Traynor, Roger John
TRAYNOR, ROGER JOHN
Among the most influential and highly esteemed jurists of the twentieth century, Roger J. Traynor was a professor, author, and justice of the California Supreme Court from 1940 to 1970. During Traynor's six years as chief justice, that court was regarded as the preeminent state court in the nation. Readily open to reform and to novel legal ideas, Traynor made long-lasting contributions to various areas of the law including taxes, negligence, and fourth amendment jurisprudence. In addition to hundreds of judicial opinions, Traynor also wrote prodigiously as a legal scholar and contributed to a number of legal reform efforts.
Born in Park City, Utah, on February 12, 1900, Traynor was the son of a miner. In the 1920s he studied law and political science at the University of California at Berkeley, where he simultaneously earned a J.D. and Ph.D. while editing the California Law Review. In 1928 he joined the law school staff. Over the next 12 years, he served as a consultant to various state and national agencies, including the U.S. treasury department. In California his advisory work led to major reforms of sales and use taxes (1933 Cal. Stat. 2599 and 1935 Cal. Stat. 1297), personal income taxes (1943 Cal. Stat. 2354), and bank and corporation franchise taxes (1929 Cal. Stat. 19).
In 1940 Governor Culbert Olson appointed Traynor to the California Supreme Court, making him the first law school professor to be appointed directly to the court. Although he had little experience in private practice, Traynor had earned renown as one of the nation's leading tax scholars. Over the next three decades, he wrote more than 950 opinions and continued his scholarly work, writing more than 75 law review articles on a wide variety of topics.
Traynor had a reformist philosophy, viewing the law as a fluid, changing force that was necessarily responsive to the needs of society. He believed that a judge can and should change the law. Among his most influential opinions was his concurrence in Escola v. Coca Cola Bottling Co., 24 Cal. 2d 453, 150 P.2d 436 (1944), which would dramatically change product liability law. Traynor's idea that consumers should be entitled to sue the manufacturers of defective products was novel at the time. Yet, two decades later, the idea was embraced by the full California Supreme Court (Greenman v. Yuba Power Products, Inc., 59 Cal. 2d 57, 27 Cal. Rptr. 697, 377 P.2d 897 ) and soon became the law of the land.
"Unable like Solomon to carve the child, [a court] may carve out of the sum of custodial rights, certain rights to be exercised by each parent."
—Roger John Traynor
Traynor's jurisprudence amounted to a historic reform of long-standing common-law doctrines, and his ideas influenced courts nationwide. His precedent-setting opinions included People v. Cahan, 44 Cal. 2d 434, 282 P.2d 905 (1955), which restricted the admissibility of illegally secured evidence, and Muskopf v. Corning Hospital District, 55 Cal. 2d 211, 359 P.2d 457, 11 Cal. Rptr. 89 (1961), which eliminated the defense of sovereign immunity—the doctrine that precludes bringing suit against the government without its consent—in tort cases.
In 1964 Governor Edmund G. Brown Sr. elevated Traynor to the position of chief justice. Over the next six years, the California Supreme Court became the most prestigious state court in the nation. Among the innovations Traynor introduced was the use of law review citations in the court's opinions, thus ensuring that legal scholarship would inform legal opinion. Upon his retirement from the court at the age of 70, he was praised for his work in transforming and modernizing the common law. His accomplishments were compared to the reform efforts of benjamin cardozo, the legendary New York appellate justice.
After his retirement from the court, Traynor chaired the American Bar Association's Special Committee on Standards of Judicial Conduct, which produced, in 1972, modern standards for the governance of judges. Traynor taught at Hastings College of the Law, the University of Virginia, University of Utah, and as a visiting professor at Cambridge University in England. He also served as chair of the National Press Council. Traynor died in San Francisco, California, on May 13, 1983.
Field, Ben. 2003. Activism in Pursuit of the Public Interest: The Jurisprudence of Chief Justice Roger J. Traynor. Berkeley: Berkeley Public Policy Press (for the California Supreme Court Historical Society).
Kragen, Adrian A. 1983. "A Legacy of Accomplishment." California Law Review 71 (July).
Ledbetter, Les. 1983."Roger Traynor, California Justice." New York Times Biographical Service. Vol. 14, no. 1.
McCall, James R. 1984. "In Memoriam: Roger J. Traynor." Hastings Law Journal 35 (May).
White, G. Edward. 1983. "Tribute: Roger Traynor." Virginia Law Review 69 (November).
"Traynor, Roger John." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 16, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/traynor-roger-john
"Traynor, Roger John." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Retrieved November 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/traynor-roger-john
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
Traynor, Roger John
Roger John Traynor, 1900–1983, American jurist, b. Park City, Utah, grad. Univ. of California at Berkeley (A.B., 1923, Ph.D., 1926, J.D., 1927.) After teaching political science and law at the Univ. of California at Berkeley (1926–40), he served as a justice on the California state supreme court (1940–70), serving as chief justice from 1964 to 1970. Traynor's major influence was on tort and product liability law, where he helped to establish the principle that some defendants can be held liable even in the absence of fault. He also contributed to major doctrinal developments in contract law and criminal law. He was one of the most influential and respected jurists of his era.
"Traynor, Roger John." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 16, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/traynor-roger-john
"Traynor, Roger John." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/traynor-roger-john