Fernández de Córdoba, Diego (1578–1630)

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Fernández de Córdoba, Diego (1578–1630)

Diego Fernández de Córdoba (marqués de Guadalcázar; b. 1578; d. 1630), viceroy of Mexico and Peru. Born in Seville, Guadalcázar served as viceroy of New Spain from 1612 until 1621, when he moved to Peru, serving as viceroy there until 1629. During his reign in New Spain he was noted for the establishment of the tribunal de tributos (tribute court) and for two important public works projects: the continuing effort to drain the Valley of Mexico and the construction of the castle of San Diego in Acapulco.

In Peru, Guadalcázar put down a civil war in Potosí between the "Vicuñas" (Creoles) and "Vascongados" (Peninsulars). A Dutch fleet threatened the coast in 1624–1625, forcing the viceroy to fortify the coastal towns of the kingdom. Because the mercury mines at Huancavelica continued to pose health problems to the Indian miners, Guadalcázar eliminated nighttime mine activity and reduced the number of Indians assigned to the mines in the Mita. He sought to improve communications through the construction and maintenance of bridges. Rather than depend on a legal adviser, he took an active role in supervising lawsuits dealing with Indians. Although he, like his predecessor, attempted to deal with the issue of the Potosí mita, no concrete changes were implemented. He died in Córdoba, Spain.

See alsoMining: Colonial Spanish America; New Spain, Viceroyalty of.


Manuel De Mendiburu, Diccionario histórico-biográfico del Perú, 8 vols. (1874–1890).

Additional Bibliography

Téllez Lúgaro, Eduardo. "El informe del marqués de Guadalcázar al rey: un testimonio colonial acerca de la mita, las encomiendas y los indios atacameños." Cuadernos de Historia 6 (July 1986): 135-141.

                                John F. Schwaller

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Fernández de Córdoba, Diego (1578–1630)

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Fernández de Córdoba, Diego (1578–1630)