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Berwick, treaty of

Berwick, treaty of, 1560. The years 1558–60 were critical in Anglo-Scottish relations. The death of Mary Tudor in 1558 placed a protestant on the English throne. Mary, queen of Scots, became queen of France in 1559, with her mother Mary of Guise as regent for her in Scotland. Her catholicizing policy was opposed by the lords of the Congregation, a group of noblemen, supported by the zeal of John Knox. The regent held the port of Leith, vital for communication with France. By the treaty of Berwick of February 1560, Elizabeth I undertook to support the rebellious lords. In June 1560 Mary of Guise died and later in the year Mary, queen of Scots, was widowed. Though one must be careful before hailing the treaty as the turning-point towards a protestant Scotland and union with England, there is little doubt that it turned the scales in the struggle between the old and new religions.

J. A. Cannon

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Berwick, treaty of

Berwick, treaty of, 1357. David II, king of Scotland, was captured at Neville's Cross in 1346. Eleven years later, by the treaty of Berwick, he was ransomed for 100,000 marks, with hostages given for security.

J. A. Cannon

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