Klenze, Leo von
Also in 1816 Klenze designed the Leuchtenberg Palace (the first scholarly Italianate building in C19 Germany) on the wide, straight, new Ludwigstrasse running north from the Residenz (Royal Palace). Klenze designed several façades for the Ludwigstrasse, many of which had Florentine Renaissance allusions. Then in 1822 he designed the Neo-Renaissance Pinakothek (Picture Gallery), built 1826–36, to display the Royal Collection: the architecture drew on the Palazzo Cancellaria, Rome, and on the Belvedere cortile in the Vatican, but its clear, logical plan and top-lit galleries were influential, and the building was expressive of its purpose. When Ludwig ascended the Throne in 1825, Klenze was commissioned to add various buildings to the Residenz. These were the Königsbau (King's Building—1826–35), in which elements of the Palazzo Pitti and Palazzo Rucellai, both in Florence, were mixed; the Allerheiligenhofkirche (Court Church of All Saints—1826–37), an important essay in the Rundbogenstil, with quotations from the Palatine Chapel, Palermo, San Marco, Venice, and Lombardic Romanesque; and the remodelling of the north front, the Festsaalbau (Festive Assembly Room building—1832–42).
Klenze's greatest buildings are his public monuments, which testify to his deep feeling for the architecture of Greek Antiquity. Walhalla, near Regensburg (1830–42), is a Greek Revival temple, based on the Parthenon and set on a high stepped platform derived partly from the image of F. Gilly's proposed monument to Frederick the Great (1797), and partly from an earlier scheme for the site by Haller von Hallerstein (1814–15). The rich polychrome interior, illuminated from above, is not unlike C. R. Cockerell's sensitive and scholarly drawings of the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae, while the exposed decorated roof-trusses recall Hittorff's work at St-Vincent-de-Paul, Paris, which was contemporary. Then came the Propyläen (Propylaeum), Königsplatz, Munich (1846–60), with Graeco-Egyptian pylon-towers flanking the Greek Doric porticoes; the Ruhmeshalle (Hall of Fame), Munich (1843–54), a Greek Doric stoa-like colonnade terminating at each end in projecting pedimented wings, essentially a shelter for portrait-busts of eminent Bavarians (it is particularly interesting in that its composition is similar to that of the Hellenistic Great Altar of Pergamon, which had not been discovered when Klenze designed the Ruhmeshalle, so he is revealed as an architect with a natural affinity for Ancient Greek Buildings); and the Befreiungshalle (Liberation Hall), near Kelheim (1842–63), a drum surrounded by buttresses, with a Roman Doric colonnade around the upper part. These four monuments are among the noblest works of C19 architecture in all Europe.
When Prince Otto of Bavaria (1815–67), second son of King Ludwig I, was chosen as King of Greece in 1832, Klenze prepared an ambitious plan for Athens, including a vast new museum and elaborate proposals for the protection of ancient monuments, but only the RC Cathedral of St Dionysus (1844–53), a Neo-Renaissance basilica, was built. Klenze was more fortunate in his dealings with the Russians, for whom he demonstrated his skills in the huge Neo-Classical addition he designed for the Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg (1839–51), one of the very finest buildings of the European Classical Revival. He was a master of synthesis of styles, and was equally at home with most of them. As a Neo-Classicist, however, he was in the first rank.
Klenze (1830–50, 1833, 1843);
Lieb & Hufnagel (ed.) (1979);
Nerdinger (ed.) (1980, 1987);
Watkin & and Mellinghoff (1987)
"Klenze, Leo von." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/klenze-leo-von
"Klenze, Leo von." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved April 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/klenze-leo-von
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
Klenze, Leo von
Leo von Klenze (lā´ō fən klĕn´tsə), 1784–1864, German architect and landscape and portrait painter. He was court architect to Jérôme Bonaparte of Westphalia and to Louis I of Bavaria, for whom he built many structures in the Italian Renaissance and neo-classical styles. His chief works in Munich were the Glyptothek (1816–30), the Pinakothek, and the Odeon (1828). In 1839 he began additions to the Hermitage in St. Petersburg.
"Klenze, Leo von." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/klenze-leo-von
"Klenze, Leo von." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/klenze-leo-von