Bradbury, Ray (Douglas) 1920-
BRADBURY, Ray (Douglas) 1920-
(Douglas Spaulding, Leonard Spaulding, pseudonyms)
PERSONAL: Born August 22, 1920, in Waukegan IL; son of Leonard Spaulding and Esther (Moberg) Bradbury; married Marguerite Susan McClure, September 27, 1947 (died, 2003); children: Susan Marguerite, Ramona, Bettina, Alexandra. Education: Attended schools in Waukegan, IL, and Los Angeles, CA. Politics: Independent. Religion: Unitarian Universalist. Hobbies and other interests: Painting in oil and water colors, collecting Mexican artifacts.
CAREER: Newsboy in Los Angeles, CA, 1940-43; full-time writer, 1943—.
MEMBER: Writers Guild of America, Screen Writers Guild, Science Fantasy Writers of America, Pacific Art Foundation.
AWARDS, HONORS: O. Henry Prize, 1947 and 1948; Benjamin Franklin Award, 1953-54, for "Sun and Shadow"; gold medal, Commonwealth Club of California, 1954, for Fahrenheit 451; National Institute of Arts and Letters award, 1954, for contribution to American literature; Junior Book Award, Boys' Clubs of America, 1956, for Switch on the Night; Golden Eagle Award, 1957, for screenwriting; Academy Award nomination for best short film, 1963, for Icarus Montgolfier Wright; Mrs. Ann Radcliffe Award, Count Dracula Society, 1965, 1971; Writers Guild Award, 1974; World Fantasy Award, 1977, for lifetime achievement; D.Litt., Whittier College, 1979; Balrog Award, 1979, for best poet; Aviation and Space Writers Award, 1979, for television documentary; Gandalf Award, 1980; Body of Work Award, PEN, 1985; medal for "Distinguished Contribution to American Letters," inducted into the University of Kansas Center for the Study of Science Fiction's Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame, 1999; National Book Foundation, 2000; Bram Stoker Award nominee in novel category, Horror Writers Association, 2001, for From the Dust Returned, and 2003, for One More for the Road; the play version of The Martian Chronicles won five Los Angeles Drama Critics Circle Awards; Grand Master Nebula Award, Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America; star on Hollywood Walk of Fame.
The Martian Chronicles (also see below), Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1950, revised edition published as The Silver Locusts, Hart-Davis (London, England), 1965, anniversary edition published as The Martian Chronicles: The Fortieth Anniversary Edition, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1990.
Dandelion Wine (also see below), Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1957.
Something Wicked This Way Comes (also see below), Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1962.
Death Is a Lonely Business, Knopf (New York, NY), 1985.
A Graveyard for Lunatics, Knopf (New York, NY), 1990.
Quicker Than the Eye, Avon (New York, NY), 1996.
Green Shadows, White Whale, Knopf (New York, NY), 1992, published with a new afterword by the author, Perennial (New York, NY), 2002.
Let's All Kill Constance, Morrow (New York, NY), 2003.
Dark Carnival, Arkham (Sauk City, WI), 1947, revised edition, Hamish Hamilton (London, England), 1948.
The Illustrated Man, Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1951, revised edition, Hart-Davis (London, England), 1952.
Fahrenheit 451 (contains "Fahrenheit 451" [also see below], "The Playground", and "And the Rock Cried Out"), Ballantine (New York, NY), 1953.
The Golden Apples of the Sun (also see below), Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1953, fortieth anniversary edition with a new foreword by the author, G. K. Hall (Thorndike, ME), 1997.
Fahrenheit 451 (novelette), Ballantine (New York, NY), 1953.
The October Country, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1955.
A Medicine for Melancholy (also see below), Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1959, revised edition published as The Day It Rained Forever (also see below), Hart-Davis (London, England), 1959.
The Ghoul Keepers, Pyramid (New York, NY), 1961.
The Small Assassin, Ace (New York, NY), 1962.
The Machineries of Joy, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1964.
The Vintage Bradbury, Vintage (New York, NY), 1965.
The Autumn People, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1965.
Tomorrow Midnight, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1966.
Twice Twenty-Two (contains The Golden Apples of the Sun and A Medicine for Melancholy), Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1966.
I Sing the Body Electric!, Knopf (New York, NY), 1969.
(With Robert Bloch) Bloch and Bradbury: Ten Masterpieces of Science Fiction, Tower, 1969 (published as Fever Dreams and Other Fantasies, Sphere (London, England), 1970.
(With Robert Bloch) Whispers from Beyond, Peacock Press, 1972.
Selected Stories, Harrap (London, England), 1975.
Long after Midnight, Knopf (New York, NY), 1976.
The Best of Bradbury, Bantam (New York, NY), 1976.
To Sing Strange Songs, Wheaton, 1979.
The Stories of Ray Bradbury, Knopf (New York, NY), 1980.
Dinosaur Tales, Bantam (New York, NY), 1983.
A Memory of Murder, Dell (New York, NY), 1984.
The Toynbee, Convector, Random House (New York, NY), 1988.
Quicker Than the Eye, Avon (New York, NY), 1997.
Driving Blind, Avon (New York, NY), 1997.
Ray Bradbury Collected Short Stories, illustrated by Robert Court, Peterson Publishing (North Mankato, MN), 2001.
One More for the Road: A New Short Story Collection, Morrow (New York, NY), 2002.
Bradbury Stories: 100 of His Most Celebrated Tales, Morrow (New York, NY), 2003.
Switch on the Night, Pantheon (New York, NY), 1955.
R Is for Rocket (story collection), Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1962.
S Is for Space (story collection), Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1966.
The Halloween Tree, Knopf (New York, NY), 1972.
The April Witch, Creative Education (Mankato, MN), 1987.
The Other Foot, Creative Education (Mankato, MN), 1987.
The Foghorn (also see below), Creative Education (Mankato, MN), 1987.
The Veldt (also see below), Creative Education (Mankato, MN), 1987.
Fever Dream, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1987.
A Graveyard for Lunatics: Another Tale of Two Cities, Knopf (New York, NY), 1990.
Ahmed and the Oblivion Machines, Avon (New York, NY), 1998.
Something Wicked This Way Comes, Avon (New York, NY), 1999.
You Are Here: The Jerde Partnership International, Phaidon Press Limited (London, England), 1999.
Dandelion Wine: A Novel, Avon (New York, NY), 1999.
Death Is a Lonely Business, Avon (New York, NY), 1999.
The Illustrated Man, Chivers Press (Bath, England), 1999.
The Country, illustrated by Joe Mugnaini, Avon (New York, NY), 1999.
From the Dust Returned: A Family Remembrance, William Morrow (New York, NY), 2001.
The Meadow, produced in Hollywood at the Huntington Hartford Theatre, 1960.
Way in the Middle of the Air, produced in Hollywood at the Desilu Gower Studios, 1962.
The Anthem Sprinters, and Other Antics (play collection produced in Beverly Hills, CA), Dial (New York, NY), 1963.
The World of Ray Bradbury (three one-acts), produced in Los Angeles, CA, at the Coronet Theater, 1964, produced off-Broadway at Orpheum Theatre, 1965.
Leviathan 99 (radio play), British Broadcasting Corp., 1966, produced in Hollywood, 1972.
The New York, NYed Forever (one-act), Samuel French (New York, NY), 1966.
The Pedestrian (one-act), Samuel French (New York, NY), 1966.
Dandelion Wine (based on his novel of same title; music composed by Billy Goldenberg), produced at Lincoln Center's Forum Theatre, 1967.
The Wonderful Ice-Cream Suit and Other Plays (collection; The Wonderful Ice-Cream Suit, produced in Los Angeles at the Coronet Theater, 1965; The Veldt [based on his story of same title], produced in London, 1980; includes To the Chicago Abyss), Bantam (New York, NY), 1972, published as The Wonderful Ice-Cream Suit and Other Plays for Today, Tomorrow, and Beyond Tomorrow, Hart-Davis (London, England), 1973.
Madrigals for the Space Age (chorus and narration; music composed by Lalo Schifrin; performed in Los Angeles, 1976), Associated Music Publishers, 1972.
Pillar of Fire and Other Plays for Today, Tomorrow, and Beyond Tomorrow (Pillar of Fire, produced in Fullerton at the Little Theatre, California State College, 1973; The Foghorn [based on his story of same title], produced in New York, 1977; includes Kaleidoscope), Bantam (New York, NY), 1975.
That Ghost, That Bride of Time: Excerpts from a Play-in-Progress, Squires, 1976.
The Martian Chronicles (based on his novel of same title), produced in Los Angeles, 1977.
Fahrenheit 451 (musical, based on his story of same title), produced in Los Angeles, 1979.
A Device out of Time, Dramatic Publishing (Wood-stock, IL), 1986.
Falling Upward (produced in Los Angeles, March, 1988), Dramatic Publishing (Woodstock, IL), 1988.
To the Chicago Abyss, Dramatic Publishing (Wood-stock, IL), 1988.
The Day It Rained Forever (musical based on his story of the same title), Dramatic Publishing (Wood-stock, IL), 1990.
On Stage: A Chrestomathy of His Plays, Primus (New York, NY), 1991.
It Came from Outer Space, Universal Pictures, 1953.
The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms (based on his story, "The Foghorn"), Warner Bros., 1953.
Moby Dick, Warner Bros., 1956.
(With George C. Johnson) Icarus Montgolfier Wright, Format Films, 1962.
(Author of narration and creative consultant) An American Journey, U.S. Government for United States Pavilion at New York World's Fair, 1964.
(Under pseudonym Douglas Spaulding, with Ed Weinberger) Picasso Summer, Warner Bros./Seven Arts, 1972.
Something Wicked This Way Comes (based on his novel of same title), Walt Disney, 1983.
Also author of television scripts for Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Jane Wyman's Fireside Theatre, Steve Canyon, Trouble Shooters, Twilight Zone, Alcoa Premiere, and Curiosity Shop series. Author of television scripts for Ray Bradbury Television Theatre, USA Cable Network, 1985-90.
Old Ahab's Friend, and Friend to Noah, Speaks His Piece: A Celebration, Roy A. Squires Press (Glendale, CA), 1971.
When Elephants Last in the Dooryard Bloomed: Celebrations for Almost Any Day in the Year (also see below), Knopf (New York, NY), 1973.
That Son of Richard III: A Birth Announcement, Roy A. Squires Press (Glendale, CA), 1974.
Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run 'Round in Robot Towns (also see below), Knopf (New York, NY), 1977.
Twin Hieroglyphs That Swim the River Dust, Lord John (Northridge, CA), 1978.
The Bike Repairman, Lord John (Northridge, CA), 1978.
The Author Considers His Resources, Lord John (Northridge, CA), 1979.
The Aqueduct, Roy A. Squires Press (Glendale, CA), 1979.
This Attic Where the Meadow Greens, Lord John (Northridge, CA), 1979.
The Last Circus and The Electrocution, Lord John (Northridge, CA), 1980.
The Ghosts of Forever (five poems, a story, and an essay), Rizzoli (New York, NY), 1980.
The Haunted Computer and the Android Pope (also see below), Knopf (New York, NY), 1981.
The Complete Poems of Ray Bradbury (contains Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run 'Round in Robot Towns, The Haunted Computer and the Android Pope, and When Elephants Last in the Dooryard Bloomed), Ballantine (New York, NY), 1982.
The Love Affair (a short story and two poems), Lord John (Northridge, CA), 1983.
Forever and the Earth, limited edition, Croissant & Co. (Athens, OH), 1984.
Death Has Lost Its Charm for Me, Lord John (Northridge, CA), 1987.
With Cat for Comforter, illustrated by Louise Reinoehl Max, Gibbs Smith (Salt Lake City, UT), 1997.
Dogs Think That Every Day Is Christmas, illustrated by Louise Reinoehl Max, Gibbs Smith (Salt Lake City, UT), 1997.
I Live by the Invisible: New and Selected Poems, Salmon (Dublin, Ireland), 2002.
(Editor and contributor) Timeless Stories for Today and Tomorrow, Bantam (New York, NY), 1952.
(Editor and contributor) The Circus of Dr. Lao and Other Improbable Stories, Bantam (New York, NY), 1956.
Sun and Shadow (short story), Quenian Press (Berkeley, CA), 1957.
(With Lewy Olfson) Teacher's Guide: Science Fiction, Bantam (New York, NY), 1968.
Zen and the Art of Writing, Capra Press (Santa Barbara, CA), 1973.
(With Bruce Murray, Arthur C. Clarke, Walter Sullivan, and Carl Sagan) Mars and the Mind of Man, Harper (New York, NY), 1973.
The Mummies of Guanajuato, Abrams (New York, NY), 1978.
(Author of text) About Norman Corwin, Santa Susana Press (Northridge, CA), 1979.
Beyond 1984: Remembrance of Things Future, Targ (New York, NY), 1979.
(Author of text) Los Angeles, Skyline Press, 1984.
The Last Good Kiss: A Poem, Santa Susana Press (Glendale, CA), 1984.
(Author of text) Orange County, Skyline Press, 1985.
(Author of text) The Art of "Playboy," Alfred Van der Marck (New York, NY), 1985.
The Dragon, B. Munster (Round Top, NY), 1988.
The Fog Horn, Creative Education (Mankato, MN), 1988.
Yestermorrow: Obvious Answers to Impossible Futures, Joshua O'Dell (New York, NY), 1991.
The Smile, Creative Education (Mankato, MN), 1991.
Journey to Far Metaphor: Further Essays on Creativity, Writing, Literature, and the Arts, Joshua O'Dell (New York, NY), 1994.
A Chapbook for Burnt-Out Priests, Rabbis, and Ministers, 2001.
Conversations with Ray Bradbury, edited by Steven L. Aggelis, University Press of Mississippi (Jackson, MS), 2004.
Work represented in over seven hundred anthologies. Contributor of short stories and articles, sometimes under pseudonyms including Leonard Spaulding, to Playboy, Saturday Review, Weird Tales, Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Omni, Life, and other publications.
ADAPTATIONS: Fahrenheit 451 was filmed by Universal in 1966 and adapted as an opera by Georgia Holof and David Mettere and produced in Fort Wayne, IN, 1988; The Illustrated Man was filmed by Warner Bros. in 1969; the story "The Screaming Woman" was filmed for television in 1972; the story "Murderer" was filmed for television by WGBH-TV (Boston, MA), 1976; The Martian Chronicles was filmed as a television mini-series in 1980. Bradbury Theatre presented adaptations of Bradbury's short stories on the USA Network from 1985-1992. Many of Bradbury's works have also been adapted as sound recordings.
SIDELIGHTS: Ray Bradbury is one of the best-known writers of science fiction, thanks to his numerous short stories, screenplays, and classic books such as The Martian Chronicles, Dandelion Wine, Fahrenheit 451, and Something Wicked This Way Comes. Ironically, Bradbury does not identify himself as a science-fiction writer and has proclaimed his aversion to much of modern technology: he does not drive a car or own a computer. His fiction reflects this mind-set, for unlike many of his colleagues, Bradbury de-emphasizes gimmicky space hardware and gadgetry in favor of an exploration of the impact of scientific development on human lives. In general, Bradbury warns man against becoming too dependent on science and technology at the expense of moral and aesthetic concerns. Writing in the Dictionary of Literary Biography, George Edgar Slusser noted that "to Bradbury, science is the forbidden fruit, destroyer of Eden. . . . In like manner, Bradbury is a fantasist whose fantasies are oddly circumscribed: he writes less about strange things happening to people than about strange imaginings of the human mind. Corresponding, then, to an outer labyrinth of modern technological society is this inner one—fallen beings feeding in isolation on their hopeless dreams."
Bradbury was born in Waukegan, Illinois, in 1920. By the age of eight he was eagerly reading the popular pulp magazines of the time, such as Amazing Stories. In 1934 the Bradbury family moved to Los Angeles, California. Bradbury began to work seriously on his writing at that time, his efforts including attendance at a writing class taught by science fiction master Robert Heinlein. His first published story appeared in an amateur fan magazine in 1938. He continued to work hard on honing his writing craft, and by the 1940s he was publishing in the better magazines and receiving national recognition for his work, winning several important awards and being featured in major anthologies.
In 1950 Bradbury published The Martian Chronicles, a cycle of stories chronicling the Earth's colonization of, and eventual destruction of, the planet Mars. The portrayal of the Martians ranged from sympathetic to threatening, but the stories really focus on the Earthling colonists. The Martian Chronicles was lavishly praised by such literary standouts as Christopher Isherwood, Orville Prescott, and Angus Wilson, bringing its author a standing as a writer of highest merit. "The book owed much to the American tradition of frontier literature, and quickly consolidated Bradbury's reputation as one of science fiction's leading stylists," commented an essayist for St. James Guide to Science Fiction Writers.
The Illustrated Man, which appeared the following year, was another story cycle; in this volume, though, each story represents a tattoo that has come alive. The Martian setting of the previous book is revisited in a few of the tales, notably "The Fire Balloons," which probes the question of whether or not an alien life form can receive Christian grace. The amoral tendencies of children is the basis of "The Veldt" and "Zero Hour." In "Kaleidoscope," Bradbury dramatized the fate of a crew of astronauts whose spaceship has exploded, and who are drifting through space to slowly meet their deaths.
The novella Fahrenheit 451 is, along with The Martian Chronicles, Bradbury's most famous work. In this story, "firemen" are those who set forbidden books aflame, rather than those who put out fires. It is a somewhat simple tale, "as much an attack on mass culture as it is a satire of McCarthy-era censorship," remarked the essayist for St. James Guide to Science Fiction Writers. The story implies that the governmentsanctioned illiteracy is the outgrowth of pandering to special interest groups in the mass media, as well as a result of the rise of television. A society of outcasts is the only bastion of great literature; its members dedicate themselves to memorizing the great books of the world. Many commentators note a disturbing similarity between Bradbury's fictional world and our real one.
After the publication of Fahrenheit 451, Bradbury moved away from the science fiction genre with which he had become identified. He published other story collections during the 1950s containing a mix of fantasies, stories set in Mexico (a setting which had a lasting fascination for the author), crime stories, and small-town tales. The repressive future world is so vividly depicted in this work that the novella has become as much a staple of political study as George Orwell's 1984. In A Medicine for Melancholy, Bradbury published his first stories concerning Irish life and character. This interest, sparked during a stay in Ireland in 1954, would be another ongoing concern in his work for years to come.
Something Wicked This Way Comes was Bradbury's first full-length novel, and another of his best-known works. This fantasy concerns a malevolent carnival that disrupts life in a small Midwestern town. The action occurs mostly at night and in the darker parts of humanity. The supernatural powers within the carnival have the power to grant dreams, but also to steal away one's soul. "The merry-go-round, the Hall of Mirrors, the parade and other carnivalesque trappings become truly creepy under Bradbury's skillful pen," noted the writer for St. James Guide to Science Fiction Writers.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Bradbury's subject matter became more realistic, and his output slightly less prolific. His themes were frequently rather dark, concerning dysfunctional marriages, fear of aging and death, and more warnings on the dangers of technology. Such stories can be found in The Machineries of Joy and I Sing the Body Electric! The author also worked on some nonfiction, plays, editing of anthologies, and writing children's stories. In 1985, he published a long-awaited new novel, titled Death Is a Lonely Business. Based loosely on his early years as a writer in the pulp-fiction market, it features a protagonist whose optimism works to save him from the strange deaths that are striking down his comrades. A Graveyard for Lunatics tells of a writer working in Hollywood during the 1950s, who discovers a body, frozen in time, in the graveyard next to the studio that employs him. There were autobiographical threads in this story as well; Bradbury wrote for such popular early television shows as The Twilight Zone and the Alfred Hitchcock series, and his work in Hollywood included writing the award-winning screen adaptation of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick. He wrote yet another mystery with a film-noir flavor with Let's All Kill Constance. In this, the screenwriter/detective is asked for help by Constance Rattigan, an aging film star who seems to be the prey of a killer. A Publishers Weekly reviewer called it a "whirlwind of staccato dialogue, puns and references to old Hollywood," and added that "Bradbury's giddy pleasure is infectious; though he throws in an unexpected conclusion, it's the author's exuberant voice more than the mystery itself that will have readers hooked."
Throughout his career, Bradbury has remained an energetic and insightful writer. Damon Knight observed in his In Search of Wonder: Critical Essays on Science Fiction: "His imagery is luminous and penetrating, continually lighting up familiar corners with unexpected words. He never lets an idea go until he has squeezed it dry, and never wastes one. As his talent expands, some of his stories become pointed social commentary; some are surprisingly effective religious tracts, disguised as science fiction; others still are nostalgic vignettes; but under it all is still Bradbury the poet of 20th-century neurosis. Bradbury the isolated spark of consciousness, awake and alone at midnight; Bradbury the grown-up child who still remembers, still believes."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
Adams, Anthony, Ray Bradbury, Harrap (London, England), 1975.
Concise Dictionary of American Literary Biography: Broadening Views, 1968-1988, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1989.
Contemporary Literary Criticism, Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 1, 1973, Volume 3, 1975, Volume 10, 1979, Volume 15, 1980, Volume 42, 1987.
Contemporary Popular Writers, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1997.
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 2: American Novelists since World War II, 1978; Volume 8: Twentieth-Century American Science-Fiction Writers, 1981.
Ketterer, David, New Worlds for Old: The Apocalyptic Imagination, Science Fiction, and American Literature, Indiana University Press (Bloomington, IN), 1974.
Kirk, Russell, Enemies of the Permanent Things: Observations of Abnormity in Literature and Politics, Arlington House (New Rochelle, NY), 1969.
Knight, Damon, In Search of Wonder: Critical Essays on Science Fiction, 2nd edition, Advent, 1967.
Moskowitz, Sam, Seekers of Tomorrow: Masters of Modern Science Fiction, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1967, pp. 351-370.
Nolan, William F., The Ray Bradbury Companion, Gale (New York, NY), 1975.
Platt, Charles, Dream Makers: Science-Fiction and Fantasy Writers at Work, Ungar (New York, NY), 1987.
St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 2000.
St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost & Gothic Writers, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1998.
St. James Guide to Science Fiction Writers, 4th edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1996.
St. James Guide to Young Adult Writers, 2nd edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1999.
Slusser, George Edgar, The Bradbury Chronicles, Borgo Press (San Bernardino, CA), 1977.
Touponce, William F., Ray Bradbury and the Poetics of Reverie: Fantasy, Science Fiction, and the Reader, UMI Research Press (Ann Arbor, MI), 1984.
Touponce, William F, Naming the Unnameable: Ray Bradbury and the Fantastic after Freud, Starmont House, 1997.
Wollheim, Donald, The Universe Makers, Harper (New York, NY), 1971.
World Literature Criticism (New York, NY), Gale (Detroit, MI), 1992.
Ad Astra, July-August, 1991.
Analog Science Fiction & Fact, March, 1989, p. 183; July, 1992, p. 311.
Austin American-Statesman, February 16, 2003, Dorman T. Shindler, "Bradbury Has Mystery Noir Down to a Science," p. K5.
Back Stage West, July 25, 2002, Dally Margolies, "Bradbury: Past, Present and Future at the Court Theatre," p. 27; April 3, 2003, Jenelle Riley, "What's Up with Ray Bradbury?," p. 4.
Book, September-October, 2003, Eric Wetzel, review of the 50th anniversary hardcover of Fahrenheit 451, p. 34.
Booklist, March 1, 1992, p. 1191; February 1, 1994, p. 989; October 1, 1998, Ray Olson, review of Ahmed and the Oblivion Machines, p. 312; August, 2001, Candace Smith, review of From the Dust Returned, p. 2049; November 15, 2002, Connie Fletcher, review of Let's All Kill Constance, p. 579; July, 2003, Ray Olson, review of Bradbury Stories: 100 of His Most Celebrated Tales, p. 1844.
Christianity Today, May 14, 1990.
Coventry Evening Telegraph, May 31, 2003, Michael Wood, review of One More for the Road, p. 26.
English Journal, February, 1970, pp. 201-205; 1971, pp. 877-887.
Entertainment Weekly, October 15, 1993.
Extrapolation, December, 1971, pp. 64-74; fall, 1984.
Future, October, 1978.
Journal of Popular Culture, summer, 1973, pp. 227-248.
Kirkus Reviews, June 15, 2003, review of Bradbury Stories: 100 of His Most Celebrated Tales, p. 834.
Library Journal, May 1, 1999, Michael Rogers, review of Death Is a Lonely Business, p. 118; December, 2002, Devon Thomas, review of Let's All Kill Constance, p. 174; August, 2003, A. Berger, review of Bradbury Stories: 100 of His Most Celebrated Tales, p. 138; November 15, 2003, Michael Rogers, review of the 50th anniversary hardcover of Fahrenheit 451, p. 103.
Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, May, 1963, pp. 7-22.
National Review, April 4, 1967.
Newsweek, July 30, 1990, p. 54.
New York Times, April 24, 1983.
New York Times Book Review, August 8, 1951; December 28, 1969; October 29, 1972; October 26, 1980; December 11, 1988, p. 26; December 9, 2001, Mary Elizabeth Williams, review of From the Dust Returned: A Family Remembrance, p. 28; January 26, 2003, Marilyn Stasio, review of Let's All Kill Constance, p. 20.
New York Times Magazine, November 5, 2000, Mary Roach, interview with Ray Bradbury, p. 21.
Omni, January, 1989; February, 1989.
Publishers Weekly, December 20, 1991, p. 71; October 26, 1998, review of Ahmed and the Oblivion Machines, p. 49; March 19, 2001, review of A Chapbook for Burnt-Out Priests, Rabbis, and Ministers, p. 81; August 27, 2001, review of From the Dust Returned: A Family Remembrance, p. 60; October 22, 2001, Ben P. Indick, interview with Ray Bradbury, p. 40; September, 2002, review of I Live by the Invisible: New and Selected Poems, p. 54; November 11, 2002, review of Let's All Kill Constance, p. 40.
Reader's Digest, September, 1986.
School Library Journal, May, 1987.
Time, March 24, 1975; October 13, 1980; May 25, 1992, p. 68.
Washington Post, July 7, 1989.
Washington Post Book World, November 2, 1980, pp. 4-5; November 3, 1985, p. 7.
Winesburg Eagle, summer, 1997.
Writer, December, 2003, "'I Was Never a Science Fiction Writer,' Ray Bradbury Says," p. 11.
Writer's Digest, February, 1967, pp. 40-44, 47, 94-96; March, 1967, pp. 41-44, 87; December, 1974; February, 1976, pp. 18-25.
Writing!, November-December, 2001, Sarah Kizis, "A Virtual Visit to the Veldt," p. 14.
Ray Bradbury Home Page,http://www.raybradbury.com/ (July 11, 2003).
Salon.com,http://www.salon.com/ (July 11, 2003), James Hibberd, "Ray Bradbury Is on Fire!"*
"Bradbury, Ray (Douglas) 1920-." Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 23, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/educational-magazines/bradbury-ray-douglas-1920
"Bradbury, Ray (Douglas) 1920-." Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series. . Retrieved January 23, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/educational-magazines/bradbury-ray-douglas-1920
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