Skip to main content


Shih-T'ao (shûr-tou), 1641–c.1670, Chinese painter of the late Ming–early Ch'ing period, one of the major figures in 17th-century painting. A descendant of the imperial Ming family, he escaped persecution from the invading Manchus by becoming a Buddhist monk with the name Tao-chi. Settling in Yangzhou, he severed his ties to the Buddhist church and became a professional painter and a landscape architect. In his treatise, Hua Yu Lu, he emphasized the importance of the concept of "i hua," or one line, which is variously translatable as line, unity, or a sense of oneness with nature.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Shih-T'ao." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 24 May. 2019 <>.

"Shih-T'ao." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (May 24, 2019).

"Shih-T'ao." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 24, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.