Vivanco, Manuel Ignacio (1806–1873)

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Vivanco, Manuel Ignacio (1806–1873)

Manuel Ignacio Vivanco (b. 1806; d. 1873), conservative Peruvian military caudillo. Born in Lima, the son of a Spanish merchant, Vivanco was educated in the traditional San Carlos school. He joined the independence forces to fight the decisive battles of Junín and Ayacucho. After Independence Vivanco sided with several military leaders, including Pedro Bermúdez, the conservative Felipe Santiago Salaverry, and Agustín Gamarra, who opposed the Peru-Bolivia Confederation. In 1841, Vivanco campaigned on behalf of his own "regenerating" movement with the undemocratic intent of strong government to end the caudillo struggle.

Especially strong in the southern provinces of Arequipa, Vivanco was able to control power during the multiple military uprisings of the early 1840s. However, in 1844, his archenemy, General Ramón Castilla, was able to defeat Vianco's forces and initiate a gradual reorganization of the Peruvian state. Vivanco continued to oppose Castilla. In the elections of 1850 he ran against Castilla's official candidate, José R. Echenique. In 1856 he started a revolution against Castilla in Arequipa. During the beleaguered regime of Juan Antonio Pezet, Vivanco was the Peruvian representative who in 1865 signed the popularly repudiated Vivanco-Pareja Treaty that led to the ousting of Pezet and the decline of Vivanco's popularity. He died in Valparaíso, Chile.

See alsoPeru: Peru Since Independence .


Jorge Basadre, Historia de la República del Perú, vol. 3 (1963), pp. 697-707.

Celia Wu, Generals and Diplomats: Great Britain and Peru, 1820–40 (1991).

Additional Bibliography

Chirinos Soto, Enrique. Vidas paralelas: Vivanco y Piérola. Lima: Talleres Gráficos Villanueva, 1966.

                                Alfonso W. Quiroz