Red River Cart Traffic
RED RIVER CART TRAFFIC
RED RIVER CART TRAFFIC. The Red River cart was a two-wheeled vehicle made entirely of wood, including the wheels, and carried a maximum load of one thousand pounds. An ox or Indian pony with a rude harness of rawhide drew each of them.
The traffic began by 1822 with the founding of Fort Snelling at what is now Saint Paul, Minnesota. Traders loaded the carts at Fort Garry in Winnipeg or at Pembina with buffalo robes, pemmican, dried meat, and furs, and exchanged these products at Fort Snelling for the trade goods needed at the fur trade posts tributary to Fort Garry. In 1843 the American Fur Company established a post at Pembina, and thereafter the traffic from this point grew rapidly in volume.
The most popular Red River cart trails were on the west side of the river. On the east side of the Red River, the trail ran southeast to Fort Snelling. Later, the trails crossed the Mississippi River at Sauk Rapids and reached Saint Paul on the east side of the river. The Lake Traverse route ran southeast to the crossing of the Minnesota River at Bois de Sioux and then to Mendota, at its junction with the Mississippi. After 1850 ferries connected Fort Snelling with Mendota and Saint Paul.
The low cost of this form of transportation explains its popularity. The oxen and horses were pastured on the prairie grasses, and the drivers found abundant game along the entire route. One serious drawback arose from the fact that these trails traversed the area that was the battleground of two Indian tribes, the Chippewa and the Dakota. Gradually, cart traffic gave way to flatboat and steamboat traffic, and the coming of the railroads in the 1860s completed the transformation.
Ens, Gerhard John. Homeland to Hinterland: The Changing Worlds of the Red River Metis in the Nineteenth Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.
Lass, William E. Minnesota: A History. New York: W. W. Norton, 1998.
O. G.Libby/a. e.
"Red River Cart Traffic." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 23, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/red-river-cart-traffic
"Red River Cart Traffic." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved October 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/red-river-cart-traffic
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.