Skip to main content
Select Source:

Gamaliel

Gamaliel. Name of six Jewish sages, descendants of Hillel, who filled the role of nasi. Rabban Gamaliel ha-Zaken (the elder) (early 1st cent. CE) was responsible for many takkanot. According to Acts 22. 3, he was the teacher of the apostle Paul. Rabban Gamaliel II (late 1st cent.) succeeded Johanan b. Zakkai as nasi and was one of the greatest scholars of his generation. Gamaliel III (early 3rd cent.), the son of Judah ha-Nasi, pronounced invalid the method of ritual slaughter of the Samaritans. Rabban Gamaliel IV was nasi in the late 3rd cent., while Rabban Gamaliel V presided in the late 4th cent. Rabban Gamaliel VI (d. 426) was the final nasi. He was deprived of his position in 415 because he had built a synagogue without permission and had defended the Jews against the Christians.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gamaliel." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 29 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gamaliel." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 29, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/gamaliel

"Gamaliel." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved October 29, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/gamaliel

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Gamaliel

Gamaliel (gəmā´lēəl). 1 In the Bible, Manassite chief. 2 In the New Testament, president of the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem; teacher of St. Paul. He was also known as Gamaliel I, or Gamaliel the Elder. Grandson and disciple of the famous scholar Hillel, he advocated leniency toward Christians. 3 Grandson of Gamaliel I; fl. AD 80. Also known as Gamaliel II, he helped consolidate Judaism after the Jewish war (AD 66–70).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gamaliel." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 29 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gamaliel." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 29, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gamaliel

"Gamaliel." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 29, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gamaliel

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Gamaliel

GAMALIEL

Name of six Palestinian rabbis of the early Christian centuries, all of them descendants of Hillel; the most important among these rabbis are the following.

Gamaliel I or the Elder, active in Jerusalem from c. a.d. 20 to c. 50. According to Josephus (Life 38.190191), Gamaliel belonged to "a highly respected family"; there is no good reason to reject the early Jewish tradition that he was the grandson (or perhaps the son) of Rabbi Hillel. In any case, he was the leading Hillelite as well as the most highly esteemed pharisee of his time. Since the early Tannaim ("repeaters"), such as Gamaliel the Elder, are usually cited anonymously in the talmud, relatively few sayings are ascribed to him expressly by name. But it seems that he took a special interest in social reform, particularly in bettering the legal status of women. This is the Gamaliel from whom St. Paul received his rabbinical education (Acts 22.3). He is also the one mentioned in Acts 5.34: when the Apostles were arrested and brought to trial before the Sanhedrin, "a Pharisee named Gamaliel, a teacher of the law respected by all the people," counseled caution before condemning the Apostles; his speech at this trial (Acts 5.3539) shows that he was skeptical of messianic movements. Because he seemed so well disposed toward the Apostles on this occasion, early Christian legends imagined that he himself later became a Christian (Pseudo-Clement, Recog. 1.6567), even a saint martyred for Christ [see stephen (protomartyr), st.], and an apocryphal Gospel was attributed to him.

Gamaliel II, ben Simeon, known also as Gamaliel of Jabneh to distinguish him from his grandfather Gamaliel the Elder, was active toward the end of the 1st and perhaps the beginning of the 2d century. After the death of johanan ben zakkai (c. a.d. 80), Gamaliel II succeeded him as president of the Sanhedrin at Jabneh. In his efforts to establish a uniform rabbinical law based on the teaching of the Pharisees, he settled all the disputes between the Hillelites and the Shammaites in favor of the former. He drew up the definitive form of the Shemone Esre (the "Eighteen Blessings"), one of the oldest Jewish prayer formulas, to which he added the "prayer against heretics," i.e., Judeo-Christians (Ber. 28b). Because of his harsh use of the ban (excommunication) against scholars who disagreed with him, he was temporarily deposed from the presidency of the Jabneh Sanhedrin.

Gamaliel III (3d century) was the eldest son and successor of judah ha-nasi (grandson of Gamaliel II) as president of the Sanhedrin. During his term of office the final form was given to the mishnah of Juda Ha-Nasi.

Bibliography: d. j. bornstein, Encyclopedia Judaica 7:8089. r. gordis, Universal Jewish Encyclopedia 4:506508. w. bacher, Jewish Encyclopedia 5:558562. k. schubert, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 10 v. (2d new ed. Freiburg 195765) 4:510. c. h. hunzinger, Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 7 v. (3d ed. Tübingen 195765) 2:1197. g. f. moore, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era: The Age of the Tannaim, 3 v. (Cambridge, Mass. 192730).

[j. j. dougherty]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gamaliel." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 29 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gamaliel." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 29, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gamaliel

"Gamaliel." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 29, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gamaliel

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.