who gets people to work together toward a common goal); or (4) expressively or flamboyantly (a cheerleader with a positive attitude who has an abundance of ideas and motivates others toward taking action).

Communication styles are developed over time and with practice, and they can be influenced by many environmental factors. They also may reflect cultural norms. It is important to understand one's own preferred communication style as well as those of others in order to maximize one's communication interactions.

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

Effective communication relies in part on eliminating as many communication barriers as possible. Some ways to avoid common barriers to communication include the following:

  • Stay focused on the topic
  • Adhere to the deadline, when timing is important
  • Be willing to use a communication strategy appropriate to the situation; listen, negotiate, compromise, modify, and learn from feedback
  • Avoid relying on the grapevine as a source of facts, even though it may have been an accurate communication channel in the past
  • Be sincere, empathetic, and sensitive to others' feelings; one's voice, confidence, actions, and other nonverbal cues speak loudly
  • Seek out information about unknowns, especially when cultural and gender differences are involved
  • Be tactful, polite, clear, prepared, and, above all, strive to display a positive attitude with all communication

COMMUNICATION LEGISLATION

Professional communicators should review federal legislation that provides strict parameters for direct-marketing campaigns using unsolicited faxes, e-mail, and telephone calls. The Junk Fax Prevention Act, the Can Spam Act, and the Federal Trade Commission's Do Not Call Lists are all examples of such legislation. While direct marketing continues to be an effective sales tool, some consumers demand privacy protection from unwanted solicitors. Federal legislation of privacy protection also extends to employees who use company phones, computers, and Internet capabilities.

Businesses must be clear and upfront about how employees' internal and external communications are monitored. Equally, employees must realize that their e-mail correspondence, phone conversations, and other communications may be used as evidence in a court of law, pending legal action that involves their employer.

see also Communication Channels; Electronic Mail; Videoconferencing; Voice Messaging; Writing Skills in Business

bibliography

Locker, Kitty O. & Kaczmarek, Stephen Kyo. (2007). Business communication: building critical skills (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Guffey, Mary Ellen (2006). Business communication: process & product (5th ed.) Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.

Sharon Lund O'Neil

Jerry S. Evans

Heather Bigley

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Communications

Communications

Sources

The Need. Transatlantic migration and trade stimulated the development of a variety of communications throughout the colonial period. Investors in joint-stock companies often staked large sums of money on the success of early colonial ventures and were anxious for news of the settlements progress. Family members who remained in Europe longed for word from loved ones separated by three thousand miles of ocean. Planters and traders in America needed reliable ways of exchanging information with European merchants concerning prices, crop yields, shipments, and supplies. Shippers, merchants, and insurers needed accurate information about piracy, outbreaks of conflict on the high seas, and important political developments so that they could calculate risks and make adjustments. Military officers needed to communicate with their superiors in Europe and with various colonial posts. This widespread need to know created an increasing demand for profitable new ways of delivering information. The growth of trade also aided communication as various forms of information accompanied goods throughout the Atlantic world and made their way inland from port cities like Quebec, Philadelphia, Charleston, and New Orleans.

Overlapping Networks. Seventeenth-century colonists kept abreast of personal and public affairs in a variety of ways. Ships arriving in the colonies with passengers and supplies also carried public communications and private letters from family or business associates. Special couriers and traveling government officials were entrusted with official correspondence and notices of royal edicts or recent acts of Parliament. Captains usually carried an official mailbag bearing correspondence. Private letters sometimes came by a trusted family member or friend who had taken passage across the ocean. Other times letters came by a more distant acquaintance who had embarked for the colonies or London and had agreed

to carry them. Some information made its way around the Atlantic by word of mouth as persons on shipboard gleaned bits of news from port to port, hailed passing ships for news at sea, or witnessed or participated in hostile encounters with pirates or ships of foreign powers. Dockside taverns provided communications nodes where sailors could dispense such tidbits, and African Americans took special advantage of this method of communication as black sailors conveyed information among the slave communities of North America and the Caribbean. Information arriving at the coast moved inland in similar ways. Friends or acquaintances traveling to particular destinations carried letters with them, stopping at taverns along the way to dispense whatever news they had heard, to leave letters for pickup, and to catch up on the latest local happenings. Sunday gatherings at the church or meetinghouse provided another form of communication where people could exchange local news before or after worship, deliver letters to their recipients, or hand letters to a courier for delivery elsewhere. Ministers read royal proclamations or governors edicts from the pulpit, made announcements of important public matters, and kept people abreast of important transatlantic religious concerns by summarizing or reading aloud correspondence from fellow ministers in the British Isles. People continued to use all these traditional forms of communication throughout the colonial period even as new forms began to arise.

Postal Service. A reliable postal service was well established in the British Isles by the end of the seventeenth century, but it took longer for such a service to arise in the colonies. Postal services usually followed the model begun in Massachusetts: in 1639 Boston officials designated the tavern kept by Richard Fairbanks as the official site for depositing and receiving ship letters. It took much longer to establish regular postal services to inland towns or even over land between important cities such as Boston and New York. Only in the 1690s did a regular overland postal route arise to link New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts with riders that initially followed a monthly schedule and then increased to a weekly one as the volume of mail grew. Colonies followed the mother country in passing special postal acts that set rates and specified procedures for appointing postmasters and issuing patents that authorized private operators to set up services and hire carriers. Rates varied widely from colony to colony. Massachusetts, for example, set the charge for an overseas letter at two pence while New York set it at nine. A letter from Rhode Island to Boston at this time cost six pence, the equivalent of a half-days pay for a sailor. In spite of their cost, however, postal routes played an important part in stimulating the economic growth along colonial coasts and rivers. Reliable postal service made it possible for artisans, shipbuilders, and merchants to establish themselves in smaller ports and market towns, where the cost of living and doing business was cheaper, without having to sacrifice regular communication with customers and suppliers in larger cities. As the eighteenth century wore on, the office of postmaster was frequently filled by prominent printers, such as Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia, who often expanded postal routes to deliver their newspapers to ever-wider colonial audiences.

The Press. Between 1660 and 1695 newspapers were rare even in England. Their publication was tightly controlled by the Crown through legislation known as the Licensing Act because royal officials feared that the papers could be used to spread rebellious ideas throughout the realm. Consequently, when in 1690 the Boston printer Benjamin Harris published the first newspaper in America, Publick Occurrences, colonial officials quickly suppressed it. By 1695, however, such fears had diminished sufficiently that when the Licensing Act expired, neither the king nor Parliament attempted to renew it. English printers responded immediately by experimenting with a variety of new publications designed to make money from the demand for news. Many of these pub-lick prints, as they were called, made their way to the colonies. In 1704 the Boston postmaster and printer John Campbell borrowed freely from the format and news articles of these English newspapers to publish one of the first successful newspapers in America, the Boston News-Letter. Over the next three decades no fewer than seventeen additional English-language papers appeared in the colonies, along with one in German. Six of these appeared in Boston, where rival printers competed for readership by trying to outdo each other with interesting essays and features. They also took rival positions on various issues of the day, often lampooning each others material as they carried on fierce debates between papers. The controversy helped publishers sell even more papers as people on each side bought the latest issues to see what debaters would say next. In Philadelphia young Benjamin Franklin purchased a struggling newspaper in 1728 from a former employer, renamed it the Pennsylvania Gazette, and built a fortune through witty writing, keen business sense, and shrewd competition with the rival Philadelphia paper, the American Weekly Mercury. Franklin diversified by printing books, government documents, and the popular Poor Richards Almanack. He also built a network of publishers across the colonies, extending his own influence as a publisher as far away as Charleston, South Carolina, through partnership in Peter Timothys South Carolina Gazette. Franklins own paper benefited greatly because these contacts in other colonies gave him access to even more news. In Pennsylvania the large German population provided a market for the one non-English newspaper printed in the British mainland colonies, which ran from 1739 to 1746. The printer, Christopher Sauer, kept his German audiences abreast of events by translating some English news into German. He also published news from German lands, thus helping to maintain a vital transatlantic cultural link with the homeland of German immigrants.

Culture of Newspapers. Early colonial newspapers initially targeted a well-to-do readership, merchants, planters, and government officials who needed to know what was happening in England and Europe that might affect trade or political affairs in the colonies. For this reason the papers usually focused on European news, often reprinting articles directly from London newspapers or publishing excerpts dealing with European affairs from private correspondence. European news was often two to three months old, yet in most cases it was still useful to persons who needed to plan for the next shipment of goods to Europe or who wanted to keep up with the latest English fashions and the latest gossip from the royal court in London. Colonial newspapers also provided an important forum for public debate, carrying essays and controversies on issues of the day. News from the colonies themselves rarely occupied much space, since business and politics depended more on happenings overseas and since word of mouth usually conveyed local news faster than weekly newspapers could circulate it. Yet newspapers quickly became an important tool for sellers to advertise their goods to buyers, for people to publish important notices, for owners to recover lost goods, and for masters to track down runaway servants or slaves. By 1740 at least two pages of an ordinary fourpage newspaper were occupied with advertising a rapidly increasing range of imported British goods, colonial services, local real estate, printed material, public notices, and lost-and-found items.

Literary Community. With various methods of communication becoming more reliable, literature from Europe was more widely available. As more colonists read European books, pamphlets, and newspaper articles, they began to think of themselves as members of a vast community or Republic of Letters that extended across the Atlantic to incorporate both Europeans and Americans. For educated New England Puritans this literate community had existed since the early seventeenth century through correspondence and the exchange of books and ideas. The eighteenth-century religious revivals known as the Great Awakening brought many more people into the transatlantic religious community. Colonists who had experienced a revival in one colony began identifying in a new way with those who had enjoyed the same experience in other English colonies, as well as with similar people in the British Isles and the European Continent. Anglo-Americans also sought to participate in the great European scientific and philosophical discoveries known as the Enlightenment through reading the works of great figures such as the philosopher John Locke, the great physicist Isaac Newton, and the chemist Robert Boyle. Some wealthy merchants and planters, such as the Virginian William Byrd II, traveled to Europe for their education, studying law at prestigious English institutions and touring Continental Europe to gain firsthand exposure to Old World achievements, manners, tastes, learning, and company. Some Americans, such as the Puritan minister Cotton Mather, became members of the Royal Society, an English organization founded by Robert Boyle for the advancement of scientific learning, and regularly contributed scientific papers. Some American scientific papers, such as Benjamin Franklins findings on electricity, were published by the Royal Society. These papers enhanced the reputations of their American writers in learned circles of Europe.

Sources

Richard D. Brown, Knowledge is Power: The Diffusion of Information in Early America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989);

Christopher Clark, The Public Prints: The Newspaper in Anglo-American Culture, 1665-1740 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994);

Ian K. Steele, The English Atlantic, 1675-1740: An Exploration of Communication and Community (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986);

Michael Warner, The Letters of the Republic: Publication and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990).

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Communications As A Career

COMMUNICATIONS AS A CAREER

Communication graduates help public health professionals by creating persuasive messages to reach goals. They offer practical application of communication theories to improve the sending and receiving of verbal and nonverbal messages between and among target audiences. The audiences include the public, health providers, families, community groups, organizations, and policy makers. Some graduates create and produce public relations, television, radio, print, and Internet campaigns to educate the public on problems such as drug abuse and HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Others train health professionals and patients in communication skills to make informed choices on preventing diseases and treating illnesses.

Carolyn M. Anderson

(see also: Careers in Public Health )

Bibliography

Mogel, L. (2000). Careers in Communications and Entertainment. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Noronha, S. F. R. (1999). Careers in Communications. Linwood, IL: VGM Career Horizons.

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communications

communications Processes for sharing information and ideas. Facial expressions, hand signals, writing, and speech are examples. The 15th-century invention of the printing press revolutionized communications. The 20th century witnessed a communications revolution, primarily in terms of increased access. Telecommunications inventions, such as the telephone, radio, television, and computer network, facilitated rapid, global, mass communication. The Internet is the latest in a long line of technological innovations.

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Communications

Communications

3398 ■ ACADEMY OF TELEVISION ARTS & SCIENCES FOUNDATION

Attn: Education Department
5220 Lankershim Boulevard
North Hollywood, CA 91601-3109
Tel: (818)754-2830
Fax: (818)761-ATAS
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.emmys.tv/foundation/index.php
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students interested in working on a project in a field related to children's media.
Title of Award: Fred Rogers Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Art, Caricatures and cartoons; Child development; Education, Early childhood; Filmmaking; Music; Psychology; Radio and television Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $10,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to upper-division and graduate students interested in preparing for a career in children's media. Applicants must be able to demonstrate a commitment, either through course work or experience, to any combination of at least 2 of the following fields: early childhood education, child development, child psychology, film or television production, music, or animation. They may apply for support for any of the following areas: research on the relationship between children's media and learning or children's use of media and personal growth; development of program concepts or extended development of creative elements of an existing concept (e.g., design of puppets, scripts, storyboards, characters, music); professional internship in an organization that is relevant to the applicant's goal for use of the award. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This scholarship, first awarded in 2005, is supported by Ernst & Young.

3399 ■ ALABAMA SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

c/o University of Alabama in Huntsville Materials Science Building, Room 205 Huntsville, AL 35899
Tel: (256)824-6800
Fax: (256)824-6061
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uah.edu/ASGC
To provide financial assistance to undergraduates who are studying the space sciences at universities participating in the Alabama Space Grant Consortium (ASGC).
Title of Award: Undergraduate Scholarship Program of the Alabama Space Grant Consortium Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Behavioral sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Business administration; Communications; Computer and information sciences; Economics; Education; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; International affairs and relations; Law; Natural sciences; Physical sciences; Public administration; Sociology; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 32 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their junior or senior year at universities participating in the ASGC. Applicants must be studying in a field related to space, including the physical, natural, and biological sciences; engineering, education; economics; business; sociology; behavioral sciences; computer science; communications; law; international affairs; and public administration. They must be U.S. citizens and have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Individuals from underrepresented groups (African Americans, Hispanic, American Indians, Pacific Islanders, Asian Americans, and women) are especially encouraged to apply. Interested students should submit a completed application with a career goal statement, personal references, a brief resume, and transcripts. Selection is based on 1) academic qualifications, 2) quality of the career goal statement, and 3) assessment of the applicant's motivation for a career in aerospace. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The member universities are University of Alabama in Huntsville, Alabama A&M University, University of Alabama, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of South Alabama, Tuskegee University, and Auburn University. Funding for this program is provided by NASA.

3400 ■ AMERICAN FEDERATION OF TELEVISION AND RADIO ARTISTS

Attn: AFTRA/Heller Memorial Foundation, Inc.
260 Madison Avenue, Seventh Floor
New York, NY 10016
Tel: (212)532-0800
Fax: (212)532-2242
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aftra.org/benefits/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students who are members or the dependent children of members of the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA).
Title of Award: AFTRA/Heller Memorial Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; General studies/Field of study not specified; Industrial and labor relations; Journalism; Performing arts Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 12 to 15 each year. Funds Available: Stipends up to $2,500 per year are available. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to AFTRA members and the dependent children of AFTRA members (or deceased members) in good standing for at least 5 years. Applicants may be interested in working on a bachelor's or advanced degree in any field, including broadcast journalism and labor relations, or professional training in the performing arts. Selection is based on academic achievement and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3401 ■ AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETATION

Columbia Plaza, Suite 101
350 East Michigan Avenue
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Tel: (269)383-6893
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afti.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students in translator or interpreter education programs.
Title of Award: JTG Scholarship in Scientific and Technical Translation or Interpretation Area, Field, or Subject: Translating Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled or planning to enroll in graduate or undergraduate programs in scientific and technical translation on in interpretation at accredited U.S. colleges and universities. Applicants must be full-time students who have completed at least 1 year of postsecondary education and have at least 1 year of academic work remaining to complete their program of study. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher overall and 3.5 or higher in translation and interpretation related courses. U.S. citizenship is required. Along with their application, they must submit an essay of 300 to 500 words on their interests and goals as they relate to the field of translation or interpretation. Selection is based on the essay, demonstrated achievement in translation and interpretation, academic record, and 3 letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 2001, is supported by the American Translators Association (ATA) and JTG, Inc. of Alexandria, Virginia. Information is also available from the ATA, 225 Reinekers Lane, Suite 590, Alexandria, VA 22314, (703) 683-6100, [email protected]

3402 ■ AMERICAN RADIO RELAY LEAGUE

Attn: ARRL Foundation
225 Main Street Newington, CT 06111
Tel: (860)594-0397
Fax: (860)594-0259
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.arrl.org/arrlf/scholgen.html
To provide financial assistance to licensed radio amateurs who are interested in working on an undergraduate or graduate degree, especially in electronics or communications.
Title of Award: Irving W. Cook, WA0CGS, Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Electronics; General studies/Field of study not specified Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate or graduate students at accredited institutions who are licensed radio amateurs (any class). Applicants must submit an essay on the role amateur radio has played in their lives and provide documentation of financial need. Preference is given to applicants from Kansas who are majoring in electronics, communications, or related fields. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend school in any state.

3403 ■ AMERICAN RADIO RELAY LEAGUE

Attn: ARRL Foundation
225 Main Street Newington, CT 06111
Tel: (860)594-0397
Fax: (860)594-0259
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.arrl.org/arrlf/scholgen.html
To provide financial assistance to licensed radio amateurs, particularly from Arizona and selected counties in California, who are interested in working on an undergraduate or graduate degree, particularly in electronics, communications, or related fields.
Title of Award: Charles N. Fisher Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Electronics; General studies/Field of study not specified Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate or graduate students at accredited institutions who are licensed radio amateurs (any class). Applicants must submit an essay on the role amateur radio has played in their lives and provide documentation of financial need. Preference is given to students who are 1) residents of Arizona or selected counties in California (Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, Santa Barbara), and 2) majoring in electronics, communications, or related fields. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3404 ■ AMERICAN RADIO RELAY LEAGUE

Attn: ARRL Foundation
225 Main Street Newington, CT 06111
Tel: (860)594-0397
Fax: (860)594-0259
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.arrl.org/arrlf/scholgen.html
To provide financial assistance to licensed radio amateurs who are interested in working on an undergraduate or graduate degree, particularly in electronics or communications.
Title of Award: Paul and Helen L. Grauer Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Electronics; General studies/Field of study not specified Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate or graduate students at accredited institutions who are licensed radio amateurs of the novice class or higher. Preference is given to students who are 1) residents of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, or Nebraska and attending schools in those states, and 2) majoring in electronics, communications, or related fields. Applicants must submit an essay on the role

amateur radio has played in their lives and provide documentation of financial need. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3405 ■ AMERICAN RADIO RELAY LEAGUE

Attn: ARRL Foundation
225 Main Street Newington, CT 06111
Tel: (860)594-0397
Fax: (860)594-0259
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.arrl.org/arrlf/scholgen.html
To provide financial assistance to licensed radio amateurs from designated states who are interested in working on an undergraduate or graduate degree, particularly in electronics or communications.
Title of Award: L. Phil Wicker Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Electronics; General studies/Field of study not specified Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate or graduate students at accredited institutions who are licensed radio amateurs of general class. Preference is given to students who are 1) residents of North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, or West Virginia and attending school in those states, and 2) majoring in electronics, communications, or related fields. Applicants must submit an essay on the role amateur radio has played in their lives and provide documentation of financial need. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3406 ■ ARAB AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Administrator
1600 K Street, N.W., Suite 601
Washington, DC 20006
Tel: (202)429-9210
Fax: (202)429-9214
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aaiusa.org/foundation/154/student-resource-center
To provide financial assistance to Arab American students interested in working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in journalism.
Title of Award: Al Muammar Scholarships for Journalism Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 4 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens and permanent residents of Arab descent who are enrolled full time at an accredited college or university in the United States. Applicants must be undergraduates or college seniors admitted to a graduate program. They must have a GPA of 3.3 or higher and a demonstrated commitment to the field of print or broadcast journalism. Selection is based on sensitivity to Arab American issues, demonstrated community involvement, initiative in social advocacy and civic empowerment, journalistic ability, academic ability, commitment to the field of journalism, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: These scholarships were first awarded in 2006.

3407 ■ ARKANSAS DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Financial Aid Division
114 East Capitol Avenue
Little Rock, AR 72201-3818
Tel: (501)371-2050
Free: 800-54-STUDY
Fax: (501)371-2001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.arkansashighered.com/mteachers.html
To provide scholarship/loans to minority undergraduates in Arkansas who want to become teachers.
Title of Award: Arkansas Minority Teacher Scholars Program Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Education; Education, Elementary; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 97 of these scholarship/loans were approved. Funds Available: Awards up to $5,000 per year are available. This is a scholarship/loan program. The loan will be forgiven at the rate of 20% for each year the recipient teaches full time in an Arkansas public school (or 33% per year if the obligation is fulfilled in 3 years as described above). If the loan is not forgiven by service, it must be repaid with interest at a rate up to 5% points above the Federal Reserve discount rate. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for 1 additional year if the recipient remains a full-time student with a GPA of 2.5 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be minority (African American, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American) residents of Arkansas who are U.S. citizens and enrolled as full-time juniors or seniors in an approved teacher certification program at an Arkansas public or independent 4-year institution. They must have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher and be willing to teach in an Arkansas public school for at least 5 years after completion of their teaching certificate (3 years if the teaching is in 1 of the 42 counties of Arkansas designated as the Delta Region; or if the teaching is in mathematics, science, or foreign language; or if the recipient is an African American male and teaches at the elementary level; or if the service is as a guidance counselor). Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3408 ■ ARKANSAS DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Financial Aid Division
114 East Capitol Avenue Little Rock, AR 72201-3818
Tel: (501)371-2050
Free: 800-54-STUDY
Fax: (501)371-2001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.starark.com
To provide scholarship/loans to college students in Arkansas who are interested in preparing for a teaching career in an approved subject or geographic shortage area.
Title of Award: Arkansas State Teacher Assistance Resource (STAR) Program Area, Field, or Subject: Biological and clinical sciences; Chemistry; Earth sciences; Education; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Geosciences; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physical sciences; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 42 of these scholarship/loans were approved. Funds Available: The award is $3,000 per year for students who agree to teach in either a geographic teacher shortage area or a subject teacher shortage area. For students who agree to teach in both a geographic shortage area and a subject shortage area, the award is $6,000 per year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must teach in an Arkansas geographic or subject shortage area for 1 year for each year of support they receive. If they fail to complete that teaching obligation, they must repay all funds received. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for 1 additional year if the recipient is enrolled in a 4-year teacher education program or 2 additional years if enrolled in a 5-year teacher education program. Renewal requires that the recipient maintain a GPA of 2.75 or higher and complete 24 semester hours as an undergraduate or 18 semester hours as a graduate student.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Arkansas residents who are full-time students enrolled 1) at a 4-year public or private college or university in the state with an approved teacher education program; 2) in an associate of arts in teaching program; or 3) in an master of arts in teaching program. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.75 or higher and be entering their sophomore, junior, or senior year (or be in a master's degree program). They must be willing to teach in a public school located in a geographic area of Arkansas designated as having a critical shortage of teachers or in a subject matter area designated as having a critical shortage of teachers. Applicants must have completed their freshman year at an accredited Arkansas public or private college or university in a major field of study leading to secondary teacher certification in 1 of the shortage areas. U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 2004 as a replacement for the former Arkansas Emergency Secondary Education Loan Program. Recently, the subject areas designated as having a critical shortage of teachers were foreign language, mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology, physical science, earth science, and special education. For a list of geographic areas of Arkansas that are designated as having a critical shortage of teachers, contact the Department of Higher Education. The State Teacher Assistance Resource (STAR) program also provides that teachers who received federal student loans may have those loans repaid 1) at the rate of $3,000 per year if they teach a subject area in Arkansas that is designated as a shortage area or if they teach in a geographic area of the state with a shortage of teachers, or 2) at the rate of $6,000 per year if they teach a shortage subject area in a shortage geographic area. Students may not, however, participate in both the scholarship/loan program and the federal loan repayment program.

3409 ■ ASIAN AMERICAN JOURNALISTS ASSOCIATION

Attn: Student Programs Coordinator
1182 Market Street, Suite 320
San Francisco, CA 94102
Tel: (415)346-2051
Fax: (415)346-6343
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aaja.org/programs/for_students/scholarships
To provide financial assistance to student members of the Asian American Journalists Association (AAJA) interested in careers in broadcast, photo, or print journalism.
Title of Award: Cox Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Graphic art and design; Journalism; Photography, Journalistic Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to AAJA members who are high school seniors or college students (graduate or undergraduate) enrolled full time in accredited institutions. Applicants must submit a 500-word essay on their involvement or interest in the Asian American community and how, if they are awarded this scholarship, they would contribute to the field of journalism and/or media issues involving the Asian American and Pacific Islander community. Selection is based on scholastic ability, commitment to journalism, sensitivity to Asian American and Pacific Islander issues as demonstrated by community involvement, journalistic ability, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program is supported by the Cox Foundation.

3410 ■ ASIAN AMERICAN JOURNALISTS ASSOCIATION

Attn: Student Programs Coordinator
1182 Market Street, Suite 320
San Francisco, CA 94102
Tel: (415)346-2051
Fax: (415)346-6343
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aaja.org/programs/for_students/scholarships
To provide financial assistance to male Asian American students who are members of the Asian American Journalists Association (AAJA) and interested in a career in broadcast journalism.
Title of Award: Minoru Yasui Memorial Scholarship Award Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Asian American male high school seniors, undergraduates, or graduate students enrolled full time at an accredited college or university in a broadcast journalism program. Applicants must be AAJA members. Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word essay on their involvement or interest in the Asian American community and how, if they are awarded this scholarship, they would contribute to the field of journalism and/or media issues involving the Asian American and Pacific Islander community. Selection is based on scholastic ability, commitment to journalism, sensitivity to Asian American and Pacific Islander issues as demonstrated by community involvement, journalistic ability, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This scholarship honors Minoru Yasui, a civil rights advocate and attorney who was 1 of 3 Nisei to challenge the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II.

3411 ■ ASIAN AMERICAN JOURNALISTS ASSOCIATION-PORTLAND CHAPTER

c/o Tracy Jan
The Oregonian
Metro East News Bureau
295 N.E. Second Street
Gresham, OR 97030
Tel: (503)294-5970
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://chapters.aaja.org/Portland/scholar.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate journalism students in Oregon and southwestern Washington area who have been involved in the Asian American community.
Title of Award: Portland Chapter AAJA Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Journalism; Photography, Journalistic Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: Stipends up to $2,000 are available. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors, undergraduates, and graduate students who live or attend school in Oregon or the Vancouver, Washington area. Applicants must be enrolled or planning to enroll full time in a journalism program and be able to demonstrate involvement in the Asian American community. Along with their application, they must submit an essay (up to 750 words) on how they became interested in journalism or how they see themselves contributing to the Asian American community. They must also submit work samples (print: up to 3 articles; radio: up to 3 different stories on standard audio tapes; television: up to 3 different stories on a VHS tape; photojournalism: a portfolio of up to 15 entries). Selection is based on scholastic ability, commitment to journalism, sensitivity to Asian American issues as demonstrated by community involvement, journalistic ability, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

3412 ■ ASIAN AMERICAN JOURNALISTS ASSOCIATION-TEXAS CHAPTER

c/o Julie Tam, Scholarship Chair
KLTV-TV ABC 7
105 West Ferguson
P.O. Box 957
Tyler, TX 75710
Tel: (903)597-5588
Fax: (903)510-7847
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://chapters.aaja.org/Texas/schol.html
To provide financial assistance to members of the Asian American Journalists Association (AAJA) in Texas who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in journalism.
Title of Award: Texas Chapter Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Journalism; Photography, Journalistic Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to graduating high school seniors, undergraduates, and graduate students who are either Texas residents or planning to attend an accredited college or university in Texas. Applicants must be AAJA members. Along with their application, they must submit a 250-word autobiography that explains why they are interested in a career in journalism, a 500-word essay on the role of ethnic diversity in news coverage (both for the subjects of the news events and also the journalists involved), their most recent official transcript, a statement of financial need, 2 letters of recommendation, and a resume. Work samples to be submitted are 2 legible clips from print journalism students; 3 to 5 prints or slides with captions or descriptions from print photojournalism students; 2 VHS taped excerpts with corresponding scripts from television broadcast students; 2 edited VHS excepts from television photojournalism students; 3 taped cassette excerpts with corresponding scripts from radio broadcast students; or 3 legible online articles from web journalism students. Selection is based on commitment to the field of journalism, awareness of Asian American issues, journalistic ability, scholastic ability, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3413 ■ ASSOCIATED PRESS TELEVISION/RADIO ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA

c/o Roberta Gonzales
CBS 5 TV
855 Battery Street
San Francisco, CA 94111
Tel: (415)362-5550
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aptra.org
To provide financial assistance to students at colleges and universities in California and Nevada who are interested in broadcast journalism careers.
Title of Award: Kathryn Dettman Memorial Journalism Scholarship Award Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students at colleges and universities in California and Nevada. Applicants must have a broadcast journalism career objective. Selection is based on a 500-word essay on why the students wish to pursue broadcast journalism; another 500-word essay on their honors, awards, and broadcast experience; 3 letters of recommendation; and a statement of how they are financing their education. Deadline for Receipt: December of each year.

3414 ■ ASSOCIATED PRESS TELEVISION/RADIO ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA

c/o Roberta Gonzales
CBS 5 TV
855 Battery Street
San Francisco, CA 94111
Tel: (415)362-5550
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aptra.org
To provide financial assistance to students at colleges and universities in California and Nevada who are interested in broadcast journalism careers.
Title of Award: Clete Roberts Memorial Journalism Scholarship Award Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students at colleges and universities in California and Nevada. Applicants must have a broadcast journalism career objective. Selection is based on a 500-word essay on why the students wish to pursue broadcast journalism; another 500-word essay on their honors, awards, and broadcast experience; 3 letters of recommendation; and a statement of how they are financing their education. Deadline for Receipt: December of each year.

3415 ■ JORGE MAS CANOSA FREEDOM FOUNDATION

c/o Cuban American National Foundation
1312 S.W. 27th Avenue
P.O. Box 440069
Miami, FL 33144-9926
Tel: (305)592-7768
Fax: (305)592-7889
Web Site: http://www.canf.org
To provide financial assistance to students of Cuban descent who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in selected subject areas.
Title of Award: Mas Family Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Communications; Economics; Engineering; International affairs and relations; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Funds Available: The amount of the award depends on the cost of tuition at the recipient's selected institution, on the family's situation, and on the amount of funds received from other sources. The amount of the yearly award cannot exceed $10,000. Full scholarships are not awarded to students who will be receiving full tuition scholarships and/or stipendiary support from other sources. Duration: 1 year; recipients may reapply and are given preference over other candidates.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who are direct descendants of those who left Cuba or were born in Cuba themselves. Applicants must be or have been in the top 10% of their high school graduating class and have be able to meet federal standards of financial need. At least 1 parent or 2 grandparents must have been born in Cuba. Both undergraduate and graduate students may apply, provided they are majoring in 1 of the following subjects: engineering, business, international relations, economics, communications, or journalism. Selection is based on academic performance, leadership qualities, financial need, potential to contribute to the advancement of a free society, and likelihood of succeeding in their chosen field. Finalists may be interviewed. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was previously offered by the Cuban American National Foundation.

3416 ■ CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE MIDDLE WEST AND SOUTH

c/o Eleanor Winsor Leach
Indiana University
Department of Classical Studies
547 Ballantine Hall
Bloomington, IN 47405
Tel: (812)855-4129
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.camws.org/awards/MAScollege.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students majoring in classics at a college or university in the area of the Classical Association of the Middle West and South (CAMWS).
Title of Award: Manson A. Stewart Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Classical studies; Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 6 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The award is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate students who are majoring in classics at the sophomore or junior level at a college or university in the geographic area served by the association. Candidates must be nominated by the chair of their department or program; students then fill out an application and send it along with transcripts and letters of recommendation from 2 members of the association. Nominees are expected to take at least 2 courses in Latin or Greek during the junior or senior year in which the scholarship is held. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3417 ■ CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF NEW ENGLAND

c/o Allen M. Ware
University of Connecticut
Department of History Box U-103
Storrs, CT 06269-2103
Tel: (860)486-3722
Fax: (860)486-0641
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.caneweb.org
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students in New England who are working on certification as a teacher of Latin or Greek.
Title of Award: CANE Certification Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Classical studies; Education, Secondary; Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Funds are intended to cover tuition and fees. Duration: 1 year or summer session.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to junior and senior undergraduates at colleges and universities in New England and to holders of a master's degree. Applicants must be preparing for secondary school certification as a teacher of Latin or Greek or both in a New England state. Full-time, part-time, and summer programs qualify. Along with their application, they must submit 2 letters of recommendation from college classicists, a letter attesting to their ability to communicate and work with young people and inspire them to high levels of achievement, a 1,000-word personal statement explaining why they are preparing for a career as a secondary school classicist, high school and college transcripts, and a description of their program and the expenses involved. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3418 ■ COMMUNITIES FOUNDATION OF TEXAS

Attn: Scholarship Department
5500 Caruth Haven Lane Dallas, TX 75225-8146
Tel: (214)750-4222
Fax: (214)750-4210
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cftexas.org
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students who are working on a degree in journalism and have an interest in aviation.
Title of Award: George E. Haddaway Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Aviation; Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500 per year. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college juniors, seniors, and graduate students who can demonstrate interest in aviation by such activities as 1) current or former membership in the aviation program of a college or university, the Boy or Girl Scouts of America, the Civil Air Patrol, or a similar organization; or 2) pursuit or completion of the requirements for an aircraft license. Applicants must be working on a baccalaureate or advanced degree in print or electronic journalism and have completed at least 52 hours of college course work with a GPA of 2.75 or higher. They must be able to demonstrate financial need. Along with their application, they must submit an essay (200 to 500 words) describing their interest in aviation and how they might combine that interest with a career in journalism. U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

3419 ■ COOK INLET REGION, INC.

Attn: CIRI Foundation
2600 Cordova Street, Suite 206
Anchorage, AK 99503
Tel: (907)263-5582
Free: 800-764-3382
Fax: (907)263-5588
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.thecirifoundation.org/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate or graduate studies in telecommunications or broadcast to Alaska Natives and their lineal descendants.
Title of Award: Cap Lathrop Endowment Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Radio and television; Telecommunications systems Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,500 per year. Funds must be used for tuition, university fees, books, required class supplies, and campus housing and meal plans for students who must live away from their permanent home to attend college. Checks are sent directly to the recipient's school. Duration: 1 year (2 semesters).
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Alaska Native enrollees under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1971 and their lineal descendants. Proof of eligibility must be submitted. Applicants may be enrollees of any of the 13 ANCSA regional corporations, but preference is given to original enrollees/descendants of Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) who have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. There are no Alaska residency requirements or age limitations. Applicants must be accepted or enrolled full time in a 2-year undergraduate, 4-year undergraduate, or graduate degree program. They must be majoring in telecommunications or broadcast and planning to work in the telecommunications or broadcast industry in Alaska after graduation. Selection is based on academic achievement, rigor of course work or degree program, quality of a statement of purpose, student financial contribution, financial need, grade level, previous work performance, education and community activities, letters of recommendation, seriousness of purpose, and practicality of educational and professional goals. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1997. Recipients must attend school on a full-time basis and must plan to work in the broadcast or telecommunications industry in Alaska upon completion of their academic degree.

3420 ■ COOK INLET REGION, INC.

Attn: CIRI Foundation
2600 Cordova Street, Suite 206
Anchorage, AK 99503
Tel: (907)263-5582
Free: 800-764-3382
Fax: (907)263-5588
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.thecirifoundation.org/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate or graduate studies in selected liberal arts to Alaska Natives who are original enrollees to Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) and their lineal descendants.
Title of Award: Lawrence Matson Memorial Endowment Fund Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Art; Communications; Education; Law; Linguistics; Social sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 1 of these scholarships (at $7,000 per year) was awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $9,000 per year, $7,000 per year, or $2,000 per semester, depending on GPA. Duration: 1 year (2 semesters).
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Alaska Native enrollees to CIRI under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1971 and their lineal descendants. There are no Alaska residency requirements or age limitations. Applicants must be accepted or enrolled full time in a 4-year undergraduate or a graduate degree program in the following liberal arts fields: language, education, social sciences, arts, communications, or law. They must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement, rigor of course work or degree program, quality of a statement of purpose, student financial contribution, financial need, grade level, previous work performance, education and community activities, letters of recommendation, seriousness of purpose, and practicality of educational and professional goals. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This fund was established in 1989. Recipients must attend school on a full-time basis.

3421 ■ DELAWARE HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Carvel State Office Building 820 North French Street Wilmington, DE 19801
Tel: (302)577-3240
Free: 800-292-7935
Fax: (302)577-6765
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.doe.state.de.us/high-ed/christa.htm
To provide scholarship/loans for teacher training to Delaware residents with outstanding academic records.
Title of Award: Christa McAuliffe Teacher Scholarship/Loan Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Education; Education, Bilingual and cross-cultural; Education, English as a second language; Education, Special; English language and literature; Library and archival sciences; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Reading; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 50 each year. Funds Available: Funds up to the cost of tuition, fees, and other direct educational expenses are provided. This is a scholarship/loan program; if the recipient performs required service at a school in Delaware, the loan is forgiven at the rate of 1 year of assistance for each year of service. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Delaware residents who are enrolled or accepted for enrollment at a Delaware college or university in a program leading to teacher qualification. Preference is given to applicants planning to teach in an area of critical need. High school seniors must rank in the top half of their class and have a combined score of at least 1570 on the SAT; applicants who are already enrolled in college must have a cumulative GPA of 2.75 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The areas of critical need recently included bilingual education, business education, English, foreign languages, English to speakers of other languages, mathematics, reading, science, school librarianship, special education, and technology education.

3422 ■ DELTA SIGMA THETA SORORITY, INC.

1707 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20009
Tel: (202)986-2400
Fax: (202)986-2513
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.deltasigmatheta.org
To provide financial assistance to members of Delta Sigma Theta who are interested in preparing for a career in journalism or another area of communications.
Title of Award: Julia Bumry Jones Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Funds Available: The stipends range from $1,000 to $2,000. The funds may be used to cover tuition, fees, and living expenses. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 2 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be college seniors or graduate students who are interested in preparing for a career in journalism or another area of communications and who are active, dues-paying members of Delta Sigma Theta. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Winners may also receive financial assistance from other sources. Confirmation of registration must be received before stipends are paid.

3423 ■ DETROIT FREE PRESS

Attn: High School Journalism Directors
600 West Fort Street
Detroit, MI 48226
Tel: (313)222-6428
Free: 800-678-6400
Fax: (313)222-8874
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.freep.com
To provide financial assistance for college to minority high school seniors the circulation area of the Detroit Free Press who are interested in a career in journalism or newspaper business operations.
Title of Award: Detroit Free Press Minority Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year, of whom at least 2 are nominated for the national scholarships. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to minority high school seniors in Michigan, the greater Toledo metropolitan area, and the greater Windsor metropolitan area. Applicants must be planning to attend a 4-year college or university to major in journalism, communications, or a related field. They must be interested in preparing for a career in journalism or newspaper business operations. Along with their application, they must submit 2 letters of recommendation, a transcript of grades, SAT/ACT scores, up to 5 samples of work with bylines (for journalism applicants), and an essay on "Why Journalism or the Newspaper Business is the Life for Me." Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: The recipients of these scholarships may be entered into competition for the Knight Ridder Minority Scholarship Program of $40,000 over 4 years.

3424 ■ ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT SYSTEMS FOUNDATION

Attn: EDSF Scholarship Awards
24238 Hawthorne Boulevard Torrance, CA 90505-6505
Tel: (310)541-1481
Fax: (310)541-4803
Web Site: http://www.edsf.org/scholarships.cfm
To provide financial assistance to college juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in working with electronic documents as a career.
Title of Award: Wayne Alexander Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Computer and information sciences; Graphic art and design; Internet design and development; Marketing and distribution; Printing trades and industries; Telecommunications systems Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students who are working full time on a degree in the field of document communication, including marketing, graphic communication and arts, e-commerce, imaging science, printing, web authoring, electronic publishing, computer science, or telecommunications. Priority consideration is given to students at the University of Central Florida. Applicants must submit a statement of their career goals in the field of document communications, an essay on a topic related to their view of the future of the document management and production industry, a list of current professional and college extracurricular activities and achievements, college transcripts (GPA of 3.0 or higher), samples of their creative work, and 2 letters of recommendation. Financial need is not considered. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by AXIS Inc.

3425 ■ ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT SYSTEMS FOUNDATION

Attn: EDSF Scholarship Awards
24238 Hawthorne Boulevard Torrance, CA 90505-6505
Tel: (310)541-1481
Fax: (310)541-4803
Web Site: http://www.edsf.org/scholarships.cfm
To provide financial assistance to college juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in working with electronic documents as a career.
Title of Award: EDSF Board of Directors Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Computer and information sciences; Graphic art and design; Internet design and development; Marketing and distribution; Printing trades and industries; Telecommunications systems Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 20 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students who are working full time on a degree in the field of document communication, including marketing, graphic communication and arts, e-commerce, imaging science, printing, web authoring, electronic publishing, computer science, or telecommunications. Applicants must submit a statement of their career goals in the field of document communications, an essay on a topic related to their view of the future of the document management and production industry, a list of current professional and college extracurricular activities and achievements, college transcripts (GPA of 3.0 or higher), samples of their creative work, and 2 letters of recommendation. Financial need is not considered. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3426 ■ ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT SYSTEMS FOUNDATION

Attn: EDSF Scholarship Awards
24238 Hawthorne Boulevard Torrance, CA 90505-6505
Tel: (310)541-1481
Fax: (310)541-4803
Web Site: http://www.edsf.org/scholarships.cfm
To provide financial assistance to students in technical schools and community colleges who are interested in working with electronic documents as a career.
Title of Award: EDSF Board of Directors Technical and Community College Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Computer and information sciences; Graphic art and design; Internet design and development; Marketing and distribution; Printing trades and industries; Telecommunications systems Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Two Year College, Vocational/Occupational Number Awarded: 5 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to first-and second-year students at technical and trade schools and community colleges. Applicants must be working on a degree in the field of electronic document communication, including marketing, graphic communication and arts, e-commerce, imaging science, printing, web authoring, electronic publishing, computer science, or telecommunications. They must submit a 1-page essay on 1 of the following topics: 1) a definition of their career goals in the field of document management and communications; 2) a recent technological change and how it has or will affect the document communication industry; or 3) a definition of the document communication industry. Selection is based on the essay, extracurricular activities and achievements, high school transcripts (GPA of 3.0 or higher), samples of creative work, and 2 letters of recommendation. Financial need is not considered. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3427 ■ ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT SYSTEMS FOUNDATION

Attn: EDSF Scholarship Awards
24238 Hawthorne Boulevard Torrance, CA 90505-6505
Tel: (310)541-1481
Fax: (310)541-4803
Web Site: http://www.edsf.org/scholarships.cfm
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students interested in working with electronic documents as a career.
Title of Award: David Hoods Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Computer and information sciences; Graphic art and design; Internet design and development; Marketing and distribution; Printing trades and industries; Public relations; Telecommunications systems Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time juniors, seniors, and graduate students who demonstrate a strong interest in working with electronic documents as a career (including graphic communications, document management, document content, and/or document distribution). Special consideration is given to students interested in marketing and public relations. Applicants must submit a statement of their career goals in the field of document communications, an essay on a topic related to their view of the future of the document management and production industry, a list of current professional and college extracurricular activities and achievements, college transcripts (GPA of 3.0 or higher), samples of their creative work, and 2 letters of recommendation. Financial need is not considered. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3428 ■ ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT SYSTEMS FOUNDATION

Attn: EDSF Scholarship Awards
24238 Hawthorne Boulevard
Torrance, CA 90505-6505
Tel: (310)541-1481
Fax: (310)541-4803
Web Site: http://www.edsf.org/scholarships.cfm
To provide financial assistance to college juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in working with electronic documents as a career.
Title of Award: John A. Lopiano Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Computer and information sciences; Graphic art and design; Internet design and development; Marketing and distribution; Printing trades and industries; Telecommunications systems Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students who are working full time on a degree in the field of document communication, including marketing, graphic communication and arts, e-commerce, imaging science, printing, web authoring, electronic publishing, computer science, or telecommunications. Priority consideration is given to students who work in or whose family member has worked or currently works in a segment of the high volume transaction output (HVTO) industry. Applicants must submit a statement of their career goals in the field of document communications, an essay on a topic related to their view of the future of the document management and production industry, a list of current professional and college extracurricular activities and achievements, college transcripts (GPA of 3.0 or higher), samples of their creative work, and 2 letters of recommendation. Financial need is not considered. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by COPI/OutputLinks.

3429 ■ EVANGELICAL PRESS ASSOCIATION

Attn: Scholarships
P.O. Box 28129
Crystal, MN 55428
Tel: (763)535-4793
Fax: (763)535-4794
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.epassoc.org/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students interested in preparing for a career in Christian journalism.
Title of Award: Evangelical Press Association Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Journalism; Religion Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Several each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to entering juniors, seniors, and graduate students who have at least 1 years of full-time study remaining. Applicants must be majoring or minoring in journalism or communications, preferably with an interest in the field of Christian journalism. They must be enrolled at an accredited Christian or secular college or university in the United States or Canada with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a biographical sketch that includes their birth date, hometown, family, and something about the factors that shaped their interest in Christian journalism; a copy of their academic record; references from their pastor and from an instructor; samples of published writing from church or school publications; and an original essay (from 500 to 700 words) on the state of journalism today. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program includes the Mel Larson Memorial Scholarship.

3430 ■ FISHER COMMUNICATIONS

Attn: Minority Scholarship
100 Fourth Avenue North, Suite 510
Seattle, WA 98109
Tel: (206)404-7000
Fax: (206)404-6037
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.fsci.com/x100.xml
To provide financial assistance to minority college students in selected states who are interested in preparing for a career in broadcasting, marketing, or journalism.
Title of Award: Fisher Broadcasting Scholarships for Minorities Area, Field, or Subject: Broadcasting; Journalism; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; a total of $10,000 is available for this program each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year; recipients may reapply.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students of non-white origin who are U.S. citizens, have a GPA of 2.5 or higher, and are at least sophomores enrolled in 1) a broadcasting, marketing, or journalism curriculum leading to a bachelor's degree at an accredited 4-year college or university; 2) a broadcast curriculum at an accredited community college, transferable to a 4-year baccalaureate degree program; or 3) a broadcast curriculum at an accredited vocational/technical school. Applicants must be either 1) residents of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, or Montana; or 2) attending a school in those states. They must submit an essay that explains their financial need, education and career goals, and school activities; a copy of their college transcript; and 2 letters of recommendation. Selection is based on need, academic achievement, and personal qualities. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program began in 1987.

3431 ■ FLORIDA STATE ASSOCIATION OF SUPERVISORS OF ELECTIONS

c/o David H. Stafford
Escambia County Supervisor of Elections
213 Palafox Place, Suite 4
P.O. Box 12601
Pensacola, FL 32591-2601
Tel: (850)595-3900
Fax: (850)595-3914
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gotvflorida.com/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to Florida residents who are interested in majoring in business, political science, or communications in college.
Title of Award: Florida State Association of Supervisors of Elections Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Communications; Journalism; Political science; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,200 per year. Duration: 1 year; recipients may reapply.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Florida who have completed 2 years of undergraduate study and are enrolled or planning to enroll full time at a 4-year college or university in the state. Applicants must be majoring in business administration, political science/public administration, or journalism/mass communications and have a GPA of 2.0 or higher. They must be U.S. citizens registered to vote in Florida. Along with their application, they must submit 2 letters of recommendation, a resume of high school and/or college activities, and documentation of financial need. Applications should be submitted to the student's county Supervisor of Elections. Each county's supervisor will review the applications received and select 1 finalist to be sent to the association for consideration. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program includes the following named scholarships: the Joe Oldmixon Scholarship, the Jimmy Whitehouse Scholarship, and the Dorothy Walker Ruggles Scholarship.

3432 ■ HANSCOM OFFICERS' WIVES' CLUB

Attn: Scholarship Chair
P.O. Box 557
Bedford, MA 01730
Tel: (781)275-1251
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hanscomowc.org
To provide financial assistance to children of military personnel and veterans in New England who are interested in studying aeronautics and space in college.
Title of Award: COL Chuck Jones Memorial Award Area, Field, or Subject: Aeronautics; Aerospace sciences; Communications; Engineering; Meteorology; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college-bound high school seniors living in New England who are dependents of active-duty, retired, or deceased military members of any branch of service. Also eligible are dependents of military recruiters working in the New York area and students living elsewhere but whose military sponsor is stationed at Hanscom Air Force Base. Applicants must demonstrate qualities of responsibility, leadership, scholastics, citizenship, and diversity of interest. They must have a valid military identification card and be planning to work on a college degree in a field related to aeronautics and space (including communications, meteorology, air/space maintenance, manufacturing processing, engineering, and the astronaut program). Along with their application, they must submit a 2-page essay on their educational goals, how their educational experience will help prepare them to pursue future goals, and how they intend to apply their education to better their community. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established to honor a victim of an airplane crash on September 11, 2001. It is sponsored by the Paul Revere Chapter of the Air Force Association.

3433 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are interested in preparing for a career in journalism.
Title of Award: Edward Payson and Bernice Pi'ilani Irwin Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 24 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amounts of the awards depend on the availability of funds and the need of the recipient; recently, stipends averaged $1,840. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Hawaii residents who are studying journalism or communications as college juniors, seniors, or graduate students. They must be able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 2.7 or higher), good moral character, and financial need. In addition to filling out the standard application form, applicants must write a short statement indicating their reasons for attending college, their planned course of study, their career goals, and why they have chosen to major in journalism. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend college in Hawaii or on the mainland.

3434 ■ HISPANIC SCHOLARSHIP FUND

Attn: Selection Committee
55 Second Street, Suite 1500
San Francisco, CA 94105
Tel: (415)808-2350; 877-HSF-INFO
Fax: (415)808-2302
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hsf.net/scholarship/programs/mcnamara.php
To provide funding to Hispanic undergraduate and graduate students interested in beginning and completing an art project.
Title of Award: McNamara Family Creative Arts Project Grants Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Creative writing; Filmmaking; Performing arts Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: Grants range from $5,000 to $20,000. Duration: These are 1-time grants.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens, permanent residents, and visitors with a passport stamped I-551. Applicants must be of Hispanic heritage and working full time on an undergraduate or graduate degree at an accredited college or university in the United States, Puerto Rico, or the U.S. Virgin Islands. They must have completed at least 12 undergraduate units with a GPA of 3.0 or higher and be majoring in the arts, including (but not limited to) media, film, performing arts, communications, and writing. Along with their application, they must submit a 3-page concept paper describing the art project for which they are seeking funding, a portfolio of their work, and 600-word essays on 1) how their Hispanic heritage, family upbringing, and/or role models have influenced their personal long-term goals; 2) how they contribute to their community and what they have learned from their experiences; and 3) an academic challenge they have faced and how they have overcome it. Selection is based on those submissions, academic record, plans and career goals, community service, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program is offered by the Hispanic Scholarship Fund (HSF) in partnership with the McNamara Family Foundation.

3435 ■ ILLUMINATING ENGINEERING SOCIETY OF NORTH AMERICA-GOLDEN GATE SECTION

c/o Phil Hall
1514 Gibbons Drive
Alameda, CA 94501
Tel: (510)208-5005
Fax: (510)864-8511
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.iesgg.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate or graduate students interested in studying or conducting research in lighting.
Title of Award: Robert W. Thunen Memorial Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering, Electrical; Filmmaking; Interior design; Lighting science; Radio and television Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: At least 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be enrolled full time as an upper-division or graduate student at an accredited 4-year educational institution in northern California, northern Nevada, Oregon, or Washington and be studying architecture, electrical engineering, film/TV, lighting design, theater, or vision with an emphasis on lighting. Undergraduate students must be proposing course work related to potential employment in the lighting field. Graduate students must be proposing to conduct a research project that will further the lighting field or industry. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1986.

3436 ■ IMPERIAL POLK ADVERTISING FEDERATION

Attn: Scholarship Program
P.O. Box 24201
Lakeland, FL 33802-4201
Tel: (863)858-3736
Fax: (863)858-3736
Web Site: http://www.polkadfed.com
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students majoring in fields related to advertising at Florida colleges.
Title of Award: William E. Gregory Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Advertising; Communications; Graphic art and design; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A total of $2,000 is available for this program each year. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time undergraduate students at universities, colleges, and technical schools in Florida. Applicants must be working on a degree in advertising, communications, graphic design, or marketing. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit 1) a 500-word essay describing their future professional and educational goals; and 2) a project they have recently completed for a class or internship. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: November of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from Samantha Hocker, Scholarship Chair, (863) 701-7789, E-mail: [email protected]

3437 ■ INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION, INC.

Attn: Director of Strategic Initiatives
11242 Waples Mill Road, Suite 200
Fairfax, VA 22030
Tel: (703)273-7200
Free: 800-659-7469
Fax: (703)278-8082
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.infocomm.org/Foundation/Scholarships/College.cfm
To provide financial assistance to college students in their final year of study who are interested in preparing for a career in the audiovisual industry.
Title of Award: International Communications Industries Association College Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Electronics; Information science and technology; Journalism; Telecommunications systems Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 7 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1) college juniors completing their bachelor's degree in the following year; 2) college seniors who plan to enter graduate school; and 3) students in their final year of study for an associate degree. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.75 or higher in a program of audio, visual, audiovisual, electronics, telecommunications, technical theater, data networking, software development, or information technology. Students in other programs, such as journalism, may be eligible if they can demonstrate a relationship to career goals in the audiovisual industry. Along with their application, they must submit essays on why they are applying for this scholarship, why they are interested in the audiovisual industry, and their professional plans following graduation. Minority and women candidates are especially encouraged to apply. Selection is based on the essays, presentation of the application, GPA, work experience, and letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: Recipients are required to work during the summer as paid interns with a manufacturer, dealer, designer, or other firm that is a member of the International Communications Industries Association.

3438 ■ INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION, INC.

Attn: Director of Strategic Initiatives
11242 Waples Mill Road, Suite 200
Fairfax, VA 22030
Tel: (703)273-7200
Free: 800-659-7469
Fax: (703)278-8082
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.infocomm.org/Foundation/Scholarships
To provide financial assistance for college to dependents of members of the International Communications Industries Association (ICIA) interested in preparing for a career in the audiovisual industry.
Title of Award: Scholarships for Dependents of ICIA Members Area, Field, or Subject: Electronics; Information science and technology; Journalism; Telecommunications systems Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 3 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to graduating high school seniors and current college students who are the children, stepchildren, and spouses of employees at ICIA member companies. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.75 or higher and be majoring or planning to major in audio, visual, audiovisual, electronics, telecommunications, technical theater, data networking, software development, or information technology. Students in other programs, such as journalism, may be eligible if they can demonstrate a relationship to career goals in the audiovisual industry. Along with their application, they must submit 1) an essay of 150 to 200 words on the career path they see themselves pursuing in the next 5 years and why, and 2) an essay of 250 to 300 words on the experience or person that most influenced them in selecting the audiovisual industry as their career of choice. Minority and women candidates are especially encouraged to apply. Selection is based on the essays, presentation of the application, GPA, work experience, and letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3439 ■ INTERNATIONAL FOODSERVICE EDITORIAL COUNCIL

P.O. Box 491
Hyde Park, NY 12538
Tel: (845)229-6973
Fax: (845)229-6993
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ifec-is-us.com
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate or graduate students who are interested in preparing for a career in communications in the food service industry.
Title of Award: IFEC Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Creative writing; Culinary arts; English language and literature; Food science and technology; Food service careers; Graphic art and design; Hotel, institutional, and restaurant management; Journalism; Management; Marketing and distribution; Nutrition; Photography; Photography, Journalistic; Public relations Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 5 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to currently-enrolled college students who are working on an associate, bachelor's, or master's degree. They must be enrolled full time and planning on a career in editorial, public relations, photography, food styling, or a related aspect of communications in the food service industry. The following food service majors are considered appropriate for this program: culinary arts; hospitality management; hotel, restaurant, and institutional management; dietetics; food science and technology; and nutrition. Applicable communications areas include journalism, English, mass communications, public relations, marketing, broadcast journalism, creative writing, graphic arts, and photography. Selection is based on academic record, character references, and demonstrated financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

3440 ■ KANSAS AFRICAN AMERICAN LEGISLATIVE CAUCUS

c/o Dale M. Dennis
State Department of Education
120 East Tenth Street
Topeka, KS 66612 To provide financial assistance African American college students in Kansas who are interested in a career in politics.
Title of Award: Kansas African American Legislative Caucus Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; General studies/Field of study not specified; Political science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year: 1 female and 1 male. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Kansas of African American ethnic background who are attending a college or university in the state. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.6 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement, leadership ability, and community involvement. Preference is given to students majoring in communications or political science. Males and females are judged separately. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program is funded by past and present African American members of the Kansas Legislature.

3441 ■ LEBANESE AMERICAN HERITAGE CLUB

Attn: Arab American Scholarship Foundation
4337 Maple Road
Dearborn, MI 48126
Tel: (313)846-8480
Fax: (313)846-2710
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lahc.org/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance for college or graduate school to Americans of Arab descent who reside in Michigan.
Title of Award: Lebanese American Heritage Club Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; General studies/Field of study not specified Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's institution. Duration: 1 year; recipients may reapply.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who are already in college or graduate school. Only full-time students may apply. Applicants must be of Arab descent, be U.S. citizens or permanent residents, reside in the state of Michigan, and be able to demonstrate financial need. Undergraduate students must have at least a 3.0 GPA; graduate students must have at least a 3.5. Applicants must submit a completed application form, official copies of academic transcripts, 2 letters of recommendation, financial aid transcripts, copies of their current Student Aid Report, and a 500-word essay on their educational background, field of study, future goals, and contributions to their community. Preference is given to students who are working on a degree in mass communications. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1989. Since then, more than half a million dollars has been awarded.

3442 ■ LUSO-AMERICAN EDUCATION FOUNDATION

Attn: Administrative Director
7080 Donlon Way, Suite 202
P.O. Box 2967
Dublin, CA 94568
Tel: (925)828-3883
Fax: (925)828-3883
Web Site: http://www.luso-american.org/laef
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate study in Portuguese language to students in California.
Title of Award: Herbert Fernandes Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject:

Foreign languages; Portuguese studies Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; renewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students of Portuguese descent who are sophomores, juniors, or seniors at 4-year colleges or universities with a GPA of 3.5 or higher. Applicants must be California residents who are interested or involved in the Luso-American community and have taken or will enroll in Portuguese language classes. Selection is based on promise of success in college, financial need, qualities of leadership, vocational promise, and sincerity of purpose. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3443 ■ LUSO-AMERICAN EDUCATION FOUNDATION

Attn: Administrative Director
7080 Donlon Way, Suite 202
P.O. Box 2967
Dublin, CA 94568
Tel: (925)828-3883
Fax: (925)828-3883
Web Site: http://www.luso-american.org/laef
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students with a Portuguese connection in California.
Title of Award: Luso-American Education Foundation General Fund Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Foreign languages; General studies/Field of study not specified Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must meet at least 1 of the following requirements: 1) be of Portuguese descent; 2) be planning to enroll in Portuguese classes in a 4-year college or university; or 3) be a member of an organization whose scholarships are administered by the Luso-American Education Foundation. All applicants must be California residents younger than 21 years of age, have graduated from an accredited high school by the summer of the year of the award, and have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Selection is based on promise of success in college, financial need, qualities of leadership, vocational promise, and sincerity of purpose. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funds may be utilized only at 4-year colleges and universities, but recipients who wish to attend a community college may request that funds be held in reserve for 2 years until they are ready to transfer to a 4-year institution.

3444 ■ MAINE COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Program Director
245 Main Street Ellsworth, ME 04605
Tel: (207)667-9735; 877-700-6800
Fax: (207)667-0447
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mainecf.org/html/scholarships/index.html
To provide financial assistance to Maine residents who are interested in studying journalism in college.
Title of Award: Guy P. Gannett Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is paid (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to graduates of Maine high schools (public and private) and to Maine residents who were schooled at home during their last year of secondary education. Applicants must be attending either an undergraduate (including a trade school or a technical institute program) or a graduate program at an accredited postsecondary institution in the United States. They must be majoring in journalism or a related field, including all forms of print, broadcast, or electronic media. Selection is based on academic achievement, financial need, and a demonstrated interest in a career in a form of journalism. Preference is given to renewal applicants. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 2000.

3445 ■ MARYLAND ASSOCIATION OF PRIVATE COLLEGES AND CAREER SCHOOLS

Attn: Scholarship Committee
3100 Dunglow Road
Baltimore, MD 21222
Tel: (410)282-4012
Fax: (410)282-4133
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mapccs.org/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to students interested in attending selected private career schools in Maryland.
Title of Award: Maryland Association of Private Colleges and Career Schools Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Broadcasting; Cosmetology; Drafting; Health care services; Mechanics and repairs; Medicine, Holistic/alternative; Secretarial sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Vocational/Occupational Number Awarded: Varies each year; since the program was established in 1983, more than $3 million in scholarships have been awarded. Funds Available: Individual awards range from $500 to more than $5,000. The H.R. Leslie Scholarship is $1,000. Funds must be applied for full or partial payment of tuition. Recently, a total of $164,000 was awarded. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors and graduates who are interested in attending a participating private career school in Maryland. Applicants should be interested in working on a degree in such business or technical areas as cosmetology, barbering, diesel mechanics, automotive technology, massage therapy, allied health, secretarial sciences, or drafting. The H.R. Leslie Scholarship is open to any student who applies to a member school. Selection is based on GPA, involvement in school and community activities, recommendations from school officials, desire, and potential to succeed in their career field. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The participating schools are All State Career School (Baltimore) American Beauty Academy (Wheaton), Americare School of Allied Health (Silver Spring), Avara's Academy of Hair Design (Baltimore), Baltimore School of Massage, Baltimore Studio of Hair Design, Bladensburg Barber School (Bladensburg), Broadcasting Institute of Maryland (Baltimore), Diesel Institute of America (Grantsville), Frederick School of Cosmetology (Frederick), Hair Academy (New Carrollton), Holistic Massage Training Institute (Baltimore), International Beauty School (Bel Air), Lincoln Technical Institute (Columbia), Medix School (Towson), Savage Neon (Balti-more), and Von Lee School of Aesthetics (Pikesville). Scholarships can be used only to attend the schools listed above.

3446 ■ MARYLAND HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Attn: Office of Student Financial Assistance
839 Bestgate Road, Suite 400
Annapolis, MD 21401-3013
Tel: (410)260-4545
Free: 800-974-1024
Fax: (410)974-5376
E-mail: [email protected]c.state.md.us
Web Site: http://www.mhec.state.md.us/financialAid/ProgramDescriptions/prog_scm.asp
To provide scholarship/loans to Maryland residents who wish to prepare for a teaching career.
Title of Award: Sharon Christa McAuliffe Memorial Teacher Education Award Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Classical studies; Computer and information sciences; Earth sciences; Education; Education, English as a second language; Education, Special; Education, Vocational-technical; Foreign languages; Geosciences; Health care services; Hearing and deafness; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physical sciences; Physics; Space and planetary sciences; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The amount of the award is based on the recipient's enrollment and housing status, to a maximum of $17,000 per year. The total amount of all state awards may not exceed the cost of attendance as determined by the school's financial aid office or $17,800, whichever is less. Following graduation, recipients must teach at a Maryland public school for 1 year for each year of financial aid received under this program. If they fail to meet that service obligation, they must repay all funds they received with interest. They must begin the service obligation within 12 months of graduation. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for 1 additional year if the recipient maintains satisfactory academic progress with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher and enrollment at a 2-year or 4-year Maryland college or university in an approved teacher education program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Maryland residents who are college students with at least 60 semester credit hours completed, college graduates, and teachers in a non-critical shortage area. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and plan to teach in a field identified as a critical shortage area. Selection is based on cumulative GPA, applicable work or volunteer experience, quality of academic background in certification field, and a writing sample. Deadline for Receipt: December of each year. Additional Information: Recently, the eligible critical shortage areas were business education, chemistry, computer science, earth and space science, English for speakers of other languages, family and consumer sciences, German, health occupations, Latin, mathematics, physical science, physics, Spanish, special education (generic infant-grade 3, generic grades 1-8, generic grades 6-adult, hearing impaired, severely and profoundly handicapped, visually impaired), and technology education.

3447 ■ MASSACHUSETTS OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE

454 Broadway, Suite 200
Revere, MA 02151
Tel: (617)727-9420
Fax: (617)727-0667
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.osfa.mass.edu
To provide scholarship/loans to educational paraprofessionals in Massachusetts who are interested in completing a college degree and becoming certified as teachers.
Title of Award: Massachusetts Paraprofessional Teacher Preparation Grant Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Bilingual and cross-cultural; Education, Special; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Grants depend on the type of institution attended. At public universities, the maximum award is $625 per credit, to a total of $7,500 per academic year. At state colleges, the maximum award is $450 per credit, to a total of $6,000 per academic year. At community colleges, the maximum award is $250 per credit, to a total of $4,000 per academic year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must agree to teach in a Massachusetts public school 1 year for each year of full or partial grant received. If they fail to complete that teaching obligation, they must repay the amount of the grant received. Duration: Until completion of an undergraduate degree, provided the recipient maintains satisfactory academic progress.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Massachusetts residents who 1) have been employed as paraprofessionals in public schools in the state for at least 2 years, or 2) are working on a degree in an area of high need (recently defined as bilingual education, foreign languages, mathematics, science, and special education). Applicants must be enrolled full time in an undergraduate degree program leading to teacher certification at a Massachusetts public institution. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required Applicants must submit a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), but financial need is not required.

3448 ■ MINNESOTA HIGHER EDUCATION SERVICES OFFICE

1450 Energy Park Drive, Suite 350
St. Paul, MN 55108-5227
Tel: (651)642-0567
Free: 800-657-3866
Fax: (651)642-0675
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mheso.state.mn.us
To provide financial assistance for college to outstanding high school seniors or graduates in Minnesota.
Title of Award: Minnesota Academic Excellence Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Art; Creative writing; English language and literature; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science; Social sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Scholarships at public institutions cover the cost of full-time attendance; scholarships at private institutions cover an amount equal to the lesser of the actual tuition and fees charged by the institution or the tuition and fees in comparable public institutions. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Minnesota residents who have demonstrated outstanding ability, achievement, and potential in English, creative writing, fine arts, foreign language, mathematics, science, or social science. Applicants must have been admitted as full-time students at a branch of the University of Minnesota, a Minnesota state university, or a private, baccalaureate degree-granting college or university in Minnesota. Additional Information: This program was established by the Minnesota Legislature in 1991. Funds for this program come from the sale of special collegiate license plates.

3449 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF BLACK TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROFESSIONALS, INC.

c/o Cynthia L. Newman
2020 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Box 735
Washington, DC 20006
800-946-6228
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nabtp.org/about/scholarships.shtml
To provide financial assistance to students who are working on a degree in telecommunications or a related field and are interested in participating in the activities of the National Association of Black Telecommunications Professionals (NABTP).
Title of Award: NABTP Collegian Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Communications; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Telecommunications systems Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for 2 or 3 additional years if the recipient maintains a GPA of 3.0 or higher and active involvement in NABTP.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students majoring in telecommunications or a related field (e.g., computer science, business, engineering, mass communications) at an accredited college or university. Applicants must submit an essay on their educational and career goals, the skill sets and values they are able to bring to NABTP as a possible intern, and how they see active involvement in NABTP supportive to their career path and educational goals. As an option, they may also submit an essay in which they provide a profile of a majority owned African American telecommunications company, including CEO name, number of employees, percentage of minority ownership, annual revenue, address, phone number, web site address, company product and/or services, and company successes. Selection is based on the essays, GPA, notable achievements, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: July of each year.

3450 ■ NATIONAL DAIRY PROMOTION AND RESEARCH BOARD

c/o Dairy Management Inc.
10255 West Higgins Road, Suite 900
Rosemont, IL 60018-5616
Tel: (847)803-2000
Fax: (847)803-2077
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dairycheckoff.com/DairyCheckoff/about/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students in fields related to the dairy industry.
Title of Award: NDPRB Undergraduate Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Communications; Dairy science; Economics; Education; Food science and technology; Journalism; Marketing and distribution; Nutrition; Public relations Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 20 each year: the James H. Loper Jr. Memorial Scholarship at $2,500 and 19 other scholarships at $1,500. Funds Available: Stipends are $2,500 or $1,500. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors enrolled in college and university programs that emphasize dairy. Eligible majors include agricultural education, business, communications and/or public relations, economics, food science, journalism, marketing, and nutrition. Fields related to production (e.g., animal science) are not eligible. Selection is based on academic performance; interest in a career in dairy; involvement in extracurricular activities, especially those relating to dairy; and evidence of leadership ability, initiative, character, and integrity. The applicant who is judged most outstanding is awarded the James H. Loper Jr. Memorial Scholarship. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Dairy Management Inc. manages this program on behalf of the National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (NDPRB).

3451 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members from Florida and Georgia who are interested in studying fields related to agriculture in college.
Title of Award: Chevron Corporation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Communications; Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Natural resources; Wildlife conservation, management, and science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be residents of Florida or Georgia planning to work on a 2-year or 4-year degree in agricultural communications and education, environmental engineering, environmental science, natural resource management, wildlife management, or public service and administration in agriculture. Preference is given to those who have shown outstanding leadership. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by ChevronTexaco Corporation.

3452 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying dairy science in college.
Title of Award: Hoard's Dairyman Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Communications; Dairy science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year degree in dairy science. Preference is given to applicants with agricultural journalism experience. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by W.D. Hoard & Sons Company, publisher of Hoard's Dairy-man.

3453 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who are interested in studying agriculture in college.
Title of Award: Garst Seed Company Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agricultural sciences; Communications; Education; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 25 each year: 10 to students with any agricultural major, 5 to students majoring in agricultural communications or education, and 10 to students in agricultural marketing, merchandising, or sales. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll or students currently enrolled full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year college degree in agriculture; in agricultural communications or education; or in agricultural marketing, merchandising, or sales. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by Garst Seed Company.

3454 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who wish to study agricultural journalism and related fields in college.
Title of Award: National FFA Scholarships for Undergraduates in the Humanities Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Communications; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, a total of approximately 1,000 scholarships are awarded annually by the association. Funds Available: Stipends vary, but most are at least $1,000. Duration: 1 year or more.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to current and former members of the organization who are working or planning to work full time on a degree in fields related to agricultural journalism and communications, floriculture, and landscape design. For most of the scholarships, applicants must be high school seniors; others are open to students currently enrolled in college. The program includes a large number of designated scholarships that specify the locations where the members must live, the schools they must attend, the fields of study they must pursue, or other requirements. Some consider family income in the selection process, but most do not. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by many different corporate sponsors.

3455 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to current or former FFA members who are interested in studying a field related to agriculture at a college or university in designated states.
Title of Award: Norfolk Southern Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agricultural sciences; Communications; Education; Engineering, Agricultural; Finance; Forestry; Management; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are either graduating high school seniors planning to enroll in college or students already enrolled in college. Applicants must be interested in working full time on a 4-year degree in agricultural and forestry production, communication, education, engineering, finance, management, marketing, merchandising, sales, or agricultural science. They must be planning to attend a college or university in Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, or Virginia. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by the Norfolk Southern Foundation.

3456 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who are interested in studying agriculture, especially agricultural communications, at a 4-year institution.
Title of Award: Primedia Business Magazines & Media Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Communications Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year degree in an agricultural-related major, preferably agricultural journalism or agricultural communications. They must live on a family-owned farm and at least 50% of their family income must come from production agriculture. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). Financial need is also considered. U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by Primedia Business Magazines & Media.

3457 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying fields related to communications in college.
Title of Award: Progressive Farmer Magazine Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Advertising; Agricultural sciences; Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year degree in communications, journalism, or advertising. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by Progressive Farmer Magazine.

3458 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who are studying a field related to communications, business, or education in college.
Title of Award: Solutions Inc. Results Through Creative Marketing Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agricultural sciences; Communications; Education; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members currently enrolled full time in college and working on a 4-year degree in agricultural communications, marketing, merchandising, sales, or as an education specialist. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by the creative marketing firm Solutions Inc. Results Through Creative Marketing.

3459 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who are interested in studying journalism in college.
Title of Award: Vance Publishing Corporation Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year degree with a preference for agricultural journalism. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by Vance Publishing Corporation.

3460 ■ NATIONAL MILITARY INTELLIGENCE ASSOCIATION

Attn: Scholarship Fund
P.O. Box 489
Hamilton, VA 20159
Tel: (540)338-1143
Fax: (703)738-7487
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nmia.org/Scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance for college to the children of members of the National Military Intelligence Association (NMIA).
Title of Award: NMIA Merit Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: General studies/Field of study not specified; Linguistics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to children of NMIA members who are attending, or planning to attend, an accredited college or university to work on a bachelor's degree. Additional Information: Membership in the NMIA is open to military and civil service personnel; Reserve, National Guard, retired, and former service personnel; and U.S. civilians in the industrial sector supporting the U.S. intelligence system. This program includes the Vernon Walters Scholarship for a student working on a degree in a foreign language, offered in cooperation with the Intelligence Scholarship Foundation.

3461 ■ NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY

Attn: Office of Recruitment and Staffing (Roberts)
9800 Savage Road, Suite 6779
P.O. Box 1661, Suite 6779
Fort Meade, MD 20755-6779
Tel: (410)854-4725; (866)672-4473
Web Site: http://www.nsa.gov/careers/students_4.cfm
To provide financial assistance and work experience to college sophomores and juniors interested in preparing for a career with the National Security Agency (NSA) as a global network analyst.
Title of Award: Pat Roberts Intelligence Scholars Program for Global Network Analysts Area, Field, or Subject: Banking; Computer and information sciences; Finance; Information science and technology;

International affairs and relations; Political science; Telecommunications systems Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $25,000 per year. During the summer after application, students participate in a Global Network Analysis internship. After graduation, they have an employment obligation to NSA equal to 1.5 times the length of educational support provided. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year. The summer internship program is for 12 weeks.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college sophomore and juniors whose academic program includes 1 of the following areas of emphasis: 1) technical studies (computer science major with a minor in political science or international relations); 2) topical studies (terrorism, proliferation or related sciences, international banking and finance, or telecommunications and information systems networks); or 3) disciplines (technical intelligence analysis, information assurance, networks, and telecommunications). Applicants must be enrolled full time with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay describing how the proposed program of study will improve their ability to analyze information and to think and write critically. U.S. citizenship and eligibility to obtain a high-level security clearance are required Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: After graduation, participants enter NSA's Global Network Analysis Internship Program as a full-time employee.

3462 ■ NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY

Attn: Office of Recruitment and Staffing (Roberts)
9800 Savage Road, Suite 6779
P.O. Box 1661, Suite 6779
Fort Meade, MD 20755-6779
Tel: (410)854-4725; (866)672-4473
Web Site: http://www.nsa.gov/careers/students_4.cfm
To provide financial assistance to college juniors interested in preparing for a career with the National Security Agency (NSA) as an intelligence analyst.
Title of Award: Pat Roberts Intelligence Scholars Program for Intelligence Analysts Area, Field, or Subject: Asian studies; Banking; Finance; Foreign languages; Geography; Information science and technology; International affairs and relations; Library and archival sciences; Near Eastern studies; South Asian studies; Telecommunications systems Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $25,000 per year. After graduation, recipients have an employment obligation to NSA equal to 1.5 times the length of educational support provided. Duration: 1 year (the senior year of college).
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college juniors whose academic program includes 1 of the following areas of emphasis: 1) regional studies (Middle East or south, east, or central Asia); 2) topical studies (terrorism, proliferation or related sciences, international banking and finance, or telecommunications and information systems networks); or 3) disciplines (intelligence analysis, philosophy, or international relations; familiarity with foreign languages, particularly Arabic, Chinese, Dari, Farsi, Hindi, Korean, Pashto, Urdu, or a central Asian language is desirable; highly qualified applicants studying social network analysis, library science, or geographic information systems may also be considered). Applicants must be enrolled full time with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay describing how the proposed program of study will improve their ability to analyze information and to think and write critically. U.S. citizenship and eligibility to obtain a high-level security clearance are required Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: After graduation, participants enter NSA's Intelligence Analysis Development Program as a full-time employee.

3463 ■ NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY

Attn: Office of Recruitment and Staffing (Roberts)
9800 Savage Road, Suite 6779
P.O. Box 1661, Suite 6779
Fort Meade, MD 20755-6779
Tel: (410)854-4725; (866)672-4473
Web Site: http://www.nsa.gov/careers/students_4.cfm
To provide financial assistance to graduate students interested in preparing for a career with the National Security Agency (NSA) as a language analyst. Title of Award: Pat Roberts Intelligence Scholars Program for Language Analysts Area, Field, or Subject: Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $25,000 per year. After graduation, recipients have an employment obligation to NSA equal to 1.5 times the length of educational support provided. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to graduate students working on a master's or doctoral degree in foreign languages, especially Arabic Chinese, Dari, Farsi, Hindi, Korean, Philippine languages, Russian, and Urdu. Applicants must be enrolled full time with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay on why they are interested in utilizing their language skills at NSA. U.S. citizenship and eligibility to obtain a high-level security clearance are required Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: After graduation, participants enter NSA's Language Analysis New Hire Program.

3464 ■ NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY

Attn: Office of Recruitment and Staffing (Stokes)
9800 Savage Road, Suite 6779
P.O. Box 1661, Suite 6779
Fort Meade, MD 20755-6779
Tel: (410)854-4725; (866)672-4473
Web Site: http://www.nsa.gov/careers/students_4.cfm
To provide minority and other high school seniors and college sophomores with scholarship/loans and work experience at the National Security Agency (NSA).
Title of Award: Stokes Educational Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Asian studies; Computer and information sciences; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Finance; Foreign languages; International affairs and relations; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Near Eastern studies; South Asian studies Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Participants receive college tuition for up to 4 years, reimbursement for books and certain fees, a year-round salary, and a housing allowance and travel reimbursement during summer employment if the distance between the agency and school exceeds 75 miles. Following graduation, participants must work for the agency for 1 and a half times their length of study, usually 5 years. Students who leave agency employment earlier must repay the tuition cost. Duration: Up to 4 years, followed by employment at the agency for 5 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to graduating high school seniors, particularly minorities, who 1) are planning a college major in electrical or computer engineering, computer science, international affairs, international finance, mathematics, area studies (Middle East or south, east, or central Asia), foreign languages (recent language interests included Arabic, Chinese, Farsi, and Korean); 2) have minimum scores of 1600 on the SAT (1100 on critical reading and mathematics, 500 in writing) or 25 on the ACT; 3) have a GPA of 3.0 or higher; 4) are U.S. citizens; and 5) demonstrate leadership abilities. Also eligible are college sophomores who are U.S. citizens, have a GPA of 3.0 or higher, and are majoring in the eligible fields. Applicants must include a 1-page essay on why they want to have a career with the NSA. Deadline for Receipt: November of each year. Additional Information: Participants must attend classes full time and work at the agency during the summer in jobs tailored to their course of study. They must maintain at least a 3.0 GPA. This program, established in 1986, was formerly known as the National Security Agency Undergraduate Training Program.

3465 ■ NEW HAMPSHIRE POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION

3 Barrell Court, Suite 300
Concord, NH 03301-8543
Tel: (603)271-2555
Fax: (603)271-2696
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.state.nh.us/postsecondary/finwork.html
To provide scholarship/loans to New Hampshire residents who are interested in attending college to prepare for careers in designated professions.
Title of Award: New Hampshire Workforce Incentive Program Forgivable Loans Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Education; Education, Special; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Nursing; Physical sciences; Physics; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $500 per semester ($1,000 per year). This is a scholarship/loan program; recipients must agree to pursue, within New Hampshire, the professional career for which they receive training. Recipients of loans for 1 year have their notes cancelled upon completion of 1 year of full-time service; repayment by service must be completed within 3 years from the date of licensure, certification, or completion of the program. Recipients of loans for more than 1 year have their notes cancelled upon completion of 2 years of full-time service; repayment by service must be completed within 5 years from the date of licensure, certification, or completion of the program. If the note is not cancelled because of service, the recipient must repay the loan within 2 years. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of New Hampshire who wish to prepare for careers in fields designated by the commission as shortage areas. Currently, the career shortage areas are chemistry, general science, mathematics, physical sciences, physics, special education, world languages, and nursing (L.P.N. through graduate). Applicants must be enrolled as a junior, senior, or graduate student at a college in New Hampshire and must be able to demonstrate financial need. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year for fall semester; December of each year for spring semester. Additional Information: The time for repayment of the loan, either in cash or through professional service, is extended while the recipient is 1) engaged in a course of study, at least on a half-time basis, at an institution of higher education; 2) serving on active duty as a member of the armed forces of the United States, or as a member of VISTA, the Peace Corps, or AmeriCorps, for a period up to 3 years; 3) temporarily totally disabled for a period up to 3 years; or 4) unable to secure employment because of the need to care for a disabled spouse, child, or parent for a period up to 12 months. The repayment obligation is cancelled if the recipient is unable to work because of a permanent total disability, receives relief under federal bankruptcy laws, or dies. This program went into effect in 1999.

3466 ■ NEW YORK STATE LEGION PRESS ASSOCIATION

c/o Scholarship Chairman
American Legion (NYSLPA)
P.O. Box 650
East Aurora, NY 14052
To provide financial assistance to the children of members of the American Legion or American Legion Auxiliary in New York who are interested in careers in communications.
Title of Award: New York State Legion Press Association Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Graphic art and design; Journalism; Public relations Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1eachyear. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to New York residents who are the children of members of the American Legion or American Legion Auxiliary, or members of the Sons of the American Legion, or junior members of the American Legion Auxiliary, or graduates of the New York Boys State or Girls State. Applicants must be entering or attending an accredited 4-year college or university, working on a degree in communications (including public relations, journalism, reprographics, newspaper design or management, or other related fields acceptable to the scholarship committee). Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word essay on why they chose the field of communications as a future vocation. Financial need and class standing are not considered. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3467 ■ NORTH CAROLINA 4-H DEVELOPMENT FUND

c/o North Carolina State University
Department of 4-H Youth Development
202 Ricks Hall
P.O. Box 7606
Raleigh, NC 27695-7606
Tel: (919)515-8486
Fax: (919)515-7812
Web Site: http://www.nc4h.org
To provide financial assistance to students in North Carolina who are members of 4-H and interested in majoring in communications in college. Title of Award: Ray Wilkinson Communications Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Communications Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 4-H members who are graduating from high schools in North Carolina. Applicants must be planning to major in communications at a college or university in the state. If no entering freshman is eligible, the award may be given to a continuing upperclassman. Selection is based on accomplishments in 4-H (50%), academic achievement as indicated by GPA and class rank (25%), and aptitude for college as indicated by grades and SAT or ACT scores (25%). Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3468 ■ OAK RIDGE INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE AND EDUCATION

Attn: Science and Engineering Education
P.O. Box 117 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117
Tel: (865)576-8239
Fax: (865)241-5219 E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.orau.gov/orise.htm
To provide financial assistance and summer research experience to undergraduate students who are working on a degree in a field of interest to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Title of Award: Department of Homeland Security Undergraduate Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Communications; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Information science and technology; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physical sciences; Psychology; Public administration; Religion; Social sciences; Writing Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 50 each year. Funds Available: This program provides a stipend of $1,000 per month during the academic year and $5,000 for the internship plus full payment of tuition and mandatory fees. Duration: 2 academic years plus 10 weeks during the intervening summer.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1) full-time students who are in their second year of college attendance as of the application deadline; and 2) part-time students who have completed at least 45 but no more than 60 semester hours as of the application deadline. Applicants must be majoring in the agricultural sciences, biological and life sciences, computer and information sciences, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, psychology, social sciences, or selected humanities (religious studies, cultural studies, public policy, advocacy, communications, or science writing). They must have a GPA of 3.3 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit 2 statements on 1) their educational and professional goals, the kinds of research they are interested in conducting, specific questions that interest them, and how they became interested in them; and 2) how they think their interests, talents, and initiative would contribute to make the homeland safer and secure. Selection is based on those statements, academic record, references, and SAT or ACT scores, As part of their program, they must be interested in participating in summer research and development activities at a DHS-designated facility. U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 2003, is funded by DHS and administered by Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). Recipients must enroll full time.

3469 ■ OHIO CLASSICAL CONFERENCE

c/o Amy J. Sawan, Scholarship Committee
Medina Senior High School
777 East Union Street
Medina, OH 44256
Tel: (330)636-3200 E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://dept.kent.edu/mcls/classics/occ
To provide financial assistance to Ohio residents preparing for a career as a Latin teacher.
Title of Award: Ohio Classical Conference Scholarship for Prospective Latin Teachers Area, Field, or Subject: Classical studies; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary; Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Ohio enrolled at least at the sophomore level at a college or university in the United States. Applicants must be taking courses leading to a career in the teaching of Latin at the K-12 level in a public, private, or parochial school. They must submit college transcripts, 2 letters of recommendation (including 1 from a member of their classics department), a prospectus of courses completed and to be taken as part of the program, and a 1-page statement of their academic goals and reasons for applying for the scholarship. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

3470 ■ OHIO CLASSICAL CONFERENCE

c/o Amy J. Sawan, Scholarship Committee
Medina Senior High School
777 East Union Street
Medina, OH 44256
Tel: (330)636-3200
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://dept.kent.edu/mcls/classics/occ
To provide financial assistance to Ohio high school seniors planning to study Latin in college.
Title of Award: Ohio Classical Conference Scholarship for the Study of Latin Area, Field, or Subject: Classical studies; Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Ohio and entering a college or university in the United States. Applicants must be planning to study Latin, although they do not need to major in Latin or classics. They must submit an official high school transcript, 2 letters of recommendation (including 1 from their high school Latin teacher), and a 1-page statement on their reasons for studying Latin or the classics. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

3471 ■ OKLAHOMA STATE REGENTS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Director of Scholarship and Grant Programs
655 Research Parkway, Suite 200
P.O. Box 108850
Oklahoma City, OK 73101-8850
Tel: (405)225-9239
Free: 800-858-1840
Fax: (405)225-9230
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.okhighered.org/student-center/financial-aid/futureteach.shtml
To provide forgivable loans to Oklahoma residents who are interested in teaching (particularly in teacher shortage fields) in Oklahoma.
Title of Award: Oklahoma Future Teachers Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Special; English language and literature; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 136 students received support through this program. Funds Available: Full-time students receive up to $1,500 per year if they have completed 60 hours or more or up to $1,000 if they have completed fewer than 60 hours; part-time students receive up to $750 per year if they have completed 60 hours or more or up to $500 per year if they have completed fewer than 60 hours. Funds are paid directly to the institution on the student's behalf. This is a forgivable loan program; recipients must agree to teach in Oklahoma public schools for 3 years following graduation and licensure. Duration: 1 year; may be renewable for up to 3 additional years as long as the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.5 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: Candidates for this program must be nominated by institutions of higher education in Oklahoma. Nominees may be high school seniors, high school graduates, or currently-enrolled undergraduate or graduate students. They must 1) rank in the top 15% of their high school graduating class; 2) have an ACT or SAT score ranking in the top 15% for high school graduates of the same year; 3) have been admitted into a professional education program at an accredited Oklahoma institution of higher education; or 4) have achieved an undergraduate record of outstanding success as defined by the institution. Both part-time and full-time students are eligible, but preference is given to full-time students. Applicants must be interested in teaching in critical shortage areas in the state upon graduation. These areas change periodically but recently have included special education, mathematics, science, English, and foreign languages. Deadline for Receipt: September of each year.

3472 ■ ORDER SONS OF ITALY IN AMERICA

Attn: Sons of Italy Foundation
219 E Street, N.E.
Washington, DC 20002
Tel: (202)547-5106
Fax: (202)546-8168
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.osia.org/public/scholarships/grants.asp
To provide financial assistance to upper-division students majoring in Italian.
Title of Award: Sons of Italy Italian Language Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $4,000 to $25,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens of Italian descent who are enrolled as full-time undergraduate juniors or seniors at an accredited 4-year college or university. Applicants must be majoring in the Italian language. They must submit an essay of 750 to 1,000 words in Italian on how they plan to use their degree in Italian language in their career. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Applications must be accompanied by a $25 processing fee.

3473 ■ OREGON ASSOCIATION OF BROADCASTERS

Attn: Scholarship Committee
7150 S.W. Hampton Street, Suite 214
Portland, OR 97223-8366
Tel: (503)443-2299
Fax: (503)443-2488
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.theoab.org/eduopps_foundation.htm
To provide financial assistance to students in Oregon who are interested in majoring in broadcast-related fields in college.
Title of Award: Oregon Association of Broadcasters Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Broadcasting; Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 6 each year: 2 to graduating high school seniors and 4 to students currently enrolled in 2-or 4-year college broadcast programs. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Oregon residents who are either enrolled or accepted for enrollment at a 2-or 4-year public or private college or university in the state. Applicants must be planning to enroll or be currently enrolled in a full-time undergraduate course of study, majoring in broadcast journalism, production, management, or another broadcast-related field. They must be graduating high school seniors, first-or second-year students in a 2-year program, or sophomores, juniors, or seniors in a 4-year program. Preference is given to applicants with at least a 3.0 cumulative GPA and demonstrated academic and/or professional experience in broadcasting or other electronic-media fields. Along with their application, students must submit an essay that explains their reasons for choosing a broadcast major and includes any broadcast activities in which they have participated, their first job preference after college, their 10-year goals, any other scholarships they have received, and any academic honors they have received. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3474 ■ PHILADELPHIA NEWSPAPERS, INC.

Attn: Ivan Sample
400 North Broad Street
P.O. Box 8263
Philadelphia, PA 19101
Tel: (215)854-2429
Fax: (215)854-2578
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.philly.com/mld/philly/living/education
To provide financial assistance to minority high school seniors from the circulation area of Philadelphia Newspapers Inc. (PNI) who are interested in a career in journalism or communications.
Title of Award: PNI Knight Ridder Minority Scholars Program Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to minority seniors graduating from high schools in the service area of the PNI newspapers (the Philadelphia Inquirer and the Philadelphia Daily News) in Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Applicants must be interested in majoring in journalism in college. Along with their application, they must submit 2 letters of recommendation, transcripts of grades, SAT or ACT scores, up to 5 samples of work with bylines, and an essay on why they want to prepare for a career in the journalism or communication business. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: The recipients of these scholarships are automatically entered into competition for the Knight Ridder Minority Scholarship Program of $40,000 over 4 years.

3475 ■ PRESS CLUB OF NEW ORLEANS

Attn: Scholarship Committee
203 Carondelet Street, Suite 415
New Orleans, LA 70130
Tel: (504)523-1010
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.pressclubneworleans.org
To provide financial assistance to students in Louisiana who will be majoring in journalism.
Title of Award: Press Club of New Orleans Journalism Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Journalism Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A total of $5,000 is awarded each year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Louisiana residents who will be enrolled in university-level print or broadcast journalism programs during the upcoming academic year. Applicants must submit 1) a brief (1 to 3 pages) written statement outlining their course of study, career goals, and financial need, and 2) examples of their published work, including newspaper stories, tapes, columns, and/or editorials. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend school in any state.

3476 ■ RHODE ISLAND FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Coordinator
One Union Station Providence, RI 02903
Tel: (401)274-4564
Fax: (401)331-8085
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.rifoundation.org
To provide financial assistance to residents of Rhode Island who are enrolled in college to prepare for a career in advertising.
Title of Award: J.D. Edsal Advertising Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Advertising; Broadcasting; Filmmaking; Graphic art and design; Marketing and distribution; Public relations; Radio and television Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Rhode Island who are enrolled full time as undergraduates at the sophomore level or above. Applicants must be preparing for a career in advertising and majoring in a related field (e.g., broadcast production, graphic design, interactive film, marketing, public relations, television, or video). Along with their application, they must submit an essay (up to 300 words) on the impact they would like to have on the advertising industry. Financial need is also considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3477 ■ RHODE ISLAND FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Coordinator
One Union Station Providence, RI 02903
Tel: (401)274-4564
Fax: (401)331-8085
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.rifoundation.org
To provide financial assistance to Rhode Island students of color interested in preparing for a career in communications.
Title of Award: RDW Group, Inc. Minority Scholarship for Communications Area, Field, or Subject: Advertising; Art; Communications; Film-making; Graphic art and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to minority undergraduate and graduate students who are Rhode Island residents. Applicants must intend to major in communications (including computer graphics, art, cinematography, or other fields that would prepare them for a career in advertising). They must be able to demonstrate financial need and a commitment to a career in communications. Along with their application, they must submit an essay (up to 300 words) on the impact they would like to have on the communications field. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by the RDW Group, Inc.

3478 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Director of Student Services
1333 Main Street, Suite 200
Columbia, SC 29201
Tel: (803)737-2260; 877-349-7183
Fax: (803)737-2297
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.che.sc.gov
To provide scholarship/loans to teachers in South Carolina who wish to improve their content knowledge and degree programs.
Title of Award: South Carolina Teaching Scholarship Grants Program Area, Field, or Subject: Art; Dance; Economics; Education; Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary; Education, Music; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Geography; History; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Music; Political science; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per fiscal year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must sign a commitment to teach in South Carolina public schools for at least 1 year following completion of the scholarship grant year and agree to refund the scholarship amount if the 1-year teaching commitment is not honored. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if recipients maintain a GPA of 3.0 or higher. They may receive up to 3 grants in a 5-year period.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of South Carolina who have a professional teaching certificate and are under contract as a teacher in a public school in the state. Applicants must be 1) accepted as a degree-seeking graduate student in the teaching field at the master's level and enrolled at an eligible institution in the state; or 2) enrolled for graduate or undergraduate courses in their current teaching field or in a teaching field in which they wish to add on certification. Proposed fields of study must relate to core content areas of English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts (advanced fine arts, art, dance, drama, music, and speech), history, or geography; early childhood, elementary education, middle level education, secondary education, and special education also qualify. Priority is given to classroom teachers (not administrators, counselors, media specialists, or other support personnel) whose teaching specialties are critical need subject areas. Continuing graduate students must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Deadline for Receipt: December of each year for second summer session and fall semester; June of each year for spring semester and first summer session. Additional Information: This program was established in 2001.

3479 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA STUDENT LOAN CORPORATION

Interstate Center
16 Berryhill Road, Suite 210 P.O. Box 21487
Columbia, SC 29221-1487
Tel: (803)798-0916
Free: 800-347-2752
Fax: (803)772-9410
Web Site: http://www.slc.sc.edu
To provide scholarship/loans to students in South Carolina who wish to teach certain subjects or in certain geographic areas.
Title of Award: South Carolina Teacher Loan Program Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Classical studies; Consumer affairs; Dance; Education, Elementary; Education, Music; Education, Special; English language and literature; Foreign languages; Library and archival sciences; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science; Speech and language pathology/audiology; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Freshmen and sophomores may borrow up to $2,500 per academic year; juniors, seniors, and graduate students may borrow up to $5,000 per academic year. This is a scholarship/loan program; loans are forgivable at the rate of 20% or $3,000, whichever is greater, for each full year of teaching in an area (either geographic or subject) of critical need; for students who teach in both critical subject and geographic areas, the rate of cancellation is 33% or $5,000, whichever is greater, per year. Borrowers who fail to teach in either a critical subject or geographic area must repay the loan at an annual interest rate that varies (currently, 5.37%) but is capped at 10.25%. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for a total of 5 years of undergraduate and 5 years of graduate study.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are residents of South Carolina who are planning to teach in certain critical geographic areas of the state, or to teach in critical subject areas. Entering freshmen must have ranked in the top 40% of their high school class and have an ACT or SAT score greater than the South Carolina average (recently 986 on the SAT or 19.3 on the ACT); enrolled undergraduates or entering graduate students must have at least a 2.75 cumulative GPA; graduate students who have completed at least 1 term must have a GPA of 3.5 or better. Undergraduate students at South Carolina colleges must have taken and passed the Education Entrance Exam; students at institutions outside South Carolina must have completed the necessary prerequisites required at that institution. Only U.S. citizens may apply. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Recently, the critical subject areas include mathematics, science (biology, chemistry, physics, and general science), media specialist, special education, industrial technology, foreign languages (Spanish, French, Latin, and German), family and consumer science, art, music, business education, English and language arts, dance, speech and drama/theater, and agriculture. For a list of critical geographic area, contact the sponsor.

3480 ■ SWEDISH WOMEN'S EDUCATION ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL-SOUTH FLORIDA CHAPTER

c/o Yerti Nelson, Scholarship Committee
3759 Mykonos Court
Boca Raton, FL 33486
Tel: (561)997-2050
Fax: (561)997-8010
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.chapters-swea.org/florida
To provide financial assistance to Florida residents interested in studying in Sweden or an area related to Swedish studies.
Title of Award: South Florida SWEA Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Art; Art industries and trade; Crafts; Design; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Foreign languages; General studies/Field of study not specified; Literature; Music; Swedish studies Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to all residents of Florida interested in participating in an exchange program in Sweden. Applicants may also propose to study in the United States, if the studies specifically emphasize Sweden and Swedish aspects, including 1) Swedish language; 2) Swedish culture or traditions; 3) environmental science; 4) a health care program promoting better health for women and children; or 5) handicraft, art, glass art, music, literature, or design. Study proposals must be well-defined in time and content. Along with their application, they must submit a transcript from college, university, or vocational school; curriculum vitae; project proposal, describing the planned studies, length of studies, and goals; financial statement; and letter of recommendation from an instructor. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: Within 3 months after the end of studies or the project, the recipient must report to the scholarship committee or, if possible, accept an invitation to an organization meeting to share the experience.

3481 ■ TEXAS CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

c/o Andrew Riggsby, Scholarship Committee
Chair University of Texas at Austin
Waggener 123
Austin, TX 78712-1181
Tel: (512)471-5742
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.txclassics.org/schol.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in Texas who plan to study Latin or Greek in college.
Title of Award: TSJCL Lourania Miller Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Classical studies; Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Texas who have been active members of the Texas Classical Association (TCA) for at least 2 years. Applicants must be graduating from high school and planning to continue their study of Latin and Greek during their freshman year in college. Enrollment in Latin cannot be at a beginning level. Courses in classical civilization are not accepted. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year. Additional Information: This program is offered jointly by the Texas State Junior Classical League (TSJCL) and TCA.

3482 ■ TEXAS CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

c/o Andrew Riggsby, Scholarship Committee
Chair University of Texas at Austin
Waggener 123
Austin, TX 78712-1181
Tel: (512)471-5742
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.txclassics.org/schol.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in Texas who plan to study Latin or Greek in college.
Title of Award: TSJCL Gareth Morgan Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Classical studies; Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Texas who have been active members of the Texas Classical Association (TCA) for at least 2 years. Applicants must be graduating from high school and planning to continue their study of Latin and Greek during their freshman year in college. Enrollment in Latin cannot be at a beginning level. Courses in classical civilization are not accepted. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year. Additional Information: This program is offered jointly by the Texas State Junior Classical League (TSJCL) and TCA.

3483 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE

Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUE
Enlisted Commissioning Section
551 East Maxwell Boulevard
Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Fax: (334)953-6167
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afoats.af.mil/AFROTC/EnlistedComm/AECP.asp
To allow selected enlisted Air Force personnel to earn a bachelor's degree in approved majors by providing financial assistance for full-time college study.
Title of Award: Airman Education and Commissioning Program Area, Field, or Subject: African studies; Asian studies; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Foreign languages; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Near Eastern studies; Nursing; Physics; Russian studies Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 60 each year. Funds Available: While participating in this program, cadets remain on active duty in the Air Force and receive their regular salary and benefits. They also receive payment of tuition and fees up to $15,000 per year and an annual textbook allowance of $600. Duration: 1 to 3 years, until completion of a bachelor's degree.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to participate in this program are enlisted members of the Air Force who have been accepted at a university or college (or approved crosstown institution) that is associated with AFROTC and that offers an approved major. The majors currently supported are computer science, all ABET-accredited engineering fields (not engineering technology), foreign area studies (limited to Middle East, Africa, Asia, Russia/Eurasia), foreign languages (limited to Arabic, Armenian, Azeri, Chinese, French, Georgian, Hebrew, Hindi, Indonesian, Kazakh, Pashto, Persian Farsi, Russian, Swahili, and Turkish), mathematics, meteorology, nursing, and physics. Applicants must have completed at least 1 year of time-in-service and 1 year of time-on-station. They must have scores on the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test of at least 15 on the verbal and 10 on the quantitative and be able to pass the Air Force ROTC Physical Fitness Test. Normally they should have completed at least 30 semester hours of college study with a GPA of 2.75 or higher. They must be younger than 31 years of age or otherwise able to be commissioned before they become 35 years of age. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: While attending college, participants in this program attend ROTC classes at their college or university. Upon completing their degree, they are commissioned to serve in the Air Force in their area of specialization with an active-duty service commitment of at least 4 years. Further information is available from base education service officers or an Air Force ROTC unit. This program does not provide for undergraduate flying training.

3484 ■ US PAN ASIAN AMERICAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE

Attn: Scholarship Coordinator
1329 18th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: (202)296-5221
Fax: (202)296-5225
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uspaacc.com/web/programs/bernadette_Wong_yu.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors who are interested in studying Chinese language or Chinese studies at a college or university in the United States or China.
Title of Award: Bernadette Wong Yu Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Chinese studies; Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The maximum stipend is $3,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's college or university. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who are U.S. citizens or permanent residents. Applicants must be planning to begin full-time study of Chinese language or Chinese studies at an accredited postsecondary educational institution in the United States or China. Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word essay on "Why I am interested in the Chinese culture." Selection is based on academic excellence (GPA of 3.3 or higher), community service involvement, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding is not provided for correspondence courses, Internet courses, or study in a country other than the United States or China.

3485 ■ VESALIUS TRUST FOR VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS IN THE HEALTH SCIENCES

Attn: Wendy Hiller Gee, Student Grants and Scholarships
Krames-West Coast
1100 Grundy Lane
San Bruno, CA 94066
Tel: (650)244-4320
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.vesaliustrust.org/scholarships.html
To provide funding to students working on a research project in biocommunications.
Title of Award: Vesalius Trust Student Research Grants Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Illustrators and illustrations; Medicine Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Recently, 19 of these grants were awarded, including 1 designated as the Alan Cole Scholarship and 5 designated as the Vesalian Scholarships. Funds Available: Grant amounts vary each year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate and graduate students who have completed at least 1 year of a biocommunications program in medical illustrating. Applicants must be interested in conducting a research project under the guidance of a faculty preceptor. Selection is based on the background and education of the applicant (20%); an evaluation by the preceptor of the student's ability to complete the project and its potential contributions (10%); the project concept and subject matter (30%); project design (20%); and production plan (20%). Deadline for Receipt: November of each year. Additional Information: The top-ranked applicant receives the Alan Cole Scholarship. Other recipients whose projects show evidence of significant merit are designated Vesalian Scholarships.

3486 ■ WASHINGTON HIGHER EDUCATION COORDINATING BOARD

917 Lakeridge Way
P.O. Box 43430
Olympia, WA 98504-3430
Tel: (360)753-7851; 888-535-0747
Fax: (360)753-7808
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hecb.wa.gov/financialaid/other/alternative.asp
To provide forgivable loans to K-12 classified employees in Washington who are interested in attending a college or university in order to become a teacher.
Title of Award: Washington Conditional Scholarships for Alternative Teaching Certification Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Education; Education, Bilingual and cross-cultural; Education, Elementary; Education, English as a second language; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Foreign languages; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physics; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 25 each year. Funds Available: The maximum award is $4,000 per academic year. These awards are in the form of loans that can be forgiven in exchange for teaching service. Each 2 years of eligible teaching service results in the forgiveness of 1 year of loan. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 4 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Washington residents who are currently employed as a classified instructional employee in a K-12 public school. Applicants must 1) have a transferable associate degree and be seeking residency teacher certification with endorsements in special education or English as a second language; or 2) have a bachelor's degree and subject matter expertise in a shortage area and be seeking residency teacher certification in a subject matter shortage area (currently defined as special education, English as a second language, chemistry, physics, Japanese, mathematics, and technology education). to enroll in an accredited Washington college or university and work as a teacher in a K-12 public school in the state after completing initial teacher certification. Selection is based on academic ability, a statement demonstrating commitment to the teaching profession, the applicant's ability to serve as a positive role model as a K-12 public school teacher, length and quality of contributions to the Washington K-12 public school, and recommendations from a current teacher or school official describing the applicant's potential as a future teacher. The priority in making awards is: 1) eligible renewal applicants who are within 2 years of completing their initial teacher certification requirements; 2) all other eligible renewable applicants; 3) eligible new applicants who are within 2 years of completing their initial teacher certification requirements; and 4) all other new eligible applicants. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: This program was established by the Washington legislature in 2001. It is administered by the Washington Higher Education Coordinator Board, but the Washington State Professional Educator Standards Board selects the recipients.

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To provide financial assistance and work experience to students majoring in fields related to business at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Appleton College-to-Work Program Area, Field, or Subject: Accounting; Business administration; Communications; Finance; Marketing and distribution; Personnel administration/human resources Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipends are $3,500 for the scholarship and $1,500 for the internship. Duration: 1 year for the scholarship; 10 weeks for the internship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time juniors and seniors at WFIC member colleges or universities. Minority students are encouraged to apply. Applicants must be preparing for a career in accounting, business, communications, finance, human resources, or marketing. They must be interested in a summer internship at Appleton (formerly Appleton Papers). Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay that includes why they are applying for the internship, why they have selected their major and what interests them about it, why they are attending their chosen college or university, and their future career objectives. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The WFIC member schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lakeland College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Silver Lake College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is sponsored by Appleton. The WFIC's College to Work Program includes a number of other financial assistance and work experience programs for eligible students majoring in fields related to business, including the Banta College-to-Work Program (also for engineering students), Blue Cross Blue Shield of Wisconsin College-to-Work Program, Johnson Financial Group College-to-Work Program, JohnsonDiversey College-to-Work Program, Johnsonville Sausage College-to-Work Program, M3 College-to-Work Program, Marsh College-to-Work Program, Modine Manufacturing College-to-Work Program, Opportunities, Inc. College-to-Work Program, Rock County Habitat for Humanity College-to-Work Program, Wausau Benefits College-to-Work Scholarship, and West Bend Mutual College-to-Work Scholarship.

3488 ■ WISCONSIN FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT COLLEGES, INC.

Attn: College-to-Work Program
735 North Water Street, Suite 600
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4100
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Fax: (414)273-5995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wficweb.org/work.html
To provide financial assistance and work experience to students majoring in fields related to communications at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Manitowoc American Red Cross College-to-Work Program Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; English language and literature; General studies/Field of study not specified; Graphic art and design; Public relations Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipends are $3,500 for the scholarship and $1,500 for the internship. Duration: 1 year for the scholarship; 10 weeks for the internship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time sophomores, juniors, and seniors at private colleges and universities in Wisconsin. Applicants must be interested in an internship at the Manitowoc/Calumet County Chapter of the American Red Cross in Manitowoc. Preference is given to 1) students attending Lakeland College or Silver Lake College; 2) residents of Manitowoc County attending another WFIC member institution; and 3) students majoring in communications, English, graphic design, or public relations. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay that includes why they are applying for the internship, why they have selected their major and what interests them about it, why they are attending their chosen college or university, and their future career objectives. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The other WFIC schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is sponsored by the Manitowoc/Calumet County Chapter of the American Red Cross. The WFIC's College-to-Work Program includes a number of other financial assistance and work experience programs aimed at eligible students interested in majoring in fields related to communications, journalism, media, and related fields, including the Post-Crescent College-to-Work Program and Reporter College-to-Work Program.

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Communications

Communications

Sources

Motivation. Given the many spheres of interaction during the Middle Ages, from the home to the court of law, it is important to consider just how medieval individuals communicated. There are two important basic aspects to communication: the means and the substance. If there is a means of communicating, a person or groups of persons will receive for understanding a message passed or transmitted from another. If the message has meaning, it will upon receipt convey an idea or information of some sort. The imparting or transmitting of ideas and information from one person to another, and perhaps among persons separated in place and time, is therefore successful communication.

Talking and Telling. Talking was the main means of communication in the Middle Ages. With the rare exceptions of kings, chiefs, and Churchmen, a medieval’s words could reach no further than his voice, but it certainly did reach those closest to hand: family members, coworkers, and the village, castle, or neighborhood community. The times of lively conversation were many and, except during the hardest of labors, heartily sustained. At every fair and festival, raucous talk was hardly containable. Speaking before a gathered group was elevated to art with the storytelling of the jougleur and the poetry of the trouvère and troubadours. Oral storytelling became a literary device used in later medieval works, such as the Decameron (1353), to recreate the atmosphere of close exchange among a group of friends such as Boccaccio’s grandees gathered in country houses during the Black Death to divert each other with tales.

Moderation. Verbal communication became the focus of much discussion in the Middle Ages. Old people and some women are described as talking incessantly. The indoor setting of women’s work in a group—spinning and perhaps weaving—was conducive to running conversation. Women were, however, also thought to use special meetings in pairs to spread the gossip that moved fast from medieval mouth to ear. Evil or idle words, or words that brought laughter, were particularly condemned.

Biblical Caveats. Within Church and court, silence was revered. In the field it was frequently a practical matter that common laborers worked all day without speaking, side-by-side plowing, cutting wood, and digging ditches. Even at the end of the workday, there was often little energy or desire to chatter, as wives made note. In the monasteries, silence was a conscientious practice. Benedict advocated that his monks should follow the Psalmist: “I said, 1 will guard my ways, that I may not sin with my tongue. I have set a guard to my mouth.’ I was mute and was humbled, and kept silence even from good things” (Psalms 38:2–3). Permission to speak, he wrote, should rarely be granted, even to perfect disciples, though it be for good, holy, edifying conversation.

Sanctioned Reading Sessions. The monastic environment did, however, sanction reading, specifically reading out loud. According to the Benedictine Rule, the reader’s was the only voice to be heard during meals. Otherwise, absolute silence was to be kept, with no whispering allowed. No one should presume to ask questions about the reading or anything else, lest that give occasion for talking. After the oral reading of an edict or secular pronouncement, questions from even a noble or king would be considered taking liberties against the authority of the word.

Rule of Benedict. Reading was in general a praiseworthy activity. On Sundays and daily during Lent, Benedictine monks occupied themselves with reading—if they could. Reading and writing were usually taught separately in the Middle Ages, occasionally by different clerical instructors, with reading being the first, as it was considered essential for studying the Bible and religious literature. Writing, on the other hand, was regarded as an art or a technical skill for certain occupations, such as scribes and court clerics.

Messengers. The most frequently used means of communicating between places or persons at a distance was via

messenger. The Carolingian emperors exploited a system of imperial messengers to bring greater administrative control to the land. Centuries later, universities regularly hired from 12 to 160 runners each. Of all technologies to transport ideas and information across long distances, the most basic of these is the written word, a fact well appreciated and exploited by the end of the Middle Ages.

Memory of Women. There was also the critical issue of communication over time. Throughout the Middle Ages, women were the reservoirs of the day-to-day knowledge of one another and the world around. Mothers knew the ages of their children, for example, and frequently guarded the information of actual conception dates, important for casting horoscopes. Based on oral tradition in the female preserve, medieval people were able to plan feasts, use astrology, and maintain the hierarchy within the extended family. “According to my mother’s memory,” wrote one merchant in 1299, he knew that he had been born in 1254. In some lineages, oral traditions of ancestry dated back as far as two or three centuries.

Writing and Books. The means of communicating between places or persons separated by the greatest distance in time was, however, via the written word. Before Gutenberg’s printing press of 1455, the reading of books, let alone the ownership, was largely the preserve of monks and the rich. Churchmen had their works of devotion; a few bibliophiles, thinkers, and students were keen to read the classical authors. Nobody knows how the idea of movable-type printing filtered from Asia to Europe, but until the middle of the fifteenth century all works had to be hand copied by scribes, however slow and costly the process. Thousands of works were indeed produced by hand by literate medieval authors or scribes.

Manuscripts. Despite little technical innovation, the production of handwritten books did increase by the thirteenth century, a fact that, while short on data to support it, can be affirmed by the birth of stationers’ shops and lay book copiers. Although there was a distinction between the old ancient and the new medieval works, the interest in written works in general, and hence the degree of communication through them, can best be assessed by the general number of manuscripts produced in any one period. Unfortunately, virtually the only statistic for medieval manuscript production is the seemingly anecdotal one that states that

The man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more perhaps than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.D. 330.

Thus, the landscape of book production changed dramatically from the point at which Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith, realized in the mid fifteenth century his idea of producing small regular blocks of lead alloy with letters on them that, when fitted into frames, inked, and pressed into paper, would produce individual printed pages. It is reckoned that as many books, about nine million, were produced (not to be confused with “written”) in the fifty years after Gutenberg’s invention as in the one thousand years before. In 1498, eighteen thousand letters of indulgence were printed in Barcelona alone.

Medieval Libraries. Most medieval written works became parts of libraries owned either collectively by a religious community or individually by a religious person or layman. The typical monastery library contained a small number of books kept in one or two book chests in or near the scriptorium, the room in which manuscripts were copied. Most individuals’ private libraries contained less than a dozen volumes, but collections ranged in size. In the twelfth century, Churchmen John of Salisbury and Hugh of Puiset bequeathed several dozen of their own books to their cathedral libraries. The private library Robert de Sorbonne gave to the first college of the University of Paris contained 1,017 volumes according to its catalogue of 1289. By 1338 it had grown to 1,722 volumes and was the largest university library at the time. The Sorbonne collection

was one of the largest in Europe. In 1306 the astronomer Pierre de Limoges bequeathed his valuable library of some three hundred scientific, mathematical, and theological works to the Sorbonne. Other notable monastery libraries were at Saint Galen in Switzerland, Corbie in France, and Fulda in Germany. In the twelfth century, cathedral libraries grew rapidly, though most suffered huge losses by fire or through the ravages of time and worms. The better-known cathedral libraries in the Middle Ages were those of Canterbury and York in England, Notre Dame and Rouen in France, Bamberg and Hildesheim in Germany, and Toledo and Barcelona in Spain.

Textual Support. Most medieval libraries contained Bibles, chronicles, and devotional literature, but during the later Middle Ages reading interests expanded to include works of science, herbáis and bestiaries, politics and warfare, agriculture, medicine, law, geography, travel, husbandry and hunting, ethics, grammar, cooking, poetry, history, and social mores. Natural philosophy, the term for science at the time, was essentially an armchair occupation. Its practitioners were readers of earlier authors (writing originally in Greek or Arabic), observers, and occasionally collectors of natural curiosities. They were not generally doers. Hence, libraries were extremely important to any academic endeavor. Although there were account or tax books, the Domesday Book (1085–1086) being perhaps among the most famous, in most cases all books, even those called “manuals,” were not intended as practical works. Bound in leather with heavily decorated pages of thick vellum or parchment (animal skin) as the writing surface, the volumes in the library of a rich nobleman were a sign of prestige, not of his hands-on approach to life.

Copying. Medieval booksellers or stationers, known as libraries in France or cartolai in Italy, also owned written works. Their business is evidence of an independent book trade outside of the monasteries. By 1298 booksellers numbered about twelve in Paris. They stocked single copies of works from authors in the vernacular as well as in Latin. Although occasionally booksellers had books reproduced for speculative sales, copies of most works were made to order. A stationer would receive a request for the reproduction of one of his stocked works and either send the order to a monastic scriptorium, farm out sections to independent practitioners, most of whom worked otherwise as notarial or chancery scribes, or lend out a portion of the work, called a pecia, or piece, to be reproduced by the lender’s scribe outside the shop. Stationers provided an important service, particularly in university towns, by making a master or approved copy of a course “textbook” available to students for recopying. Record of an exceptionally large, and late, medieval order stems from a bookseller in the Netherlands in 1437: 200 copies of the Seven Penitential Psalms, 200 copies of Cato’s Disticha in Flemish, and 400 copies of a small prayer book, at 340 times what it would cost to have had them printed fifty years later. It has been estimated that for approximately every six thousand inhabitants a medieval city might have had one stationer’s shop.

Monastic Libraries. Monasteries supported libraries that were open to the monastic community. Not all monks were free to visit these collections, and the existence of libraries in general was not really prized until around the thirteenth century. Most monastic libraries were actually book collections, as were most private libraries later on. Monastic libraries built their early collections primarily through donations from monks traveling abroad and from noble bishops of letters. Illuminated manuscripts circulated among religious institutions both as diplomatic gifts and for the mutual benefit of monks and clerics. Books that served as symbolic gift objects to monasteries and high-ranking clerics, whether service books or manuscripts of scripture, were among the most sumptuously illuminated in the Middle Ages.

First Language. Gestures are perhaps the first language of all human beings, and the medieval people certainly incorporated the “language of signs” into their many spheres of activity. Novitiate monks had to undertake an apprenticeship during which in part they learned how to express themselves by signs during the monastery’s periods of silence, such as at the table. While the monks ate and drank, anything needed was to be requested by means of some visible sign rather than by speech. Rich as the medieval language of signs is, it is much broader than executed gestures. It also includes what we know as symbols, and every medium in which they were conveyed: drawing and painting, carving and sculpture, glass and jewelry, clothing, armor, and so on.

Recipients. While knowledge of medieval instances of gestures is limited today to their textual description or graphic representation, the modern interpretation of them is even more restricted. Scholars have a limited pool of medieval examples to help us re-create the vocabulary, and in addition they bring modern interpretation of the meaning of gestures strongly into play. Nonetheless, descriptions and contextual information aid in guiding scholars to understand the powerful language of medieval movement. Gestures are acts that convey meaning. People walk, nod, bend, and shake, but do not always mean something when they do so. Hence, modern analysis of a gesture begins less with whether it was executed than with whether the movement was meant to communicate meaning.

Gestures. For the most part, gestures are intended to convey emotional messages. Close body contact, as in the exchange of hugs and kisses, is perhaps the most timeless and powerful sign. A medieval novitiate monk was bestowed with the kiss of peace upon being adopted into the community of the cloister. Although it is generally thought that medieval husbands and wives were reticent about expressing feelings for each other, the embrace of a man and a woman was evident in the Middle Ages, as today, as a demonstration of affection for another.

The Signs. In the Middle Ages, tears were apparently usually shed in private, at home among relatives and friends, and they were shed by both men and women. A mother’s or a father’s tears at the sight of a long-lost son were identified as the “overflowing of the purest happiness.” There were also tears of repentance, of compassion, and of grief, sometimes elicited by news from afar. Only women cried at funerals, however, where their tears, mixed with the quasi-verbal signs of wailing and moaning, expressed the grief of all. Their tears were obligatory, since not to shed them would have been a sign of an entire lineage’s dishonoring the deceased.

Symbolic Perceptions. Many, if not most, medieval gestures conveyed acquiescence to hierarchy. The suppliant pose of one kneeling, elbows bent, hands together and uplifted, was the position of prayer, the ultimate expression of humility before God. The act of removing another’s shoes was a gesture of deference. Medieval marriage was both egalitarian and hierarchical. The joining or holding of hands would be an act among equals, but a hand holding up the chin of another was a gesture of the holder’s benevolent superiority; both of these cases signify the relationship between a medieval lord and his lady.

Children would have their heads cupped or their hands held in tenderness by an older relative; friends would give the groom a customary fraternal slap on the back. Medieval husbands exerted authority over their wives, even to the point of beating them.

Conveying the Larger Message. Medieval gestures were frequently part of a whole ceremony in which each one conveyed part of a larger meaning. Some were codified practicalities, which came to symbolize good training, not to say breeding. Recognizable today is the notion of proper ceremonial behavior embedded in table etiquette. Bowls, plates, and cups were shared in twos for lack of dishes and cutlery. Social hierarchy dictated that the male or the younger partner of the pair broke the bread, cut the meat, or passed the cup. Symbolic acts, however, distinguished the couth who did not belch or eat and drink with his mouth full, from the uncouth who did both, as well as putting his elbows on the table and leaving his spoon in the dish.

Ceremonies. The most symbolic ceremony of the medieval period was undoubtedly the Eucharist, the part of the mass in which the eating of bread and the drinking of wine by the priest symbolizes a reenactment of Christ’s Last Supper. There were, however, many other symbolic ceremonies. A new monk’s integration into his brotherhood would, for example, require a ritual of several days, beginning with the placing on the abbey church’s altar of his written pledge of commitment, his assuming the monk’s cowled robe, his receiving the round of welcoming embraces, and finally his retreat into total remove and quiet for three days amid his fellow monks. The last part of the ritual was to symbolize Christ’s three-day withdrawal into the tomb before his resurrection.

Events of the Day. The dubbing of a knight was another ceremonial sequence of symbolic gestures: from the nightlong vigil, to mass at dawn; to the festive breakfast, bath, and dressing in special undergarments; to the dubbing ceremony itself, with the knight assuming his attire and his arms after kissing the hilt of the blessed sword; to the whack on the side of the head; and the swearing of the oath of fidelity. Every element carried part of the meaning of the whole. There were many embellishments to the dubbing ceremony over the course of the Middle Ages, most particularly emphasizing the connection between the knight’s secular calling and his religious one.

Physical Symbols. The physical embodiment of messages to be communicated may have been particularly important in the Middle Ages. It was an era when one’s word seems to have been doubted, at least occasionally. Witnesses at a wedding, for example, might subsequently have to testify as to the genuineness of the consent of both parties. If, however, in addition to a wedding band, used for the first time in Europe around 1200, many rings were bestowed upon a wealthy bride, their symbolism as especially significant gifts from the groom’s family would go a long way toward vouching for the groom’s sincerity in welcoming her into the new family that regarded those rings as precious objects.

Gifts. Gift giving in general was a highly symbolic part of ceremony and diplomacy in medieval Europe. Gifts were used to secure the allegiance of a ruler’s subjects and to solidify ties among high-ranking clergy or between princes. The gift of a bride was not uncommon. Dowries and bride gifts were perhaps the most significant regularly conveyed gifts in monetary terms. The dower was a fixed charge, but it usually became part of the settlement discussions around a marriage. Among the peasantry, the gift a bride brought into the marriage varied from a token to relatively significant amounts of land, chattel, and later money. Among the nobility, the dower was frequently considered in relation to the bride gift. The greater the portion of the estate a groom’s family was willing to give to the bride, the larger the obligation on the bride’s family to present her with a large dowry. One-third of her husband’s lands would be legally hers upon his death, in any case.

Money. Money changed communication as relationships between people became more impersonal and materialistic. Gifts were not always reduced to the crassness of their monetary value. They were a critical feature of “diplomatic” protocol at whatever level of society, demonstrating the donor’s goodwill. There were the symbolic traditional gifts at the occasion of a birth and a wedding, but also at a papal or royal ambassador’s arrival.

Symbolic Shorthand. Symbolic meaning was crafted in many objects during the Middle Ages and often served as a form of shorthand communication. A maidservant’s clothes and hair dressing would immediately prevent her from being mistaken for her mistress. Fully armed knights displayed a symbolic design or coat of arms on their shields or on their surcoat in order to be recognized as from a particular family when in battle. Medieval crusaders wore crosses on their shields and clothing.

Muslim Symbolism. Muslim law forbids the making of pictures or sculptures for religious purposes. Arabic script and its message became the embellishment of choice on the outsides and insides of Islamic architecture. Illustrations in which Muhammad appears are extremely rare. One representation of him from an ancient book shows Muhammad’s face hidden by a veil. The prophet’s head is crowned with flames, not unlike a halo.

Wordless Storytelling. The most amazing example of wordless-or almost wordless—storytelling to have survived from the Middle Ages is perhaps the Bayeux Tapestry. An embroidered band, it was executed on the orders of Bishop Odo, half brother of William the Conqueror. It is an elongated picture embroidery recording William’s Norman conquest of England. In it, as in other such artistic representations, a person becomes recognizable, at least in terms of his walk in life, by virtue of his accoutrements. Bishops or abbots hold the crosier, which might even be used to strike a wicked lord. Kings sport crowns even when bathing or reclining. Among the more amusing elements of medieval artistic shorthand are the representations of adults in varying sizes based on their relative social ranking and the depicting of the simultaneous sharing of an object by all its owners, such as the horse being ridden by its four knights at the same time.

Music. Both educated and uneducated medieval people communicated through the symbolism of music. In the educated sphere, refinements made the expression of musical creativity more and more reproducible. In Italy in 1026 Guido d’Arezzo began the teaching of singing using “ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la”. (Now one sings “do, re, mi, fa, so(l), la, ti, do”.) By 1260 written musical notes started to have time values to show how long each was to be held. For all its technical limitations, however, most important for the ability of medieval music to communicate was its evocative potential. The intonings of monks, sounds of street hawkers, songs in the fields, dances of many a festivity, and music of the stage or troubadour all had a role in human communication: to create the context for worship, lure buyers to bargains, create solidarity and lighten the tedium of labor, lend rhythm for movement at festive occasions, or carry a narrative along, for example.

Sources

Norman F. Cantor, The Civilization of the Middle Ages (New York: Harper Perennial, 1993).

Carlo M. Cipolla, Literacy and Development in the West (Baltimore: Penguin, 1969).

Georges Duby, A History off Private Life, translated by Arthur Goldhammer (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988).

Lucien Febvre and Henri-Jean Martin, The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing, 1450–1800, translated by David Gerard (London: N.L.B., 1988).

Francois Gamier, Le langage de l’Image au Moyen Age, 2 volumes (Paris: Leopard d’or, 1982–1989).

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