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Fernández, Emilio

FERNÁNDEZ, Emilio



Nationality: Mexican. Born: In Hondo, Coahuila, 26 March 1904. Also known as "El Indio." Family: Married 1) Gladys Fernández, 1941 (divorced), one daughter; 2) actress Columbia Domínguez (divorced), one daughter; 3) Gloria Cabiedes (divorced), one son; 4) Beatriz (divorced). Career: Took part in the rebellion of Adolfo de la Huerta against the Mexican government, captured and sentenced to prison, but escaped to United States, 1923; actor in California, returned to Mexico following amnesty, 1934; directed first film, 1941; served six months of four–and–one–half–year sentence for manslaughter, 1976. Awards: Best Film, Cannes Festival, for María Candelaria, 1946. Died: In Mexico City, 6 August 1986.

Films as Director and Co-Scriptwriter:

1941

La isla de la pasión (Passion Island)

1942

Soypuro mexicano

1943

Flor silvestre (+ role as Rogelio Torres); María Candelaria

1944

Las abandonadas; Bugambilia

1945

Pepita Jiménez; La perla (The Pearl)

1946

Enamorada

1947

Río Escondido (Hidden River)

1948

Maclovia; Salón México; Pueblerina

1949

La malquerida; Duelo en las montañas; Del odio nació el amor (The Torch; The Beloved)

1950

Undia de vida; Victimas del pecado; Islas Marías; Siempre Tuya

1951

La bien amada; Acapulco; El mar y tú

1952

Cuando levanta la niebla

1953

La red (The Net); Reportaje; El rapto; La rosa blanca

1954

La rebelión de los colgados; Nostros dos

1955

La Tierra de Fuego se apaga

1956

Una cita de amor; El imposter

1961

Pueblito

1963

Paloma herida

1967

Un dorado de Pancho Villa (A Loyal Soldier of Pancho Villa)

1968

El crepúscolo de un Dios

1973

La Choca

1975

Zona roja

1977

México norte

1978

Erótica



Films as Actor:

1927

The Gaucho (Jones)

1933

Flying down to Rio (Freeland) (as dancer)

1934

Corazón bandolero (Sevilla) (as Chacal); Cruz Diablo (De Fuentes) (as Toparca); Tribu (Contreras); Janitzio (Navarro) (as Zirahuén)

1935

Mariá Elena (Sevilla) (as dancer); Celos (Boytler)

1936

Marijuana (El monstruo verde) (Bohr) (as El Indio); Las mujeres mandan (De Fuentes) (as dancer); Allá en el Rancho Grande (De Fuentes) (as dancer); El superloco (Segura) (as Idúa); El Impostor (Kirkland)

1937

Adiós Nicanor (Portas) (as Nicanor); Las cuatro milpas (Pereda)

1938

Aquí llego el valentón (El fanfarron) (Rivero); Juan sin miedo (Segura) (as Valentín)

1939

Con los dorados de Villa (de Anda); Los de abajo (Con la División del Norte) (Urueta)

1940

El Charro Negro (de Anda); Rancho alegre (Aguila); El zorro de Jalisco (Benavides) (as Ernesto)

1958

La Cucaracha (I. Rodríguez) (as Coronel Antonia Zeta)

1961

Los hermanos de Hierro (I. Rodríguez) (as Pascual Velasco)

1962

La Bandida (R. Rodríguez) (as Epigmenio Gómez)

1963

El revólver sangriento (Delgado) (as Félix Gómez); Night of the Iguana (Huston) (as barman, also assoc d)

1964

Los Hermanos Muerte (Baledón) (as Marcos Zermeño); Yo, el valiente (Corona Blake) (as El Cuervo); La recta final (Taboada) (as Lucio); Un callejón sin salida (Baledón) (as Antonio)

1965

Duelo de pistoleros (Delgado) (as Pancho Gatillo Romero); La conquista de El Dorado (Portillo) (as Indio Romo); Un tipo difícil de matar (Portillo) (as Ringo); Los malvados (Corona Blake) (as Emilio); The Reward (Bourgignon); Return of the Seven (Kennedy)

1966

El silencioso (Mariscal) (as Emilio Segura); The Appaloosa (Furie); The War Wagon (Kennedy)

1967

El caudillo (Mariscal); El jinete fantasma (Zugsmith); Cuando corre el alazán (Mendoza)

1968

El Yaqui (Martínez)

1969

The Wild Bunch (Peckinpah)

1971

Indio (de Anda)

1972

Derecho de asilo (Zeceña); El rincón de las Virgenes (Isaac); Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid (Peckinpah)

1973

Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia (Peckinpah)

1980

Las cabareteras (Cisneros); Una gallina muy ponedora (Portillo); Ahora mis pistolas hablan (Orozco)

1983

Mi abuelo, mi perro y yo (Fernández); Los amantes (Vega); Mercenarios (Cisneros); Under the Volcano (Huston); El tesoro del Amazonas (Cardona); Lola la trailera (Fernández)

1985

Cuando corrió el alazán (Perez)



Publications


By FERNÁNDEZ: books—


En su propio espejo (Entrevista con Emilio "El Indio" Fernández), edited by Julia Tuñon, Mexico City, 1988.

By FERNÁNDEZ: articles—

"After the Revolution," in Films and Filming (London), June 1963.

Interview in The Mexican Cinema: Interviews with 13 Directors, by Beatriz Reyes Navares, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1976.

On FERNÁNDEZ: books—

Riera, Emilio García, Historia documental del cine mexicano, vols. 1–9, Mexico City, 1969.

Blanco, Jorge Ayala, La aventura del cine mexicano, Mexico City, 1979.

Mora, Carl, Mexican Cinema: Reflections of a Society, 1896–1980, Berkeley, 1982.

de Luna, Andrés, La batalla y su sombra (La revolución en el cinemexicano), Mexico City, 1984.

Blanco, Jorge Ayala, La condición del cine mexicano, Mexico City, 1986.

Fernández, Adela, El Indio Fernández: Vida y mito, Mexico City, 1986.

Taibo, Paco Ignacio, El Indio Fernández: El cine por mis pistolas, Mexico City, 1986.

de los Reyes, Aurelio, Medio Siglo de cine mexicano (1896–1947), Mexico City, 1987.


On FERNÁNDEZ: articles—

"El Indio," in Time (New York), 11 November 1946.

Ellis, K., "Stranger than Fiction: Emilio Fernandez' Mexico," in Journal of Popular Film (Washington, D.C.), Spring 1982.

Cuel, F., and J.P. Royer, "Emilio Fernandez," in Cinématographe (Paris), April 1982.

Tesson, C., "Portrait d'Emilio Fernandez en metteur en scène," in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), May 1982.

Mraz, John, "Of Churros and Charros," in Jump Cut (Berkeley), no. 29, 1984.

Obituaries in Hollywood Reporter, 8 and 19 August 1986.

Obituary in Variety (New York), 13 August 1986.

Obituary in Revue du Cinema, no. 420, October 1986.

Dávalos, Federico, "Por México: La leyenda del Indio Fernández," in Pantalla (Mexico City), November 1986.

Vertrova, T., "Pamjati Emilio Fernandesa," in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 2, February 1987.

Rozado, Alejandro, "Lo trágico en el cine de Emilio Fernández," in Dicine (Mexico City), November 1987.


* * *

If he did not already exist, it would be necessary to invent Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. His manneristic visual style, his folkloric themes and characters, and his distinctively Indian physiognomy made him an integral element of Mexico's culture of nationalism, as well as the nation's best-known director. Fleeing Mexico after the defeat of his faction in the rebellion of 1923, Fernández ended up digging ditches in Hollywood. As has been the case with so many Latin American artists and intellectuals, Fernández discovered his fatherland by leaving it: "I understood that it was possible to create a Mexican cinema, with our own actors and our own stories. . . . From then on the cinema became a passion with me, and I began to dream of Mexican films." Making Mexican cinema became Fernández's obsession and, as is so often true of cultural nationalism, a short-term gain was to turn into a long-term dead end.

Perhaps that which most distinguishes Fernández's films is their strikingly beautiful visual style. Fernández and Gabriel Figueroa, the cinematographer, created the classical visual form of Mexican cinema. Ironically, their expressive cinematic patriotism was significantly inspired by foreign models—the most important of which was that of Sergei Eisenstein and his cameraman Eduard Tisse. Fernández evidently saw Qué Viva Mexico! in Hollywood, and he later played the lead in Janitzio, a film influenced by Eisenstein and the documentaries of Robert Flaherty and Willard Van Dyke. He even went on to "re-make" Qué Viva Mexico! twice with Maria Candelaria and Maclovia. Another important antecedent was Paul Strand's photography in Los Redes, which must itself have reflected Eisenstein's examples as well as Strand's experiences in the Film and Photo League.

Foreign models were prominent at a formal level, but nationalism was presumably communicated in the content of the visual images. The films of Fernández and Figueroa are a celebration of Mexico's natural beauty: stony Indian faces set off by dark rebozos and white shirts, charros and their stallions riding through majestic cactus formations, fishermen and their nets reflected in the swirling ocean tides, flower vendors in Xochimilco's canals moving past long lines of tall poplar trees; and over it all, the monumentally statuesque masses of rolling clouds made impossibly luminous by photographic filters.

In the earlier films, the incredible beauty of the visual structures functioned as a protagonist, providing context for the story and resonating with the characters' emotions. However, Fernández and Figueroa apparently became victims of their own myths, for their later films manifest a coldness and immobility which indicate an emphasis on visual form at the expense of other cinematic concerns. The dangers inherent in their "tourist" images of Mexico were ever-present, of course; but they became increasingly obvious with the petrification of the style.

Fernández's stories have been summed up by Carlos Monsivais, a leading Mexican critic, as "monothematic tragedies: the couple is destroyed by the fate of social incomprehension, Nature is the essence of the Motherland, beauty survives crime, those who sacrifice themselves for others understand the world." One is tempted to add: the Indian is a cretin, the charro a blustering macho, women are long-suffering and self-denying saints—and the revolution a confused tangle of meaningless atrocities.

Fernández's picturesque myths still retain vigor in the statist nationalism which dominates ideological discourse in Mexico. And, judging from the international attention that Fernández received for his early works, they were evidently also what the world expected from Mexican cinema. The pity is that Emilio "El Indio" Fernández did not demand a little more from himself.

—John Mraz

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