Russian physiologist known for his research on brain formation and conditioned reflexes. He developed a behaviorist theory of conditioned response, independent of Ivan Pavlov. Bekhterev's greatest work was on brain structure and specific brain diseases. Born in Kirov, Russia, he received his doctorate from Medical-Surgery Academy of Saint Petersburg in 1881 and worked at the University of Petrograd until his death. His works greatly contributed to the behaviorist psychology movement in the United States.