Robert Gwathmey (gwăth´mē), 1903–88, American painter, b. Richmond, Va. Gwathmey taught at Cooper Union from 1942 to 1968. Among the first white artists to portray African Americans with dignity, he created paintings with flat areas of color that combine empathy for impoverished Southern blacks with intense atmospheric effects of harsh sun and parched earth. Representative of his works, which are found in many museums, is Sowing (Whitney Mus., New York City).
See biography by M. Kammen (1999).
His son, Charles Gwathmey, 1938–2009, b. Charlotte, N.C., was an American architect. He is particularly known for residential structures, from with the small, modernist Hamptons, Long Island, house he designed (1966) early in his career for his parents to the signature mansions he created later. During the 1960s he was one of the "New York Five," which also included John Hejduk, Michael Graves, Peter Eisenman, and Richard Meier, modernist architects inspired by Le Corbusier's purist forms. Throughout the years Gwathmey remained loyal to the high modernist style. In 1968 he and Robert Siegel opened the firm Gwathmey Siegel & Associates. Gwathmey's later buildings include an addition to New York's Guggenheim Museum (1992), the New York Public Library system's Science, Industry, and Business Library (1995), and the addition to Yale's Art and Architecture Building (2008).
"Gwathmey, Robert." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gwathmey-robert
"Gwathmey, Robert." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gwathmey-robert
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.