Leo of St. John
LEO OF ST. JOHN
Carmelite of the Touraine Reform; b. Rennes, France, July 9, 1600; d. Paris, Dec. 30, 1671. He was a man of prodigiously extensive interests and accomplishments. He promoted reform within his own order and held all its most important offices, except that of general. He was a friend of Richelieu and later of Mazarin, whose policies he generally supported, in spite of his connections with the devout party. Although Leo was a conciliator in the Jansenist conflict, he was nevertheless attacked violently by Arnauld. He maintained important political, religious, and intellectual relations with the royal family, great statemen, the nobility, the intellectuals, St. Vincent de Paul, Innocent X, and many cardinals. He was a precursor of Bossuet and wrote a remarkable Traité de l'éloquence Chrétienne (in Année royale, 1, Paris 1655). He entered successfully into the controversy with the Calvinists. His L'Économie de la vraie religion (Paris 1643), was an important work, whose apologetic, completely different from that of Pascal, and foreshadowing Malebranche, took its inspiration from medieval Augustinian rationalism, notably that of Raymond Lull. A Dionysian and Augustinian, Leo can neither be listed among the Thomists nor among the "devout humanists." He was a major instrument in spreading Bérulle's spirituality.
Bibliography: c. de villiers, Bibliotheca carmelitana, 2 v. in 1 (Rome 1927) 2:235–246. p. anastase de s. paul, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, 15 v. (Paris 1903–50) 9.1:394–396. j. p. massaut, "Léon de Saint-Jean … prédicateur et théologien encyclopédique," Carmelus 8 (1961): 27–62; "Autour de Richelieu et de Mazarin: Le carme Léon de Saint-Jean et la grande politique," Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine 7 (1960): 11–46; "Thomisme et augustinisme dans l'apologétique du XVIIe siècle," Revue des sciences philosophiques et théolgiques 44 (1960): 617–638; "Humaniste ou augustinien? Le carme Léon de Saint-Jean et l'antiquité classique," Revue des études augustiniennes, Aug. 7 (1961): 373–388.
[j. p. massaut]
"Leo of St. John." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 22, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/leo-st-john
"Leo of St. John." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved March 22, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/leo-st-john
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.