Gama, José Basilio da (1741–1795)
Gama, José Basilio da (1741–1795)
José Basilio da Gama (b. 1741; d. 31 July 1795), Brazilian poet. Born in Minas Gerais, Gama studied in Rio de Janeiro under the Jesuits and then in Rome after 1759, when the order was banished from Portuguese possessions. Later, while living in Portugal, he was arrested as a Jesuit sympathizer but escaped exile by gaining favor with the marquês of Pombal, the realm's chief minister. His most famous work, O Uruguai, was published in Lisbon in 1769.
A long poem in ten blank-verse cantos, O Uruguai is constructed around episodes from the War of the Seven Reductions (1752–1756), which the Portuguese and Spanish waged jointly against the Jesuits and their Tupi-guaraní Indian mission congregations in Uruguay. Sometimes regarded as an epic, it has also been considered a lyrical narrative and a poetic drama. The original version had been openly pro-Jesuit, but the published version criticizes the Jesuits scathingly, in consonance with Pombal's policies.
O Uruguai is considered the most important literary work of Brazil's colonial period. It presents sympathetically the inevitable demise of indigenous culture before the advance of white men. Its Indian heroes contributed to its popularity among the romantics, who also admired the freedom of its blank verse and who viewed its pictures of Indian life and the Brazilian landscape as a precursor of the autonomous national literature they sought to create.
Sir Richard F. Burton published a translation of O Uruguai, the Uruguay, in 1878; a modern scholarly edition of the Burton translation, with introduction and notes by Frederick C. H. García and Edward F. Stanton, was published in 1972. David M. Driver, The Indian in Brazilian Literature (1942), pp. 22-33, contains a discussion of the poem.
Brandão, Roberto de Oliveira. Poética e poesia no Brasil (Colônia). São Paulo: Editora UNESP, 2001.
Chaves, Vania Pinheiro. O Uruguai e a fundação da literatura brasileira. Campinas: Editora da Unicamp, 1997.
Teixeira, Ivan. Mecenato pombalino e poesia neoclássica: Basílio da Gama e a poética do encômio. São Paulo: FAPESP: Edusp, 1999.
Norwood Andrews Jr.
"Gama, José Basilio da (1741–1795)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gama-jose-basilio-da-1741-1795
"Gama, José Basilio da (1741–1795)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved July 24, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gama-jose-basilio-da-1741-1795
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.