His greatest work of the Vienna years was the Heiliggeist (Holy Spirit) Church, Herbststrasse (1908–13), where he used reinforced concrete, and created a stripped Neo-Classical exterior and a crypt employing crystalline, almost Expressionist forms. He was nominated by the Vienna Academy to become Professor of Architecture in succession to Wagner (1911), but his appointment was blocked at Court on the grounds that the ‘first school’ of the Austro-Hungarian Empire should not be headed by a Slovene. Plečnik was invited by Kotě to teach at the Prague School of Applied Arts (1911), and with the independence of Czechoslovakia (1918), began work on the restoration, adaptation, and enlargement of Hradčany Castle, Prague, as the Presidential Residence (1920–36), where his free use of Classical allusions in the buildings and gardens created one of the loveliest ensembles in all Europe. He also designed the Presidential Villa and gardens at Lány (1920–30), and the powerful Neo-Classical Church of the Sacred Heart, Vinohrady, Prague (1928–31).
In 1920 Plečnik accepted the Headship of the Architecture Department of the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia (newly part of Yugoslavia), retaining a post as Honorary Architect to the City of Prague. He created a series of masterpieces of Neo-Classicism in Ljubljana, including the Church of St Francis, Šiška (1926–7), various structures along the river, including bridges and colonnades in the Markets Area (1930s), the Slovene National Cemetery, Žale (1936–41), National and University Library (1939–42), and various other buildings. The Church of the Ascension, Bogojina (1925–7), employs the toughest of primitive Doric columns inside (with stilted arches), and the Church of St Michael in Barje, Ljubljana (1937–40), has a powerful campanile and a most elegant interior featuring much timberwork. Throughout his designs from 1920 until his death are free interpretations of the Greek Orders, including derivations from the Aeolian and Ionic forms, suggesting an archaic quality of great power. Unlike those who used the Classical language with literalness, Plec̆nik demonstrated what infinite variety and emotional expressiveness could be achieved by developing and extending possibilities. He deserves to be ranked among the greatest architects of C20.
Achleitner et al. (1986);
R. Andrews , (1983, 1986);
Borsi & and Godoli (1986);
Burkhardt et al. (eds.), (1989);
Prelovs̆ek (1979, 1997);
"Plečnik, Jože." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/plecnik-joze
"Plečnik, Jože." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved October 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/plecnik-joze
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.