GAMBIER, JAMES. (1723–1789). British admiral. Gambier, the grandson of a Huguenot refugee, became a naval lieutenant in 1743, a captain in 1747, and served at Louisburg (1758), Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Quiberon Bay (1759). In 1770 he was the commodore commanding the North American station, after which he held administrative posts. Rising to rear admiral in 1778, he was Richard Lord Howe's second in command at New York, where he supervised refitting and repairs. He was commander in chief from Howe's departure until John Byron arrived on 1 October, and from Byron's departure until Thomas Graves took over in 1779. Before he sailed for home on 6 April, Gambier had shown his inability to cope with a senior wartime command. He rose to vice admiral in 1782 and was commander in chief at Jamaica in 1783–1784. He died at Bath on 8 January 1789. Admiral Lord Gambier was his nephew.
Syrett, David. "'This penurious old reptile': Rear-Admiral James Gambier and the American war." Historical Research 74 (2001): 63-76.
revised by John Oliphant
"Gambier, James." Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 16, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gambier-james
"Gambier, James." Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Retrieved January 16, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gambier-james
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.