The ancient city situated on the Orontes in what is now Syria. The word comes from the Greek 'Aντιόχεια (Latin Antiochia ). It was "the first place in which the disciples were called Christians" (Acts 11.26), and was especially fitted to be the center of the mission to the Gentiles.
The Apostles. Founded in 300 b.c. by Seleucus, a general of Alexander the Great, Antioch was a center of communications by land and also by sea through its port, Seleucia Pieria. The population was cosmopolitan and judaism was familiar to some of the people because of the presence of an important Jewish colony, which provided an opportunity for Gentiles to hear the Old Testament read in Greek at synagogue services. Nicholas, one of the seven deacons in Jerusalem, was a proselyte from Antioch (Acts 6.5). Thus when some Greek-speaking Christians fled to Antioch from persecution in Jerusalem, they were able to preach to Greeks (Acts 11.19–21), some
of whom may have already been acquainted with Judaism. Barnabas and Paul converted "a great multitude," and there were five "prophets and teachers" at the head of the local community—Barnabas, Simon Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manahen, and Paul (Acts 13.1). The presence of both Jewish and Gentile Christians raised the question of whether the Jewish law (e.g., concerning food and circumcision) should be extended to Gentile converts. The famous dispute between Peter and Paul (Galatians 2) resulted, and Paul devoted himself to the Gentile mission, using Antioch as the base for his journeys. The ultimate fate of the Jewish Christian community is not known. According to tradition, Peter was the founder of the Church at Antioch and its first bishop. Luke the Evangelist was said to be from Antioch. The Gnostic teachers Menander, Basilides, and Satornilus were active there.
Pagans and Arians. The first figure in the post-Apostolic Church at Antioch known in any detail is Bishop ignatius of antioch, martyred at Rome under Trajan (98–117). His letters are important evidence for the development and emergence of the episcopate, showing
the function and authority of the bishop at the head of the threefold ministry of bishop, presbyters, and deacons. Prominent figures in the early Church at Antioch were Babylas, a bishop martyred in the persecution of Decius (249–51), and paul of samosata (260–72), a heretical bishop deposed by a local council for his Christological doctrine. By the time of the persecution of Diocletian, the Christian community at Antioch was sufficiently large to have a number of martyrs, including Saint romanus, one of the most important local saints. In the Arian controversy, local councils (325, 341) formulated anti-Arian creeds, but Antiochene theologians were inclined to accept Arian ideas; Arian or crypto-Arian bishops came into power and a council in 361 issued an extreme Arian creed. Often during this period there were two rival bishops of Antioch: one Arian, supported by the local congregation; the other orthodox, supported by the imperial government. In addition, there was for a time a schism within the orthodox, "Nicene," party, so that at times there were two "Nicene" bishops.
The Emperor julian the apostate (361–63) made Antioch the headquarters of his campaign to suppress Christianity and restore paganism, and a number of Christians, especially in the army, were martyred at Antioch. Julian's efforts, though unsuccessful, made such an impression on the Christians that they joined to seek a solution of their doctrinal differences. The Arian emperor Valens in 365 inaugurated a persecution of the orthodox Christians at Antioch which continued until 376. Peace was made within the Church at Antioch when Valens's successor, Gratianus, in 378 issued a rescript of toleration. The restoration of orthodoxy was celebrated by a council in 379 and by the construction of the cruciform church of Saint Babylas, which was found in the excavations. Saint Jerome visited Antioch in 374 to 375. After a period of retirement in the desert east of Chalcis, he returned to Antioch and was ordained there. The latter part of the 4th century is one of the best-known periods of the Christian history of Antioch, thanks to the writings of Saint john chrysostom, a leading figure in the local community from his ordination as deacon in 381 until his departure in 398 to become archbishop of Constantinople. Like many Christians, Chrysostom studied Greek literature and rhetoric under Libanius, the celebrated pagan teacher who at this time was the leading citizen of the city. The simultaneous careers of teacher and pupil exemplify the interaction between paganism and Christianity at Antioch at this period.
Patriarchate Rivalry, Nestorius. The status of Antioch among the great churches was altered by the Council of Constantinople in 381. Since Nicaea (325) Antioch and Alexandria had been recognized as preeminent in the East. Now Constantinople sought recognition for its see corresponding to its political prestige as imperial capital, and in 381 the Church of Constantinople was given first place after that of Rome. One purpose of the pronouncement was to put down the pretensions of Alexandria, but it also had the effect of reducing the prestige of Antioch.
In the time of Chrysostom, Christians were being attracted to the Jewish cult at Antioch. The ceremonial, the fasts, the monotheistic teaching, and the reputed healing powers of the relics of Jewish martyrs, all drew Christians, especially women, to the synagogues. During the reign of Theodosius II (408–50) Saint Simeon Stylites was a popular and influential figure in all the region of Antioch. On his death (459) his body was buried in a church built for the purpose at Antioch. Under Theodosius a council at Antioch (424) condemned Pelagius (see pelagius and pelagianism). Theodore of Mopsuestia, who had been trained at Antioch, continued his important Christological studies along the lines indicated by diodore of tarsus. Theodore's pupil at Antioch, nestorius, who became archbishop of Constantinople, carried the same line of investigation further, and a major controversy was precipitated, in which Antioch, supporting Nestorius's views that there were two separate Persons in the Incarnate Christ, came into conflict with alexandria, whose patriarch cyril became Nestorius's chief opponent. A council at Antioch in 430 warned Nestorius to avoid excess. At the Council of Ephesus in 431 Nestorius was deposed, the Antiochene party was defeated by Cyril of Alexandria, and the territorial jurisdiction of the Antiochene See was reduced in favor of the See of Jerusalem. At the end of the council Nestorius by imperial order was confined in his old monastery outside Antioch. Two synods were later held at Antioch at which peace with Alexandria was restored. The Nestorians remained influential in Syria and another council at Ephesus in 449 took such measures against them that it became known as the Latrocinium or Robber Council. Though the Council of Chalcedon (451) convened in order to undo the injustices of the Latrocinium, its definition of the faith only produced further dissension. Syria and Egypt, in reaction against the Chalcedonian formula for the nature of Christ, became predominantly Monophysite.
Monophysitism. The whole history of Antioch until the Arab conquest was colored by its being one of the strongholds of monophysitism. Some scholars have considered that the Monophysite heresy combined with Syrian and Egyptian nationalism to produce a heightened opposition to the imperial government as the representative of Chalcedonian orthodoxy. This hostility developed into a separatist movement which in time facilitated the conquest of Syria and Egypt by the Persians and the Arabs, who were welcomed by the dissident Monophysites as being less oppressive than the Constantinopolitan government.
The story of the remainder of the 5th and 6th century is dominated by the struggle between Chalcedonians and Monophysites for control of the Church at Antioch and in the rest of Syria. One of the prominent Monophysites, Peter the Fuller, was bishop of Antioch on four separate occasions. In 488 he brought to a head the old dispute about the ecclesiastical supremacy of Antioch over Cyprus. Antioch, as an apostolic foundation, claimed ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Cyprus, whose Church (Antioch asserted) was not of apostolic origin. However, the alleged discovery in Cyprus of the perfectly preserved body of Saint barnabas, holding on his chest a copy of the Gospel of Matthew written in Barnabas's own hand, was taken as proof that the Church in Cyprus was apostolic, and the Emperor Zeno pronounced it to be ecclesiastically autonomous. The accession of the Emperor Anastasius (491–518), who favored the Monophysites, brought heightened disorders in Antioch, culminating in the election of the prominent Monophysite Severus as bishop. In addition to a permanent resident synod which Severus established, special synods convened at Antioch in 513 and 515 to enforce Severus's policies; but he had to flee when the orthodox Justin I (518–27) succeeded Anastasius. The ecclesiastical fortunes of the Monophysites were reversed. The circus factions, which had become powerful political influences in all large cities, continued the street fighting which kept cities such as Antioch and Constantinople in continual unrest. The Green faction had been Monophysite; the Blue faction, orthodox. The government began a veritable persecution of the Monophysites, which continued with increased severity under Justinian (527–565). All this time, however, the Monophysites managed to maintain an organized church, with a complete hierarchy, throughout Syria. This was a national Syrian church, known as the Jacobite Church from its leader, James baradai. Justinian's reign witnessed the remarkable series of disasters which marked the end of ancient Antioch. A devastating fire (525) was followed by two severe earthquakes (526, 528), all resulting in serious losses in population and economic activity. The culmination was the capture and sack of the city by the Persians (540). Antioch continued to exist until it was taken by the Persians (611) and the Arabs (638), but it never recovered its ancient greatness. Under the Arabs it soon shrank to a village.
Pagan Survivals. Reports of Justinian's vigorous persecution of pagans and heretics indicate that paganism survived to some extent at Antioch, as at other old pagan centers, such as Athens. Even after Justinian's death a number of pagan priests were discovered in Antioch and in 578 a bishop of Antioch was accused of taking part, with another Christian priest, in the sacrifice of a boy. He was able to clear himself before a court in Constantinople, but the fact that the charge could be made is significant of the strength of paganism.
Theological School. As an ancient center of Greek learning, Antioch offered excellent facilities for the study of Greek philosophy and rhetoric, and the terms of Greek philosophy and the methods of Greek speculation had an important influence on the thought of the Antiochene theologians. A regular "school" of theology was flourishing under lucian of antioch (martyred 312), if not earlier. Theologians trained in this school followed Aristotelian, historical, and philological methods, in contrast to the Platonic, mystical approach of the great rival school of Alexandria. Lucian's scientific study of the text of the Bible was the examplar of the famous Antiochene Biblical scholarship, which combined meticulous textual criticism with literal exegesis, as against the allegorical method popular at Alexandria. Prominent representatives of Antiochene theology were marcellus of ancyra; Chrysostom; Diodore, later bishop of Tarsus; Theodore of Mopsuestia; Nestorius; and theodoret of cyr. Beginning with the heretical teaching of Paul of Samosata on the Person of Christ, Antioch tended toward an insistence on the oneness of God, which in time made the city a stronghold of Arianism. In the Christological controversies of the 5th century, the Antiochene emphasis on the humanity of Christ clashed with the Alexandrian tendency to stress the Divine Nature of the Incarnate Christ.
Art and Archeology. Excavations conducted at Antioch, the suburb Daphne, and the seaport Seleucia Pieria (1932–39) obtained important results, but time did not allow extensive exploration and much remains to be excavated. Objects found in the excavations are preserved in the museum at Antioch, in the Louvre, and in museums in the United States. The city plan can be restored in its main features from surface indications, archeological evidence, literary testimonia, and air photography. Along with topographical evidence, many fine mosaic floors were found in houses, public baths, churches, and luxurious suburban villas. A unique discovery was the topographical border of a large mosaic floor in a villa at Daphne depicting a tour of Antioch and Daphne (late 5th century). The route illustrated corresponds with the itinerary described by Libanius in his encomium of Antioch (356). The scenes in the border are a precious source for contemporary architecture and daily life, illustrating dress, food, occupations, social life, recreations, and worship. This mosaic and Libanius's description of Antioch offer a view of Antiochene life that is not available for other cities in this epoch.
The city having suffered from frequent natural disasters and pillage, Christian archeological remains found in the excavations were not extensive, but the style of the local church architecture and liturgical silver is known from discoveries made elsewhere. Antioch and Constantinople were centers for the manufacture of gold and silver liturgical vessels and church ornaments, and numerous examples of silversmith work, both secular and religious, found in Syria illustrate the style and craftsmanship of the Antiochene workshops. The celebrated Chalice of Antioch is a fine example of 4th-century work.
No early house churches such as those at Ostia and dura-europos were found, but later Antiochene structures had an important influence on church architecture. The famous octagonal church of Constantine the Great, the Domus Aurea or Golden House, was the prototype of the great pilgrimage church of Saint Simeon Stylites in the mountains east of Antioch, and the Church of Saint Babylas was an important early example of the cruciform plan. Names of a number of churches are preserved in literary texts and the topographical border at Daphne illustrates "the ergasterion of the martyrium," evidently the workshop at the shrine of Saint Babylas at Daphne where religious objects and souvenirs for pilgrims were manufactured. The Greek and Latin inscriptions of Antioch and its vicinity contain a number of Christian texts recording the building of churches, dedications and offerings, and names of bishops, priests, and church officials. A number of Christian epitaphs also have been found.
Bibliography: g. downey, A History of Antioch in Syria from Seleucus to the Arab Conquest (Princeton 1961), bibliography; Ancient Antioch (Princeton 1963). l. a. jalabert and r. mouterde, eds., Inscriptions grecques et latines de la Syrie (Paris 1929–), v.3 contains the inscriptions from Antioch, Daphne, and vicinity. c. h. kraeling, "The Jewish Community at Antioch," Journal of Biblical Literature 51 (1932) 130–60. g. downey, tr., "Libanius' Oration in Praise of Antioch (Oration XI)," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 103 (1959) 652–86. a. j. festugiÈre, Antioche païenne et chrétienne (Paris 1959). r. devreesse, Le Patriarcat d'Antioche (Paris 1945). m. h. sheperd, jr., "The Formation and Influence of the Antiochene Liturgy," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 15 (1961) 25–44. Antioch-on-the-Orontes, v.1–4 (Princeton 1934–52), reports on the excavations. d. levi, Antioch Mosaic Pavements (Princeton 1947), complete publication and study of all floors discovered. h. h. arnason, "The History of the Chalice of Antioch," The Biblical Archaelogist 4 (1941) 49–64; 5 (1942) 10–16. g. downey, Antioch in the Age of Theodosius the Great (Norman, Okla. 1962). b. m. metzger, "The Lucianic Recension of the Greek Bible," Chapters in the History of New Testament Textual Criticism (Leiden 1963). e. c. dodd, Byzantine Silver Stamps (Washington 1961), on hallmarks used at Antioch and elsewhere.
ANTIOCH (Turk. Antakya ), city in southern Turkey, on the lower Orontes (Asi) near the Syrian border. Population (2004): 158,400. Part of Syria under the French mandate, it was annexed to Turkey in 1939 along with the district of Alexandretta (*Iskenderun) and made into the capital of the province of Hatay.
Antioch was founded by Seleucus Nicator in 300 b.c.e. and became the capital of the Seleucid Empire. In antiquity Antioch was an important Jewish center, and from its foundation full rights were bestowed upon the Jews. When the inhabitants
rebelled against Demetrius ii in 142 b.c.e., the soldiers of *Jonathan the Hasmonean were sent to quell the revolt and set the city in flames. There must have been a considerable number of Jews in Antioch by the second century b.c.e. Josephus praises the beauty of its great synagogue, and there were doubtless a number of other places of worship. Antioch had no special Jewish quarter as had *Alexandria, Jews being apparently dispersed throughout the city. *Hannah and her seven sons are said to have been buried in Antioch and it is possible that the martyrdom recounted in the Second and Fourth books of the Maccabees occurred in Antioch; iv*Maccabees could in fact be, in essence, the oration of a Jew of Antioch in memory of these martyrs. The Christians too, later honored the martyrs' grave, which, according to them, was situated in the Kerataion quarter, near the synagogue. The franchise of the Jews in Antioch was engraved on bronze tablets set up in a public place in the city. During the Roman period the Jewish population grew and was augmented by many proselytes. After the Roman war of 66–70 the inhabitants of Antioch asked Titus to expel the Jews from the city, and to destroy the tablets on which the Jewish privileges were inscribed, but he refused. Nevertheless, according to later chroniclers, the Romans erected a splendid memorial to celebrate their victory and set up the *cherubim taken from the Temple in Jerusalem on one of the western gateways of the city, which was consequently called "The Gate of the Cherubim." This, however, appears to be a late legend. The Jewish community of Antioch maintained permanent commercial ties with Palestine and took an interest in the spiritual life of their coreligionists there. In the second century, Abba Judah of Antioch contributed liberally to the maintenance of the Palestinian scholars, many of whom visited Antioch.
Antioch played an important role in the history of Christianity. Here for the first time, in the days of the Apostles, the members of the new faith were called "Christians" (Messianists). The first Christians were, of course, Jews, but already in the days of Paul, pagans also joined their ranks. Barnabas visited Antioch, where he dwelt together with Paul. When the apostle Peter came to Antioch he ate with the pagans, but when messengers arrived from James, the brother of Jesus, who was a Nazarene, Peter felt ashamed and withdrew from the pagan society, Barnabas following suit. According to a tradition of the church fathers, Peter headed the Christian church of Antioch for seven years.
Antioch became a center of Christian learning and the Antiochian school of theology, which flourished in the third and fourth centuries c.e., was particularly renowned. Unlike the school of Caesarea, which interpreted the Bible allegorically and in accordance with speculative philosophy, the Antiochian school expounded the Scriptures in conformity with their historical and literal meaning. The biblical commentaries composed by this school in the fourth and fifth centuries c.e. are of great importance. In Antioch, various means were used to counteract the great influence which the Jews had upon the local Christians. The synod of Antioch (341) forbade the Christians to celebrate Easter when the Jews were observing Passover, and John Chrysostom of Antioch, in his six sermons (c. 366–387), vituperatively denounced those Christians in Antioch who attended synagogues and resorted to the Jewish law courts.
When Christianity became the state religion, the position of the Jews of Antioch deteriorated. The Jews of Imnestar were accused of having crucified a Christian boy on the feast of Purim, and the Antiochian Christians destroyed the synagogue (423 c.e.). When the emperor Theodosius ii restored it, he was rebuked by Simon Stylites and refrained from defending the Jews. In the brawls between the sport factions known as the "blues" and the "greens," many Jews were killed.
When the Persians threatened the *Byzantine Empire, Emperor Phocas attempted to force the Jews of Antioch to convert to Christianity. In revenge the Antiochian Jews are alleged to have attacked the Christians (608 c.e.) and killed the patriarch Anastasius. When the rebellion was suppressed, many Jews were slain or exiled. From this date on there is little further information about the Jews of Antioch. *Benjamin of Tudela (c. 1171) found only about ten Jewish families there, most of whom were glass manufacturers.
Under Ottoman rule (1516–1918) there was always a Jewish community in Antioch, and it was reinforced by immigrants from *Corfu and *Aleppo. By the middle of the 18th century there were 40 Jewish families and several rabbis in residence. The community followed the Sephardi rite. However, when the English traveler A. Buckingham visited Antioch around 1816 he found only 20 Jewish families, who met for prayers in a private house on the Sabbath. The Jewish population seems to have increased later on and by 1894 there were three to four hundred Jews.
Under the Turkish Republic many Jews left and the community dwindled once again. In 1977 there were only 164 Jews living in the city, divided among three large families. Most of them were textile merchants. There was one synagogue in operation, but no rabbi.
S. Krauss, in: rej, 45 (1902), 27–49; A.Y. Brawer, Avak Derakhim, 1 (1944), 69 ff.; M. Schwabe, in: Tarbiẓ, 21 (1950) 112f.; V. Tcherikover, Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews (1959), index; G. Downey, History of Antioch in Syria from Seleucus to the Arab Conquest (1961); A. Cohen, Anglo-Jewish Scrapbook (1943), 39. add. bibliography: eis2 under Antakiya, 1 (1960), 516–17; W.A. Meeks and R.L. Wilken, Jews and Christians in Antioch in the First Four Centuries of the Common Era (1978); P.R. Trebilco, Jewish Communities in Asia Minor (1991); S. Tuval, "Ha-Kehillot be-Turkiya ka-Yom," in: Peʿamim, 12 (1982), 127–28.
[Abraham Haim /
David Kushner (2nd ed.)]
Antioch (city, Turkey)
Antioch (ăn´tēŏk´) or Antakya (äntäk´yä), city (1990 pop. 124,443), capital of Hatay prov., S Turkey, on the Orontes (Asi) River, near the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of Mt. Silpius. Antioch is the trade center for a region where grains, cotton, grapes, olives, and vegetables are grown. The city's manufactures include processed foods, textiles, and leather goods. There is an archaeological museum.
Modern Antioch occupies only a fraction of the area of the ancient city, most of which is buried under alluvial deposits. Important archaeological finds in the area include the Great Chalice of Antioch (see chalice), said by some to be the Holy Grail, and, at Daphne, an ancient suburban resort, splendid Roman mosaics (1st–6th cent. AD), mostly copies of lost paintings and held to represent the height of mosaic art.
The city was founded c.300 BC by Seleucus I, king of Syria, and named for his father Antiochus, a Macedonian general. Situated at the crossing of north-south and east-west trade routes, the city soon became a rich commercial center. Antioch was occupied by Pompey in 64 BC and quickly became an important Roman military, commercial, and cultural center. The Romans built great temples, a forum, a theater, baths, aqueducts, and other public buildings. The two main streets, at right angles to each other, were lined with marble colonnades and adorned with temples, palaces, and statues.
Antioch was an early center of Christianity; Peter and Paul preached there. It was in Antioch that the followers of Jesus were first called Christians after they severed themselves from the synagogue about 20 years after Jesus' death. Antioch is one of the three original patriarchates (see patriarch). Aurelian, who recovered the city from Shapur I of Persia, erected (3d cent.) more magnificent buildings and churches. The city played a significant role in the theological controversies of the early Christian church (see Christianity). St. John Chrysostom estimated its population (4th cent.) at 200,000, excluding children and slaves.
In 526 the city suffered a severe earthquake. It was again captured by Persia in 540 and taken by the Arabs in 637. Nicephorus II reconquered it (969) for the Byzantine Empire, but in 1085 it fell, through treason, to the Seljuk Turks. The army of the First Crusade (see Crusades) captured Antioch in 1098 after a half-year siege. Bohemond I was made prince of Antioch. His principality, which extended from Iskenderun (Alexandretta) southward beyond Latakia, was one of the most powerful of the Crusaders' states. In 1268 the Mamluks captured and sacked the city; it was further damaged by Timur in 1401.
In 1516 Antioch, by then much reduced in importance, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire. The city was held (1832–40) by Muhammad Ali of Egypt, and in 1872 it was badly damaged by an earthquake. After World War I, Antioch was held as part of French Syria under a League of Nations mandate. In 1939 it was restored to Turkey.