Second, there are new religious movements in the developed, industrial societies of the West, which are often associated with youth movements and the counter-culture. These movements are often syncretist, borrowing elements from many different religious and philosophical traditions. Sociologists have claimed that such movements satisfy the psychological and social needs of young people seeking a meaning for life which they cannot find in the mainstream religious traditions. Examples include the Divine Light Mission, Hare Krishna, the Unification Church, and Scientology.
Numerous typologies of the latter will be found in the literature. For example, in The Elementary Forms of the New Religious Life (1984), Roy Wallis offered a threefold distinction which identified world-rejecting, world-affirming, and world-accommodating types. The first of these represent attempts to escape from the impersonality, materialism, bureaucratization, and individualism of modern life. The International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Children of God, and Unification Church (‘Moonies’) are cited as examples. By comparison, movements such as Scientology, Transcendental Meditation, and the Japanese Soka Gakkai claim to offer practitioners greater success in achieving goals already set by the status quo, including individual material advancement, psychological well-being, and social popularity: they are therefore world-affirming. Finally, innovatory religions with a world-accommodating orientation carry few implications either for individual conduct in, or for rejection of, the larger secular world, since their primary purpose is to provide stimulation for personal and spiritual experiences. Movements such as the Charismatic Renewal and Neo-Pentecostalism simply instruct adherents to live life (however it is lived) in a more enthusiastically religious manner.
Wallis's typology is, however, only one of many possible classifications of the NRMs. Some idea of the alternatives, and of the enormous literature now available on this general topic, can be gained from Thomas Robbins 's lengthy bibliographical essay on ‘Cults, Converts and Charisma’, Current Sociology (1988
). See also SECULARIZATION.
"new religions." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/new-religions
"new religions." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/new-religions
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
"religions, new." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/religions-new
"religions, new." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/religions-new