American author Herman Melville (1819-1891) is best known for his novel Moby-Dick. His work was a response, though often in a negative or ambivalent way, to the romantic movement that dominated American literature in the mid-19th century.
Herman Melville's early autobiographical novels of adventure in the South Seas earned him a popularity that diminished as his writing turned to metaphysical themes and allegorical techniques, moving in directions that later generations would recognize as existentialism, Freudian psychologizing, and blackly comic satire. He had some success with his magazine sketches and short stories, but his poetry, a main concern during the latter part of his life, was ignored. Largely forgotten at the time of his death, he was rediscovered with the shift in taste that followed World War I. His reputation continues to grow, and Moby-Dick has become a world classic.
Melville was born in New York City on Aug. 1, 1819. His father, a merchant and importer, belonged to a well-connected Boston family; he died bankrupt in 1832, survived by his wife and eight children. Melville's mother was of New York Dutch ancestry. Melville's family background included Revolutionary War heroes, Dutch patricians, Calvinists, and upper-middle-class New Englanders, but his boyhood was spent in genteel poverty.
Melville's studies at the Albany Academy terminated with his father's death. Thereafter, he was largely self-educated and for a while something of a drifter (like Ishmael in Moby-Dick, who asserted that "a whale-ship was my Yale College and my Harvard"). He tried various occupations—bank clerk, clerk in the family business, country schoolmaster—and he studied surveying before becoming a sailor.
At 18 Melville made his first voyage as a crew member on a New York-Liverpool packet ship. At 22 he shipped on the whaler Acushnet. Returning four years later, he almost immediately began writing novels derived from his adventures. At this time Polynesia was a romantic and little-known region. Furthermore, maritime affairs were a matter of public interest. Also, there was a market for authentic personal narratives as opposed to fictional "romances."
Three Novels of the South Seas
Typee (1846) grew out of Melville's accidental sojourn with the presumably cannibalistic natives of the Marquesas Islands. It found a receptive audience and admitted Melville into the New York literary circles. A successful sequel, Omoo (1847), which paralleled Melville's experiences as a beachcomber in Tahiti, encouraged his belief that he could support himself through his writing. He married Elizabeth Shaw, daughter of Lemuel Shaw, chief justice of Massachusetts and a family friend, in 1847.
Melville's final novel of the South Seas, Mardi (1849), marks a transition. It begins realistically aboard a whaler but ends in the realm of fantasy, rhapsody, and allegory. Critics have found in it reflections of his courtship and marriage and of his first reading of Shakespeare, Montaigne, Rabelais, Sir Thomas Browne, and other authors of "old books."
Melville's novels of the South Seas progress from realism toward romance, from simplicity toward complexity, and from relatively modest ambitions toward serious pretensions. Typee follows the outline of actual events closely. In July 1842, with a shipmate, Toby Greene, Melville had deserted the Acushnet in the Marquesas Islands. They planned to seek refuge among the hospitable natives of the Happar Valley but by mistake entered the Valley of the Typees, who were reputed to be cannibals. Here they lived almost idyllically. Melville, however, had injured his leg, and the Typees permitted Greene to leave to obtain medical assistance. Alone, Melville became bored by his vegetative existence and grew increasingly fearful that the friendly Typees might be cannibals after all. Greene did not return, but an Australian whaling bark effected Melville's rescue.
The narrative of Typee is straightforward, though Melville capitalizes on suspenseful elements in the experience. A careful observer and colorful reporter, he fleshed out his account (or jogged his memory) by using other works in the field, and he introduced some fictional material. There are elements of satire and social criticism in Typee, as well as symbolism and a preliminary grappling with philosophical questions that would become primary in his later writings. In addition to being an exotic travel yarn about a tropical Eden, Typee can be read as a study in false appearances and misguided quests.
Omoo, which takes its name from the Marquesan word for vagabond, is a loose, episodic description of Melville's wanderings in Tahiti and further experiences aboard whalers. It is in a lighthearted vein, though it hits hard at missionary despoilers of the Pacific paradise and other civilizing forces that Melville saw as superficial, exploitative, and destructive. Starting where Typee leaves off, it repeats the pattern of dissatisfaction on shipboard, of a desertion that represents a symbolic attempt to escape civilization, of picaresque adventures, and of rejection of Rousseauistic primitivism suggested by shipping on yet another whaler.
At this point Mardi, the transitional novel in the South Seas trilogy, begins. The established progression of disaffection on shipboard, desertion with a congenial companion, and adventure on the high seas recurs. But this time the realistic narrative, which is implicitly a quest, shifts overtly to an extravagant search for an elusive, symbolic maiden on allegorical islands beyond the horizon of Polynesia.
The maiden is never found, though she is pursued with a monomaniacal, self-destructive relentlessness. Sandwiched into this account are undigested philosophical speculations, dreamy poetizing, and keen satiric thrusts aimed at such topical targets as slavery, the revolutions of 1848, and popular theological and scientific theories. Melville, whose veracity was doubted in his realistic narratives, was deliberately, almost defiantly, writing fiction, embarking on adventures of the mind that were the counterparts of his actual exploits. The book did not succeed, and Melville returned to less farfetched subject matter in Redburn (1849) and White-Jacket (1850), which had modest financial rewards.
Other Early Works
Melville disparaged Redburn as a "little nursery tale." Its source was his Liverpool voyage in 1839. It is an initiation story—the tale of a green youth of genteel pretensions transformed by raw experience into a competent sailor and a self-reliant man with a sense of his own (and mankind's) limitations. Redburn has a social dimension: the descriptions of the hideous poverty of Liverpool slums and the crowded conditions of emigrants in steerage that led to epidemics.
Melville regarded White-Jacket, subtitled The World in a Man-of-War, more highly. The fictional frigate Neversink, naval slang for any hypothetical ship, is a microcosm of Melville's native land in particular and the world in general. He methodically described the naval hierarchy from commodore and captain down to the lowest sailor, emphasizing the irony of an authoritarian system as an instrument of American democracy.
The narrative line follows Melville's own homeward-bound cruise on the frigate United States in 1843-1844, but he included events not recorded in the log of this ship. For example, the narrator is issued a white duck jacket unlike the uniform jackets of the other sailors. He is pleased to be distinguished from the rest of the crew until he discovers that such distinction has severe drawbacks. He tries to divest himself of the jacket, but succeeds only when he falls into the sea and has to cut his way out of it to keep from drowning.
White-Jacket is a reform novel, advocating the abolition of flogging in the U.S. Navy and other measures to improve the lot of American seamen. Although it is more simply constructed, is generally optimistic in tone, and contains a considerable amount of direct narrative, description, and reform polemics, it foreshadows Melville's complex masterpiece, Moby-Dick (1851), which it immediately precedes.
In 1851 Melville wrote that he was well along with "a strange sort of book" on whaling, adding "I mean to give the truth of the thing…." The narrator of Moby-Dick, Ishmael, is another drifter. Ishmael ships on the Pequod, commanded by the demon-ridden Captain Ahab, whose overweening purpose is to capture the albino whale Moby-Dick, which had severed his leg. Ahab bends his polyglot crew to this purpose. Ishmael is caught up in "fiery pursuit," until, through his fraternal relationship with a Polynesian harpooner, he achieves a balanced view. He alone escapes when Moby-Dick attacks and destroys the Pequod.
The book's rich texture lends itself to various interpretations. It can be read superficially as a melodramatic adventure or for the precise descriptions of the technology of whaling and the natural history of whales interspersed in the narrative. Yet virtually every detail of the book—plot line, accounts of the capture of whales and the processing of blubber, seamen's legends and lore, natural history, characterization, and descriptions of nautical gear—is a vehicle for a deliberately inconclusive, many-sided debate on the nature of the human condition.
One of Melville's favorite devices is to argue a point effectively in one chapter, undercut it with an equally effective and opposite argument in the next, then to present other arguments at various points between. A related technique is his use of traditional systems for ordering knowledge—ostensibly to clarify, present information, or advance an argument—but actually as a means of demonstrating the limitations of the system and, by extension, the impossibility of mere earthly beings coming up with categorical answers to any question whatsoever. Ishmael's ability to exist within this limitation makes possible his salvation. Ahab's inability to do so destroys him.
The writings that follow Moby-Dick are rich in nautical themes and allusions and also contain autobiographical matter, but Melville moved on to other forms and settings. In Pierre (1852) the American countryside and the American city are placed in opposition. Pierre, scion of rural gentry, is an idealistic young man whose efforts to apply Christian solutions to the problems of an imperfect world result in death and disaster. In this dark, uneven book, the subtle examination of ethical questions and deep probing into the human psyche are compelling.
Moby-Dick was not popular, though Melville had the satisfaction of knowing that it was understood and appreciated by a few discerning readers. Pierre did not yield even this satisfaction. So once more Melville made a special effort to recoup. He turned to the magazines, producing tales, sketches, and short novels, many of great distinction.
The best of the magazine writing includes Israel Potter (1855), which first appeared serially in Putnam's Magazine, and The Piazza Tales (1856). Israel Potter is the story of a young New Englander who fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill, served under John Paul Jones, was a courier for Benjamin Franklin in Europe, and then, as a result of a series of mishaps, lived in exile in the London slums until he could make his way home 50 years later. Melville's source, he wrote, was "Israel Potter's autobiographical story," published in a crude pamphlet. Melville made it into a book of modest dimensions compared with Moby-Dick or Pierre, and it records human hardihood in the face of high risks and wearing, undramatic misfortunes.
The Piazza Tales is introduced by an essay, "The Piazza," which delicately examines the view from the piazza of Melville's Pittsfield, Mass., farmhouse, his home from 1850 to 1863. The vista across a valley and beyond to the Berkshire Mountains is enchanting, but its charm fades upon close scrutiny. The narrator admits the need to dispel illusion but makes an exception of a lonely country girl who needs illusion in order to survive.
Two other tales, "Benito Cereno" and "The Encantadas," are also concerned with appearances and realities. "Benito Cereno," the undisguised retelling of autobiography, is a Gothic suspense story. A cargo of slaves seizes a Spanish ship and forces the captain to serve them in their attempt to return to Africa. The obvious distress of the ship attracts the attention of an American vessel whose commander tries to help, to discover the real nature of the situation, and to seek out and then draw back from the underlying complexities of the events that unfold around him.
"The Encantadas" is a series of sketches about the Galapagos, or "Enchanted," Islands—barren, volcanic inversions of the paradisiacal isles described in Typee and Omoo. They, too, are under a spell that clouds their true nature. A third notable story is "Bartleby," an existentialist parable about a lawyer's scribe who "prefers not to" act in a world where even worthy action seems fruitless and pointless and where suffering in ignorance is the common bond of humanity.
The grimly comic underside of Melville dominates The Confidence-Man (1857), the last work of prose he published in his lifetime. Set on a riverboat going down the Mississippi on April Fool's Day, it consists of a series of encounters between confidence men (or perhaps a single confidence man in various disguises) and their marks. The encounters are almost ritualistic variations on a theme. The Christian watchwords of faith, hope, and charity become part of the spiel of the con men, who victimize fools, rogues, and virtuous weaklings alike.
The Confidence-Man draws heavily on American "types" and is packed with topical allusions that are now often obscure. Its ambience is the expansive, optimistic, materialistic America of the 1850s, to which Melville voiced corrosive dissent. An early, successful essay in black comedy, it was a commercial failure.
At this point Melville withdrew from the literary marketplace. With half of his life still before him, he chose to write for his own satisfaction and that of the few kindred spirits. He had published 10 books in 11 years and additional uncollected tales and reviews, including an important review of Mosses from an Old Manse by his friend Nathaniel Hawthorne (1846), and he had strained himself physically and emotionally. In 1856, fearing a serious breakdown, his family arranged for him to tour Europe and the Holy Land.
Melville's pilgrimage to sacred places did little to settle the religious questions that continued to rack him, but he was exhilarated by the symmetry of Greek architecture and sculpture and by the paintings he saw in Italy and England. He returned renewed in spirit, though his financial affairs were not in good order. Efforts to improve this situation by obtaining a government position came to nothing.
Meanwhile, for two seasons Melville lectured on his travels and art theories, and with more success, on his adventures among the South Sea islands. He also began writing the verse that was his literary focus for the next 30 years. Attempts to publish his poetry failed until, "in an impulse imparted by the fall of Richmond," he wrote Battle-Pieces (1866), a verse cycle that depicts many aspects and both sides of the Civil War, beginning with a prologue on the hanging of John Brown and concluding with an essay that pleads for magnanimity and patience. It was not well received.
That same year Melville was appointed an inspector in the New York Customhouse. Thereafter he lived quietly, absorbed in the routine of his employment, poetry, and family life. Clarel (1876), a long narrative poem, is about a group of pilgrims visiting shrines and historical sites in the Holy Land. In general, Melville was more at peace with himself, though he suffered personal tragedies in the suicide of his 18-year-old son and the premature death of his other son. Legacies eased his living situation; he could afford to buy books and prints and to publish his poetry privately.
Melville retired from the customhouse in 1885. Sometime in 1888 he began work on Billy Budd, a short novel about an innocent sailor who is sacrificed for the sake of maintaining order and efficiency aboard his warship. Like most of his writing, it raises more questions than it settles, but it ends on a note of relaxation if not serenity. Melville marked the manuscript "End of Book April 19th 1891," an indication that the story was nearing completion but still unfinished. Yet Melville never felt that any of his work was truly finished. He had written in Moby-Dick: "God keep me from ever completing anything. This whole book is but a draught—nay, but a draught of a draught."
Melville died in New York City on Sept. 28, 1891. The manuscript of Billy Budd was not published until 1924.
Melville's fiction is available in numerous editions. He has attracted so much critical attention, it is almost impossible to describe all of the available writings about him. Moreover, his works lend themselves to the application of analytic systems that have appeared since his death; thus there are provocative interpretations deriving from later psychological, historical, and sociological theories.
Stanley T. Williams surveys Melville scholarship with balance and concision in Eight American Authors, edited by Floyd Stovall (1956; rev. 1972). Annual surveys began with the publication of American Literary Scholarship (1965) for 1963, issued each year thereafter under the auspices of the Modern Language Association.
A most useful biography is Leon Howard, Herman Melville: A Biography (1951). Jay Leyda, The Melville Log: A Documentary Life of Herman Melville (2 vols., 1951; repr. with additional material, 1969), provides the raw material arranged in chronological order and constitutes a biographical record. Newton Arvin, Herman Melville (1950), has critical and psychological insights. Charles Roberts Anderson, Melville and the South Seas (1939), first established the facts behind Melville's early fiction and is still basic.
A pioneer monograph that remains important is Howard Vincent, The Trying-out of Moby-Dick (1949). Important commentaries include William Ellery Sedgwick, Herman Melville: The Tragedy of Mind (1944); Ronald Mason, The Spirit above the Dust (1951); Merlin Bowen, The Long Encounter: Self andExperience in the Writings of Herman Melville (1960); and Warner Berthoff, The Example of Melville (1962). F. O. Matthiessen, American Renaissance: Art and Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman (1941), is a matchless examination of the cultural milieu, with four chapters on Melville's art and thought. □
Nationality: American. Born: New York City, 1 August 1819. Education: New York Male School; Albany Academy to age 12. Family: Married Elizabeth Knapp Shaw in 1847; two sons and two daughters. Career: Worked from age 12 as clerk, farmhand, and schoolteacher; ship's boy on the St. Lawrence, bound for Liverpool, 1839-40; traveled in midwest, 1840; ordinary seaman on the whaler Achushnet, 1841 until he jumped ship in the Marquesas, 1842; left the islands on the Sydney whaling barque Lucy Ann, and jumped ship in Tahiti, 1842; harpooner on whaler Charles and Henry, from Nantucket, in southern Pacific, 1842-43; clerk and bookkeeper in general store, Honolulu, 1843; shipped back to Boston on U.S. Navy frigate United States, 1843-44; writer from 1844; lived in New York, 1847-50, and Pittsfield, Massachusetts, 1850-63; traveled in Near East and Europe, 1856-57; on lecture circuits in the U.S., 1857-60. Lived in Washington, D.C., 1861-62, and in New York after 1863; district inspector of customs, New York, 1866-85. Died: 28 September 1891.
Works. 16 vols., 1922-24.
Collected Poems, edited by Howard P. Vincent. 1947.
The Portable Melville, edited by Jay Leyda. 1952.
Selected Poems, edited by Hennig Cohen. 1964.
Great Short Works, edited by Warner Berthoff. 1966.
Writings, edited by Harrison Hayford, Hershel Parker, and G. Thomas Tanselle. 1968—.
Selected Poems, edited by Robert Penn Warren. 1970.
Typee, Omoo, Mardi, edited by G. Thomas Tanselle. 1982.
Redburn, White-Jacket, Moby-Dick, edited by G. ThomasTanselle. 1983.
Pierre, Israel Potter, The Confidence-Man, Tales and Billy Budd, edited by Harrison Hayford. 1985.
The Essential Melville, edited by Robert Penn Warren. 1987.
The Complete Shorter Fiction, edited by Harrison Hayford, AlmaMcDougall, G. Thomas Tanselle, and others. 1997.
The Piazza Tales. 1856.
The Apple-Tree Table and Other Sketches. 1922.
Billy Budd and Other Prose Pieces, edited by Raymond M. Weaver, in Works. 1924.
Narrative of Four Months' Residence among the Natives of a Valley in the Marquesas Islands; or, A Peep at Polynesian Life. 1846; as Typee, 1846; revised edition, 1846.
Omoo: A Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas. 1847.
Mardi, and a Voyage Thither. 1849.
Redburn, His First Voyage. 1849.
White Jacket; or, The World in a Man-of-War. 1850; as White-Jacket, 1850.
The Whale. 1851; as Moby-Dick; or, The Whale, 1851.
Pierre; or, The Ambiguities. 1852.
Israel Potter, His Fifty Years of Exile. 1855.
The Confidence-Man, His Masquerade. 1857.
Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War. 1866; edited by HennigCohen, 1963.
Clarel: A Poem, and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land. 1876; edited by Walter E. Bezanson, 1960.
John Marr and Other Sailors, with Some Sea-Pieces. 1888.
Timoleon Etc. 1891.
Journal up the Straits October 11, 1856-May 5, 1857, edited by Raymond M. Weaver. 1935; as Journal of a Visit to Europe and the Levant, edited by Howard C. Horsford, 1955.
Journal of a Visit to London and the Continent 1849-1850, edited by Eleanor Melville Metcalf. 1948.
Letters, edited by Merrell R. Davis and William H. Gilman. 1960.*
The Merrill Checklist of Melville by Howard P. Vincent, 1969; in Bibliography of American Literature by Jacob Blanck, 1973; Melville: An Annotated Bibliography 1: 1846-1930, 1979, and Melville: A Reference Guide, 1931-1960, 1987, both by Brian Higgins; Melville and the Critics: A Checklist of Criticism 1900-1978 by Jeanetta Boswell, 1981; Melville's Foreign Reputation: A Research Guide by Leland R. Phelps, 1983.
Melville: The Tragedy of Mind by William E. Sedgwick, 1944; Call Me Ishmael: A Study of Melville by Charles Olson, 1947; The Trying-Out of Moby-Dick by Howard Vincent, 1949; Melville by Richard Chase, 1949; Melville by Newton Arvin, 1950; The Melville Log: A Documentary Life of Melville 1819-1891 by Jay Leyda, 2 vols., 1951, revised edition, 1969; Melville: A Biography by Leon Howard, 1951; Melville's Quarrel with God by Lawrance Thompson, 1952; The Fine-Hammered Steel of Melville by Milton R. Stern, 1957; Melville's Billy Budd and the Critics edited by William T. Stafford, 1961, revised edition, 1968; The Example of Melville by Warner Berthoff, 1962; A Reader's Guide to Melville by James E. Miller, Jr., 1962; Melville by Tyrus Hillway, 1963, revised edition, 1979; Ishmael's White World: A Phenomenological Reading of Moby-Dick by Paul Brodtkorb, Jr., 1965; Melville's Thematics of Form: The Great Art of Telling the Truth by Edgar A. Dryden, 1968; Plots and Characters in the Fiction and Narrative Poetry of Melville by Robert L. Gale, 1969; Melville: The Ironic Diagram by John D. Seelye, 1970; Moby-Dick as Doubloon: Essays and Extracts 1851-1970 edited by Hershel Parker and Harrison Hayford, 1970; An Artist in the Rigging: The Early Works of Melville, 1972, Melville's Short Fiction, 1977, and Melville's Later Novels, 1986, all by William B. Dillingham; Melville: The Critical Heritage edited by W. G. Branch, 1974; The Early Lives of Melville by Merton M. Sealts, Jr., 1974, and Pursuing Melville 1940-1980 edited by Sealts, 1982; Melville (biography) by Edwin Haviland Miller, 1975; The Method of Melville's Short Fiction by R. Bruce Bickley, Jr., 1975; Twentieth-Century Interpretations of Moby-Dick edited by Michael T. Gilmore, 1977; New Perspectives on Melville edited by Faith Pullin, 1978; The Body Impolitic: A Reading of Four Novels by Melville by R. M. Blau, 1979; Melville by Edward H. Rosenberry, 1979; Exiled Waters: Moby-Dick and the Crisis of Allegory by Bainard Cowan, 1982; Subversive Genealogy: The Politics and Art of Melville by Michael Paul Rogin, 1983; Melville: Reassessments edited by A. Robert Lee, 1984; Melville edited by Harold Bloom, 1986; A Companion to Melville Studies edited by John Bryant, 1986; New Essays on Moby-Dick edited by Richard H. Brodhead, 1987; Melville's Reading by Merton M. Sealts, Jr., 1987; Mourning, Gender, and Creativity in the Art of Melville by Neal L. Tolchin, 1988; Melville's Sources by Mary K. Bercaw, 1988; Melville's Marginalia, by Walker Cowen, 2 vols., 1988; On Melville: The Best from "American Literature" edited by Edwin H. Cody and Louis Budd, 1989; Empire for Liberty: Melville and the Poetics of Individualism by Wai-chee Dimock, 1989; Some Other World To Find: Quest and Negation in the Works of Melville by Bruce L. Grenberg, 1989; Reading Billy Budd by Hershel Parker, 1990; The Hawthorne and Melville Friendship edited by James C. Wilson, 1991; After the Whale: Melville in the Wake of Moby-Dick by Clark Davis, 1995; Melville's Muse: Literary Creation and the Form of Philosophical Fiction by John Paul Wenke, 1995; Cosmopolis and Truth: Melville's Critique of Modernity by Bernhard Radloff, 1996; Sounding the Whale: Moby-Dick as Epic Novel Christopher Sten, 1996; Melville and His Circle by William B. Dillingham, 1996; The Weaver-God, He Weaves: Melville and the Poetics of the Novel by Christopher Sten, 1996; Strike Through the Mask: Herman Melville and the Scene of Writing by Elizabeth Renker, 1996; Melville and the Visual Arts: Ionian Form, Venetian Tint by Douglas Robillard, 1997; Herman Melville's Religious Journey by Walter Donald Kring, 1997; The Sign of the Cannibal: Melville and the Making of a Postcolonial Reader by Geoffrey Sanborn, 1998.* * *
Best known for the colossal epic Moby-Dick, Herman Melville actually began his writing career with two very short works that appeared in a small-town newspaper in New York. On 4 May 1839, and then again on 18 May, the Democratic Press and Lansingburgh Advertiser printed "Fragments from a Writing-Desk," evidently the first of what might have been a regular column had its author not had to turn his hand to more profitable pursuits. Today the "Fragments" are read only by Melville scholars; in a way, though, these early short works predict what was to come in Melville's lengthy, uneven career.
The first of the "Fragments" is a preening letter to a fictional friend in which the author describes three attractive young women in overblown terms. A jocular yet learned piece, liberally sprinkled with quotes from and allusions to classical authors, this "Fragment" is very much in the tradition of letters written throughout history by young men eager to let their friends know that they are connoisseurs of feminine pulchritude but even more of their own rhetoric.
The second "Fragment" is more substantive. A genuine mystery, it is the story of a man who gets a summons to a clandestine rendezvous; entering a grove, he approaches a villa and is drawn up into it via a basket. Inside he enters an exquisitely appointed apartment, where he encounters a silent and melancholy beauty before whom he prostrates himself. While the first fragment is largely an expression of a speaker's self-love, the second treats themes that will figure largely in Melville's writing, namely the pursuit of an ideal and the failure to achieve it.
These two fragments illustrate the extremes of Melville's writing: the first is a largely empty piece driven more by self-enchantment than anything else, whereas the second is a tensely written and masterful (if incomplete) approach to some important themes. Throughout the rest of his career Melville vacillated between these two positions: high-blown and self-regarding rhetoric, and careful craft and significant themes.
Following the publication of the "Fragments," Melville took to the sea and later wrote his celebrated full-length maritime adventures. He stumbled, however, with Pierre, his only book-length fiction set on land; neither reviewers nor readers were kind. Fortunately there was an escape available to the beleaguered author, and this was the opportunity of magazine publication, which was plentiful in the nineteenth century. The magazine fiction he produced falls into two categories: the less substantial sketches, similar to the first of the "Fragments"; and the more or less completely realized stories, which favor the second.
Five of Melville's magazine fictions are collected in The Piazza Tales. The first two, "Bartleby, the Scrivener" and "Benito Cereno," are among the three best-known stories by Melville (the third is the posthumously published Billy Budd). "The Lightning-Rod Man," the third of the five Piazza Tales, is a curious centerpiece, since it offers a lighthearted contrast to the portentousness that haunts the better-known stories. Based on a visit from a real lightning-rod salesman as well as encounters with religious preachings that threatened God's wrath, this brief sketch concludes with a prospect telling the lightning-rod man to peddle his wares—and his fears—elsewhere.
The remaining works in The Piazza Tales, if not as celebrated as "Bartleby, the Scrivener" and "Benito Cereno," nonetheless partake of the doom-laden atmosphere and sense of woe that characterize those stories. "The Encantadas" consists of ten sketches based on Melville's visit to the Galápagos archipelago lying some six hundred miles off the Ecuadorian coast when he was aboard the Acushnet (later he passed near the islands again while aboard the Charles and Henry and the United States); as usual, he added material from other accounts to his own recollections. Volcanically formed, these "enchanted isles" are picturesque though desolate; the few renegades and runaways who live there are not organized into the rigid social systems of "Bartleby" and "Benito Cereno." In Melville's cosmos, it seems that one is either a doomed partaker of a blighted social system or else a solitary seeker destined to vacillate eternally.
The last of The Piazza Tales, "The Bell-Tower," is an explicit tribute to Nathaniel Hawthorne. The story's protagonist, Bannadonna, is, like many of Melville's central characters, an "unblest foundling." But he also recalls the protagonists of "Dr. Heidegger's Experiment," "Rappaccini's Daughter," and the other stories in Twice-Told Tales and Mosses from an Old Manse in which scientists make the Faustian bargains for which they must eventually pay some enormous price. (Melville had enthusiastically reviewed Hawthorne's Mosses from an Old Manse in 1850, five years before he wrote "The Bell-Tower.")
Bannadonna is the victim of an overly complex system of his own creation. He kills one of his workers while constructing a bell tower and is himself killed by a bell-ringing automaton he has devised; the belfry itself collapses at the end of the story. In contrast to the other Piazza Tales, "The Bell-Tower" recalls The Confidence-Man, Melville's final novel and the one in which, after a complex series of novels that examine the individual's failure to find a place in the existing world, Melville invents his own world, a dark and treacherous place. Bartleby and Benito Cereno are defeated by the social systems in which they live; Bannadonna tries to transcend his surroundings by attempting not to fathom nature but "to rival her, outstrip her, and rule her." He makes his own world; it destroys him and itself.
In addition to the works discussed already, two more sketches deserve mention: "I and My Chimney," which describes husband-wife conflict in terms too personal to be entirely invented; and "The Paradise of Bachelors and the Tartarus of Maids," where the optimism of affluent bachelors is contrasted with the numbing factory labor practiced by the zombie-like maids.
Significantly, at the very end of his life and after three decades of relatively scant production following the discouraging reception of Pierre and The Confidence-Man, Melville returned to the themes of his major fiction—and, in the process, wrote one of his greatest stories—in Billy Budd.
Melville, Herman (1819-1891)
Herman Melville (1819-1891)
Fiction writer and poet
Early Life. The son of a merchant who specialized in French imports, Herman Melvill (he would add the e as a young man) was sharply affected by his father’s business failure and his apparently suicidal death in 1832. Melvill tried his hand at several occupations, finally choosing to go to sea in 1839 as a crew member on the St. Lawrence. In 1841 he shipped out as a common seaman on the whaling ship Acushnet, bound for the South Seas, but never completed that voyage; instead he and a friend deserted ship at Nuku Hiva in the Marquesas Islands and began a two-year adventure that included a month spent with the cannibalistic natives of the Taipi valley, service on an Australian whaler, imprisonment in Tahiti as a suspected mutineer, and working in Hawaii. In August 1843 he enlisted in the U.S. Navy at Honolulu as an ordinary seaman and returned in 1844 to his family in Lansingburgh, New York.
Works. Melville’s sea experiences provided material for his early novels, including Typee (1846) and Omoo (1847), both of which were South Seas romances. These were followed in 1849 by Mardi, a more challenging allegorical novel that touched on political and religious is-sues and was a failure economically, and Redburn.(1849) and White-Jacket (1850), two straightforward adventure stories that sold well but which Melville considered to be mere hackwork. His sea voyages also inspired his complicated and deeply metaphysical magnum opus, MobyDick (1851). and the novella “Billy Budd,” which was not published until 1924, thirty-three years after his death in 1891. In addition to his novels Melville wrote shorter pieces such as “Bartleby, the Scrivener” and “Benito Cereno” and reviews throughout his life, for The Literary World, Putnam’s Monthly Magazine, and Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Melville’s 1855 novel Israel Potter, for example, was originally published serially in Putnam’s. His review of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Mosses from an Old Manse (1850) was at once a tribute to Hawthorne, a close friend of Melville’s, and an important document in the history of American fiction.
Controversy. While Melville’s adventure stories sold well, his more complicated works—Mardi, Moby-Dick, Pierre (1852), and The Confidence—Man (1857)—did not. Moby-Dick, which bristles with detailed information about whales and the whaling industry, focused on how Captain Ahab’s obsession with the great white whale caused him to turn explicitly against God, a position that many nineteenth-century readers found deeply offensive. Pierre, the only one of Melville’s novels not set at sea, was the tragic story of a young man drawn into a complex and possibly incestuous relationship with a young woman who turns out to be his half sister. The story’s violent ending and sexual themes echoed the more lurid sensational fiction published in the United States in the 1840s and 1850s; Melville may have written it in order to tap that particular market. But the novel’s questioning of conventional ideas of familial and sexual virtue left it open to sharp criticism for its immorality since even sensational novels were careful to attach moral lessons to their stories. Finally, The Confidence-Man, which Melville was barely able to get published, was a collection of magazine-style sketches that treated man’s suspiciousness and gullibility, all set on a Mississippi River steamboat on April Fool’s Day. The title character appears throughout the sketches in various disguises, illustrating not only the real-life confidence men who preyed on naive and trusting Americans in the cities and on the frontier but also the larger social and economic forces that had brought the confidence man into being.
Laurie Robertson-Lorant, Melville: A Biography (New York: Clarkson Potter, 1996).
Herman Melville, 1819–91, American author, b. New York City, considered one of the great American writers and a major figure in world literature.
Early Life and Works
Born into an impoverished family of distinguished Dutch and English colonial descent, Melville was 12 when his father died. He left school at 15, worked at a variety of jobs, and in 1839 signed on as a cabin boy on a ship bound for Liverpool, an experience reflected in his romance Redburn. In 1841–42 he spent 18 months on a whaler, but intolerable hardships on board caused him and a companion to escape from the ship at the Marquesas Islands. The two were captured by a tribe of cannibals, by whom they were well treated. After being rescued by an Australian whaler, Melville spent some time in Tahiti and other Pacific islands before shipping home in 1844.
The immediate results of his experiences were Typee: A Peep at Polynesian Life (1846), Omoo: A Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas (1847), as well as Redburn (1849), all fresh, exuberant, and immensely popular romances. In 1847, Melville married Elizabeth Shaw, the daughter of Lemuel Shaw, chief justice of Massachusetts. The popularity of his books brought him prosperity, business trips to Europe, and admission to literary circles in New York City. In 1850 he bought a farm near Pittsfield, Mass., and became friends with his neighbor Nathaniel Hawthorne. The allegorical implications evident in his romances Mardi: and a Voyage Thither (1849) and White-Jacket; or, The World in a Man-of-War (1850) reached full development in Melville's masterpiece, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (1851).
The story of a deranged whaling captain's obsessive voyage to find and destroy the great white whale that had ripped off his leg, the novel is at once an exciting sea story, a sociological critique of various American class and racial prejudices, a repository of information about whales and whaling, and a philosophical inquiry into the nature of good and evil, of man and his fate. The novel is heavily symbolic, and many critical formulations have been made as to the meaning of its central symbol, the great white whale Moby-Dick himself. Moby-Dick is greatly enhanced by Melville's rhythmic, rhetorical prose style. Although it is now considered one of the greatest of all novels, Moby-Dick was misunderstood and ill-received in its time. Readers were confused by the book's symbolism, and they failed to grasp Melville's complex view of the world.
Later Works and Life
Like Moby-Dick,Pierre; or, The Ambiguities (1852), a psychological study of guilt and frustrated good, was disregarded by the public. Disheartened by debts, ill health, and the failure to win an audience, Melville became absorbed in mysticism. He was unable to accept the optimism of transcendentalism, for he was always able to see the cruel as well as the beautiful in nature. Although he searched for a faith that would satisfy his yearning for the Absolute, he never found one. Melville continued to produce important works in The Piazza Tales (1856), a collection which includes "Benito Cereno" and "Bartleby the Scrivener," and The Confidence Man: His Masquerade (1857), a pessimistic satire on materialism.
Melville was forced to sell his farm, and in 1866 he secured a poorly paying position in New York City as a district inspector of customs, a job he held for 19 years. His late works include the volumes of poetry Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War (1866) and John Marr and Other Sailors (1888) and the long poem Clarel (1876). However, he wrote no more fiction until his last years when he composed the posthumously published novella Billy Budd, Foretopman (1924), the tragedy of an innocent. Melville died in poverty and obscurity. Although neglected for many years, he was rediscovered around 1920 and has been enthusiastically studied by critics and scholars ever since. Many of his unpublished works were issued posthumously, notably The Apple Tree Table (1922), a collection of magazine sketches; Journal of a Visit to London and the Continent (1948); and Journal of a Visit to Europe and the Levant (1955).
See the authoritative ed. of his writings (15 vol., ed. by H. M. Hayford et al., 1968–93); his letters (ed. by M. R. Davis and W. H. Gilman, 1960); biographies by N. Arvin (1950, repr. 1972, 2002), L. Howard (1981), G. Wolff (1987), H. Parker (2 vol., 1996–2002), L. Robertson-Lorant (1996), E. Hardwick (2000), and A. Delbanco (2005); studies by M. Rogin (1983), N. Tolchin (1988), W. Dimock (1989), and N. Philbrick (2011).