Copyright The Columbia University PressThe Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. The Columbia University Press
Eindhoven (īnt´hō´fən), city (1994 pop. 196,130), North Brabant prov., S Netherlands, on the Dommel River. It is an industrial center and rail junction. Chartered in 1232, Eindhoven was a small town until the founding (1891) of the Philips Electrical Company; then the city rapidly expanded. The company became one of the world's major lighting, electronics, and healthcare equipment firms and a multinational corporation. In the 1980s much of its manufacturing was moved to Asia and, though elements of the company remain in Eindhoven, its headquarters were moved to Amsterdam in 1997. In World War II, the city was taken (Sept., 1944) by Allied troops in a major airborne operation; a simultaneous landing at Arnhem failed. Eindhoven has a technical university and a noted design academy. The city is now a cultural and design center, with art and craft studios, design ateliers, cafes, retail shops, and other facilities in former factory buildings.
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