Jordanian town and archaeological site.
Founded as part of Alexander the Great's empire (c. 334 b.c.e.), Jarash became a thriving Roman provincial city during the first to third centuries c.e. It was one of the ten cities of the Decapolis, a commercial federation in Roman Syria. After its decline from shifting trade routes, Jarash lay in ruins until about 1884, when the Ottoman Empire introduced Circassians (Muslims from the Caucasus mountains fleeing Russian rule) as settlers. The town later grew to incorporate Arabs as well. By 1994, the population stood at 21,300; 2002 estimates put it at 26,300.
The first European to report on Jarash's Roman ruins was the German Ulrich J. Seetzen in 1806. Serious restoration and archaeological work were undertaken by the Transjordanian government in the 1920s on the city's amphitheater, forum, colonnaded road, temples, churches, and other buildings. The ruins now offer one of the best examples of provincial architecture from the Roman Empire, and serve as the backdrop for Jordan's most celebrated cultural event, the internationally known Jarash Festival for music and dance.
Harding, G. Lankester. The Antiquities of Jordan, 2d edition. London: Lutterworth, 1959.
michael r. fischbach
"Jarash." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 16, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jarash
"Jarash." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved February 16, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jarash
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.