John David Ashcroft
John David Ashcroft
U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft (born 1942) was one of the most powerful members of President George W. Bush's cabinet. Ashcroft served as a state attorney general, Missouri governor, and U.S. senator prior to becoming U.S. attorney general. His conservative social views made him a controversial figure in the Bush administration.
Ashcroft's paternal grandfather emigrated to the United States from Northern Ireland at the beginning of the twentieth century. Shortly after arriving, he was severely burned in a gasoline explosion and almost died. He thereafter dedicated his life to full-time Christian evangelism. Eventually he joined the Assembly of God Church.
Robert Ashcroft followed his father into the ministry. On May 9, 1942, while Robert and his wife, Grace, were living in Chicago, their son John was born. The Ashcrofts later moved to Springfield, Missouri, to be closer to the headquarters of the Assembly of God.
Robert Ashcroft served as president of three colleges affiliated with the Assembly of God. According to an article that appeared in the New Yorker in 2002, he began each day with a prayer that included the words, "Keep us from accident, injury, and illness. But most of all keep us from evil." As attorney general, Ashcroft would continue his father's practice of morning group prayer.
As a student at Hillcrest High School in Springfield, Ashcroft was president of his class. He also played basketball and was captain and quarterback of the football team, and he earned a football scholarship to Yale University. At Yale, a knee injury kept him out of intercollegiate football, though he did well in intramural sports. Following his graduation with honors from Yale in 1964, Ashcroft attended the University of Chicago Law School on a scholarship.
While at the University of Chicago, Ashcroft met his future wife, Janet Roede, another law student. They were married in 1967. After graduating from law school, Ashcroft took his wife back to Springfield, where he opened a law practice. He also began teaching at Southwest Missouri State University.
Political Head Start
While still an undergraduate, Ashcroft had worked as a summer intern for his congressman. When the congressman declined to seek re-election in 1972, Ashcroft ran as a replacement candidate in the Republican Party primary, but lost the bid for the nomination with nearly 45 percent of the vote. Soon after, the 30-year-old Ashcroft was asked to fill an unexpired term as state auditor. However, Ashcroft failed to win election to the office two years later.
Missouri's attorney general John Danforth then hired Ashcroft as a legal assistant. (One of the other junior lawyers in Danforth's office was future Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas.) In 1976, when Danforth ran for the United States Senate, Ashcroft was elected to replace him as attorney general.
As Missouri's attorney general, Ashcroft made a single appearance before the United States Supreme Court, arguing a set of state statutes, including one that required all second-trimester abortions to be performed in a hospital. Ashcroft won re-election as attorney general in 1980, and he was selected chairman of the non-partisan National Association of Attorneys General.
Governor of Missouri
In 1984, Ashcroft ran successfully for governor of Missouri. As governor, he balanced eight consecutive state budgets. He also served as chairman of the Education Commission of the States. Fortune magazine named him one of the top ten education governors, and he made Missouri one of the best managed states financially. In 1991, he was elected chairman of the non-partisan National Governors Association.
But as Missouri's governor, Ashcroft also drew attention for opposing abortion rights and school desegregation. He attempted to appoint a task force to tighten Missouri's restrictive abortion law after the Supreme Court upheld the state's law in 1989. And a year later, he proposed limiting the number of abortions a woman could have to one.
Term limits prevented Ashcroft from seeking reelection in 1992, so in 1993 he ran for chairman of the Republican National Committee. But after meeting opposition from pro-choice Missouri Republicans, he abandoned the race. When Senator Danforth announced that he would not seek re-election in 1994, Ashcroft successfully ran for the open seat.
During his single six-year term in the Senate, Ashcroft served on the Senate Judiciary Committee and as chairman of the Constitution Committee. He sponsored seven proposed constitutional amendments, none of which won Congressional approval. The amendments would have banned abortions, prohibited burning the American flag, allowed line-item vetoes, required a balanced federal budget, required a super-majority vote in Congress for tax increases, established term limits for federal office holders, and made it easier to pass a constitutional amendment.
Ashcroft also attempted to abolish the National Endowment for the Arts for funding projects he considered indecent. He also blasted "activist" judges and opposed the appointment of David Satcher as Surgeon General because Satcher had a record of supporting abortion rights. A member of the National Rifle Association, Ashcroft also opposed nearly all gun control legislation. During the Monica Lewinsky scandal, Ashcroft was the first senator to call on President Clinton to resign if the allegations of misconduct proved true. Ashcroft's voting record in the Senate won him 100 percent approval ratings from the American Conservative Union and the Christian Coalition, and zero ratings from the Americans for Democratic Action, the League of Conservation Voters, and the National Organization for Women.
Ashcroft toyed with the idea of seeking the 2000 Republican presidential nomination, but instead focused on re-election to the Senate. Ashcroft's opponent Mel Carnahan died in a plane crash three weeks before the 2000 election. State officials decided it was too late to reprint the ballots, so Ashcroft officially ran against a dead man. After Carnahan posthumously won the election, his widow agreed to accept the Senate appointment. Ashcroft did not challenge that arrangement, even though his defeat seemed to place him on the threshold of political oblivion.
President-elect George W. Bush resurrected Ashcroft's career on December 22, 2000, when he nominated Ashcroft to be U.S. attorney general. Ashcroft's nomination ran into major opposition in the Senate over his conservative religious and political beliefs, including his opposition to abortion. Ashcroft was confirmed, but the 42 votes against him in the Senate was the largest number ever cast against an attorney general's confirmation. Following the contentious confirmation, Ashcroft vowed to renew the war on drugs, reduce violence due to firearms, and combat discrimination.
In the war on terrorism that followed the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States, Ashcroft was accused of creating an atmosphere in which any opposition to his policies was seen as unpatriotic, if not subversive. Under policies put in place by the Bush administration, suspected terrorists were to be held on the slightest of charges to keep them off the streets. In the past, even organized crime figures or suspected spies had been granted their liberties until they actually committed crimes.
Ashcroft, along with Colin Powell and Donald Rumsfeld, emerged as one of the most powerful members of Bush's cabinet. Ashcroft became the administration's persona for the war on terrorism and took a number of controversial steps in its pursuit—including detaining over 1,000 people on charges not made public, deciding to monitor selected attorney-client conversations, and setting in place plans to try alleged war criminals in military tribunals.
Ashcroft continued to pursue his faith-based agenda as attorney general, even though he stated that he did not believe religious doctrine can or should be imposed. When he took over as attorney general in 2001, Ashcroft introduced prayer sessions in which up to 30 participants studied Bible passages and prayed. Ashcroft's sessions drew criticism for posing a conflict between church and state, until meetings with President Bush in the wake of the terrorist attacks pre-empted the prayer meetings.
In 2002, Ashcroft told Jeffrey Toobin of the New Yorker, "[T]here are standards that are moral and spiritual and eternal that I want to live up to. And people who win the battle write the history, and they may or may not get it right. I want to do what's right in God's sight."
Not surprisingly, Ashcroft's presumption that he would be able to interpret God's wishes for others drew criticism. He caused a stir when he had curtains erected around two twelve-foot art deco statues in the Justice building, one of which portrayed a partially unclad figure, prompting charges of prudishness and intolerance from his critics. And he gave no sign that he was prepared to compromise on his views about abortion—his Justice Department asked a federal appeals court to uphold a law banning "partial birth" abortions.
Ashcroft established a well-deserved reputation for turning defeat into victory. He told Toobin: "When I lost the race for Congress, I became state auditor. When I lost the race for state auditor, I became attorney general. When I lost the race for national committee chairman, I became a United States senator. When I lost the race for senator, I became the Attorney General."
By April 2002, Ashcroft enjoyed a 76 percent approval rating, according to a Gallup poll. Although Ashcroft stated that he had retired from electoral politics, some analysts saw him as a successor to Vice-President Dick Cheney should Cheney's health become a problem before the 2004 election.
Ashcroft was the author of Lessons from a Father to His Son. He was the co-author with his wife Janet (who taught law at Howard University) of two college law textbooks. The Ashcrofts have three children, a daughter and two sons, and one grandchild. Ashcroft enjoyed spending holidays on his 150-acre farm on the outskirts of his hometown of Springfield.
Ashcroft also enjoyed playing the piano. In 2003, he told The American Enterprise, "I play the piano almost everyday, because it's a way to express ideas and to experiment. I also play the guitar a little bit, and the mandolin a little bit. Music, as I see it, is the study of relationships— tonal relationships—and in all of life, nothing is more important than relationships." Ashcroft is also an accomplished baritone; in the Senate, he was known as one of the Singing Senators, along with Trent Lott, Jim Jeffords, and Larry Craig.
Not without a sense of humor, Ashcroft told Toobin in the New Yorker, "There are only two things necessary in life—WD-40 and duct tape… . WD-40 for things that don't move that should, and duct tape for things that do move but shouldn't."
American Enterprise, January-February 2003.
New Yorker, April 15, 2002.
Time, May 28, 2001.
"Attorney General John Ashcroft," United States Department of Justice,http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/ashcroftbio.html (January 2003).
"Profile: John Ashcroft," BBC News,http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1120440.stm (January 2003). □
"John David Ashcroft." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/john-david-ashcroft
"John David Ashcroft." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/john-david-ashcroft
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Ashcroft, John David
ASHCROFT, JOHN DAVID
In 25 years, John Ashcroft ascended from assistant state attorney general for the state of Missouri to U.S. attorney general. The political road to the justice department was paved by this conservative right-wing Republican with his hard work and strong ethics.
John David Ashcroft was born on May 9, 1942, in Chicago, Illinois. His family moved to rural Springfield, Missouri, when he was just a young boy. Springfield is the home of the Pentecostal Assembly of God Church, and since Ashcroft's father and grandfather were Pentecostal ministers, it seemed only natural that the family would make Springfield their home. While the church forbids smoking, drinking, and dancing, it does promote gospel singing. Ashcroft took up playing the guitar and singing gospel when he was young, and it was a passion of his ever after.
After high school, Ashcroft headed east to Yale where he received a degree in history in 1964. He then returned to the Midwest and studied at the University of Chicago Law School. There he met his later wife, Janet. They both graduated from the University of Chicago in 1967 and went on to teach business law at Southwest Missouri State University.
In 1972 Ashcroft decided to run for a spot in the U.S. House of Representatives. While he lost the race, he still found his way into politics when he was named assistant attorney general for the state of Missouri in 1975 under then-attorney general, John Danforth. While working there, Ashcroft met future U.S. Supreme Court Justice clarence thomas.
In 1976 Danforth decided to run for the U.S. Senate, giving Ashcroft the opportunity to campaign for the soon-to-be vacated state attorney general position. Ashcroft won the election and, in this new role, established his conservative reputation when he vehemently opposed court-ordered school desegregation in St. Louis and Kansas City. While he could not please everybody, he managed to please many, and he was elected for another term, before then becoming the 50th governor of Missouri in 1984.
Ashcroft accomplished a great deal for the state of Missouri. He balanced budgets without increasing taxes. He also focused on welfare reform and education by imposing tougher testing requirements for student advancement. As a validation of these efforts, Ashcroft was reelected to a second term as governor with an impressive 65 percent of the vote. State law did not allow him to run for a third term.
"Our [anti-terrorist] efforts have been crafted carefully to avoid infringing on constitutional rights, while saving American lives."
In 1994 Ashcroft again followed in the footsteps of John Danforth, who was retiring from the Senate. Ashcroft was elected to the U.S. Senate and sworn in at the beginning of 1995. While in Congress, Ashcroft proposed and supported very conservative legislation, most of which did not become law. He was pro-life, against gun control, and against affirmative action. He sponsored the Human Life Amendment, which defined life to begin at conception and
banned all abortions, including those involving incest or rape, except when needed to save the life of the mother. The legislation did not become law. He was also unsuccessful in his support for term limits for congressmen and prayer in schools. Ashcroft was, however, successful with his Charitable Choice provision, a component of the welfare reform legislation in 1996. The provision granted funding to religious organizations in order to provide social welfare programs.
In 1998 Ashcroft published a book, Lessons from a Father to His Son, about his father's preachings, his Christian faith, and how it influenced his life. Also in 1998 the Ronnie White confirmation hearings branded him by some as a racist. White was the first African American Missouri Supreme Court Justice. Then-president bill clinton nominated him to the federal bench. During White's confirmation hearings, Ashcroft focused on a dissent that White made in a capital punishment case and argued that White was soft on crime. Yet, White had actually voted to uphold the death penalty in 41 of the 59 cases that he heard on the bench, and some argued that Ashcroft attacked White because of his race. Ultimately, the Senate voted down White, making him the first federal judicial nominee to be defeated since robert bork. That same year, Ashcroft seriously considered running for the republican party nomination for U.S. president. After a short-lived campaign, however, he withdrew his name and supported george w. bush.
In 2000 Ashcroft ran once again for his Senate position, this time against Missouri governor mel carnahan. Carnahan died with his son in a plane crash three weeks before the election but still won the vote by a slim margin. Ashcroft was a gracious loser, and Carnahan's widow was appointed to replace her deceased husband in the Senate.
In 2001 Ashcroft was appointed by President Bush and confirmed by Congress for the position of U.S. attorney general, one of the most powerful positions in the country. As attorney general, Ashcroft became head of the Justice Department and would oversee many powerful segments of the federal government, including the drug enforcement administration, the federal bureau of investigation, and the u.s. marshals.
The september 11th attacks in 2001 caused an enormous change in the way Americans viewed the responsibilities of the nation's top law enforcement officials. In the aftermath of the attacks, Congress passed the Homeland Security Act and the usa patriot act, legislation
that gave the Justice Department unprecedented latitude in dealing with suspected terrorists. In 2002 and early 2003, Ashcroft has issued numerous regulations dealing with the issue of domestic security and the tracking of foreign nationals including orders that give FBI agents and U.S. marshals permission to arrest such persons for immigration violations when there is not sufficient evidence to hold them on criminal charges. The Justice Department has stepped-up surveillance methods including the issuance of "national security letters" that mandate businesses to turn over electronic records of finances and other information. Ashcroft has also signed more than 170 classified "emergency foreign intelligence warrants" which allow 72 hours of wiretaps and searches of persons viewed as national security threats before they need to be reviewed and approved by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.
Groups representing Muslim immigrants, numerous civil liberties advocates, religious groups, and others have protested much of the DOJ activity. One program that did not pass muster with Congress was the Terrorism Information and Prevention System to be known by its acronym as "Operation TIPS." The program was planned to train millions of American workers including truck drivers, mail carriers, train conductors, and employees of utilities to look for and report any suspicious material or activity to a new FBI database.
Other Ashcroft initiatives that have provoked controversy include the DOJ's challenge to an Oregon law that permits physician-assisted suicide and a California law that permits the possession of marijuana for medicinal use. In addition, Ashcroft filed a brief with the Supreme Court in support of ending the University of Michigan's affirmative action admission program. Ashcroft has continued to advocate protection for the rights of gun owners while pressing for more severe punishments of those who commit capital crimes using guns or other weapons. Despite recent state moratoriums on capital punishment, exonerations of death row defendants in over 100 cases, and recent Supreme Court decisions which banned execution of mentally retarded inmates and which overturned cases where judges rather than juries had imposed the death penalty, Attorney General Ashcroft has overruled U.S. attorneys who had decided not to seek the death penalty, and he has approved death penalty prosecutions in nearly half of all federal cases where capital punishment might be applicable.
Annual Accountability Report. 2002. Washington, D.C.: Department of Justice.
Branch-Brioso, Karen. 2003. "Ashcroft Reports Progress against Terrorism with Ridge and Mueller, He Tells Congress of Arrests, Better Information Sharing." St. Louis Post-Dispatch (March 5).
Cloud, John. 2001. "General on the March: John Ashcroft Wants to Mobilize the Justice Department to Fight Terror. Is He Going Too Far?" Time (November 19).
Fechter, Michael. 2002. "Ashcroft Defends New Wiretap Powers." The Tampa Tribune (November 21).
"Ashcroft, John David." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ashcroft-john-david
"Ashcroft, John David." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ashcroft-john-david
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John Ashcroft, 1942–, American political figure, b. Chicago, grad. Yale Univ. (B.A., 1964), Univ. of Chicago School of Law (J.D., 1967). A conservative Republican, Ashcroft was Missouri state auditor (1975–76) and attorney general (1976–85) before being twice elected to the post of governor (1985–93). He served as a U.S. senator from Missouri (1995–2001) but was defeated in his bid for a second term. In his various political offices, Ashcroft expressed staunchly conservative views, opposing abortion and gun control and favoring the death penalty. Under President George W. Bush, he served (2001–5) as U.S. attorney general. Despite some strong protests because of Ashcroft's right-wing views, he was confirmed by the Senate after a vote in which most Democrats opposed his nomination. Although he was again an advocate of conservative social positions as attorney general, he was most noted for seeking, in the wake of the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks, to eliminate what he saw as hindrances to a strong, sometimes sweeping law enforcement approach to combating terrorism.
"Ashcroft, John." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ashcroft-john
"Ashcroft, John." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ashcroft-john