Hajj Umar, al-
al- Hajj Umar (äl-häj ōōmär´) or Hajj Omar (ō´mär), 1797–1864, Muslim religious and military leader in W Africa. A chieftain of the large Tukulor tribe of Senegal, he desired to convert the pagan tribespeople of the W Sudan. Declaring a holy war in 1852, he used modern weapons against the Africans. In several engagements (1857–59) against the French in Senegal, he was repulsed. Thereafter he turned eastward, conquering the kingdoms of Segu and Massina and sacking Timbuktu. He was killed in 1864 while attempting to put down a revolt by the Fulanis, a Muslim group living in Massina. Bitter quarrels over his domain by his sons weakened it, and in 1890 it was annexed by the French.
"Hajj Umar, al-." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hajj-umar-al
"Hajj Umar, al-." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hajj-umar-al
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.