Gamble, James Norris
James Norris Gamble
James Gamble (1803-1891), a founding partner in Procter & Gamble, and his wife Elizabeth Norris Gamble had nine children. Their first son, James Norris Gamble, was born in 1836 in Cincinnati, Ohio, and went on to play a pivotal role at the Procter & Gamble Company. It was James Norris Gamble who is credited with laying the foundations for P&G's most successful product—Ivory Soap.
Young James attended the Checkering Institute then went on to earn both bachelor's and master's degrees from Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio. He ventured to the University of Maryland for further study in chemistry, but did not complete a Ph.D. Instead, he returned to Cincinnati to work in the family business.
James Norris Gamble played a major role at Procter & Gamble: he developed Ivory Soap.
James Norris worked as a chemist at Procter & Gamble and developed the formula for a mild, white bar soap called "P&G White Soap." An accident, however, brought a remarkable change to his formula. Another employee left one of the soapmaking machines running for too long; this allowed too much air into the process. As a result, the finished batch of white soap floated. The floating batch was packaged and sent out to customers who were amazed by the "new" product. The floating soap sold so well that the "accidental" formula was kept and Procter & Gamble's first successful product was born: Ivory Soap.
James Norris had a long and distinguished career in the family business, but he also had a life outside of Procter & Gamble. He married Margaret Penrose in 1862, and they eventually had two daughters, Maud and Olivia. During the Civil War years (1861-65) James Norris left work to fight with the Ohio Infantry and reached the rank of captain. Upon his return, he not only went back to Procter & Gamble where he had been made a partner by his father, but remained very active in his community. The Norris Gamble family attended the Methodist Episcopal Church, and James was further involved with the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, the Masons, and the Republican Party.
As a Republican, James Norris served as the mayor of Westwood, Ohio, and was a member of Cincinnati's Board of Parks Commission. Yet it was his work at Procter & Gamble that made James Norris famous. His invention of Ivory Soap made the company's later growth and expansion possible, including the state-of-the-art manufacturing facility built in the late 1880s, called Ivorydale. James Norris took a personal interest in the new factory, helping ensure its equipment and design were the most technologically advanced for their time.
When Procter & Gamble became a public company in 1890 (meaning shares of the company were sold on the New York Stock Exchange), James Norris was named vice president and sat on the board of directors which controlled the firm. He retired from the company in 1912 to concentrate on his other interests, which included involvement in Cincinnati politics, religious groups, and charitable organizations. James Norris donated money to many organizations, including the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) and the University of Cincinnati, and was instrumental in forming the Christ Hospital Institute of Medical Research. James Norris Gamble died on July 2, 1932, at the age of ninety-five, just a few weeks shy of his next birthday.
For More Information
Decker, Charles L. Winning With the P&G 99: 99 Principles and Practices of Procter & Gamble's Success. New York: Pocket Books, 1998.
Editors of Advertising Age. How P&G Became America's Leading Marketer. New York: Passport Books, 1990.
Editors of Advertising Age. Procter & Gamble: The House that Ivory Built. Chicago: National Textbook Company, 1988.
Into a Second Century With Procter & Gamble. Cincinnati, OH: Procter & Gamble, 1951.
P&G: Memorable Years in History. Cincinnati, OH: Procter & Gamble, 1980.
Procter & Gamble: Celebrating 150 Years of Excellence. Cincinnati, OH: Procter & Gamble, 1987.
Schisgall, Oscar. Eyes on Tomorrow: The Evolution of Procter & Gamble. New York: Doubleday, 1981.
Swasy, Alecia. Soap Opera: The Inside Story of Procter & Gamble. New York: Times Books, 1994.
Procter & Gamble Company. [On-line] http://www.pg.com (accessed on August 16, 2002).
"Gamble, James Norris." Leading American Businesses. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 18, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/trade-magazines/gamble-james-norris
"Gamble, James Norris." Leading American Businesses. . Retrieved March 18, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/trade-magazines/gamble-james-norris
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.