Vladimir II (Vladimir Monomakh) or Volodymyr II, 1053–1125, grand duke of Kiev (1113–25); son of Vsevolod I, prince of Pereyaslavl and grand duke of Kiev (ruled 1078–93). On his father's death he became prince of Pereyaslavl, but supported his cousin Sviatopolk for grand duke of Kiev in order to avoid warfare among the princes of Russia. Vladimir gained popularity as a result of his successful campaigns (1103 and 1111) against the Cumans, nomadic invaders who were a constant threat to Russian lands. When Sviatopolk died Vladimir succeeded him. Under his reign the state flourished and grew in power. He enacted social legislation, extended colonization in the northeastern forests, and built new towns.