Worcester, John Tiptoft, earl of
John Tiptoft Worcester, earl of (wŏŏs´tər) 1427?–1470, English nobleman. He studied at Oxford and was created earl of Worcester in 1449. He served as treasurer of the exchequer (1452–55) and lord deputy of Ireland (1456–57). In 1457 he went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and on the return journey stayed in Italy for two years. There he studied under Guarino da Verona and acquired a considerable reputation as a Latin scholar. He was one of the first Englishmen to become familiar with the learning of the Italian Renaissance. On his return to England, Worcester, who was a brother-in-law of the powerful Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, became (1462) constable of England under Edward IV. In this capacity he tried and sentenced to death many of the Lancastrian leaders. He again became (1467) lord deputy of Ireland and had the earl of Desmond executed—and, it is claimed, Desmond's two sons as well. He was appointed constable again in Mar., 1470, but when Warwick restored Henry VI to the throne in October, Worcester fled. He was captured, condemned by John de Vere, earl of Oxford (whose father and brother Worcester had sentenced to death in 1462), and executed. Hated by the Lancastrians, he was called "the butcher of England." His translation of Cicero's De amicitia was printed by William Caxton in 1481.
"Worcester, John Tiptoft, earl of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/worcester-john-tiptoft-earl
"Worcester, John Tiptoft, earl of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved February 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/worcester-john-tiptoft-earl
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
Tiptoft, John, 1st earl of Worcester
R. L. Storey
"Tiptoft, John, 1st earl of Worcester." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tiptoft-john-1st-earl-worcester
"Tiptoft, John, 1st earl of Worcester." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved February 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tiptoft-john-1st-earl-worcester