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Horticulture

HORTICULTURE

HORTICULTURE. Horticulture, literally garden culture, is a part of crop agriculture that also includes agronomy and forestry. By tradition, horticulture deals with garden crops such as fruits, nuts, vegetables, culinary herbs and spices, beverage crops, and medicinals, as well as ornamental plants. Agronomy is involved with grains, pasture grasses and forages, oilseeds, fiber crops, and industrial crops such as sugarcane, while forestry is involved with trees grown for timber and fiber as well as the incidental wildlife. The edible horticultural crops are used entirely as human food and are often utilized in the living state and thus highly perishable. In contrast, edible agronomic crops are often utilized in the nonliving state, are highly processed, are often used for animal feed, and usually contain a high percentage of dry matter. The precise distinction between horticultural and agronomic crops is traditional. In general, horticultural crops are intensively cultivated and warrant a large input of capital, labor, and technology per unit area of land, but in modern agriculture, horticultural crops may be extensively grown while many agronomic crops are now intensively cultivated. Many crops are claimed by more than one discipline. Horticulture is practiced in large agricultural operations, in small farm enterprises, and in home gardens.

Horticultural Arts

Horticulture is associated with a number of intensive practices that collectively make up the horticultural arts. These include various propagation techniques incorporating special plant structures such as bulbs, corms, or runners; the use of layers or cuttings; budding and grafting; and micropropagation involving tissue culture. Cultural practices include soil preparation, direct planting or transplanting; fertilization; weed, disease, and pest control; training and pruning; the use of controlled environments such as greenhouses or plastic tunnels; applications of chemical growth regulators; various harvest and handling methods; and various postharvest treatments to extend shelf life. Other practices associated with horticulture are breeding and genetic techniques for crop improvement, marketing methods, and food processing. Ornamental horticulture, not considered here, includes added practices associated with landscape architecture and the floral arts. While horticulture is an ancient art with many of its practices empirically derived, present-day horticultural arts are intimately associated with science, so that modern horticultural science is one of the most advanced parts of agriculture. Recently some horticultural growers have attempted to reduce or even eliminate reliance on inorganic fertilizers and pesticides through the incorporation of ecologically based practices (integrated crop management).

Horticultural Food Crops

Horticultural food crops include an enormous array of species that are grouped in various ways.

Fruits. Fruits of woody perennial plants have long been prized for sources of refreshment, for their delightful flavors and aromas, and as nourishing foods. Fruit crops can be defined as temperate, subtropical, and tropical depending on their temperature requirements. Temperate fruits are deciduous (drop their leaves in the cold period) and undergo dormancy requiring a certain amount of low temperatures (chilling period) before growth is resumed in the spring. Subtropical fruits require a very short chilling period. Tropical fruits are usually evergreen and are extremely cold-sensitive. Within these groupings fruit crops are usually grouped by taxonomic affinity. The temperate fruits include the pome fruits (apple, pear, quince, medlar), stone fruits (apricot, cherry, peach and its smooth-skin variant the nectarine, and plum), vine fruits (grape and kiwifruit), and small or bush fruits (strawberry; blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry; brambles such as blackberry, raspberry, and various hybrids; currants and gooseberries). The subtropical fruits include citrus (citron, grapefruit, the tropical pomelo, sweet orange, lemon, lime, mandarins, and various hybrids such as the tangor or tangelo); and fruits associated with Mediterranean climates (avocado, cactus pear, carob, fig, loquat, persimmon, pomegranate). There are hundreds of tropical fruits, of which the most important are banana and plantain, mango, papaya, and pineapple, but there are hundreds of others with regional interest, including acerola, akee, carambola, cherimoya, durian, guava, litchi, mangosteen, passion fruit, rambutan, sapodilla, and soursop.

Nuts. The important tree nuts that enter into international trade include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, chestnuts, hazelnuts, macadamias, pistachios, pecans and hickories, and walnuts.

Beverage crops. Beverage crops include the subtropical cropscoffee, tea, and matéand the tropical cacao used for cocoa and the confection chocolate.

Vegetables. Vegetables are typically herbaceous (softstemmed) plants in which various parts are used as food, including roots, tubers, leaves, fruit, or seed. There are various groupings based on the part consumed and taxonomic affinity. Vegetables include the root crops (beet, carrot, cassava, celeriac, dasheen, horseradish, parsnip, potato, salsify, turnip, radish, rutabaga, and sweet potato, as well as some little-known Andean tubers such as oca, mashua or anu, and ulluco, and root crops such as arracacha, maca, and yacon); bulb or corm crops including the pungent alliums (chive, garlic, leek, onion, shallots, and chive); salad or leafy crops (arugula or rocket, celery, chicory, cress, endive, lettuce, parsley); cole crops or crucifers (cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, Chinese cabbage, and various Asian types such as bok choy); potherbs or greens (chard, collards, dandelion, celeriac, kale, mustard, orach, spinach, New Zealand spinach); solanaceous fruits (eggplant, sweet and hot peppers, tomato and husk tomato), cucurbits, also known as melon or vine crops (chayote, cucumber, muskmelon, pumpkin, squash, watermelon); legumes or pulse crops in which the seed is consumed (adzuki bean, broad bean, chickpea, common bean, cowpea, lima bean, mung bean, rice beans, tepary bean, urdbean, garden pea, and pigeon pea). Some vegetables are perennial (artichoke, asparagus, Jerusalem artichoke, rhubarb, sea kale). Some agronomic crops are consumed as a vegetable in various stages, and these types are included as horticultural crops. Examples include sweet corn (the immature ears of a sweet type of maize), immature vegetable soybean or edamame, and the young leaves of amaranth.

Culinary herbs and spices. Aromatic plants used for culinary purposes are called herbs when they are temperate species and spices when they are tropical. Examples include allspice, anise, basil, capsicums, caraway, cardamom, cinnamon, chervil, clove, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, funugreek, garlic, ginger, laurel, marjoram, mint, mustard, nutmeg and mace, onion, organum, parsley, pepper, poppy seed, rosemary, saffron, sage, savory, sesame, star anise, tarragon, thyme, and turmeric.

Horticultural Societies

The field of horticulture has a great many organizations and societies devoted to all phases of horticulture, including amateurs and fanciers, growers and handlers, researchers, and academics. There are plant societies devoted to individual or groups of crops, trade organizations devoted to the production and marketing of individual horticultural crops, and scientific societies devoted to scientific research. In the United States, the principal society devoted to the science of horticulture is the American Society for Horticultural Science (founded 1903) with offices in Alexandria, Virginia. The society publishes three scholarly journals as well as books, and conducts annual meetings. Examples of other scientific societies in the United States include the American Pomological Society, devoted to fruits and nuts, and the American Potato Society. Growers of horticultural crops are also organized in state societies. Many countries have a national scientific society devoted to horticulture. The International Society for Horticultural Science located in Leuven, Belgium, sponsors international horticultural congresses every four years.

Horticultural Education

Horticulture is a recognized part of the curricula in agriculture worldwide. In the United States many land grant universities have horticulture departments devoted to undergraduate education leading to the B.S. degree. Most of these departments provide advanced training leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degree. However, since the 1990s

there has been a trend for horticulture and agronomy departments to combine into either a Crop Science or Plant Science department. A number of schools give two-year programs leading to associate degrees.

See also Agriculture since the Industrial Revolution ; Agriculture, Origins of ; Aquaculture ; Climate and Food ; Extension Services ; Farmers' Markets ; Gardening and Kitchen Gardens ; Genetic Engineering ; Greenhouse Horticulture ; High-Technology Farming ; Organic Agriculture ; Organic Farming and Gardening ; Organic Food ; Prehistoric Societies: Food Producers ; Sustainable Agriculture .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bailey, L. H. 1914. The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. New York: Macmillan, 1914.

Bailey, L. H., Ethel Zoe Bailey, and the Staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. Hortus Third: A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan, 1976.

Brewster, James L. Onions and Other Vegetable Alliums. New York: CABI, 1994.

Brickell, Christopher, and David Joyce. The American Horticultural Society Pruning and Training. New York: DK Publishing, 1996.

Davidson, Harold, Roy Mecklenburg, and Curtis Peterson. Nursery Management: Administration and Culture. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 2000.

Davies, Frederick S., and L. Gene Albrigo. Citrus. New York: CABI, 1994.

Decoteau, Dennis R. Vegetable Crops. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 2000.

Dole, John M., and Harold F. Wilkins. Floriculture: Principles and Species. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1999.

Everett, Thomas H., ed. The New York Botanical Garden Illustrated Encyclopedia of Horticulture. New York: Garland, 1981.

Galleta, Gene J., David Glenn Himelrick, and Lynda E. Chandler. Small Fruit Crop Management. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1990.

Harris, Richard Wilson, James R. Clark, and Nelda P. Matheny. Arboriculture: Integrated Management of Landscape Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1999.

Hartmann, Hudson T., et al. Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices. 6th ed. Upper Saddle, River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1997.

Huxley, Anthony, ed. The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 1999.

Janick, Jules. Horticultural Reviews. New York: Wiley, 1983 to present.

Janick, Jules. Horticultural Science. 4th ed. New York: Freeman, 1986.

Janick, Jules, et al. Plant Science: An Introduction to World Crops. 3d ed. San Francisco: Freeman, 1981.

Morton, Julia Frances. Fruits of Warm Climates. Edited by Curtis F. Dowling. Miami, Fla., and Winterville, N.C.: Morton, 1987.

Nakasone, Henry Y., and Robert E. Paull. Tropical Fruits. New York: CABI, 1998.

Parry, John W. Spices: Morphology, Histology, Chemistry. 2nd ed. 2 vols. New York: Chemical Publishing, 1969.

Robinson, Richard W. Cucurbits. New York: CABI, 1997.

Vaughan, J. G., and Catherine A. Geissler. The New Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Westwood, Melvin N. Temperate-Zone Pomology: Physiology and Culture. 3d ed. Portland, Ore.: Timber Press, 1993.

K. C. Willson. Coffee, Cocoa and Tea. New York: CABI, 1999.

Jules Janick


Crop Propagation

Horticultural crops are multiplied sexually (seed propagation) or asexually (clonal or vegetative propagation). Many vegetables and herbaceous (soft-stemmed) ornamentals are seed-propagated (beans, tomato, petunia). However, some seed is produced by nonsexual means (apomixisbluegrass, many citrus, mango), and plants produced by this type of seed are considered vegetatively or clonally propagated. Clonal propagation occurs naturally in many horticultural crops through special vegetative structures such as the tubers of potato, the runners of strawberry, the cloves (corms) of garlic, or the bulbs of tulip. Clonal propagation can be achieved by cuttings, where pieces of the plant regenerate missing parts. Thus, shoot cuttings regenerate roots (grape), root cuttings regenerate shoots (sweet potato), and leaf cuttings regenerate shoots and roots (African violet). Most fruit crops are propagated using grafting techniques where plants are physically joined together, in which the combination of parts achieves physical union through tissue regeneration to grow as a single plant. The part of the combination that provides the root is called the stock; the added piece is called the scion. When the scion consists of a single bud only, the process is referred to as budding. A modern form of vegetatative propagation is called micropropagation and involves tissue culturethe aseptic growth of cells, tissues, or organs in artificial media.

This technique permits very rapid propagation and is widely used for many foliage plants. It is commonly used to produce disease-free stock of strawberry, which are later propagated in the field by runners.



Plant Domestication

The greatest advances in horticulture, the selection and domestication of our useful crops, were made in prehistory by farmers unknown and unsung. The basic techniques of horticulture were well established by ancient cultures in antiquity (5000 to 1500 years ago). In fact, a complete record of horticulture practices is illustrated in the tomb artwork of ancient Egypt. The horticultural technology of antiquity includes basic propagation techniques (seed handling, grafting, use of cuttings); planting and cultivation (plowing, seed bed preparation, weeding), irrigation technology involving water storage, lifting, and channeling; storage technology such as granaries; fertilization and crop rotation; plant selection; basic food technology (fermentation technology in bread-and winemaking, drying, and pickling), and even the beginning of protected culture (the Romans had a primitive greenhouse using mica for cucumber forcing).



The Morrill Acts

The land-grant universities trace their origins to the Morrill Act signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1862, a famous piece of legislation sponsored by Justin Smith Morrill of Massachusetts. Monies from the sale of public lands (30,000 acres for each of its Senate and House members) were to be used as a trust fund to endow a college where practical education in agriculture and engineering would be emphasized. The Agricultural Experiment Stations associated with the land-grant colleges trace to legislation (Hatch Act of 1887) sponsored by William H. Hatch of Missouri. In 1890, the Second Morrill Act was passed and provided direct annual appropriations and forbade racial discrimination in admission to colleges receiving the funds. States were allowed to escape this provision if separate institutions were maintained and a number of the "1890 colleges" in various states open to African Americans became known as "black colleges."


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Horticulturist

Horticulturist

Horticulturists find work in two distinct areas: agriculture and landscape design. The training for both of these specialties is the same but the day-today activities are different. People with a Bachelor of Science degree in botany, biology, or agriculture may find employment as horticulturists after college. A strong training in the basic sciences, especially chemistry and biology, is necessary.

An agricultural horticulturist is responsible for investigating the best techniques for managing the aboveground aspects of agriculture. These include pruning, mulching, trellising, plant spacing, and pollination. His or her partners in this endeavor are the agronomist, who is concerned with fertilization, irrigation, and drainage, and the integrated pest manager who is concerned with plant pathogens and pests. Each must know the essentials of the others' fields and all must work together to produce profitable food and fiber crops.

The landscape horticulturist is concerned with all aspects of plant growth: aboveground aspects and fertilization, irrigation, and drainage. The landscape horticulturist must also have training in art and architecture. It is essential to know the requirements of decorative plants. Horticulturists work for commercial nurseries; schools or businesses with a "campus" or landscaped grounds; entertainment centers such as theme parks; and local, state, and federal governmental agencies (such as public works departments) for the creation of green spaces and color spots along highways, in city parks, or in residential areas.

see also Agriculture; Agronomist; Propagation

Dennis Carnes

Bibliography

Acquaah, George. Horticulture: Principles and Practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.

Garner, Jerry. Careers in Horticulture and Botany. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1999.

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horticulture

horticulture [Lat. hortus=garden], science and art of gardening and of cultivating fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants. Horticulture generally refers to small-scale gardening, and agriculture to the growing of field crops, usually on a large scale, although the distinction is not always precise (for example, market gardening could be classed either way). A horticultural variety of a plant is one produced under cultivation, as distinguished from the botanical species or varieties, which occur in nature. Although many horticultural practices are very ancient (see botany), comparatively recent knowledge of genetics, plant physiology, biochemistry, ecology, plant pathology, entomology, molecular biology, and soils, and the systematic application of such knowledge to practical use (e.g., in plant breeding), has expanded horticulture into an extremely complex science. Agencies such as the various bureaus of the Dept. of Agriculture, the state experimental stations, and the many agricultural colleges; organizations such as the American Horticultural Society and the various state horticultural societies and local granges and garden clubs; and the commercial flower-growing and experimental nurseries (see nursery)—all engage in developing, analyzing, systematizing, and disseminating improved horticultural practices for the benefit of both amateur and professional gardeners. See also garden.

See E. P. Christopher, Introductory Horticulture (1958); J. B. Edmond et al., Fundamentals of Horticulture (3d ed. 1964); T. H. Everett, The New York Botanical Garden Illustrated Encyclopedia of Horticulture (10 vol., 1980–82).

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Horticulture

Horticulture

Horticulture is the science and art of growing and caring for plants, especially flowers, fruits, and vegetables. Whereas agronomy (a branch of agriculture) refers to the growing of field crops, horticulture refers to small-scale gardening. The word horticulture comes from Latin and means "garden cultivation."

Within the field of horticulture, seed growers, plant growers, and nurseries are the major suppliers of plant products. Among the important specialists who work in the field of horticulture are plant physiologists, who work on the nutritional needs of plants, and plant entomologists, who work to protect plants from insect damage.

Horticulturists are often involved in the landscaping and maintenance of public gardens, parks, golf courses, and ball fields. For the amateur home gardener, the rewards

are both recreational and emotional. Gardening is one of the most popular pastimes for peoplenot only for those living in suburbs, but for city dwellers who plant window boxes, grow house plants, or develop a garden in an empty city lot.

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Horticulturist

Horticulturist

A horticulturist practices the scientific or practical aspects of horticulture growing, producing, utilizing, and studying horticultural crop plants and plant products. Careers in horticulture range from the scientific to the applied.

Careers in horticulture can be found in government (both state and national) agricultural research agencies, public and private universities, small companies, and multinational corporations. Jobs may entail laboratory work, greenhouse crop production and/or management, and field production. Research may involve developing and testing new products or technologies to improve the quality, appearance, handling, storage, or research and development of new plants or plant-derived products. Additional fundamental research is done to gain understanding of plant function, physiology , biochemistry, and genetics at the organismal, cellular, enzymatic, or molecular levels.

Horticulturists interested in teaching find employment at the high school, community school, vocational school, community college, or university levels. Emerging careers in horticulture include the study of plant-people interactions (the effects plants have on people), and horticulture therapythe use of horticulture and gardening as a means of rehabilitation for those with physical, mental, or emotional limitations or challenges.

The practical or applied horticulturist is trained to utilize or manage plants and to design and maintain landscapes appropriately. Field horticulturists may be involved in the production of fruits and nuts (pomology), grapes (viticulture), and flowers and greenhouse crops (floriculture). They may also handle the arrangement, display, and marketing of cut flowers and greenery (floristry). Other possible areas of responsibility include the production of ornamental plants, trees, and shrubs (nursery production); landscape design, installation, and management; public or private garden installation and care; the design, installation, and maintenance of plants in indoor environments (interior plantscaping); turfgrass production, installation, and upkeep; and the handling, storage, and shipping of horticulture crops or plant products. The practical field horticulturist handles plant nutrition by fertilization, water status by irrigation, and plant size and shape by pinching, pruning, training, and mowing. Plant growth, development, and flowering is managed by the use of regulating chemicals or environmental management (temperature and light intensity and duration). The horticulturist is often the person primarily responsible for pest (both insects and disease) control and prevention management. Ultimately, the horticulturist is responsible for producing plants or plant products of the highest quality, value, and appearance.

Exciting developments in horticulture include the exploration of new plants as landscape greenery or for their potential medicinal contents and the discovery of wild types of cultivated crop plants such as strawberry, onion, tomato, or apple, which may contain genes for disease resistance or improved nutritional quality. Crops are being bioengineered for improved pest resistance, thereby requiring less pesticide in production, and being modified for increased storage life. Molecular biology and genetic engineering may result in the development of entirely new crops and/or the production of plants containing phyto-pharmaceuticalsplant-produced chemicals for use as beneficial drugs. Molecular biology and biochemistry are shedding new light on how plants grow and function, which will lead to new developments in crop production systems and management.

The level of employment and responsibility of a horticulturist relates to one's amount of training, education, and experience. Horticultural training at the high school and vocational level typically involves work in plant management, production, and maintenance operations. At the college level, horticulturists receive fundamental education in plant science and biology as a foundation to understanding plant growth, development, and management. Typically, college curricula include strong training in science, including botany and plant anatomy/morphology, chemistry and biochemistry, genetics, physics, soil science, pest management, and plant physiology. Additionally, students receive training in the science and technology of horticulture, including greenhouse operations, nursery production, landscape design, landscape installation and management, fruit and vegetable production, and plant propagation. Students interested in pursuing scientific/technology development careers or those who wish to teach horticulture may continue college studies in a master's or Ph.D. program.

Beginning horticulturists are typically responsible for plant management operations. Increased education, training, and experience result in increased decision-making and responsibility for operations and crew management. Entry-level positions with no training or experience begin at minimum wage, but with higher levels of training, experience, and increased ownership of an operation, salaries exceeded $100,000 per year. In 1999, students with a college degree found employment in the range of $25,000 to $40,000 for entry-level management positions. Salaries increase with experience gained through internships, fellowships, special research projects, travel, and part-time employment.

Horticulture production, education, and science careers can be found throughout the world. In the United States, primary horticulture production occurs in California, Florida, Texas, Georgia, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. However, landscape horticulture, retail garden center production, florist operations, public and private gardening, park landscape management, and landscaping design, installation, and maintenance operations flourish in all towns, cities, and metropolitan areas. International careers can be found through government and nongovernment agencies such as the Peace Corps, or with large multinational horticultural companies.

A commonality of horticulturists is, simply, that they enjoy working with plants. Horticulturists typically have a strong environmental ethic and enjoy contributing to beautifying and improving the environment and conserving natural resources.

see also Arborist; College Professor; Curator of a Botanical Garden; Curator of an Herbarium; Horticulture; Landscape Architect.

Curt R. Rom

Bibliography

Acquaah, George. Horticulture Principles and Practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999.

Aggie Horticulture (Texas A&M University). [Online] Available at http://aggiehorticulture.tamu.edu/introhtml/internet.html.

American Society for Horticultural Science. [Online] Available at www.ashs.org.

Janick, Jules. Horticultural Science. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1986.

Ohio State University Horticulture in Virtual Perspective. [Online] Available at http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/webgarden.html.

Virtual Garden. [Online] Available at http://www.vg.com/.

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Horticulture

Horticulture

The word horticulture translates as "garden cultivation," or to cultivate garden plants. It was first used in publication in 1631 and was an entry in The New World of English Words in 1678. Today horticulture means the science, technology, art, business, and hobby of producing and managing fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants, landscapes, interior plantscapes, and grasses and turfgrasses. Although horticulture has been practiced for several millennia, it became a recognized academic and scientific discipline as it emerged from botany and medicinal botany in the late nineteenth century. Liberty Hyde Bailey, professor of horticulture at both Michigan State and Cornell Universities, is credited as the father of American horticulture, as he founded the first academic departments of horticulture.

Modern horticulture encompasses plant production (both commercial and gardening) and science, both practical and applied. Horticulture and the associated green industries are a rapidly developing professional field with increasing importance to society. The direct "farm-gate" value of horticultural crop production in the United States exceeds $40 billion; the overall value to the economy is much higher due to value added in preparation and preservation, or installation, and use and maintenance of horticultural plants and products.

Horticultural plants include fresh fruits and vegetables, herbaceous annual and perennial flowering plants, flowers produced as cut flowers for vase display, woody shrubs and trees, ornamental grasses, and turfgrasses used for landscapes and sports facilities. The crops encompass plants from tropical areas (fruits, vegetables, and tropical foliage plants) to those from the temperate zone. Horticulture crops are typically consumed or used as freshly harvested products and therefore are short-lived after harvest. Product quality, nutrition, flavor, and aesthetic appearance are important attributes of horticultural crops and are the goal of production and management. The production of horticultural plants is typified by intense management, high management cost, environmental control, significant technology use, and high risk. However, the plants, because of their high value as crops, result in very high economic returns. Horticultural crop plant production and maintenance requires extensive use of soil manipulation (including use of artificial or synthetic soil mixes), irrigation, fertilization, plant growth regulation, pruning/pinching/trimming, and environmental control. Plants can be grown in natural environments, such as orchards, vineyards, or groves for fruits, grapes, nuts, and citrus, or as row crops for vegetables. Plants can also be produced in very confined environments, such as in nurseries, greenhouses, growth rooms, or in pots. Horticultural plants exhibit wide variation and diversity in their cultivated varieties (cultivars) with differences in flower or fruit color and plant shape, form, size, color, or flavor and aroma adding to that diversity and to the plants' value.

Horticultural plants are very important to human health and well being and are critical to the environment of homes, communities, and the world. Horticulture food crops play an important role in human nutrition. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables be consumed daily to provide important nutrients and vitamins and to maintain overall good health. The use of landscape plants has been demonstrated to increase the property value of homes and improve communities and the attitudes of those owning or using the property. Use of plants in the landscape, development of public parks and greenbelts, and planting trees all help remediate pollution and contribute to production of oxygen in the air. Plants used indoors, whether flowers or house plants or interior plant scaping, improve the indoor environment by purifying air, removing some pollutants and dusts, and adding beauty, thereby improving the attitude and well being of those who occupy or use the inside areas.

A number of techniques are used in horticulture. New plant cultivars are developed through plant hybridization and genetic engineering. The number of plants is increased through plant propagation by seeds, cuttings, grafting, and plant tissue and cell culture. Plant growth can be controlled by pinching, pruning, bending, and training. Plant growth, flowering, and fruiting can also be controlled or modified by light and temperature variation. Further, growth and flowering can be altered by the use of growth-regulating chemicals and/or plant hormones. The rate of plant growth and quality of plant products are controlled by managing fertilizer and nutrient application through fertigation or hydroponic solution culture. Posthar-vest product longevity is controlled by manipulating plant or product hormone physiology or by controlling respiration by lowering temperature or modifying environmental gas content.

The scientific and technological disciplines of horticulture include plant genetics, plant breeding, genetic engineering and molecular biology, variety development, propagation and tissue culture, crop and environmental physiology, plant nutrition, hormone physiology and growth regulation, plant physical manipulation (pruning and training), and environmental control. The crop disciplines of horticulture include pomology (fruit and nut culture), viticulture (grape production), enology (wine production), oleri-culture (vegetable culture), floriculture (flower culture) and greenhouse management, ornamental horticulture and nursery production, arboriculture (tree maintenance), landscape horticulture, interior plant scaping, turf management, and postharvest physiology, preservation, and storage.

see also Agriculture, Modern; Botanical Gardens and Arboreta; Horticulturist; Hydroponics; Ornamental Plants; Propagation.

Curt R. Rom

Bibliography

Acquaah, George. Horticulture Principles and Practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999.

American Society for Horticultural Science. [Online] Available at http:ashs.org.

Janick, Jules. Horticultural Science. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1986.

Harlan, Jack R. The Living Fields: Our Agricultural Heritage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Lohr, Virginia I., and Diane Relf. "An Overview of the Current State of Human Issues in Horticulture in the United States." HortTechnology 10 (2000): 27-33.

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horticulture

hor·ti·cul·ture / ˈhôrtiˌkəlchər/ • n. the art or practice of garden cultivation and management. DERIVATIVES: hor·ti·cul·tur·al / ˌhôrtiˈkəlchərəl/ adj. hor·ti·cul·tur·al·ist / ˌhôrtiˈˌkəlchərəlist/ n. hor·ti·cul·tur·ist / ˌhôrtəˈˌkəlchərist/ n.

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horticulture

horticulture Growing of vegetables, fruits, seeds, herbs, shrubs, and flowers on a commercial scale. Techniques employed include propagation by leaf, stem, and root cuttings, and by stem and bud grafting. Fruit trees, shrubs, and vines are usually propagated by grafting the fruiting stock on to a hardier rootstock. seed is a major horticultural crop. Close scientific control of pollination is essential for producing crops of specific quality.

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horticulture

horticulture, horticultural societies Horticulture is the system of production that depends on the cultivation of plants. Horticultural societies are those in which this system predominates.

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horticulture

horticulture XVII. f. L. hortus garden.

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horticulture

horticulturebotcher, gotcha, top-notcher, watcher, wotcha •imposture, posture •firewatcher • birdwatcher •debaucher, scorcher, torture •Boucher, voucher •cloture, encroacher, poacher, reproacher •jointure • moisture •cachucha, future, moocher, smoocher, suture •butcher •kuccha, scutcher, toucher •structure •culture, vulture •conjuncture, juncture, puncture •rupture • sculpture • viniculture •agriculture • sericulture •arboriculture • pisciculture •horticulture • silviculture •subculture • counterculture •aquaculture • acupuncture •substructure • infrastructure •candidature • ligature • judicature •implicature •entablature, tablature •prelature • nomenclature • filature •legislature • musculature •premature • signature • aperture •curvature •lurcher, nurture, percher, searcher

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horticulturist

horticulturist •tantrist •guitarist, scenarist, tsarist •sitarist • memoirist • belletrist •centrist • Marist • sacrist •lyrist, panegyrist •equilibrist • interest •optometrist, psychometrist, sociometrist •satirist •afforest, florist, forest, Forrest •rainforest • folklorist •careerist, querist, theorist •plagiarist • meliorist • apiarist •topiarist • diarist • psychiatrist •jurist, purist, tourist •obituarist • caricaturist • pedicurist •manicurist • sinecurist • naturist •miniaturist • futurist •agriculturist, apiculturist, arboriculturist, horticulturist, pisciculturist, sericulturist, silviculturist, viniculturist, viticulturist •acupuncturist • welfarist • allegorist •Eucharist • artillerist • secularist •particularist •colourist (US colorist) •amorist • ephemerist • mesmerist •consumerist, humorist •mannerist • tenorist • seminarist •terrorist • adventurist • detectorist •documentarist • militarist •monetarist • lepidopterist •motorist, votarist •scooterist • voluntarist • zitherist •Everest • aquarist • auteurist

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Horticulture

Horticulture

Plant needs

Horticultural plants

Resources

Horticulture is and art and science of cultivating of gardens, specifically the growing of vegetables, flowers, fruits, shrubs, and trees. The word horticulture comes

from the Latin words hortus and cultura for garden and cultivation, respectively.

There are three main branches of the science of growing plants: forestry, agronomy, and horticulture. Forestry is concerned with the cultivation of stands of trees for their commercial and ecological uses. Agronomy involves the large-scale cultivation of crops, such as wheat, cotton, fruits, and vegetables. Horticulture involves growing plants for their aesthetic value (e.g., in floriculture; the cultivation of flowers), or on a very local scale as food (as in a home garden).

In addition to home gardening, horticulturists are involved in the landscaping and maintenance of public gardens, parks, golf courses, and playing fields. Seed growers, plant growers, and nurseries are the major suppliers of plants and supplies for use in horticulture. Among the important specialists working in horticulture are plant physiologists, who work on the nutritional needs of plants, and plant pathologists, who are engaged in protecting plants from diseases and insect damage.

For the amateur home gardener, the rewards of horticulture are both recreational and emotional. Gardening is one of the most popular pastimes for many peoplefor those living in suburbs, as well as city dwellers who plant window boxes, grow house plants, or develop a garden in a vacant lot.

Plant needs

Whether plants are being grown on a large scale for commercial purposes or for the pleasures of having a garden, they have fundamental needs that include a suitable regime of water, soil, and climate.

Climatic factors

The climatic factors that have the greatest effects on plant growth are temperature, precipitation, humidity, light, and wind. In deciding what plant species can be grown in a particular location, the horticulturist must consider whether the seasonal ranges of temperature can be tolerated. Many plants will die if exposed to temperatures as low at 28°F (-2.2°C), although others are frost hardy and can be grown in places much colder than this. While some plants die from frost, others may only die back and then recover when warmer weather returns. Conversely, many plants need exposure to seasonally cold temperatures, as occurs during the wintertime.

Another climatic factor affecting plants is precipitation. The amount of moisture that plants require varies greatly. Desert plants can survive on little water, and may perish if over-watered. Other plants need continuously moist growing conditions. Plants of some coastal habitats receive benefits from fog and moist air blowing in from over the water. However, too much dew can damage some plants, by predisposing them to fungal diseases. In many regions, trees overburdened by heavy, freezing rain are subject to broken branches.

The amount of sunlight plants receive also affects their growth. The intensity and duration of light controls the growth and flowering of plants. Insufficient light results in the rate of photosynthesis being insufficient to allow the plant to grow and flower. Wind is another important factor, which can cause damage by increasing the rate of water loss, and if extreme by breaking off plant parts. Strong wind blowing from oceans can deposit harmful salts on sensitive plants.

All these climatic factors must be considered by horticulturists when planning a garden or landscaping project. These factors determine the possible selection of plants for a particular ecological context.

Soil

Consideration of the quality of the soil is also important. If the soil does not have the proper combination of nutrients, organic matter, and moisture, plants will not grow well.

All types of soils need management for optimum plant growth. Some soils are rich with clay, while others are sandy or rocky. Clay soils are heavy and tend to drain water poorly, which may cause plant roots to become waterlogged and oxygen-starved. Sandy or rocky soils, on the other hand, drain water rapidly and may have to be irrigated to grow plants well. Usually, the preferable garden soil is loamy, meaning it consists of a balanced mixture of clay, sand, and organic matter. Organic matter in soil is important because it helps develop larger pore spaces and allows water and air to penetrate. This helps roots to grow well and absorb nutrients for use by the plant.

Other important soil factors include the acidity or alkalinity of the soil, the presence of beneficial or harmful microscopic organisms, and the composition and structure of the soil layers (topsoil and subsoil). The addition of mineral nutrients and organic matter to soil being prepared for planting is a common practice in horticulture. This may include the addition of fertilizers that meet the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and trace-element needs of the plants.

Horticultural plants

Thousands of plant species are available for use in horticulture. Many of these have been domesticated, selectively bred, and hybridized from the original, wild, parent stocks, and are now available in large numbers of cultivated varieties (or cultivars). Consider, for example, the numerous varieties of roses, tulips, geraniums and many other common horticultural plants that can be obtained from commercial outlets.

In most places, almost all of the horticultural plants that are widely grown in parks and gardens are not indigenous to the region (that is, their natural habitats are far away, sometimes on another continent). This widespread cultivation of non-native plants has resulted in some important ecological problems, caused when the horticultural species escape to the wild and displace native plants. Because of this kind of severe ecological damage, many environmentalists are advocating the cultivation of native species of plants in horticulture. If this sensible naturalization

is practiced, there are fewer problems with invasive aliens, and much better habitat is provided for native species of animals. This means that horticulture can achieve important ecological benefits, in addition to the aesthetic ones.

Resources

BOOKS

Arteca, Richard N. Introduction to Horticultural Science. Clifton Park, NJ: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2006.

Dole, John M. Floriculture: Principles and Species. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.

Elliott, Brent. Flora: An Illustrated History of the Garden Flower. London, UK: Scriptum Editions, 2002.

Preece, John E., and Paul E. Read. The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley, 2005.

Rice, Laura Williams. Practical Horticulture. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2006.

KEY TERMS

Agronomy The application of agricultural science to the production of plant and animal crops, and the management of soil fertility.

Floriculture The cultivation of flowers.

Photosynthesis The synthesis of carbohydrates by green plants, which takes place in the presence of light.

Vince-Prue, Daphne. Science and the Garden: The Scientific Basis of Horticultural Practice. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science, 2002.

Vita Richman

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Horticulture

Horticulture

2591 ■ AMERICAN FLORAL ENDOWMENT

P.O. Box 945
Edwardsville, IL 62025
Tel: (618)692-0045
Fax: (618)692-4045
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.endowment.org/ball3.htm
To provide financial assistance and work experience to students working on an undergraduate degree in floriculture.
Title of Award: Vic and Margaret Ball Internship Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: Employers must agree to pay a fair market wage for the geographic area and position. In addition, students receive a grant of $6,000 for a 6-month internship, $4,000 for a 4-month internship, or $1,500 for a 3-month summer internship. Duration: 6 months, 4 months, or 3 summer months.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens who are currently enrolled full time in a 2-year or 4-year college or university in the United States in a floriculture or environmental horticulture program. Applicants must be maintaining satisfactory progress in a degree or certificate program and a GPA of "C" or better. They must be interested in gaining additional training by interning at a commercial production greenhouse or nursery of sufficient size to support a well-rounded internship program away from their home and school community. Deadline for Receipt: February or October of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1992.

2592 ■ AMERICAN FLORAL ENDOWMENT

P.O. Box 945
Edwardsville, IL 62025
Tel: (618)692-0045
Fax: (618)692-4045
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.endowment.org/mosmiller2.htm
To provide financial assistance and work experience to students working on an undergraduate degree in floriculture or business.
Title of Award: Mosmiller Scholar Program Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Horticulture Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: Employers must agree to pay a fair market wage for the geographic area and position. In addition, students receive a grant of $2,000 following completion of the internship. Duration: Internships are for 10 to 16 weeks. Preference is given to fall or spring internships, but summer internships are allowed if the location can provide valuable experience.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens who are currently enrolled full time in a 2-year or 4-year college or university in the United States in a floriculture, environmental horticulture, or business program. Applicants must be maintaining satisfactory progress in a degree or certificate program and a GPA of "C" or better. They must be interested in interning at a wholesale, retail, or allied trade company located in the United States away from their home and school. Following completion of the internship, they receive a grant for continued study. Deadline for Receipt: February or October of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1975.

2593 ■ AMERICAN NURSERY AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION

Attn: Horticultural Research Institute
1000 Vermont Avenue N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20005-4914
Tel: (202)789-2900
Fax: (202)789-1893
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.anla.org/research/scholarships/index.htm
To provide financial assistance to residents of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in landscape architecture or horticulture.
Title of Award: Carville M. Akehurst Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled full time in a landscape or horticulture undergraduate or graduate program at an accredited 2-year or 4-year college or university. Applicants must be residents of Maryland, Virginia, or West Virginia, although they are not required to attend an institution within those states. They must be enrolled as a junior in a 4-year program or a senior in a 2-year program and have a minimum GPA of 2.7 overall and 3.0 in their major. Preference is given to applicants who plan to work within the nursery industry, including nursery operations; landscape architecture, design, construction, or maintenance; interiorscape; horticultural distribution; or retail garden center. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 2002 by the Mid-Atlantic Nursery Trade Show, Inc.

2594 ■ AMERICAN NURSERY AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION

Attn: Horticultural Research Institute
1000 Vermont Avenue N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20005-4914
Tel: (202)789-2900
Fax: (202)789-1893
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.anla.org/research/Scholarships/TandPBigelow.htm
To provide financial support to residents of New England interested in working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in landscape architecture or horticulture.
Title of Award: Timothy Bigelow and Palmer W. Bigelow, Jr. Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students enrolled in an accredited landscape or horticulture program in 1) the final year of a 2-year curriculum, 2) the third year of a 4-year curriculum, or 3) a graduate program. Applicants must have a minimum GPA of 2.25 as undergraduates or 3.0 as graduate students. They must be a resident of 1 of the 6 New England states, although attendance at an institution within those states is not required. Preference is given to applicants who plan to work in an aspect of the nursery industry, including a business of their own, and to applicants who demonstrate financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was created in 1988.

2595 ■ AMERICAN NURSERY AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION

Attn: Horticultural Research Institute
1000 Vermont Avenue N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20005-4914
Tel: (202)789-2900
Fax: (202)789-1893
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.anla.org/research/scholarships/index.htm
To provide financial assistance to students working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in landscape architecture or horticulture.
Title of Award: Spring Meadow Nursery Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled full time in a landscape or horticulture undergraduate or graduate program at an accredited 2-year or 4-year college or university. Students enrolled in a vocational agriculture program are also eligible. Applicants must have a minimum GPA of 2.25 overall and 2.7 in their major. Preference is given to applicants who plan to work within the nursery industry, including nursery operations; landscape architecture, design, construction, or maintenance; interiorscape; horticultural distribution; or retail garden center. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1999.

2596 ■ AMERICAN NURSERY AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION

Attn: Horticultural Research Institute
1000 Vermont Avenue N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20005-4914
Tel: (202)789-2900
Fax: (202)789-1893
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.anla.org/research/scholarships/index.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students working on a degree in landscape architecture or horticulture at colleges and universities in California.
Title of Award: Usrey Family Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled full time in a landscape or horticulture undergraduate or graduate program at an accredited 2-year or 4-year college or university in California. Students enrolled in a vocational agriculture program are also eligible. Applicants must have a minimum GPA of 2.25 overall and 2.7 in their major. California state residency is not required. Preference is given to applicants who plan to work within the nursery industry, including nursery operations; landscape architecture, design, construction, or maintenance; interiorscape; horticultural distribution; or retail garden center. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

2597 ■ COLORADO WEED MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION

Attn: Scholarship Program
P.O. Box 1910
Granby, CO 80446-1910
Tel: (970)887-1228
Fax: (970)887-1229
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cwma.org/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors and college students in Colorado who are interested in weed management.
Title of Award: Colorado Weed Management Association Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Botany; Natural resources Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors and college students who have demonstrated an interest in weed management and are planning to major in agriculture, natural resource management, botany, range management, or a related field. Applicants must be attending or planning to attend a 2-year college or 4-year college or university in Colorado. Along with their application, they must submit an essay, up to 3 pages in length, on the topic, "The Threat of Noxious Weeds Is…" High school seniors must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher; college freshmen must have a cumulative GPA of 2.0 or higher; college sophomores, juniors, and seniors must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher. Financial need is also considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

2598 ■ COMMUNITY FOUNDATION FOR THE FOX VALLEY REGION, INC.

Attn: Scholarships
4455 West Lawrence Street
P.O. Box 563
Appleton, WI 54912-0563
Tel: (920)830-1290
Fax: (920)830-1293
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cffoxvalley.org/scholarship_fundslist.html
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students in Wisconsin who are working on a degree related to gardening.
Title of Award: Wisconsin Garden Club Federation Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Botany; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Forestry; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 4 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college juniors, seniors, and graduate students at colleges and universities in Wisconsin. Applicants must be majoring in horticulture, floriculture, landscape design/architecture, botany, forestry, agronomy, plant pathology, environmental studies, city planning, land management, or a related field. They must have a 3.0 GPA or higher. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by the Wisconsin Garden Club Federation. Information is also available from Carolyn A. Craig, WGCF Scholarship Chair, 900 North Shore Drive, New Richmond, WI 54017-9466, (715) 246-6242, E-mail: [email protected]

2599 ■ COMMUNITY FOUNDATION OF LOUISVILLE

Attn: Director of Grants
Waterfront Plaza, Suite 1110
325 West Main Street
Louisville, KY 40202-4251
Tel: (502)585-4649
Fax: (502)587-7484
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cflouisville.org
To provide financial assistance to women studying fields related to the environment at colleges and universities in Kentucky.
Title of Award: Thaddeus Colson and Isabelle Saalwaechter Fitzpatrick Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Horticulture Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Funds are paid directly to the college or university. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to female residents of Kentucky who are entering their sophomore, junior, or senior year at a 4-year public college or university in the state. Applicants must be majoring in an environmentally related program (e.g., agriculture, biology, horticulture, environmental studies, environmental engineering). They must be enrolled full time with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 200-word essay describing their interest, leadership, volunteer efforts, and work experience in the environmental field; their future plans and goals in the environmental field; and what they hope to accomplish with their college degree. Financial need is also considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

2600 ■ DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
Marketing and Regulatory Programs
4700 River Road, Unit 22
Riverdale, MD 20737-1230
800-762-2738
Web Site: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq
To provide financial assistance and work experience to college students majoring in the agricultural or biological sciences.
Title of Award: PPQ William F. Helms Student Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Botany; Entomology; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Virology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Several each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.5 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college sophomores and juniors who are attending an accredited college or university, are majoring in an agricultural or biological science (such as biology, plant pathology, entomology, virology, bacteriology, mycology, or ecology), are interested in a career in plant protection and quarantine, and are U.S. citizens. To apply, interested students must submit a completed application form, a personal letter describing their career goals and interest in plant protection and quarantine, transcripts, and 3 letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is the agency responsible for protecting America's agriculture base; Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) is the program within APHIS that deals with plant health issues. In addition to financial assistance, the Helms Student Scholarship Program also offers tutoring assistance, mentoring, paid work experience during vacation periods, career exploration, and possible employment upon graduation.

2601 ■ FEDERATED GARDEN CLUBS OF CONNECTICUT, INC.

14 Business Park Drive
P.O. Box 854
Branford, CT 06405-0854
Tel: (203)488-5528
Fax: (203)488-5528
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ctgardenclubs.org/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance to Connecticut residents who are interested in majoring in horticulture-related fields at a Connecticut college or university.
Title of Award: Federated Garden Clubs of Connecticut Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Botany; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Forestry; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending upon the availability of funds. Funds Available: Stipends are generally about $1,000 each. Funds are sent to the recipient's school in 2 equal installments. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be legal residents of Connecticut who are studying at a college or university in the state in horticulture, floriculture, landscape design, conservation, forestry, botany, agronomy, plant pathology, environmental control, city planning, land management, or related subjects. They must be entering their junior or senior year of college or be a graduate student, have a GPA of 3.0 or higher, and be able to demonstrate financial need. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from the Connecticut State Scholarship Chair, Mary Gray, 18 Long Hill Farm Road, Guilford, CT 06437, (203) 458-2784.

2602 ■ FLORIDA NURSERYMEN, GROWERS AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION-ACTION CHAPTER

Attn: Gina Mazzie-Forbrick, Scholarship Committee Chair
ForemostCo, Inc.
1751 Williams Road
Winter Garden, FL 34787-9162
Tel: (407)877-8876
Fax: (407)877-8684
E-mail: [email protected]
To provide financial assistance to students in Florida interested in preparing for a career in horticulture.
Title of Award: FNGLA Action Chapter Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Turfgrass management Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. A total of $4,000 is available through this program each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $1,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must have been accepted by or be currently enrolled in a Florida junior college, college, or university. They may be attending school full or part time, but they must be majoring in 1 of the following subjects: environmental horticulture, landscaping, landscape architecture, turf management, or a related field. All applicants must have at least a 2.75 GPA. Selection is based on academic record, work experience, awards received, letters of recommendation, and an essay (300 words) on the applicant's career plans. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

2603 ■ KENTUCKY TURFGRASS COUNCIL

c/o David Williams, Executive Secretary
University of Kentucky
Plant and Soil Science Department
N-222 Agriculture Science Center North
Lexington, KY 40546-0091
Tel: (859)257-2715
Fax: (859)323-1952
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uky.edu/Agriculture/ukturf/KTC2002/scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance to students majoring in turfgrass science at colleges and universities in Kentucky.
Title of Award: Kentucky Turfgrass Council College Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Turfgrass management Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who are enrolled full time at Kentucky universities and majoring in turfgrass science or horticulture. Applicants must submit 2 letters of recommendation, an official copy of their university transcripts, a copy of their resume, and 2 paragraphs on 1) their plans after graduation and 2) why they believe they deserve this scholarship. All qualified candidates are interviewed. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from Gary Duvardo, Scholarship Committee Chair, P.O. Box 323, Bardstown, KY 40004, E-mail: [email protected]

2604 ■ LOWE'S COMPANIES, INC.

Attn: Scholarship Program
P.O. Box 1111
North Wilkesboro, NC 28656
Tel: (336)658-4104
Free: 800-44-LOWES
Web Site: http://www.lowes.com/scholarships
To provide financial assistance to students at selected community and technical colleges who are preparing for a career in a business or technical field related to Lowe's stores.
Title of Award: Lowe's Educational Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Business; Construction; Drafting; Electronics; Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration; Horticulture Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Two Year College, Vocational/Occupational Number Awarded: Varies each year; since the program was established, more than 150 of these scholarships have been awarded. Funds Available: Stipends are $2,000 for full-time students, $1,000 for three-quarter time students, or $800 for half-time students. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if the recipient qualifies for employment at Lowe's.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who are at least 18 years of age and currently enrolled in a community or technical college that is cooperating with Lowe's stores. Applicants must intend to prepare for a career in an approved discipline within the business division (business management, business administration) or vocational/technical division (air conditioning, heating and refrigeration, construction, electrical or electronics, industrial maintenance, machining, mechanical drafting and design, plumbing, carpentry, or horticulture) of Lowe's. They must have completed at least 1 semester with a GPA of 2.0 or higher. Applications are accepted from current Lowe's employees, but students working for another major retailer are not eligible. Additional Information: This program was established in 1999. Currently, 32 community and technical colleges are participating in the program. For a list, contact Lowe's.

2605 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying agriculture, horticulture, or landscaping in college.
Title of Award: Irrigation Association Education Foundation Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year college degree in agriculture, horticulture, or landscaping. They must be in the top 10% of their class and an interest in irrigation that is confirmed by their advisor. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by the Irrigation Association Education Foundation.

2606 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who wish to study agricultural journalism and related fields in college.
Title of Award: National FFA Scholarships for Undergraduates in the Humanities Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Communications; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, a total of approximately 1,000 scholarships are awarded annually by the association. Funds Available: Stipends vary, but most are at least $1,000. Duration: 1 year or more.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to current and former members of the organization who are working or planning to work full time on a degree in fields related to agricultural journalism and communications, floriculture, and landscape design. For most of the scholarships, applicants must be high school seniors; others are open to students currently enrolled in college. The program includes a large number of designated scholarships that specify the locations where the members must live, the schools they must attend, the fields of study they must pursue, or other requirements. Some consider family income in the selection process, but most do not. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by many different corporate sponsors.

2607 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who wish to study agriculture and related fields in college.
Title of Award: National FFA Scholarships for Undergraduates in the Sciences Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Animal science and behavior; Dairy science; Engineering, Agricultural; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Equine studies; Food science and technology; Horticulture; Natural resources; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, a total of approximately 1,000 scholarships are awarded annually by the association. Funds Available: Stipends vary, but most are at least $1,000. Duration: 1 year or more.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to current and former members of the organization who are working or planning to work full time on a degree in fields related to agriculture; this includes: agricultural mechanics and engineering, agricultural technology, animal science, conservation, dairy science, equine science, floriculture, food science, horticulture, irrigation, lawn and landscaping, and natural resources. For most of the scholarships, applicants must be high school seniors; others are open to students currently enrolled in college. The program includes a large number of designated scholarships that specify the locations where the members must live, the schools they must attend, the fields of study they must pursue, or other requirements. Some consider family income in the selection process, but most do not. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by many different corporate sponsors.

2608 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying a field related to the landscape industry in college.
Title of Award: PLANET Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year: 1 to a high school senior and 1 to a current college student. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are either high school seniors or already enrolled full time in college. Applicants must be working on or planning to work on a 2-year or 4-year degree in a field directly related to the landscape industry. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by the Professional Landcare Network (PLANET), formed in 2005 as the result of a merger between the Associated Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) and the Professional Lawn Care Association of America (PLCAA).

2609 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying designated agricultural specialties in college.
Title of Award: Spraying Systems Company TeeJet Spray Products Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Engineering, Agricultural; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Turfgrass management Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year college degree in agronomy, agricultural engineering/mechanization, landscape/turfgrass management, or horticulture. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by Spraying Systems Company, manufacturer of TeeJet brand spray products.

2610 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members from designated states who are interested in studying a field related to agriculture in college.
Title of Award: Wilbur-Ellis Company Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agricultural sciences; Agriculture, Economic aspects; Animal science and behavior; Biochemistry; Business administration; Computer and information sciences; Entomology; Finance; Forestry; Genetics; Horticulture; Management; Marketing and distribution; Poultry science; Soil science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 13 each year: 1 at $5,000, 2 at $2,000, and 10 at $1,000. Funds Available: Stipends are $5,000, $2,000, or $1,000 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll or college students currently enrolled full time. Applicants must be residents of the following states: Arizona, California, Idaho, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, or Wyoming. They must be planning to work on a 4-year degree in agricultural production, forest management, agronomy and crop science, animal nutrition, farm and ranch management, horticulture, nursery and landscape management, plant science, poultry science, general agriculture, business management, economics, international agriculture, finance, sales and marketing, biochemistry, biotechnology, computer systems in agriculture, entomology, plant breeding and genetics, plant pathology, range science, or soil science. Their combined SAT score must be 1000 or higher and their GPA must be 3.0 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). Financial need is also considered in the selection process. U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by the agriculture division of the Wilbur-Ellis Company.

2611 ■ PROFESSIONAL LANDCARE NETWORK

Attn: ALCA Educational Foundation
950 Herndon Parkway, Suite 450
Herndon, VA 20170
Tel: (703)736-9666
Free: 800-395-ALCA
Fax: (703)736-9668
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.landcarenetwork.org/cms/programs/foundation.html
To provide financial assistance to students at colleges and universities that have a connection to the Professional Landcare Network (PLANET).
Title of Award: ALCA Educational Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Recently, 37 of these scholarships were awarded: 1 at $2,500, 1 at $1,500, 34 at $1,000, and 1 at $500. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students at colleges and universities that 1) have an accredited PLANET landscape contracting curriculum, 2) have a PLANET student chapter, and/or 3) participate in PLANET student career days activities. Applicants must provide information on awards, honors, and scholarships received in high school or college; high school, college, and community activities related to horticulture; PLANET events attended; work experience; and brief essays on what they have learned about financial management as part of their education that will help them in their career, how their landscape industry related curriculum has helped them in achieving their career goals, the kind of training and work experience they will complete to attain their goals, their plan to attain more leadership and human relations skills, their reasons for desiring the scholarship, their career objectives as they relate to the field of landscape contracting and horticulture, and where they see their career 5 years after graduation. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: PLANET was formed in 2005 as the result of a merger between the Associated Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) and the Professional Lawn Care Association of America (PLCAA). It offers the following named scholarships: the Akerman Family Scholarship, Theodore W. Brickman Jr. Scholarship, Chapel Valley/Reeve Family Scholarship, Damgaard Family Landscape Contracting Scholarship, Davey Tree Expert Company-Commercial Grounds Management Division Scholarship, John Deere Green Industry Scholarship, Gachina Family Scholarship, Parley Glover Memorial Scholarship, Glowacki Family Scholarship, Gravely Landscape Maintenance Scholarship, Groundmasters Scholarship, Leonard Harris Memorial Scholarship, Hunt Family Scholarship, Hunter Industries Scholarship, Husqvarna Forest & Garden Scholarship, Ron and Sally Kujawa Scholarship, Tom and Carol Lied Scholarship, Shirley B. Mangum Family Scholarship, Vito Mariani, Sr. Scholarship, Marjorie and B.E. Minor Scholarship, Moore Landscapes Scholarship, William F. and Mary B. Murdy Scholarship, Richard J. Ott Family Scholarship, Stihl Landscape Contracting Scholarship, Thornton Landscape/Doesburg Family Scholarship, Toro Company/Exmark Scholarship, and Trugreen Landcare Scholarship.

2612 ■ JOSEPH SHINODA MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION INC.

Attn: Executive Secretary
234 Via La Paz
San Luis Obispo, CA 93401
Tel: (805)544-0717
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.shinodascholarship.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduates working on a degree in floriculture.
Title of Award: Joseph Shinoda Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 6 each year. Since the foundation was established, it has awarded more than $644,000 to 579 floriculture students. Funds Available: Stipends range from $1,500 to $3,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduates entering their sophomore, junior, or senior year at an accredited college or university in the United States. Applicants must be majoring in a degree program related to floriculture (production, distribution, research, or retail) and be planning to work in a phase of commercial floriculture after graduation. Financial need is considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: These scholarships were first awarded in 1965. Information is also available from Virginia R. Walter, Horticulture and Crop Science Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407.

2613 ■ TREE RESEARCH AND EDUCATION ENDOWMENT FUND

Attn: Executive Director
711 East Roosevelt Road
Wheaton, IL 60187
Tel: (630)221-8127
Fax: (630)690-0702
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.treefund.org/grants/Grants.aspx
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and technical school students interested in preparing for a career in commercial arboriculture.
Title of Award: Robert Felix Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Entomology; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Soil science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to student members of the International Society of Arboriculture who are entering the second year of a 2-year program or the third or fourth year of a 4-year program. Applicants must be preparing for a career in commercial arboriculture. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 1,000-word essay describing their reasons for pursuing their chosen career, their goals and objectives, and why they should be chosen for this scholarship. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: The Tree Research and Education Endowment (TREE) Fund was established in 2002 as the result of a merger of the International Society of Arboriculture Research Trust (established in 1976) and the National Arborist Foundation (established in 1985). Fields of study often considered appropriate for a career in commercial arboriculture include agriculture, entomology, horticulture, landscape architecture, or soils science.

2614 ■ VERMONT STUDENT ASSISTANCE CORPORATION

Champlain Mill
Attn: Scholarship Programs
P.O. Box 2000
Winooski, VT 05404-2601
Tel: (802)654-3798; 888-253-4819
Fax: (802)654-3765
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.vsac.org
To provide financial assistance to residents of Vermont who are interested in majoring in an agriculture-related field in college.
Title of Award: Vermont Feed Dealers and Manufacturers Association Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agricultural sciences; Animal science and behavior; Botany; Equine studies; Forestry; Horticulture; Soil science; Veterinary science and medicine Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 6 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The maximum stipend is $3,000. Duration: 1 year; recipients may reapply.
Eligibility Requirements: This scholarship is available to high school seniors, high school graduates, and currently-enrolled college students in Vermont who are enrolled or planning to enroll in a postsecondary degree program in agriculture, including but not limited to animal sciences, equine studies, agribusiness, plant and soil science, forestry, horticulture, and veterinary medicine or technology. Selection is based on a letter of recommendation and required essays. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

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Horticulture

Horticulture

Introduction

Horticulture concerns the growing and raising of plants. In particular, horticulture is concerned with plants that are economically important. These include plants that produce fruits, nuts, and berries, as well as vegetables, flowers, and shrubs. As well, the raising of turf—the large expanse of grass that is cut into strips for use in the creation of or patching of lawns—is also considered to be a horticultural activity.

Horticulture is not concerned with the raising of commercial agricultural crops such as corn, rice, and wheat; this is known as agronomy. As well, horticulture is different from the growth and harvesting of trees (forestry).

The traditional use of plant breeding techniques such as grafting—where portions of two plants are bound together to encourage their union and the subsequent development of progeny that are a blend of both parental plants—has largely been supplemented by genetic engineering, where genes coding for proteins that have a desirable attribute (a pleasing flower color, for example) can be added to the genetic material of the target plant. In another example, the nutritional content of rice has been enhanced through genetic engineering.

Other scientific goals of horticulture include improving the yield of a particular crop from a given area of land, improving plant resistance to pests, pesticides, and diseases. Increasingly, these goals are achieved by the genetic manipulation of the plants.

Historical Background and Scientific Foundations

Horticulture is centuries old. Indeed, the word has been traced back to seventeenth-century England, and is derived from the Latin words for garden and culture. Horticulture probably arose as humans shifted from a nomadic lifestyle where they moved constantly to track food to settle in a given location. In these more permanent communities, foods naturally available locally would be exploited and exhausted fairly soon, making the raising of food necessary for the continued existence of the settlement.

Archeological evidence from aboriginal North American populations and the Maya of Central America that dates back over 1,500 years has shown that the planting of field crops was augmented by the planting and care of a variety of fruit-bearing trees.

Even though this form of horticulture involved the raising of crops for food, it differed from modern-day agriculture in that the size of the plots was small and typically involved the planting of several types of plants, rather than large acreages planted with a single species.

With the stability of a more constant food supply, people became concerned with the ornamental aspects of horticulture. Gardening is an important activity for many homeowners. In the United States alone, gardening-related sales in 2006 were $34 billion, according to the National Gardening Association.

Horticulture involves a number of different aspects. One is known as arboriculture. This is the planting and cutting down of perennials (plants that bloom every year) such as trees, shrubs, and vines. Arboriculture can be as part of the maintenance of a woodlot, or for purely decorative purposes.

The second type of horticulture is called floriculture. This involves the raising and collection of ornamental flowering plants. Similar activities involving plants used to visually enhance a yard or garden are known as landscape horticulture. The growth and harvesting of vegetables is known as olericulture.

Finally, raising and harvest of fruits comes under the heading of pomology.

In addition to the commercial (industrial) and private aspects of horticulture, plant cultivation is an important part of government programs and educational study.

As with other science disciplines, horticulture no longer represents one activity, but has become fragmented into sub-specialties. These include the design and engineering of facilities for the large-scale cultivation of plants, use of tissue culture techniques to raise plants, breeding, genetics involved in the cross-breeding of plants (Mendelian genetics), molecular genetics involving the manipulation of DNA, plant diseases, and commerce.

Impacts and Issues

The commercialization of horticulture has increased the scale of the activity. Although many horticulturists are concerned with backyard garden plots or their household lawn, commercial horticulture operations such as garden centers are concerned with the raising and sale of thousands of plants. For the latter, control over the health of the plants and maintaining a steady supply of the product are very important.

Horticulture will be affected by the global climate changes that have been predicted to continue and become more prominent in the twenty-first century. For example, the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report noted the high likelihood that

WORDS TO KNOW

AGRICULTURE: Replacement of a natural ecosystem with animals and plants chosen by people.

GRAFTING: Uniting a shoot or bud with a growing plant.

HEAT ISLAND: An urban area with significantly higher air and surface temperatures than surrounding areas. Occurs because pavement and buildings absorb solar energy while being little cooled by evaporation compared to vegetation-covered ground.

some regions of the world will continue to experience temperatures that are higher than what has been the norm for centuries, and that water shortages will create drought conditions in the same or different regions. Both of these changes impede the growth of plants.

In response, some plant species such as wheat are being bred or genetically engineered to be capable of growth in the presence of reduced moisture. More temperature-tolerant plants are also being developed.

Horticulture could also play an important role in lessening the effect of atmospheric warming on cities and could help reduce urban heat islands. Planting trees for shade and to increase retention of carbon dioxide is a

strategy being advocated by agencies including the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in order to promote healthier urban environments.

See Also Herbicides; Insecticide Use; Pollinators; Soil Resources

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books

Acquaah, George. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. New York: Prentice Hall, 2004.

Haller, Rebecca, and Christine Kramer. Horticulture Therapy Methods. Boca Raton: CRC, 2006.

Preece, John, and Paul Read. The Biology of Horticulture. New York: Wiley, 2005.

Web Sites

University of Florida. “What Is Environmental Horticulture?” http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/aboutus/whatis.htm (accessed April 20, 2008).

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Horticulture

Horticulture

The word horticulture comes from Latin and refers to the cultivation of gardens. There are three main branches of the science of growing plants: forestry , agronomy , and horticulture. Forestry is concerned with the cultivation of stands of trees for their commercial and ecological uses. Agronomy involves the large-scale cultivation of crops , such as wheat , cotton , fruits , and vegetables . Horticulture involves growing plants for their aesthetic value (e.g., in floriculture; the cultivation of flowers), or on a very local scale as food (as in a home garden).

In addition to home gardening, horticulturists are involved in the landscaping and maintenance of public gardens, parks, golf courses, and playing fields. Seed growers, plant growers, and nurseries are the major suppliers of plants and supplies for use in horticulture. Among the important specialists working in horticulture are plant physiologists, who work on the nutritional needs of plants, and plant pathologists, who are engaged in protecting plants from diseases and insect damage.

For the amateur home gardener, the rewards of horticulture are both recreational and emotional. Gardening is one of the most popular pastimes for many people—for those living in suburbs, as well as city dwellers who plant window boxes, grow house plants, or develop a garden in a vacant lot.


Plant needs

Whether plants are being grown on a large scale for commercial purposes or for the pleasures of having a garden, they have fundamental needs that include a suitable regime of water , soil , and climate.

Climatic factors

The climatic factors that have the greatest effects on plant growth are temperature , precipitation , humidity , light , and wind . In deciding what plant species can be grown in a particular location, the horticulturist must consider whether the seasonal ranges of temperature can be tolerated. Many plants will die if exposed to temperatures as low at 28°F (-2.2°C), although others are frost hardy and can be grown in places much colder than this. While some plants die from frost, others may only die back and then recover when warmer weather returns. Conversely, many plants need exposure to seasonally cold temperatures, as occurs during the wintertime.

Another climatic factor affecting plants is precipitation. The amount of moisture that plants require varies greatly. Desert plants can survive on little water, and may perish if over-watered. Other plants need continuously moist growing conditions. Plants of some coastal habitats receive benefits from fog and moist air blowing in from over the water. However, too much dew can damage some plants, by predisposing them to fungal diseases. In many regions, trees overburdened by heavy, freezing rain are subject to broken branches.

The amount of sunlight plants receive also affects their growth. The intensity and duration of light controls the growth and flowering of plants. Insufficient light results in the rate of photosynthesis being insufficient to allow the plant to grow and flower . Wind is another important factor, which can cause damage by increasing the rate of water loss, and if extreme by breaking off plant parts. Strong wind blowing from oceans can deposit harmful salts on sensitive plants.

All these climatic factors must be considered by horticulturists when planning a garden or landscaping project. These factors determine the possible selection of plants for a particular ecological context.

Soil

Consideration of the quality of the soil is also important. If the soil does not have the proper combination of nutrients , organic matter , and moisture, plants will not grow well.

All types of soils need management for optimum plant growth. Some soils are rich with clay, while others are sandy or rocky. Clay soils are heavy and tend to drain water poorly, which may cause plant roots to become waterlogged and oxygen-starved. Sandy or rocky soils, on the other hand, drain water rapidly and may have to be irrigated to grow plants well. Usually, the preferable garden soil is loamy, meaning it consists of a balanced mixture of clay, sand , and organic matter. Organic matter in soil is important because it helps develop larger pore spaces and allows water and air to penetrate. This helps roots to grow well and absorb nutrients for use by the plant.

Other important soil factors include the acidity or alkalinity of the soil, the presence of beneficial or harmful microscopic organisms, and the composition and structure of the soil layers (topsoil and subsoil). The addition of mineral nutrients and organic matter to soil being prepared for planting is a common practice in horticulture. This may include the addition of fertilizers that meet the nitrogen , phosphorus , potassium, calcium , magnesium , sulfur , and trace-element needs of the plants.


Horticultural plants

Thousands of plant species are available for use in horticulture. Many of these have been domesticated, selectively bred, and hybridized from the original, wild, parent stocks, and are now available in large numbers of cultivated varieties (or cultivars). Consider, for example, the numerous varieties of roses, tulips, geraniums and many other common horticultural plants that can be obtained from commercial outlets.

In most places, almost all of the horticultural plants that are widely grown in parks and gardens are not indigenous to the region (that is, their natural habitats are far away, usually on another continent ). This widespread cultivation of non-native plants has resulted in some important ecological problems, caused when the horticultural species "escape" to the wild and displace native plants. Because of this kind of severe ecological damage, many environmentalists are advocating the cultivation of native species of plants in horticulture. If this sensible "naturalization" is practiced, there are fewer problems with invasive aliens, and much better habitat is provided for native species of animals. This means that horticulture can achieve important ecological benefits, in addition to the aesthetic ones.

Resources

books

Bennett, Jennifer. Our Gardens Ourselves. Ontario, Canada: Camden House, Camden East, 1994.

Jackson, Ron S. Wine Science: Principles and Applications. San Diego: Academic Press, 1994.

Jones, Hamlyn G. Plants and Microclimate. 2nd ed. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Larson, Roy A., and Allan M. Armitage. Introduction to Flori-culture. San Diego: Academic Press, 1992.

Rice, Laura Williams, and Robert P. Rice. Practical Horticulture. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1986.

Smith, Geoffrey. A Passion for Plants. North Pomfret, VT: Trafalgar Square Publishing, 1990.


Vita Richman

KEY TERMS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agronomy

—The application of agricultural science to the production of plant and animal crops, and the management of soil fertility.

Floriculture

—The cultivation of flowers.

Photosynthesis

—The synthesis of carbohydrates by green plants, which takes place in the presence of light.

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Horticulture

Horticulture


Horticulture is a branch of agriculture that deals with fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants. It includes the production of fruits and vegetables for food, and the use of plants in landscaping and decorations.

The word horticulture comes from the Latin words hortus meaning "garden" and colere meaning to cultivate, and was first used in England in 1678. The word hortus or garden is an important part of the idea of horticulture, since the concept of the garden as being different from the open field dates back to the Middle Ages (500–1450). During this era, there were three types of areas where things grew. First were the large, open fields where farmers raised mostly grain and fiber crops. Next came the garden or hortus which meant a much smaller space that was intensively cultivated with plants used mainly in the kitchen. Finally there was the forest where timber and wild game were found. Today, horticulture includes the art and science of gardening, and is closest to the second of these categories. However, modern horticulture has gone beyond the tiny kitchen garden and has become an entire industry. It is from this industry that people obtain the fresh fruits and vegetables that they eat, the flowers they use to beautify our environment, and the trees and shrubs they use to decorate the outside of their buildings. Although the notion of intensive gardening in a fairly small space distinguishes horticulture from agriculture (which is large-scale), the boundary between the two becomes less clear with an activity like commercial vegetable production.

Modern horticulture is usually divided into two large categories: food crops (olericulture and pomology) and ornamentals (floriculture and ornamental horticulture). Olericulture deals with vegetables grown for food, and pomology deals with fruit and nut crops. Floriculture is concerned with the production of flowers and potted plants, while ornamental horticulture deals with the use of trees, bushes, shrubs, and grass in outdoor landscaping. However, no matter which aspect of horticulture is being practiced, the gardener or grower must be familiar with all the factors that may increase or decrease a plant's growth and development. While the growers need not be botanists (people who specialize in the study of plants), a great deal of serious horticultural research goes on at colleges and universities, agricultural experiment stations, and botanical gardens from which growers benefit.

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Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.