The term shrine refers to a place, usually the object of pilgrimages, where a relic, miraculous statue or picture, or other holy object receives special veneration; also to a spot designated to foster some Catholic belief or devotion. In Latin scrinium meant a box to contain manuscripts. Anglo-Saxon writers used scrin for a coffer or ark (arca in Latin) in which sacred relics were preserved, by analogy with the Biblical ark of the covenant (’ărôn in Hebrew), which was a chest of acacia wood overlaid with gold, holding the Tables of the Law, Aaron's rod, and a golden pot of manna (Heb 9.4). The ark was set in the Temple, in the Holy of Holies, a true shrine honored with religious ceremonial (2 Chr 5.6).
The sarcophagi in the Roman catacombs were arcae containing the bodies of the dead. The arcosolium developed, together with the tomb beneath an arch with a width equal to that of the tomb slab. This slab served as an altar table where Christian martyrs were interred. As in the case of St. polycarp, local cult established a solid tradition concerning the burial places of the martyrs and the authenticity of their relics (Martyrdom of Polycarp 18.2).
The translation of Christian relics began in the East at the time of Emperor Constantine I. Thus, in 356 relics believed to be those of St. Timothy and in 357 those of Saints Andrew and Luke were placed amid great ceremony in the Basilica of the Apostles in Constantinople. In the West, however, civil law and Christian sentiment forbade removal of relics. For some centuries these remained in marked tombs. Pope Honorius I (625 to 638) reversed a ruling by Pope Gregory I (590 to 604) when he had the head of St. agnes brought to the greater safety of the Lateran in Rome. The history of the shrines devoted to her indicates clearly what was happening in many other places.
Four types of shrines will be noted, according as they honor objects of Our Lord's Passion, the Blessed Virgin Mary, the saints, or Catholic beliefs and devotions.
Shrines of Relics of the Passion. The instruments of the Passion came to be regarded as symbols of the supreme martyrdom and to be treated as major relics. Constantine I in 327 had the Holy sepulcher excavated (Eusebius, Vita Constantini 3.28). Eusebius does not mention the finding of the cross; but St. Ambrose states with some authority that the cross, title, and nails were unearthed (De obit. Theodosii 46, 57). (see cross, finding of the holy.) The title would identify the cross. In normal Roman usage, which the Gospels indicate was followed, the title consisted of a wooden board, then called album, gouged with the words of indictment and painted black or red. It is feasible that a title of this kind, fixed to a wooden cross which was flung hastily into a disused cistern, could have been preserved more than three centuries. Archeologists have recorded many such survivals.
Dispersal of what was regarded as true relics of the Passion began immediately. Parts of the cross and its title remained in Jerusalem, where they were venerated by Aetheria in 385. St. Cyril of Jerusalem, age seven when the holy sepulcher was located, wrote c. 347: "All the world is full of the particles of the cross" (Catecheses 4). St. helena is said to have sent to Constantine I, her son, parts of the cross and title.
The Jerusalem relic of the cross suffered many hazards. Chosroes II (590 to 628) captured it, but Heraclius regained it in 629 and subdivided it into 19 parts, which were distributed to great churches at Antioch, Alexandria, Edessa, and elsewhere. Four parts remained in Jerusalem and were in turn divided many times. During the period of the crusades the crusaders removed portions, which thereby lost their tradition of origin. Some were authentically derived from the main deposit. Many particles consisted of mere splinters. When Rohault de Fleury made a detailed study of all relics of the cross then known, he showed that far less than one-fortieth was accounted for, although he overestimated the size and cubic content of the cross (Mémoire sur les Instruments de la Passion, 1870).
Church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome. Constantine I sent part of the cross and title to Rome, where it was deposited in a chapel annexed to the Sessorian basilica subsequently dedicated to the holy cross. This remains the most important shrine of relics of the Passion and is the prototype of several later European shrines.
The relics at first were kept in a chamber behind the apse. This is the memoria, situated behind the martyrium at Golgotha and other Constantinian foundations, but not
elsewhere in Rome, where relics remained beneath altars, not behind them. Other ancient European shrines, such as the one at Saragossa, placed the relics behind the altar. The feretory of St. Edward the Confessor still remains in a distinct chamber behind the high altar of Westminster Abbey, London. The Santa Croce relic of the cross, reduced to three pieces no longer than six inches, are currently encased in a silver reliquary.
It is the relic of the title at Santa Croce that is unique. Confronted by Visigoth attacks, the clergy (c. 455) hid the title high above the main arch behind a marble slab inscribed "Hic est titulus crucis." Here it was found in 1492 and enclosed in glass by Innocent VIII. A nail and two thorns from the crown of thorns are also venerated at Santa Croce.
Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris. This shrine claims a relic of the crown of thorns. The crown was shown to pilgrims in Jerusalem until about 810 and was then removed to the imperial chapel in Constantinople. Previously some of the thorns had been given away, notably to Aachen, Germany. Otto I in turn donated in 937 part of the Aachen relic to Athelstan, King of Wessex. After St. louis ix, King of France, settled the war debts of Baldwin II of Constantinople, he received the sacred crown, a nail, and some of the wood of the cross. These were brought to Paris in an enormous procession, met by the King at Sens, where he bestowed several thorns on princes who were present. One of these is enshrined in the cathedral at Barcelona. Another later was brought to Scotland by Mary, Queen of Scots, and eventually came to Stonyhurst College in Lancashire.
St. Louis IX built the Sainte Chapelle in Paris to house the crown of thorns, translated it there (March 21, 1248), and enshrined it above the baldachino of the high altar. The relic was damaged in the process of concealing it during the French Revolution. In 1806 it was placed in Notre Dame Cathedral. There it is kept, along with the fragment of the cross and the nail, in a gilded bronze ark in resplendent cases. The relics are exposed every Lent and then returned to the cathedral treasury at the end of Holy Week.
Cathedral at Trier, Germany. The ark of relics that tradition claimed were sent to this imperial city by St. Helena remained sealed until 1101, when it was opened and revealed a large relic of the cross, a nail, and a garment, supposedly Christ's and since then called the holy coat of Trier. Argenteuil, near Paris, also claimed to possess the holy tunic, as did other places. The authenticity of the relics has given rise to much controversy. Trier and Argenteuil have been centers of pilgrimage whenever these relics were exposed (see trier).
Cathedral at Turin, Italy. The holy shroud was brought in 1578 to Turin, where it has since been kept in a silver casket inside an iron chest in a great marble urn in its own chapel in the cathedral. This chapel, approached by 37 steps behind the high altar, is a magnet for daily throngs of pilgrims. The shroud is exposed for veneration every 33 years.
Sancta Sanctorum Chapel, Rome. This is one of the most frequented of all shrines since it possesses what have been claimed to be relics of the cross, Christ's sandals, a portrait of Our Lord "not painted by mortal hands," and the holy stairs (scala sancta ). These 28 white marble steps, which once led to the praetorium of Pilate at Jerusalem according to tradition, are mounted by pilgrims on their knees.
Other Shrines. The holy thorn given to King Athelstan remained in glastonbury abbey until 1539 and is now preserved at stanbrook abbey in England. The cathedral at Ghent enshrines one of the largest fragments of the cross. In Florence the cathedral retains a relic of the nail.
Shrines of Our Lady. The earliest shrines of the Blessed Virgin Mary were in the places related to the life of her son, Nazareth and Bethlehem. By the 4th century there was a church near the probatica pool in Jerusalem on the site of her supposed birthplace. At Ain Karim, four miles distant, is the church of the Visitation; and at Mt. Zion, the church of the dormition. (see palestine, 9.)
Modern excavations at Ephesus have revealed an important 4th-century chapel on the site of a much older
building. In 1950 it was restored as a shrine in the belief that Mary lived there with St. John. The nearby ruins of the church of St. Mary, scene of the ecumenical council in 431, ranked as a great Marian shrine. Loreto, Italy, claims the house of the Holy Family, said to have come from Nazareth.
Shrines with Cloth Relics. In the absence of corporeal relics, veneration attached to the Blessed Virgin's cloak, veil, and cincture, which emerged as relics somewhat later than those of the Passion. theodore lector mentions that Eudocia sent to Constantinople (c. 450) an icon painted by St. Luke and refers to oratories possessing the cincture, cloak, or veil. The dispersal of these relics was gradual.
The cathedral in chartres claims the veil of Mary, long misnamed her tunic, and said to have been given to King Charles the Bald in 876 by Constantine V. The ark, or châsse, covered with gold and richly jeweled, remained unopened until 1712. When opened it was found to contain not a tunic but a silken veil 16 feet long. During the French Revolution the reliquary was looted, but the relic was preserved, being cut into pieces and dispersed. These pieces were reassembled (1806 to 1818) and restored to veneration.
aachen, Germany, where Pope Leo III consecrated the basilica of St. Mary in 804, is the depository of Marian relics dating from this period. The swaddling clothes of Our Lord and Mary's cloak or veil are encased in a silver Marienschrein dating from 1237, and exposed every seven years.
The cincture, calchopratea, may have been distributed widely. Tortosa, Spain, claims a portion, said to have arrived miraculously at the altar in 1278. Prato in Tuscany has a relic of the cincture, which was long kept beneath the altar; and in 1320 it was taken to a new chapel designed by Pisano and adorned by Agnolo Gaddi, Bruno Mazzei, and Pisano and was encased in a remarkable reliquary made by Maso di Bartolomeo.
Shrines Possessing Icons. The icon mentioned by Theodore Lector as painted by St. Luke was almost certainly the one known as hodegetria, the guide of the way, enshrined in a monastery rebuilt by Emperor Michael III (842 to 867). This, the prototype of many shrine icons and the palladium of Constantinople, was hacked to pieces when the city fell in 1453. The notion once prevailed that the Evangelist painted these icons. Confusion may have arisen among the uncritical because all these pictures, similar in iconography, were called Lucan and attributed to St. Luke on the strength of Theodore Lector's remark.
Shrines that honor greatly venerated Lucan-type icons include St. Mary Major, Rome, whose "Salus populi romani" icon is kept in the Borghese chapel and has many times been carried through the city in time of plague. Bologna possesses a "Madonna di S. Luca" from Constantinople in the sanctuary of the same name founded in 1193. The cathedral in Bari has an icon, "S. Maria di Costantinopoli." Monte Vergine, near Avellino, honors the "Madonna Schiavona" enshrined in 1310. Poland has a famous shrine honoring Our Lady of cze stochowa. In the Levant the most important Marian shrine is at Dair as-Sagura, Syria, where Orthodox nuns preserve the "Saidnaia Madonna."
Many other shrines have become famed for icontype pictures stemming from Byzantine or Greco-Italian sources. Their main theme is the hodegetria or a variant of it, such as the eleousa, or tender caress. Thus in Rome is found the madonna of "S. Maria in Portico" in the church of S. Maria in Campitelli, transferred there in 1659. The Redemptorist church of S. Alfonso holds the world-famous icon "Our Lady of Perpetual Help," of mid-15th-century Cretan origin. The "Madonna della Strada" in the Jesuit church of the Gesù has always been intimately connected with the history of this order. There is at Genazzano an extremely popular shrine to Our Lady of Good Counsel. In the Eastern rite monastery at Grottaferrata, near Frascati, is the icon "S. Maria di Grottaferrata," dating from the early 11th century. Castel di Leva honors the 14th-century "Madonna del Divino Amore." At Monte Nero in Livorno the shrine has a Greek icon, "Plena Gratia." Montallegro in Rapallo honors the madonna "Stella Maris," dating from 1557, possibly of Dalmation origin. The church of the Consolata in Turin is the shrine of Our Lady of Consolation, dating from 1104. There is an affiliated daughter shrine at West Grinstead, England, crowned in 1893, which possesses an excellent facsimile of the icon. Shrines with icons of the hodegetria type tend to locate along those portions of the Mediterranean coast where Greek or Byzantine influence was strong. Eastern rite churches, Catholic or Orthodox, have innumerable shrines, each with its holy icon.
Shrines of Celebrated Images. These images, as distinct from icons, have become distinguished by some phenomenon or prodigy or miracles believed to have been granted at their sanctuaries. They can be found in many lands and have been noted in every century since, perhaps, the 4th. St. Irenaeus records a heretical sect in Alexandria which was honoring images c. 160 (Adv. haer. 1.25.6). The total number of shrines, as distinct from lady altars, to which pilgrimages are made defies precise enumeration. J. E. B. Drochon has supplied details concerning 1,300 in France alone, 75 of which have been honored with papal crowning, 200 with papal indulgences. Italian shrines are even more numerous. More than 200 of them have been crowned, many by the popes. Their numbers are small only in formerly Catholic countries where iconoclastic Calvinism eliminated them or in regions where Catholicism has not penetrated. In Holland some 60 Marian shrines survive or replace others which have been destroyed. A. E. de Staercke has recounted the essential facts about 250 Belgian shrines. Croatia has more than 50 such sanctuaries.
England had 65 Marian pilgrimage shrines before 1538, when their destruction was ordered by government edict. Some of the more notable historic centers have been revived in the 20th century, namely, those at Aylesford, Caversham, Doncaster, Evesham, Glastonbury, Osmotherley (Mount Grace), Truro (Our Lady of the Portal), Willesden. The shrine of Our Lady of Pewe (Power) is now in Westminster Cathedral. Surpassing all is Walsingham (see below).
Wales also has enjoyed similar revivals. At Penrhys the site of the shrine favored by the ancient Welsh bards was regained in 1939. At Cardigan near the former national pilgrimage center a statue of Our Lady of the Taper was reenshrined (1956).
In the United States 106 pilgrimage shrines of Our Lady have been listed [The Marian Era 4 (1963) 140–43]. Some of these are small, but others rank with historic European shrines. Santa Fe cathedral has a shrine honoring Our Lady of the Conquest (La Conquistadora), established in 1625. St. Augustine, Florida, had the shrine of Nuestra Senora de la Leche in 1620. The present statue is a replica. Canada possesses an important sanctuary at Cap-de-la-Madeleine, in a small chapel founded by Jesuits in 1659. The tiny chapel is now surrounded by a large Marian park with a basilica-type church. The statue was crowned in 1904.
In Latin America Bolivia has a shrine to Our Lady of Copacabana built in 1583. In Luján, Argentina, there is a national shrine honoring Our Lady of Luján, patroness of Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Since 1929 Brazil has placed itself under the patronage of Our Lady, "Aparacida," whose statue dates from the early 17th century. At Quinche, Ecuador, "La Pequeñita" (The Little Loved One) is one of the most beautiful of shrine statues.
Shrines Honoring Apparitions of Mary. In recent times ecclesiastical authorities have been cautious about giving credence to accounts of apparitions of Mary and permitting cult at these spots. In 1830 St. Catherine la bourÉ received at the Rue de Bac, Paris, the first of her visions, which were substantiated by episcopal inquiry. Since then 186 reports of such phenomena have been investigated, but only the following 10 have received canonical sanction and have become the location of shrines. First was the apparition to Marie Alphonse ratisbonne in the church of S. Andrea delle Frate, Rome (1842). In 1846 the apparition at la salette occurred, and in 1858, those at lourdes; both places have become world-famous sanctuaries. A large shrine was built at Ilaca, Croatia, after the apparitions to a peasant and other persons (1865 to 1867). A basilica was erected in 1871 in Philippsdorf, Bohemia, after the apparition to 30-year-old Magdalena Kade (1866). The vision to four children in a starlit sky at Pontmain, Normandy (Jan. 17, 1871), resulted in the construction of a basilica as a national votive offering since it also marked the start of withdrawal of Prussian invading forces. The shrine of Our Lady at Knock, Ireland, arose after the visions to a number of persons there (Aug. 21, 1879). fatima, Portugal, has become a world-renowned shrine since the apparitions there in 1917. Visions to five children at the May-tree in Beauraing, Belgium (1932 to 1933), were subjected to long ecclesiastical inquiries. The spot has become the center of international pilgrimages. After the appearances to a small girl in Banneux, Belgium, in 1933, episcopal recognition was granted in 1949, and a chapel was erected there.
Cult is permitted at the shrine in Pellevoisin, France, where Estelle Faguette, a maidservant, enjoyed an amazing cure and claimed to receive apparitions; but no official pronouncement has been made concerning their authenticity. Neither has there been official approval of the cult at Tre Fontane, near Rome, where Bruno Cornacchiola claimed visions in 1947; but devotional visits are not forbidden.
In earlier centuries apparitions of the Blessed Virgin have been honored with numerous shrines. Among the most famous is the French national shrine at Le Puy, which originated in the 3d century according to tradition and whose church was begun in 493. The sanctuary at Evesham, England, originated after the visions of Eoves, a swineherd, and Bishop Egwin in 700. After its destruction in 1538, a new shrine was erected in 1939 and became the goal of many pilgrimages.
walsingham, England, became one of the most popular places of pilgrimage in Europe subsequent to a vision in 1061. The shrine was demolished in 1538, but devotion rekindled c. 1894 and increased when the English hierarchy in 1934 reestablished the shrine in the 14th-century Slipper Chapel, the sole pilgrim chapel that had remained intact. The new statue was crowned in 1954 in accordance with a brief of Pius XII.
Aylesford, England, now commemorates the disputed apparition of Mary with the scapular to St. simon stock, which occurred at Cambridge (1251). In 1949 the carmelites regained their medieval monastery at Aylesford, home of St. Simon and resting place of some of his relics since 1951. A new pilgrims' church was completed in 1962.
guadalupe, near Mexico City, has become one of the most popular shrines in the world since the apparitions in 1531.
France and Italy are the most common locations of shrines resulting from apparitions. French ones, with dates of apparitions, include those at Celles (1686), Garaison (1500), La Vange (1800), Le Laus (1664), and Vinay (1656), which honors "Notre-Dame de l'Osier."
In Italy the following shrines are marked by magnificent sanctuaries and attract numerous pilgrims: Caravaggio (1432); Crema (1490); Genoa (1490), which honors Our Lady "della Guardia" on Monte Figogna; Monte Berico (1426); Monte Nero in Livorno province (1345); Montallegro in Rapallo (1537); and Savona (1536), where the basilica is a national architectural monument.
Shrines of the Saints. So numerous are the shrines that are still centers of cult that they cannot even be listed here. It must suffice to say something about the location of shrines and arrangement of their relics and to mention a few of the more famous sanctuaries.
Arrangement of Shrines and Relics. In the early Church the normal arrangement was to place shrines in vaults beneath altars. This derived from the custom of building churches directly over the tombs of the saints there venerated. Later, when shrines were transferred to churches already erected, the arks were placed beneath altars above ground, and then usually in sealed chests. But in western Europe and England, following a pattern seen in Jerusalem, the relics were commonly translated to chapels directly behind the high altar, raised on catafalque-type structures of costly marbles. Or the relic chests were enclosed in the normal tomb space in the bases of these shrine monuments, with apertures that allowed pilgrims to touch the casket within. The shrine of St. alban, protomartyr of Britain, in the abbey church dedicated to him, was such a structure. It was demolished in 1539, but the pieces have been reassembled and rebuilt in situ so that visitors can see what the arrangement was, but without the wealth of adornment that once enriched the shrine. The relics were scattered. Even so, a number of pilgrims, especially among Anglicans, visit the now empty shrine. The abbey church is now the Anglican cathedral of St. Albans.
Later still, under Renaissance influence, it became the practice to dress relics in sacerdotal or episcopal vestments, or religious garb, sometimes with silver or waxen masks, all enclosed within crystal-fronted caskets so that the apparent corpse could be seen. This was done as recently as 1925, when the remains of St. Bernadette sou birous were translated to the resplendent reliquary in the convent chapel at Nevers. It has also been done at the shrines in Paris of St. vincent de paul and St. Catherine Labouré. In the latter case the heart, removed from the body, is enclosed in a separate crystal heart reliquary. This practice exists also outside France. In 1930 the relics of St. John southworth were translated to Westminster Cathedral and covered with crimson Mass vestments and deposited in a bronze casket with crystal sides. Silver masks cover hands and face.
Shrines of the Apostles. The tombs of Saints Peter and Paul, Apostles, in Rome have for centuries received special honor. The venerable sanctuary of St. James, son of Zebedee, at santiago de compostela in Spain retains its great popularity. At Toulouse, which used to be on the famous pilgrim route to Santiago, the crypt in the basilica of St. Sernin honors supposed relics of eight apostles. Most popular here is the shrine of St. jude as patron of lost causes. St. bartholomew is honored in the church dedicated to him on the island in the Tiber, Rome, where a porphyry urn contains relics, thought to be his when Otto III removed them from Benevento (983). An elaborate shrine in Amalfi, Italy, contains relics claimed to be those of St. andrew. The head was removed to St. Peter's Basilica, Rome (1462), but Pope Paul VI ordered its return to Patras, Greece (1964). St. thomas is greatly venerated at Mylapore, India, by Malabar rite Christians, and also at Ortona, Italy, which retained the reliquary intact after the destruction of the cathedral (1943). St. John was honored at Ephesus by a chapel in the 2d century and by a basilica in the 6th, which became a mosque (1330) before its destruction by Tamerlane (1402). Excavations in 1926 made it possible to visit the tomb, now empty, in a vault beneath the altar.
Founders of Religious Orders. Saints who have founded religious orders, particularly the larger ones, are revered in several shrines. That of St. benedict at monte cassino, Italy, is of immense historic interest. St. domi nic is enshrined in the church of San Domenico, Bologna, in a marble arca, the head being preserved apart in a silver head reliquary. The relics of St. Francis are the object of immense devotion in the crypt beneath the lower church at Assisi. St. ignatius of loyola is venerated in the church of the Gesù, Rome, where his remains repose in an urn of gilt bronze beneath an altar of lapis lazuli, above which is a statue of the Jesuit founder in solid silver. The shrine of St. Philip neri in the Chiesa Nuova is very popular with Romans.
Missioners. Shrines honor also saints who have evangelized various countries or effected religious revivals. Thus St. boniface, apostle of Germany, is enshrined at Fulda Abbey in an elaborate tomb. St. chad, apostle of Mercia, was honored at the cathedral in Lichfield, England, until the Reformation, when his relics were rescued and hidden. Pugin designed the shrine that now contains them in St. Chad's cathedral, Birmingham. St. willibrord, apostle of the Frisians, was buried in the abbey of echternach in Luxembourg, which soon became a very popular pilgrimage center. Still surviving is the ancient dancing procession each Whit Tuesday, when thousands of pilgrims perform a curious dance step along an established route while reciting centuries-old litanies. This custom of walking along routes (Bidweggen, prayer ways) fixed by tradition is found at such Belgian and Dutch shrines as those at Hal, Maastricht, Roermond, and Walcourt. One of the most popular shrines in the United States is that of the north american martyrs at Auriesville, New York.
The classic example of a famous medieval shrine that continues to function in the 20th century as it did in the 11th is that of St. nicholas of myra, patron of sailors and children and prototype of Santa Claus. His remains are in the crypt of the basilica at Bari, Italy, where the altar, tomb, statue, and lamps are in solid silver and the icon is a rich, 14th-century gift from King Mosario of Serbia.
Sanctuaries of Honor. Desire to honor Catholic beliefs or devotions accounts for another group of sanctuaries. They are called shrines although they do not necessarily contain relics or miraculous images. One of the most celebrated shrines of this type is in the Convent of the Visitation, paray-le-monial (Saone-et-Loire), France, place of the revelations granted to St. Margaret Mary Alacoque, associated with the devotion to the sa cred heart. In Paris the basilica of Sacré-Coeur on the summit of Montmartre was built by national subscription as a manifestation of contrition and hope after the Franco-Prussian War (1870 to 1871). The national shrine of the immaculate conception in Washington, D.C., was given this designation by the hierarchy of the United States and built in honor of the patroness of the United States. Great numbers of parish churches and other sacred edifices, some enjoying more than local fame, are called shrines and serve as stimuli to devotion.
See Also: icon; images, veneration of; martyrium; pilgrimages; relics; reliquaries
Bibliography: Treatments of a general kind are lacking, although works on individual shrines or types of shrines abound. f. philipin de riviÈres, Holy Places: Their Sanctity and Authenticity (London 1874). j. k. cartwright, The Catholic Shrines of Europe (New York 1955). p. kinsel and l. henry, The Catholic Shrines of the Holy Land (New York 1951). h. m. gillett, The Story of the Relics of the Passion (Oxford 1935); Famous Shrines of Our Lady, 2 v. (London 1949); Shrines of Our Lady in England and Wales (London 1957). e. waterton, Pietas Mariana Britannica (London 1879). z. aradi, Shrines of Our Lady Around the World (New York 1954). m. j. dorcy, Shrines of Our Lady (New York 1956). j. e. b. drochon, Histoire illustrée des pèlerinages français de la très sainte Vierge (Paris 1890). i. couturier de chefdubois, Mille pèlerinages de Notre-Dame, 3 v. (Paris 1954). a. salvini, Santuari Mariani d'Italia (Rome 1940). a. gabrielli, Saints and Shrines of Italy (Rome 1950). g. rodrigue, Les Sanctuaires de Marie en Belgique (Renaix, Belgium 1924), a. e. de staercke, Notre-Dame des Belges (Brussels 1954). j. a. f. kronenburg, Maria's Heerlijkeid in Nederland, 8 v. (Amsterdam 1904–14). i. allardyce, Historic Shrines of Spain (New York 1912). d. manfredi cano, Santuarios de la Virgen María en España y América (Madrid 1954). r. vargas ugarte, Historia del culto de María en Ibero-américa y de sus imagenes y santuarios más celebrados (3d ed. Madrid 1956). b. camm, Pilgrim Paths in Latin Lands (St. Louis 1923); Forgotten Shrines (St. Louis 1910). j. c. wall, Shrines of British Saints (London 1905). b. c. boulter, The Pilgrim Shrines of England (London 1928). c. hole, English Shrines and Sanctuaries (London 1954). d. d. c. pochin mould, Irish Pilgrimage (New York 1957). f. g. holweck, A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints (St. Louis 1924). r. l. and h. f. woods, Pilgrim Places in North America: A Guide to Catholic Shrines (New York 1939). f. b. thornton, Catholic Shrines in the United States and Canada (New York 1954). a. m. bozzone, a. mercati and a. pelzer, Dizionario ecclesiastico, 3 v. (Turn 1954–58) 3:714–15.
[h. m. gillett]
"Shrines." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 15, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shrines
"Shrines." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved December 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shrines
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