The Reformation renewed rivalries by formalizing the divisions of Christianity and the earliest post-Reformation missionaries were the Jesuit priests from Douai who strove to maintain or if possible extend the faith in Elizabethan England. Protestant counter-activity took at first the form of hunting them down, but later in the 17th cent. the considerable success of the Jesuits in America, India, Japan, and China stimulated protestant missions. In 1698 Thomas Bray, an Anglican clergyman, drew up plans for the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge to supply libraries and missionaries to the colonies, and three years later the missionary work was handed over to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. In 1710 the SPG gave top priority to converting the American Indians but the other colonists wiped them out so fast that little progress could be made. Bray's links with Oglethorpe were partly instrumental in the foundation of the colony of Georgia as a haven for debtors, where the Wesleys and Whitefield worked in the 1730s. As the methodists gathered strength, they also turned to missionary work, particularly after the French Revolution had encouraged evangelicalism. The Methodist Missionary Society was set up in 1786 and the Baptist Missionary Society in 1792. The first baptist missionary to India was William Carey, victim in 1808 of Sydney Smith's savage ridicule in the Edinburgh Review: missionaries, wrote Smith, an Anglican clergyman, were ‘insane and ungovernable’ and would lose Britain its Indian empire if not stopped. The London Missionary Society was established in 1795, the Church Missionary Society in 1799, and the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1804. Later in the century, there was much missionary interest in Africa, partly as a consequence of the fame of David Livingstone, who began working for the LMS in 1841. The LMS was avowedly undenominational, leaving the form of church governments for converts to decide. Elsewhere rivalries persisted. A mission to the Maoris in New Zealand made little immediate progress and when Bishop Selwyn, an Anglican, arrived in mid-century he warned the Maoris that the Wesleyans were to be shunned as schismatics. Slowly the attitude of missionaries and their supporters changed. It was increasingly argued that missions should be self-destroying in the sense that they should lead to a self-governing autonomous local church. An ecumenical landmark was the holding of a World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910 which established an International Missionary Council. This, in 1961, was integrated with the World Council of Churches, started in 1948.
J. A. Cannon
"missionary activity." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 25, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/missionary-activity
"missionary activity." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved September 25, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/missionary-activity
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.