In addition to his successes on radio, in movies, on television, and in live shows, Bob Hope (born 1903) has developed a reputation for his untiring efforts to entertain and boost the morale of American military personnel stationed all over the world and for the numerous appearances he has made in the name of various charities.
Bob Hope is perhaps the most widely known and loved stand-up comedian in America. On July 13, 1969, long before Hope reached his greatest fame, the Milwaukee Journal stated that Hope had "undoubtedly been the source of more news, and more newspaper feature stories than any other entertainer in modern history."
Born in Eltham, England on May 30, 1903, Leslie Townes Hope was one of seven surviving boys. By the age of four he was a skilled mimic and loved to sing and dance. In 1908 Hope's family moved from England to Cleveland, Ohio. Hope's father, Harry, was a hard-drinking stonemason whose income was irregular. For Hope, who looked and sounded British, the Americanization process was difficult. The Cleveland neighborhood in which he lived was tough, and the neighborhood kids made fun of him. They inverted his name, Leslie Hope, to create the nickname "Hopelessly." When he shortened his name to Les, they countered with another nickname, "Hopeless." Hope was a scrappy kid and to ward off the ridicule he fought easily and sometimes successfully, developing into a boxer of some skill.
As a youth Hope sold two-cent newspapers on the streets of Cleveland to supplement his family's income. On one occasion a gentleman in a long black limousine waited while Hope, who did not have change for a dime, rushed into a nearby store to get change. When he returned he received a lecture about the importance of keeping change in order to take advantage of all business opportunities. The man was oil magnate John D. Rockefeller, founder of Standard Oil Company.
As a teenager Hope once boasted that he would rather be an actor than hold an honest job, and he participated in all kinds of school and amateur training groups, specializing in dancing and in the one-liner jokes for which he ultimately became famous. He gained a great deal of experience in an act Hope formed with a comedian from Columbus, Ohio, named George Byrne. Adopting the name Lester, Hope went with Byrne to New York City in 1926. He and Byrne performed in cities and towns outside New York City, and finally appeared in a New York City vaudeville production called "Sidewalks." They were fired within a month, however, because the show was a success and did not need the short dancing act that Hope and Byrne performed.
Hope got his first trial as a solo act at Chicago's Stratford Theatre in 1928. For this solo appearance he changed his name to Bob because he felt that would be "chummier" and look better on a theatre marquee. In solo appearances, Hope always made his audience feel at ease and comfortable with his self-deprecating humor. He worked desperately hard and succeeded but soon left the Stratford to tour midwestern cities.
From 1920 to 1937 Hope performed in all kinds of shows in vaudeville both on and off Broadway. Vaudeville was hard work for Hope. A typical show consisted of comedians running a patter of one-liners around various kinds of variety acts ranging from dancing dogs to sword-swallowers but featuring mainly dancing. Hope is considered a master of the one-liner. In later years Hope sometimes employed up to three joke writers at a time. One standard line when he boards an airplane is, "I knew it was an old plane when I found Lindbergh's lunch on the seat." He used a line in 1970 when he met with the English Royal Family: "I've never seen so much royalty. … It looks like a chess game … live!" In 1932, when fifteen million Americans suffered the joblessness of the Great Depression, Hope was earning a thousand dollars a week in his particular kind of vaudeville act. But he was not satisfied. Hope was always ambitious and wanted to improve. He yearned, as he said, "to be the best, " to be the outstanding comic in the business.
Hope and Crosby
Hope met actor and singer Bing Crosby in 1932. They liked each other immediately because their personalities and styles of acting fitted well, and they started performing together in song and dance routines. Hope met aspiring actress Delores Reade in 1933 and later married her. Already well established as a comedian by 1935, Hope that year joined the "Ziegfield Follies" and performed in cities outside New York; then on January 30, 1936, he opened in the "Follies" at New York City's Winter Garden Theatre, with such stars as Fanny Brice and Eve Arden. The "Ziegfield Follies" was a new vaudeville high for Hope. The show was the musical highlight of Broadway, consisting of dazzlingly beautiful girls and costumes, witty lines between the actors and actresses, and music by such great composers as Vernon Duke and Ira Gershwin. During his years in vaudeville, Hope was on the stage with such actors as Jimmy Durante, Ethel Merman, Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy, Al Jolson, and many others.
Although Hope had acted in some short motion picture comedies as early as 1934, he began his feature-length movie career in Hollywood in 1938, with the Paramount film The Big Broadcast of 1938 starring Hope, W.C. Fields, Martha Raye, Dorothy Lamour, and Shirley Ross. This was the beginning of an active career in film entertainment for Hope, who went on to appear in fifty-two movies; six of these comprise the Road to … series featuring Hope, Crosby, and Dorothy Lamour.
Hope has always been fiercely patriotic about his adopted country. On December 7, 1941, when Japanese attack planes bombed the American naval installation in Hawaii's Pearl Harbor, thereby provoking U.S. participation in the Second World War, Hope denounced the attack. On December 16, during a radio broadcast, Hope declared his patriotism and voiced optimism about the outcome of the war: "There is no need to tell a nation to keep smiling when it's never stopped. It is that ability to laugh the makes us the great people that we are … Americans!"
Performed for the Troops
One of Hope's former stand-ins who had joined the armed forces knew of Hope's reputation for charitable work and in 1942 asked the comedian to make an entertainment tour of Alaskan Army bases. Hope enlisted Frances Langford, Jerry Colonna, Tony Romany, and other performers to put together a variety show for the troops stationed there. That was the beginning of a commitment on Hope's part that has never ended. Every year, especially during the Christmas season, Hope has spearheaded a drive to present shows to American men and women in the armed forces. His service to American troops added to Hope's established reputation for activity in the name of numerous charities and benefits, including political, cultural, and humanitarian causes. In fact, at the Academy Awards on February 21, 1941, Hope was given an honorary award "to pay tribute … to a man who has devoted his time and energy to many causes. His unselfishness in playing countless benefits has earned him a unique position in a hectic community where his untiring efforts are deeply, profoundly appreciated." Hope also won honorary Oscars in 1940, 1944, 1952, and 1965.
Hope has long been many Americans' favorite comedian, from the average radio-listener and movie-goer to the rich and powerful. He often enjoyed a close relationship with the men serving as President of the United States. Since the administration of Franklin Roosevelt, Hope has appeared many times at the White House. President Jimmy Carter, in paying tribute to the man who had entertained America for so long, commented on Hope's role as White House guest: "I've been in office 489 days. … In three weeks more I'll have stayed in the White House as many times as Bob Hope has." Hope's seventy-fifth birthday party, held in the Washington Kennedy Center to honor the United Service Organization (USO), was attended by members of Congress and many of Hope's acting friends, including John Wayne, Elizabeth Taylor, and George Burns.
Another celebration was held at the Kennedy Center in 1983 when Hope turned eighty years old, this time hosted by President Ronald Reagan and his wife, Nancy. Again Hope's friends were present to honor the occasion, including models Cheryl Tiegs and Christie Brinkley. At the celebration Hope was still what Time magazine called "The All-American Wisecracker, " and showed no signs of slowing down.
Hope can look back upon a life that has been full to the brim. One of his writers, Larry Klein, once said: "You know, if you had your life to live over again, you wouldn't have time to do it." Hope answered: "I wouldn't want to live it over again. It's been pretty exciting up to now. The encore might not be as much fun." Behind all Hope's humor is a serious core that directs his life, as evidenced by his efforts to help others less fortunate than himself. Some of his charitable activities involve golf benefits. A twelve stroke handicapper, Hope has played the game all his life, often joining presidents, Hollywood's greats, and golf's immortals on the links. Because of the benefits the game brings to charities, Hope agreed in 1964 to have the Palm Springs Classic golf tournament renamed The Bob Hope Desert Classic, and he has hosted it ever since. Hope's serious side was also apparent in the preface to his 1963 book I Owe Russia $1200, in which he wrote: "Yes, the conquest of space is within our grasp, but as we reach out we seem to have diminished the inward search. No significant breakthrough has yet been made in the art of human relations. So perhaps this is the precise moment in history for each of us to look into his heart and his conscience and determine in what way we may be responsible for our present dilemma."
Celebrated the First 90 Years
In May 1993, NBC celebrated Hope's 90th birthday with the three-hour special "Bob Hope: The First Ninety Years." The show, which won an Emmy, featured tributes from every living U.S. president at that time— Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George Bush, and Bill Clinton. By then, according to TV Guide, Hope had made more than 500 TV shows and 70 movies. Hope concluded his 60-year contract with NBC on November 23, 1996, when his final NBC TV special, Laughing With the Presidents was aired.
The Guinness Book of World Records called Hope the most honored entertainer in the world. By mid-1995, he had received more than 2, 000 awards and citations, including 54 honorary doctorate degrees, The Saturday Evening Post reported. At age 92, he released a book, video, and two compact discs commemorating the 50th anniversary of the end of the Second World War. The Saturday Evening Post printed this excerpt from Hope's book: "I was there. I saw your sons and your husbands, your brothers and your sweethearts. I saw how they worked, played, fought, and lived. I saw some of them die. I saw more courage, more good humor in the face of discomfort, more love in an era of hate, and more devotion to duty than could exist under tyranny."
Faith, William Robert, Bob Hope: A Life in Comedy, Putnam, 1982.
Hope, Bob, I Never Left Home, Simon & Schuster, 1944.
Hope, Bob, Have Tux, Will Travel: Bob Hope's Own Story, Pocket Books, 1956.
Good Housekeeping, July 1982, pp. 107-130; December 1994, pp. 88+.
New York Times, January, 1985, p. 50.
The Saturday Evening Post, May/June 1995, pp. 16+.
Time, May 30, 1983.
TV Guide, May 21-27, 1983, pp. 14-16; May 8, 1993, p. 25
Los Angeles Times November 23, 1996, Sec: F, p: 1, col: 2. □
Born: May 29, 1903
American comedian and actor
I n addition to his successes on radio, in movies, on television, and in live shows, Bob Hope entertained members of the American military all over the world and made many appearances to benefit different charities.
Born in Eltham, England, on May 29, 1903, Leslie Townes Hope was one of Harry and Agnes Townes Hope's seven surviving boys. His father was a stonemason (a construction worker), and his mother had been a concert singer in Wales. By the age of four Hope was a skilled mimic and loved to sing and dance. In 1908 the family left England and settled in Cleveland, Ohio. For Hope, who looked and sounded British, the adjustment was difficult. Neighborhood kids turned his name around to create the nickname "Hopelessly." When he shortened his name to Les, they began to refer to him as "Hopeless." As a result of all this teasing, Hope often got in fights. He developed into a boxer of some skill.
As a youth Hope sold two-cent newspapers on the streets of Cleveland to help his family out. On one occasion a man in a long, black limousine waited while Hope rushed into a nearby store to get change for a dime. When he returned he received a lecture about the importance of keeping change in order to take advantage of all business opportunities. The man in the limousine was John D. Rockefeller (1839–1937), founder of Standard Oil Company and one of the richest men in the world.
Enters show business
As a teenager Hope once said that he would rather be an actor than hold an honest job. He performed whenever possible, mainly dancing and telling the one-line jokes for which he later became famous. He gained experience in an act he formed with a comedian from Columbus, Ohio, named George Byrne. Using the name Lester, Hope went with Byrne to New York City in 1926. They performed in cities and towns throughout the state. They finally appeared in a New York City vaudeville (traveling stage entertainment featuring several different performers) production called "Sidewalks." They were fired within a month, however.
Hope got his first chance to work as a solo act at the Stratford Theatre in Chicago, Illinois, in 1928. He changed his name to Bob because he felt that would be "chummier" and would look better on a theater sign. Hope always made his audience feel at ease and comfortable by making himself the subject of his humor. He worked hard and succeeded but soon left the Stratford to tour Midwestern cities. From 1920 to 1937 Hope performed in all kinds of shows both on and off Broadway, earning a reputation as a master of the one-liner (a short joke). By 1932 Hope was earning a thousand dollars a week during a time when millions of people were out of work. Still, he was not satisfied. He always wanted to improve and to become an outstanding comic in the business.
Hope and Crosby
Hope met actor and singer Bing Crosby (1904–1977) in 1932, and they started performing together in song and dance routines. Hope met actress Delores Reade in 1933 and later married her. In 1935 Hope joined the "Ziegfield Follies" and performed in cities outside New York. In January 1936 he opened in the "Follies" at New York City's Winter Garden Theatre. The "Ziegfield Follies" was the musical highlight of Broadway, consisting of beautiful girls and costumes, witty dialogue between the actors and actresses, and music by such great composers as Vernon Duke (1903–1969) and Ira Gershwin (1896–1983).
Although Hope had acted in some short motion picture comedies as early as 1934, he began his feature-length movie career in Hollywood in 1938 with The Big Broadcast of 1938, which also starred comedian W. C. Fields (1880–1947). This was the beginning of an active film career for Hope. He went on to appear in fifty-two movies, including six films in the Road series (including The Road to Zanzibar and The Road to Rio ), which also featured Crosby and Dorothy Lamour (1914–1996).
Performed for the troops
Hope has always been strongly patriotic. On December 7, 1941, when Japanese attack planes bombed Hawaii's Pearl Harbor, causing the United States to enter World War II (1939–45; a war in which Germany, Japan, and Italy fought against Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States), Hope spoke out against the attack. During a radio broadcast on December 16, Hope declared his love for his country: "There is no need to tell a nation to keep smiling when it's never stopped. It is that ability to laugh the makes us the great people that we are … Americans!"
In 1942 Hope was asked to make an entertainment tour of Alaskan army bases. Hope brought other performers along and put together a variety show for the troops stationed there. That was the beginning of a commitment on Hope's part that has never ended. Every year, especially during the Christmas season, he has led a drive to present shows to American men and women in the armed forces. At the Academy Awards in February 1941, Hope was given a special award for his many benefit performances. He also won honorary (awarded without meeting the usual requirements) Oscars in 1940, 1944, 1952, and 1965.
Some of Hope's charitable activities involve golf. Hope has played the game all of his life, including with several U.S. presidents. In 1964 he agreed to have the Palm Springs Classic golf tournament renamed The Bob Hope Desert Classic, which he has hosted ever since. Since the administration of Franklin Roosevelt (1882–1945), Hope has appeared many times at the White House. Hope's seventy-fifth birthday party, held in the Washington Kennedy Center, was attended by members of Congress and by many of Hope's acting friends. Another celebration was held at the Kennedy Center in 1983, when Hope turned eighty years old. This time President Ronald Reagan (1911–) and his wife, Nancy (1921–), hosted the celebration. At the celebration Hope showed no signs of slowing down.
In May 1993 NBC celebrated Hope's ninetieth birthday with the three-hour special "Bob Hope: The First Ninety Years." The show featured tributes from every living U.S. president at that time. By then, according to TV Guide, Hope had made more than five hundred TV shows and seventy movies. Hope concluded his sixty-year contract with NBC in November 1996, when his final special, "Laughing with the Presidents," aired.
The Guinness Book of World Records called Hope the most honored entertainer in the world. By mid-1995 he had received more than two thousand awards, including fifty-four honorary doctorate degrees, The Saturday Evening Post reported. In 1998 Hope and his wife Delores announced that they would donate his personal papers and collection of almost 90,000 jokes to the Library of Congress. In June 2000 Hope spent six days in the hospital because of internal bleeding.
For More Information
Curtis, Jenny. Bob Hope. New York: Metro Books, 1999.
Faith, William Robert. Bob Hope: A Life in Comedy. New York: Putnam, 1982.
Grudens, Richard. The Spirit of Bob Hope. Stony Brook, NY: Celebrity Profiles Publishing, 2002.
Quirk, Lawrence J. Bob Hope: The Road Well-Traveled. New York: Applause, 1998.
Born Leslie Townes Hope, May 29, 1903, in Eltham, England; died from complications due to pneumonia, July 27, 2003, in Toluca Lake, CA. Comedian and actor. Known as "Mr. Entertainment," "The King of Comedy," or "ol' ski nose," Bob Hope entertained the world for more than 70 years. He earned his stripes as a young vaudevillian comedian, did a turn on Broadway, made it to Hollywood, then onto radio and eventually television. Always busy, always touring, Hope logged more than a million miles of travel visiting American troops wherever they were stationed across the globe. Jack Kroll of Newsweek said of Hope, "His greatness was in his rapid–fire delivery, his rhythm, his fervent enjoyment of himself."
Born Leslie Townes Hope, he moved to Cleveland, Ohio, with his family when he was four years old. His father, William Henry Hope, was a stonemason who moved to the United States with hopes of finding employment. Hope's mother, Avis Townes Hope, had been a concert singer. She taught Hope to sing and dance when he was young and often had him perform for visitors.
Hope held several jobs as a teenager including selling newspapers and shoes. He also worked at a meat market, a drugstore, and as a golf caddy. Eventually he was drawn to entertainment, spurred on by an award he won imitating silent screen star Charlie Chaplin. His first shot at stardom came as part of a duo who performed the opening act for entertainer Fatty Arbuckle's traveling show. Afterward his duo joined the vaudeville circuit. It did not take Hope long to decide to try a solo act and he spent some lean times in Chicago, Illinois, perfecting his routine.
Hope eventually changed his name from Leslie to Bob. He wrote about his reasons for changing the name in The Bob Book, excerpted by E! Online: "I thought, 'Hey, Leslie's a girl's name! I think what I'll do is change it to Bob. It's more chummy' Leslie had a little question mark behind it, you know?" Hope said the name change made all the difference in his career. He claims his earnings for each show increased and that he was booked more often.
By 1932 Hope was playing parts on Broadway in shows like Ballyhoo, Roberta, and Say When. In 1936 he and comedienne Fanny Brice shared billing in the Ziegfeld Follies. That same year he turned in a memorable performance in Red, Hot, and Blue opposite comedian Jimmy Durante and singer/performerEthel Merman. His use of the ad–libbed one–liner infuriated Merman but pleased audiences. That role earned him a ticket to Hollywood.
In Hollywood, Hope had a role in the film The Big Broadcast of 1938. It wasn't his greatest film but his theme song, "Thanks for the Memory," was first sung in that film. In addition to film roles, including the highly successful horror comedy The Cat and the Canary, Hope was spending some time in front of the mike for NBC. He was so popular on radio that in 1938 NBC gave him his own radio show. His show soon became the number–one radio show in America. In 1952, Hope signed a two million dollar contract with NBC Radio—the largest ever for a radio star. Hope broadcast regularly until 1956.
Hope's film career took off in 1940 with the release of The Road to Singapore, a musical comedy pairing Hope with singer/actor Bing Crosby. Crosby and Hope, along with actress Dorothy Lamour, made a total of seven "Road" movies. Incredibly popular, these movies propelled Hope to the top of Hollywood's list of moneymakers. One of his most popular films made without Crosby was the 1948 movie Paleface. Hope's character in this film was cast in the same mold as that of his "Road" movies in which he had played a coward who made the best of his situation by joking and smirking while always trying to get the girl. Paleface was followed by the less successful Son of Paleface.
Success in radio and film did not lead to complacency for Hope. Instead he seemed to work even harder. In 1941 he made his first foray into entertaining U.S. servicemen. Until the mid–1990s, Hope traveled the world to deliver his one–liners to military personnel eager for distraction in the midst of wars and military actions, as well as during peacetime. From 1948 to 1972, he hosted annual Christmas shows at military bases overseas. The last of Hope's Christmas shows for the military was held in 1983.
Although Hope never won an Academy Award for any of his roles in more than 50 films, he was an integral part of their ceremonies from 1940 to 1978. He was the emcee and co–host of 20 Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences awards ceremonies. For his contributions on screen and off, the Academy awarded Hope with five special honors. In addition to two honorary Oscars and two special awards throughout his career, Hope was also given the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award in 1959.
For the majority of his career, Hope kept his politics private. For all of his career he enjoyed the friendship of presidents from Eisenhower to Clinton. In the 1970s he was a frequent golf partner of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. Hope had publicly supported Nixon's policy in Vietnam and organized a pro–Vietnam rally in Washington in 1970 called "Honor America Day." In 1971, he offered $10 million to North Vietnam for the release of prisoners of war. In 1972, he was a major fund–raiser for Nixon's presidential re–election.
Politics aside, Hope was one of the most honored entertainers in history, a fact that is recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records. Throughout his career Hope received more than 2,000 awards and honors. Some of his honors include the Congressional Medal of Honor, Knighthood, and being named an honorary veteran as well as part of American folklore. The Navy christened a ship and the Air Force a plane in his name in 1997. The United Service Organization's building in Washington D.C., is also named in his honor.
Hope is survived by his wife of 70 years, Dolores Reade, as well as his four children and four grandchildren. Hope made a significant and positive impact on generations of fans. He died on July 27, 2003, at the age of 100. Kroll wrote of Hope, "It sometimes seemed as if he'd ambled through the entire 20th century with a golf club in his hand, a sheaf of written–to–order wisecracks in his pocket and that so–false–it–was–true grin on his face."
E! Online, http://www.eonline.com/Features/Specials/Hope/Why/index.html (July 28, 2003); E! Online, http://www.eonline.com/News/Items/0,1,12223,00.html (July 28, 2003); Los Angeles Times, July 29, 2003, p. A1, p. A20; Newsweek, August 11, 2003, pp. 62-63; New York Times, July 29, 2003, p. A1, p. A22; Washington Post, July 29, 2003, p. A1, p. A7.
HOPE, Bob. American (born England), b. 1903. Genres: Autobiography/ Memoirs, Humor/Satire. Career: Actor and comedian. Publications: I Never Left Home, 1944; So This Is Peace, 1946; This Is on Me, 1954; I Owe Russia 1200 Dollars, 1963; Five Women I Love, 1967; The Last Christmas Show, 1974; The Road to Hollywood, 1977; Confessions of a Hooker, 1985; Don't Shoot, It's Only Me, 1990; Dear Prez, I Wanna Tell You: A Presidential Jokebook, 1996. Died 2003.