Anthony, Patriarchs of Constantinople (I-IV)
ANTHONY, PATRIARCHS OF CONSTANTINOPLE (I-IV)
Anthony I, Kassimatas, iconoclast and patriarch, January 821 to c. Jan. 21, 837. As the son of a priest shoemaker, he became a teacher, then a monk, probably hegumen (abbot) of the Monastery of the Metropolitou in Petrion before 815, and later, apparently bishop of Sylaion. An iconoclast because of ambition, he aided Emperor leo v (813–820) against Patriarch nicephoras i, took part in the Iconoclastic Synod of 815 under Theodotus Melissenus, and became patriarch in 821. He excommunicated Job, Patriarch of Antioch, because he had crowned the usurping Emperor Thomas, who was supported by the Arab Emir Mamun.
Anthony II, Kauleas, patriarch, August 893 to Feb. 12, 901. At 12 he followed his father as a monk and later as hegumen in the Monastery of the Mother of God, whose title was later changed to Kalliou Kauleos (Patrologia Graeca, ed. J. P. Migne, 117:308d). He instigated the canonization of the Athonite monk St. Blasius of Amorion (c. 894), and in the synod of September 899 received opponents of photius into communion with the Church in the presence of two papal legates. He also strengthened the power of the Byzantine patriarchate over the Church in Dalmatia.
Anthony III, the Studite, patriarch, March 974, to c. April 979; d. Studiu, Mt. Athos, 983. A monk in the Studiu monastery, he became Syncellus to Patriarch Basil I and after the latter's deposition by Emperor John I Tzimisces, patriarch. He supported the anti-pope Boniface VII against Pope benedict vii and was forced into retirement (979), possibly for having sided with Bardas Sclerus in his conflict with Emperor Basil II. He left a Monitum to his monks on confession and the monastic account of conscience, and fought against the simonaical activity connected with taxes for hagia sophia.
Anthony IV, patriarch, 1389 to 1390, and 1391 to 1397; d. Constantinople, May 1397. Named patriarch in January 1389, he was deposed in July 1390, but he managed to regain imperial favor and returned to power in March 1391. He played a primary role in supporting the Byzantine sovereignty, despite the fact that Constantinople had become a vassal of the Turks under Bajezid. He controverted the statement of Basil I, Grand Duke of Russia, "We have a Church but no emperor," with the claim that the Apostle Peter's admonition, "Fear God, honor the emperor" (1 Pt 2.13) referred specifically to the ecumenical ruler of Byzantium. He tried to regulate the conflict between the various Byzantine-rite churches; held the Patriarchate of Alexandria in obedience to Constantinople despite the divisive efforts of the Sultan of Egypt; and not only wrote to King Jagellon of Poland (January 1397), the Hungarian monarch, and the Metropolitan of Kiev, begging their assistance against the Turks, but encouraged Manual II to make a journey to the West in 1399 for this purpose. He also laid down regulations for the conduct of monks, particularly in regard to their novitiate and their clothing.
Bibliography: p. joannou, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner (2d, new ed. Freiburg 1957–65) 1:669–670. v. grumel, ed., Les Regestes des Actes du Patriarcat de Constantinople (Istanbul 1932–) 1.2:412, 594–597, 798–799; Échos d'Orient 33 (1934) 257–288; 35 (1936) 5–42. r. janin, La Géographie ecclésiastique de l'Empire byzantin, v.1.3 (Paris 1953); Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. a. baudrillart et al. (Paris 1912–) 3:746, 796–797. h. g. beck, Kirche und theologische Literatur im byzantinischen Reich (Munich 1959) 584. f. miklosich and j. mÜller, eds., Acta et diplomata graeca medii aevi, 6 v. (Vienna 1860–90) 2:112–291. g. ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State, tr. j. hussey from 2d German ed. (Oxford 1956); American ed. by p. charanis (New Brunswick, N.J. 1957) 181–186, 491–493.
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