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Dayton: Economy

Major Industries and Commercial Activity

Dayton's balanced economy is supported principally by manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, and services. In recent years, Dayton has suffered from many of the ills plaguing the national economy. Most major industries have charted reductions in jobs in the past three to five years, and those industries related to the automotive industry have been the hardest hit. Dayton businesses are working towards a resurgence by focusing on increased business investment and diversifying into the manufacturing of technical products and services. Dayton employers are also concerned about the constraints of a stagnant and aging population; employers are working to recruit highly skilled employees to the region, particularly in the high-tech fields. The most important factor in determining Dayton's economic future, however, is the fate of the area's major manufacturing employers such as Delphi Automotive, General Motors, and Behr, whose presence is so vital to the area's continued prosperity.

In the past ten years, employment in education and health services has grown steadily in Dayton. More than 35 institutions of higher learning in the metropolitan area provide a significant number of jobs. Area health care facilities have been steadily expanding both their physical facilities and the services offered. Technological advances in health care have been readily adopted in Dayton area hospitals, making this economic sector one of the most promising for the region.

More than 1,500 other firms in the Dayton area manufacture accounting systems, bicycles, castings and forgings, compressors, concrete products, washing machines, generators, hoists and jacks, industrial belts, machine tools, name plates, paints and varnishes, paper and paper-making machinery, plastics, precision gauges, tools and dies, and meat products.

Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, the research and development arm of the U.S. Air Force, is the fifth largest employer in the state of Ohio and the largest employer at a single location. Wright-Patterson employs almost one of every twelve people working in the greater Dayton area. Approximately 10,000 of its more than 20,000 employees are civilians; though, as part of announcements of major base consolidations and closings throughout the U.S., Wright-Patterson was slated to gain nearly 600 more military personnel and lose just under 200 of its civilian population. Wright-Patterson is the headquarters of the Air Force Logistics Command, Air Force Material Command, and the Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD), in addition to more than 100 other Department of Defense divisions. The U.S. Defense Department Joint Logistics Systems Center, affiliated with Wright-Patterson, oversees the installation of new computer systems for all military services; the center generates many private sector jobs. The ASD at Wright-Patterson manages the U.S. Air Force bomber program; also housed at the base is the Center for Artificial Intelligence Applications (CAIA). Wright-Patterson also houses the Air Force Institute for Technology, which trains thousands of students each year. In addition, Wright-Patterson is credited with bringing to Dayton one of the highest concentrations of aerospace/high-technology firms in the nation. These firms employ scientists, engineers, technicians, and specialists actively involved in development and application in both the private and public sectors.

Another vital factor in the metropolitan area economy is the Miami Valley Research Park, supported by the Miami Valley Research Foundation, a private, nonprofit corporation; the 1,500-acre park is a university-related research facility that is the site of corporate and government research firms. The Research Park's goal is to promote research, technology, and science in the region, while helping to create and preserve employment opportunities.

Incentive ProgramsNew and Existing Companies

Local programs

The CityWide Direct Loan program offers assistance for the acquisition of real estate, facility renovation and construction, and equipment purchasing.

State programs

The State of Ohio grants direct low interest loans, industrial revenue bonds, and financial assistance for research and development to companies creating or retaining jobs in Ohio. Additionally, the Ohio Job Creation Tax Credit provides tax credits for Ohio companies that expand as well as companies relocating to Ohio. Enterprise zones provide significant tax reductions on property investments made by businesses expanding in or relocating to specific areas of Ohio.

Job training programs

The Ohio Investment in Training program provides financial assistance and technical resources for assisting Ohio businesses in the training of employees. Additionally, area colleges and universities offer many options for training.

Development Projects

The Dayton Downtown Partnership has been committed to the development of Dayton's urban space for more than a decade. Ongoing development is occurring at RiverScape, a riverside park and event venue that has attracted nighttime crowds of up to 50,000. The second phase of the project, completed in 2003, added improvements and extensions to RiverScape's pathways, bridges, gardens, and fountains. Discussions are currently underway for a potential third phase, which will include a whitewater park and an entertainment venue. The Schuster Performing Arts Center, another product of the Dayton Downtown Partnership, opened in 2003 to immediate success. The Center includes two theatres as well as office and residential space, and has greatly contributed to Dayton's effort to become a regional center for the arts.

Economic Development Information: Dayton Area Chamber of Commerce, 1 Chamber Plaza, Dayton, OH 45402-2400; telephone (937)226-1444

Commercial Shipping

Dayton International Airport, ranking among the nation's busiest air-freight facilities, is the midwestern hub for Emery Worldwide, a CF company. Dayton's central location means that the Dayton International Airport is within 90 minutes by air from 55 percent of the nation's population.

Passengers can find nonstop flights from Dayton International to 19 major cities, including Detroit, Chicago, New York, Atlanta, and Houston. Ten airlines fly approximately 80 daily flights in and out of Dayton International. Thirty trucking companies maintain terminals in the metropolitan area. Just north of the city, the intersection of interstates 70 and 75 creates a hub that is a focal point of the nation's transportation network and has lured transportation companies to the Dayton area.

Three Class I rail systems furnish rail cargo transportation, including trailer on flat car service; both CSX and Conrail operate switching yards in the city. Because of its transportation system, which affords direct access to major markets, Dayton has become an important warehouse and distribution center.

Labor Force and Employment Outlook

Dayton educational institutions provide employers with skilled workers. In particular, the region abounds with employees highly educated in the fields of science and engineering. Dayton area businesses have increasingly been attempting to retain area-educated employees to their work-forces. Recently, jobs have been lost in Dayton's traditional manufacturing sectors, which are highly dependent on the fortunes of the automobile industry.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Dayton-Springfield metropolitan area labor force, 2004 annual averages.

Size of non-agricultural labor force: 412,300

Number of workers employed in . . .

construction and mining: 15,700

manufacturing: 59,300

transportation, trade, and utilities: 71,400

information: 11,100

financial activities: 18,700

professional and business services: 53,200

educational and health services: 62,300

leisure and hospitality: 38,200

other services: 17,000

government: 65,400

Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $20.97

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (March 2005)

Largest employers Number of employees
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base 22,000
Premier Health Partners 9,000
Delphi Automotive Systems 8,700
AK Steel Corp. 3,800
Good Samaritan Hospital 3,000

Cost of Living

The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors in the Dayton area.

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Average House Price: $210,857

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Cost of Living Index: 93.5 (U.S. average = 100.0)

State income tax rate: Ranges from 0.743% to 7.5%

State sales tax rate: 5.0% (food and prescription drugs are exempt)

Local income tax rate: 2.25%

Local sales tax rate: 1.5%

Property tax rate: $61.55 per $1,000 assessed valuation (2005)

Economic Information: Dayton Area Chamber of Commerce, 1 Chamber Plaza, Dayton, OH 45402-2400; telephone (937)226-1444

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Dayton: Recreation


The Dayton Museum of Natural History maintains a planetarium and observatory, and operates SunWatch, a twelfth-century Native American village restoration south of the city, which is considered the most complete prehistoric settlement of any culture east of the Mississippi. The United States Air Force Museum is the world's largest military aviation museum. Historic Dayton buildings and collections of artifacts from the city's golden age of invention are presented at the Kettering Moraine Museum. The Oregon Historic District, Dayton's oldest neighborhood, is a center of shopping, dining, and nightlife amidst nearly 200-year-old architecture. In downtown Dayton on Thursdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, the new "market district," centered around the National City 2nd Street Public Market and the Webster Street Market, showcases home-baked bread, fresh produce, and other foods and crafts. The National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center, located in Wilberforce, a stop on the Underground Railroad, consists of the museum and renovated Carnegie Library.

At Carillon Historical Park, on 65 acres next to the Great Miami River, the carillon bells that are a Dayton landmark are among the featured displays, which also include the Wright Flyer III and the Barney & Smith railroad car. RiverScape provides facilities for paddleboating on the river and a venue for live music as well as serving as the setting for displays relating to Dayton's history and the many inventions born in the city. Festival Plaza, the focal point of Riverscape, features gardens, fountains, and pools in the summer and a skating rink during winter months. The Cox Arboretum is a 160-acre public garden set in native woodlands. Five miles of trails wind through woods and meadows containing more than 150 indigenous Ohio plant species at Aullwood Audubon Center, a 200-acre nature sanctuary. Other nature preserves in the Dayton area include Wegerzyn Horticultural Center and Bergamo/Mt. St. John.

The Paul Laurence Dunbar House, the restored home of one of the country's great African American poets, is open to the public. The Wright Memorial commemorates the spot where the Wright brothers tested their airplane during its invention; the Wright Brothers Bicycle Shop is a National Historic Landmark. At the center of Dayton's downtown district, the Montgomery County Historical Society is housed in the Old Courthouse, which was built in 1850 and is considered one of the nation's finest examples of Greek Revival architecture.

Arts and Culture

Dayton supports an active cultural community. The Arts Center Foundation was created in 1986 to plan and fund new facilities to house Dayton's major arts institutions. The restoration and renovation of Victoria Theatre, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, transformed the theatre into a modern performing arts complex. The Victoria Theatre is home to the Fifth Third Bank Broadway Series, a summer film series, the Victoria Children's Theatre Festival, the Dayton Ballet, and the Dayton Contemporary Dance Company. The Dayton Art Institute, founded in 1919, sponsors exhibition programs, Sunday afternoon musicales, twilight concerts, gallery talks, and studio classes. Artworks by the members of the Dayton Society of Painters and Sculptors, Inc., are exhibited in two galleries at the society's Victorian mansion quarters in the historic St. Anne's Hill district. Permanent collections include Oceanic, Native American, and African art, as well as a sizeable glass collection.

The Dayton Philharmonic Orchestra, founded as a chamber orchestra in 1933, is now an 85-member orchestra performing classical, pops, chamber, and a summer band concert series at Memorial Hall and other Dayton locations. Dayton Opera, founded in 1960, presents four fully staged operas at the new Benjamin and Marian Schuster Performing Arts Center. The Center, which opened in 2003, includes a 2,300-seat performance hall as well as a rehearsal hall, a Wintergarden and glass atrium, and an 18-story tower with first-class office and condominium space. Dayton Ballet's season of four productions includes traditional and new ballet works. Dayton Contemporary Dance Company, nationally acclaimed for innovative work, presents three performances a year in addition to national tours.

The Dayton Music Club celebrated its centennial in 1988; it sponsors free music programs at various city locations with performances by local and national artists. Other regularly scheduled musical events include the chamber concert Vanguard Series, the Soirees Musical piano performances, the Bach Society choral productions, the CityFolk ethnic and folk music series, and concerts at area churches.

Theater companies offering full seasons of traditional and experimental works include the Dayton Playhouse, the Human Race, and the Dayton Theatre Guild. The Victoria Theatre, which opened in 1865 as Dayton's first theatrical house for live entertainment, sponsors touring companies' productions as well as a season of children's drama. Wright State University, the University of Dayton, Sinclair Community College, and Antioch College stage theater performances for the general public. The Muse Machine, a Dayton organization designed to inform young people about the arts and culture, each year stages a theatrical production showcasing student performers. Blue Jacket, an outdoor drama about the white Shawnee war chief, is presented each summer at a facility 6 miles southeast of neighboring Xenia.

Festivals and Holidays

Art in the Park in May attracts artists from around the nation for an outdoor fine arts and crafts show. At A World A'Fair, held in May at the Convention Center, 35 countries share their native culture, cuisine, and costumes. Dave Hall Plaza Park hosts music festivals in the summer.

The Vectren Dayton Air Show, one of the largest of its kind in the world, draws more than 200,000 spectators to the Dayton International Airport in July. Aerobatic displays, military jet demonstrations, and entertainment for the whole family make the Air Show one of the most important events on Dayton's calendar. Arts and crafts, ethnic foods, music and dancing, and special children's activities are featured at Oktoberfest, held in early October on the grounds of the Dayton Art Institute. Each year the Dayton Holiday Festival begins the day after Thanksgiving with a tree-lighting ceremony at Courthouse Square. Ohio Renaissance Festival is held on weekends in August and September near Waynesville. In May, the Dayton Amateur Radio Association hosts Hamvention, a convention that draws ham radio enthusiasts from across the country.

Sports for the Spectator

Dayton is home to the Dayton Dragons, a Midwest League baseball Class A club in the Cincinnati Reds' farm system; they play at Fifth Third Field. Dayton also boasts a class AA ECHL ice hockey team, the Dayton Bombers. The Bombers play at the Nutter Center, which also hosts Wright State University athletic events and various regional and state high school tournaments. Dayton sports fans support both the Cincinnati Reds baseball team and the Cincinnati Bengals football team. The University of Dayton Flyers field a football team in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III, as does Wittenberg University in nearby Springfield. The Flyers' basketball team has a record of successful competition on the national level and is now in the Midwestern Collegiate Conference.

Sports for the Participant

The Dayton Recreation and Parks Department sponsors sports programs for preschoolers to senior citizens at 78 parks and 10 recreation centers. Programs include soccer and tennis camps, summer-day camps for children, and softball leagues. Swimming, canoeing, golf, tennis, basketball, volleyball, boating, sailing, fishing, and winter sports are also available. Among the facilities managed by the department are the Jack Nicklaus Sports Center, the Wesleyan Nature Center, and the Horace M. Huffman River Corridor Bikeway, a 24-mile path along the Great Miami River. Golfing opportunities in Dayton include Kittyhawk Golf Center, the largest public golf facility in Ohio, and the Madden Golf Center, designed by notable course architect Alex Campbell. The Urban Krag Climbing Center features an 8,000 square foot vertical climbing wall in a beautifully restored church.

Shopping and Dining

Downtown, the Merchants Row District offers jewelry, antiques, books, and more. The Oregon Historic District is a 12-block area near downtown that features shops, restaurants, and clubs among restored turn-of-the-century homes. The National City Second Street Public Market features the wares of local farmers and food and gift vendors, including fresh flowers and produce, gourmet coffee, and homemade baked goods. The Webster Street Market, housed in a restored nineteenth-century railroad freight depot, also provides a unique market-style shopping experience. The public markets are open Thursday through Sunday. There are nearly 30 shopping centers in the region, the largest being Dayton Mall and Fairfield Commons Mall.

Dining choices in Dayton include Japanese, Chinese, Mexican, Italian, Indian, and American cuisine. One critically acclaimed restaurant, which specializes in French and continental cuisine, is known for its rack of lamb, duck, and fresh seafood. Another serves authentic German dishes. One of the city's most popular eateries is a traditional steak and chop house that does not take reservations or serve desserts.

Visitor Information: Dayton/Montgomery County Convention and Visitors Bureau, 1 Chamber Plaza, Suite A, Dayton, OH 45402; toll-free (800)221-8235

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Dayton: History

Town Planned Despite Flood Danger

The point where the Mad River flows into the Great Miami was a thoroughfare for native tribes on their way from Lake Erie to Kentucky and for frontier heroes such as George Rogers Clark, Simon Kenton, Daniel Boone, and Anthony Wayne. Revolutionary War veterans General Arthur St. Clair, General James Wilkinson, Colonel Israel Ludlow, and Jonathan Dayton of New Jersey, for whom Dayton is named, purchased 60,000 acres in the area from John Cleves Symmes. Ludlow surveyed the town plot in the fall of 1795, and the first settlers arrived on April 1, 1796. In spite of well-founded Native American warnings against the danger of floods, settlers occupied the area where Dayton now stands at the confluence of four rivers and creeks.

Ohio gained statehood in 1803, and two years later Dayton was incorporated as a town and became the seat of Montgomery County. The opening of the Miami & Erie Canal in 1828 brought booming cannons and cheering crowds in celebration of future economic prosperity. That year 100,000 people descended upon Dayton, whose population then numbered 6,000 people, to hear William Henry Harrison, Whig presidential candidate. A year later Dayton was incorporated as a city. In 1851 the Mad River & Lake Erie Railroad reached Dayton, motivating Daytonians to establish new industries that were expanded during the Civil War boom years. Local Congressman Clement L. Vallandigham was head of the anti-Lincoln Copperhead faction in the North, which brought riots, murder, and the destruction of the Republican Dayton Journal newspaper office. Vallandigham was banished from the Union for treason.

Industrial Innovation Characterizes Dayton

Dayton entered its golden age of invention and business acumen when John Patterson bought James Ritty's cash register company and his "mechanical money drawer" in 1884. Two years later, Patterson introduced the "daylight factory," a new work environment in which 80 percent of the walls were glass. National Cash Register soon set the standard for this indispensable business device. Dayton-based inventors Wilbur and Orville Wright taught themselves aerodynamics by reading every book on the subject in the Dayton public library. They experimented with kites and gliders and built the world's first wind tunnel to test their ideas. Then on December 17, 1903, the Wright brothers made aviation history at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, when their flying machine made its first successful flight. The Wrights' commonsensical approach to solving the centuries-old problem of heavier-than-air flight is considered one of the great engineering achievements in history.

The next inventor and engineer to make his mark in Dayton was Charles "Boss" Kettering, who began his career at National Cash Register by inventing an electric cash register. Kettering and a partner founded the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco), which became a subsidiary of General Motors in 1920 when Kettering was appointed a vice president and director of research at General Motors. Kettering repeatedly revolutionized the automobile industry; he designed the motor for the first practical electric starter, developed tetraethyl lead that eliminated engine knock and led to ethyl gasoline, and, with chemists, discovered quick-drying lacquer finishes for automobile bodies. Kettering is considered to have demonstrated the value of industrial research and development.

Reform, Cooperation Meet City's Challenges

Newspaper publisher James Cox bought the Dayton News in 1898 and then purchased other newspapers in Ohio, Florida, and Atlanta, Georgia. Cox turned to politics in 1909, serving as Dayton's congressman, then as Ohio governor, and running for the presidency in 1920 on the Democratic ticket but losing to Warren G. Harding. As governor, Cox initiated a number of reforms, including the initiative and referendum, minimum wage, and worker's compensation.

Destructive floods had frequently plagued Dayton during the city's first 100 years. Total devastation came on March 25, 1913, when the Great Miami River, swollen by a five-day downpour that brought ten inches of rain, burst through protective levees and flooded the city. So powerful was the flood that houses were literally wrenched from their foundations and sent down the Great Miami. The water level did not recede until March 28, by which time 361 people had died and property damage had reached $100 million.

The flood forced citizens to find a solution to this perennial threat; they responded by raising $2 million in 60 days. Arthur E. Morgan, a self-taught engineer who was then head of the Tennessee Valley Authorityand later became the president of Antioch College in nearby Yellow Springswas charged with the responsibility of finding solutions. A systematic plan of flood protection consisting of five huge dams and retaining basins was proposed. The Miami Conservancy District, the first comprehensive flood-control project of its kind in the United States, was established by the state legislature on June 18, 1915. Construction was completed in 1922. In another response to the flood crisis, Dayton turned to the nonpartisan, democratically controlled commission-manager form of government, becoming the first major American city to do so and inspiring other cities to follow suit.

During both World Wars, Dayton's manufacturing facilities produced planes, tanks, guns, and other war materials that were vital to successful military efforts. In the post-war years, the focus of Dayton's industry shifted to consumer products. Household appliances, automobiles, and early components of the computer industry were manufactured in Dayton from mid-century on.

In 2005 the city celebrated its bicentennial anniversary of incorporation. Today, Dayton is home to fine educational institutions, an art institute, a symphony orchestra, a natural history museum, and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Dayton blends metropolitan amenities with the feel of an All-American city.

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Dayton: Education and Research

Elementary and Secondary Schools

The Dayton City Schools system, the sixth largest district in the state of Ohio, is administered by a seven-member, non-partisan board of education that appoints a superintendent. The system supports magnet schools, a Partners in Education program, and a Challenger Learning Center. The aerospace industry supports a District Space Symposium.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Dayton public schools as of the 20012002 school year.

Total enrollment: 19,813

Number of facilities elementary schools: 25

junior high schools: 4

senior high schools: 6

Student/teacher ratio: 13.6:1

Teacher salaries average: $39,912 (1999-2000)

Funding per pupil: $10,123

Catholic, Jewish, Baptist, Seventh Day Adventist, Church of God, and nondenominational groups also operate schools in the region.

Colleges and Universities

A wide range of higher learning resources are available within driving distance of Dayton. Located in the area are 26 colleges and universities, and 10 vocational and technical schools that offer curricula for traditional as well as nontraditional students. The largest state-funded institution is Wright State University, with an enrollment of more than 16,000 students in 100 undergraduate and 50 Ph.D., graduate, and professional degree programs; Wright State operates schools of law, medicine, pharmacy, and nursing.

The University of Dayton, founded in 1850, is the state's largest independent university and grants associate, baccalaureate, master's, and doctorate degrees in 120 fields of study. The university operates professional schools in education, business administration, engineering, and law. The United Theological Seminary, affiliated with the United Methodist Church, offers graduate programs in theology. Based near Dayton in Yellow Springs is Antioch University; founded by Horace Mann in 1852, Antioch has long been respected for its innovative role in alternative and cooperative education. Central State University, in neighboring Wilberforce, is Ohio's only public university with a traditionally African American student enrollment.

Sinclair Community College, located in downtown Dayton, awards two-year associate degrees in such areas as allied health, business, engineering technologies, and fine and applied arts. With an enrollment of 24,000 students, Sinclair is one of the largest community colleges in the nation. The school is known for its robotics program, operated in association with General Motors Fanacu. The Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is operated by the Air Force for military personnel. Designed primarily as a graduate school, AFIT also offers upper-level baccalaureate study as well as continuing education for civilians. Included among AFIT graduates are 25 U.S. astronauts.

Libraries and Research Centers

Dayton is home to approximately 30 libraries operated by a variety of institutions, businesses, and organizations. The Dayton and Montgomery County Library is the largest facility in the Miami Valley. Containing about 1.7 million books, more than 1,100 periodicals, and compact discs, microfiche, audio- and videotapes, and films, the library operates a main library and 21 branches; special collections include local history and federal and state documents. All of the colleges and universities in the area maintain substantial campus libraries with holdings in a wide range of fields. Most specialized libraries are affiliated with hospitals, law firms, major corporations, and government agencies.

Dayton's higher education community is involved in technological research of national scope. The University of Dayton Research Institute works in association with Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, the foremost aeronautical research and development center in the Air Force; about 10,000 scientists and engineers are employed at the base. Human-computer interaction is studied at the university's Information System Laboratory. The engineering department at Central State University conducts projects for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and for high-technology firms. Wright State University School of Medicine's Cox Heart Institute has received recognition for the development of diagnostic and surgical treatment of heart disease. Also located in Dayton is the Hipple Cancer Research Center, one of several independent cancer research facilities in the country.

Public Library Information: Dayton and Montgomery County Public Library, 215 East Third Street, Dayton, OH 45402-2103; telephone (937)227-9500; fax (937)227-9524

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Dayton: Population Profile

Metropolitan Area Residents

1980: 942,000

1990: 951,270

2000: 950,558

Percent change, 19902000: -0.1%

U.S. rank in 1980: 39th

U.S. rank in 1990: 51th

U.S. rank in 2000: 52nd

City Residents

1980: 203,371

1990: 182,011

2000: 166,179

2003 estimate: 161,696

Percent change, 19902000: -8.7%

U.S. rank in 1980: 70th

U.S. rank in 1990: 89th

U.S. rank in 2000: 141st (State rank: 6th)

Density: 2,979.4 people per square mile (2000)

Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)

White: 88,676

Black or African American: 71,668

American Indian and Alaska Native: 500

Asian: 1,075

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 63

Hispanic (of any race): 2,626

Other: 1,160

Percent of residents born in state: 70.6%

Age characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 11,786

Population 5 to 9 years old: 12,065

Population 10 to 14 years old: 11,350

Population 15 to 19 years old: 13,287

Population 20 to 24 years old: 16,868

Population 25 to 34 years old: 23,490

Population 35 to 44 years old: 24,738

Population 45 to 54 years old: 20,051

Population 55 to 59 years old: 6,773

Population 60 to 64 years old: 5,811

Population 65 to 74 years old: 10,589

Population 75 to 84 years old: 7,340

Population 85 years and over: 2,031

Median age: 32.4

Births (2002, Montgomery County) Total number: 7,235

Deaths (2002, Montgomery County)

Total number: 5,641 (of which, 60 were infants under the age of 1 year)

Money income (1999)

Per capita income: $15,547

Median household income: $27,423

Total households: 67,476

Number of households with income of . . .

Less than $10,000: 12,622

$10,000 to $14,999: 6,419

$15,000 to $24,999: 11,951

$25,000 to $34,999: 9,818

$35,000 to $49,999: 10,416

$50,000 to $74,999: 9,746

$75,000 to $99,999: 3,815

$100,000 to $149,999: 2,044

$150,000 to $199,999: 255

$200,000 or more: 390

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 15,932

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Dayton: Communications

Newspapers and Magazines

Established in 1808 and merged with the Journal Herald in 1988, the Dayton Daily News is the city's daily morning newspaper. More than 20 suburban newspapers plus local college and university publications circulate weekly. Special-interest magazines published in Dayton cover such subjects as religion, African American culture, and management.

Television and Radio

Dayton is the primary center for television and radio north of Cincinnati in southwestern Ohio. Six television stationsfour commercial affiliates and two publicbroadcast from Dayton; cable service is available. Sixteen AM and FM radio stations schedule a variety of programs such as jazz, gospel, Celtic and folk, African American, contemporary, and classical music, educational features, and news.

Media Information: Dayton Daily News, Dayton Newspapers Inc., 45 South Ludlow Street, Dayton, OH 45402; telephone (937)222-5700

Dayton Online

City of Dayton Home Page. Available

Dayton Area Chamber of Commerce. Available

Dayton/Montgomery County Convention & Visitors Bureau. Available

Dayton Public Schools. Available

Dayton Public Schools, school district report card. Available

Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Available

Selected Bibliography

Bernstein, Mark, Grand Eccentrics: Turning the Century: Dayton and the Inventing of America (Orange Frazer Press, 1996)

Huffman, Dale, Andy Snow, et al. Dayton: The Cradle of Creativity (Urban Tapestry Series) (Towery, 1998)

Wright, Wilbur, and Orville Wright, Miracle at Kitty Hawk: The Letters of Wilbur and Orville Wright, Fred C. Kelly, ed. (Da Capo, 1996)

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Dayton: Introduction
Dayton: Geography and Climate
Dayton: History
Dayton: Population Profile
Dayton: Municipal Government
Dayton: Economy
Dayton: Education and Research
Dayton: Health Care
Dayton: Recreation
Dayton: Convention Facilities
Dayton: Transportation
Dayton: Communications

The City in Brief

Founded: 1795 (incorporated, 1805)

Head Official: Mayor Rhine D. McLin (since 2002)

City Population

1980: 203,371

1990: 182,011

2000: 166,179

2003 estimate: 161,696

Percent change, 19902000: -8.7%

U.S. rank in 1980: 70th

U.S. rank in 1990: 89th

U.S. rank in 2000: 141st

Metropolitan Area Population

1980: 942,000

1990: 951,270

2000: 950,558

Percent change, 19902000: -0.1%

U.S. rank in 1980: 39th

U.S. rank in 1990: 51st

U.S. rank in 2000: 52nd

Area: 56.63 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 750 feet above sea level

Average Annual Temperature: 51.7° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 36.6 inches

Major Economic Sectors: Wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing, services, government, transportation

Unemployment Rate: 7.1% (March 2005)

Per Capita Income: $15, 547 (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 15,932

Major Colleges and Universities: University of Dayton; Wright State University

Daily Newspaper: Dayton Daily News

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Dayton: Geography and Climate

Surrounded by a nearly flat plain that is 50 to 100 feet below the elevation of the adjacent rolling countryside Dayton is situated near the center of the Miami River Valley. The Mad River, the Stillwater River, and Wolf Creek, all tributaries of the Miami River, join the master stream within the city limits. The Miami Valley is a fertile agricultural region because of evenly distributed precipitation and moderate temperatures. High relative humidity throughout the year can cause discomfort to people with allergies. Winter temperatures are moderated by the downward slope of the Miami River; cold polar air from the Great Lakes produces extensive cloudiness and frequent snow flurries, but snow accumulation averages only nine inches annually.

Area: 56.63 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 750 feet above sea level

Average Temperatures: January, 26.6° F; July, 74.7° F; annual average, 51.7° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 36.6 inches

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Dayton: Health Care

Eighteen hospitals, four of which are teaching hospitals, and a medical community that comprises the third-largest employment sector in the Miami Valley combine to make Dayton a primary health care center for southwestern Ohio. Miami Valley Hospital, providing 827 beds, is the city's largest medical facility; Miami Valley operates an air ambulance service and maintains a Level 1 regional trauma center as well as units specializing in kidney dialysis, burn treatment, maternity services, and women's health programs.

In addition to furnishing in-patient and out-patient care, 560-bed Good Samaritan Hospital houses the Family Birthing Center, the Marie-Joseph Living Care Center, and a substance abuse treatment center. St. Elizabeth Medical Center, founded in 1878 near downtown Dayton, provides 631 beds and specializes in family medicine, physical therapy, sports medicine, women's health programs, and senior health care. In suburban Kettering, the Kettering Memorial Hospital/Sycamore Hospital provides 630 beds. Among other medical facilities in Dayton are Children's Medical Center, Grandview Hospital, Dartmouth Hospital, and Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

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Dayton: Transportation

Approaching the City

The destination for the majority of air traffic into Dayton is the Dayton International Airport, near the junction of I-70 and I-75 north of the city. Dayton International is served by nine airlines. In 2004 more than 1.4 million passengers were enplaned at Dayton. Seven general aviation airports are located throughout the Miami Valley.

Highways into metropolitan Dayton include two major interstate freeways, east-west I-70 and north-south I-75; I-675, a bypass connects these highways and provides direct access to the city from Columbus and Cincinnati. U.S. 35 extends from east to west through the southern sector of Dayton. State routes leading into Dayton from points throughout the state and the immediate vicinity are 4, 202, 48, 49all with a general north-south orientation.

Traveling in the City

Regional Transit Authority (RTA) provides regularly scheduled mass transit bus service throughout Montgomery County and in parts of Greene County; RTA operates special routes to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and Wright State and Central State Universities. Dayton is one of the few U.S. cities to have retained an electric trolleybus system.